Charles F. Kettering, inventor of electric self-starter, is born

Charles F. Kettering, inventor of electric self-starter, is born

Charles Franklin Kettering, the American engineer and longtime director of research for General Motors Corp. (GM), is born on August 29, 1876, in Loudonville, Ohio. Of the 140 patents Kettering obtained over the course of his lifetime, perhaps the most notable was his electric self-starter for the automobile, patented in 1915.

Early in his career, Kettering worked at the National Cash Register Company in Dayton, Ohio, where he helped develop the first cash register to be equipped with an electric motor that opened the register drawer. With Edward A. Deeds, he formed Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO), a business dedicated to designing equipment for automobiles. Kettering’s key-operated electric self-starting ignition system, introduced on Cadillac vehicles in 1912 and patented three years later, made automobiles far easier and safer to operate than they had been previously, when the ignition process had been powered by iron hand cranks. By the 1920s, electric self-starters would come standard on nearly every new automobile.

United Motors Corporation (which later became General Motors) purchased DELCO in 1916, installing Kettering as vice president and director of research at GM from 1920 to 1947. During his tenure at GM, Kettering was instrumental in the development of improved engines, quick-drying automobile paints and finishes, “anti-knock” fuels (designed to reduce the damaging process of engine knocking, which occurs when gasoline ignites too early in an internal combustion engine) and variable-speed transmissions, among other innovations.

Kettering’s passion for invention spread far beyond the automotive industry: He helped develop the refrigerant Freon, used in refrigerators and air conditioners, and took an active role in the medical industry, inventing a treatment for venereal disease, an incubator for premature infants and artificial fever therapy. Highly devoted to education, he helped found the Flint Institute of Technology in 1919 and the General Motors Institute (now Kettering University) in 1926. In 1945, he and longtime General Motors head Alfred P. Sloan established the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York City.


Charles F. Kettering

Charles Kettering was one of the most distinguished (and wealthiest) engineers of the twentieth century, serving for decades as the director of General Motors’ research division. He came from a humble beginning on a farm forty miles outside Columbus, Ohio, and got his start with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Ohio State University in 1904. And it was as an electrical engineer that he first earned his reputation and his fortune, before moving on to a distinguished career in research management and a broader interest in automotive engineering as a whole.

Kettering’s path to his degree was anything but smooth. He was born in 1876 and raised on his family’s farm forty miles northeast of Columbus, Ohio. After high school he worked as a school teacher, entered Ohio State as an EE major, left after a year due to eye problems, and then worked two years on a telephone line crew before returning to Ohio State to complete his degree. His excellent college record helped land him a job with the National Cash Register Company in Dayton, Ohio with the position of NCR’s “electrical inventor.” National’s line of cash registers at that time were mechanical devices, hand operated by a clerk turning a large crank. Kettering was hired to revitalize the largely stagnant product line through innovation. He soon invented the first system that enabled a central department store office to quickly approve credit sales made by clerks on the store floor, by coupling existing telephones at the sales counters to solenoid operated stamping machines by which the central office could quickly approve the sale after checking the customer’s records. This increased NCR’s sales to department stores, many of which had previously resisted cash registers. It also earned Kettering a promotion to head of a nine-person inventions department.

In early 1905, Kettering turned his attention to designing an electrically powered cash register. Within a few months he had succeeded. He had a key insight—that the motor needed to operate only in short intense bursts, and not continuously. This enabled him to design and use a motor small enough to fit into a standard cash register. Building on this motor, he designed a system with a series of incremental refinements, including an overrunning clutch, a magnetic relay, a universal AC motor, and improved windings. NCR introduced its first electric cash register to great success in 1906, and soon had a line of electric cash registers to meet the requirements of various retailers.

Kettering’s next project for NCR was the design of a more complex electrical cash register system to meet the need of restaurants. This successful system combined a printer that produced a duplicate stub, an ability to divide the total into subcategories such as food, beverages, and cigars, and the ability to subtract as well as add. NCR introduced it commercially in 1908.

But like many young men of the early twentieth century, Kettering became interested in a newer and more rapidly evolving technology, the automobile, and looked in his spare time for ways to improve it. And as an electrical engineer, he turned his attention to the one electrical subsystem present in the gasoline-powered car of the time—the ignition system. American cars of the time used non-rechargeable dry cells to provide the electricity that sent a shower of sparks into the combustion cylinder to ignite the air/fuel mixture. The batteries had to be replaced every few hundred miles. Kettering adapted the magnetic relay from his cash register into a device that would produce one spark from a spark plug instead of a shower, decreasing the drain on the battery and increasing its life. Kettering and a handful of associates, including NCR's general manager Col. Edward A. Deeds, formed the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco) to commercialize the invention. In July 1909, Cadillac purchased 8,000 units. Delco was on its way, and Kettering soon left NCR to devote his full attention to Delco and automotive electrical systems.

Kettering next turned his attention, as did many others, to what seemed clearly one of the major weaknesses of the gasoline-powered automobile—the hand crank that had to be inserted in the front of the car and manually rotated with considerable force to start the car. Not only was this a nuisance that kept some, especially women, from operating cars, it also was dangerous—there were many reported incidents of the crank kicking back, leading to broken arms, broken jaws, and worse. From the first, Kettering envisioned not just an electric self-starter, but an integrated electrical system for starting, ignition and lighting. He conceived of a system that would use a single motor for starting the car and for operating the ignition system and the lighting system. He and his team developed a motor which could operate at a 1:1 ratio with the engine when the car was running, but could be geared up for more torque during starting. Like with his cash register, the motor could produce a substantial burst of power for a brief period of time. He switched from dry cells to a storage battery, with the electric motor serving as a generator to recharge the battery when the car was running. He also devised a voltage regulator to maintain the generator’s output at a reasonable voltage for charging, regardless of the variable speed of the engine. Finally, he developed a series-multiple battery arrangement that could be switched to provide the 6 volts required for the headlamps then in use, and the higher voltage required for starting. In 1911, Kettering installed the system in a Cadillac, which he successfully demonstrated to that company, which in turn committed to the self-starter, ordering 12,000 systems in November. Cadillac introduced the self-starter in its 1912 model.

Over the next few years, automobile manufacturers across the industry adopted the innovation even Henry Ford began offering it on his best-selling Model-T in 1919. Kettering biographer Stuart W. Leslie argued that the improved battery ignition and the self-starter assured that the gasoline-powered automobile would be the dominant form of personal transportation in the United States. The sales of electric-powered cars, never more than a niche, peaked with a 1 percent market share in 1913, and were largely gone from the market by the early 1920s.

Delco grew rapidly into a large manufacturing company with 2000 employees by 1915. Delco became part of the United Motor Company in 1916, which in turn became part of General Motors in 1918. Kettering, who received a mix of cash and stock for his company, in turn became a very wealthy man, the head of General Motor’s research division, a vice president of GM, and a member of GM’s board.

While this was happening, Kettering found the time, starting in 1913, to develop, and, in 1916, to commercialize, a portable electrical generating and lighting system for use in rural America. It used a one cylinder gasoline engine. This system, marketed under the name Delco-Light, found a ready market in affluent American farmers, since the electrical grid reached very few rural communities. In 1918, the company Kettering formed to exploit the Delco-Light sold 60,000 units. The labs were incorporated as General Motors Research Corporation in 1920, at which time Kettering, simultaneously named a GM vice-president and board member, agreed to move the bulk of research activity to Detroit. In 1925, when the labs were transferred to a new 11-story building, Kettering and his family moved to Detroit, occupying a suite atop the Motor City's tallest hotel until Kettering's retirement. Sales declined during the mid-1920s as the electric grid spread to rural America, beginning with the more affluent sections.

Kettering, even after becoming a GM executive, kept his hand in a variety of research projects, though most of these were more general engineering than electrical engineering. Among the more notable were the interrelated problems of better quality gasoline and more powerful and fuel-efficient, high-compression engines, improved automotive paints, and for General Motors’ Frigidaire division, Freon, the first non-flammable non-toxic coolant for refrigeration.

Kettering retired from GM in 1947 after a long and successful career. He received many honors and awards including, in 1958, the Edison medal from the AIEE. He devoted much time in later life to philanthropy, most notably through the establishment, together with long time GM President Alfred Sloan, of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. Kettering died on 25 November 1958 at his home in Dayton at the age of 82 .


About Charles Kettering

Where does Kettering University get its name? Is it the namesake of a city in southwest Ohio, or perhaps a small town in rural central England crucial to the footwear industry? Although both of these places exist, Kettering University is named for its founder, Charles F. Kettering.

You may have heard of Charles F. Kettering in a high school history class. He was the inventor of the electric self-starter. His invention replaced a dangerous ignition process involving a hand crank that often caused serious injuries, such as broken bones, from the kickback. Kettering’s impact, although remarkable in the automotive industry, goes far beyond cars.

Kettering’s early years

Charles Franklin Kettering was born August 29, 1876, in Loudonville, Ohio. Early on he worked at the National Cash Register Company, where he developed the first cash register with a motorized drawer. Later, Kettering formed Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO). At DELCO, Kettering created the key-operated electric starter, which revolutionized the auto industry. In 1916, DELCO was purchased by United Motors Corporation, (later General Motors) ,and Kettering became the Vice President and Director of Research. Kettering continued to innovate during his time at GM, but he also had interests outside of the auto industry.

Kettering’s educational involvement

Over the course of his lifetime, Charles Kettering obtained more than 140 patents on products from the electric starter to an incubator for premature infants. Throughout his career, he maintained a deep devotion for education. In 1919 Kettering helped found the Flint Institute of Technology (now Kettering University). Later, Kettering co-founded the prominent Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York.

As a university that focuses on practical application to supplement classroom education, Kettering University produces students in the likeness of its founder. Charles F. Kettering was focused on patenting innovative technology and giving back to his community through education and research. Now, Kettering University is helping students live out his legacy.


The First Hospital

During the polio epidemic in the 1950s, Eugene and Virginia witnessed the difference compassionate, quality healthcare can make in a community at Hinsdale Hospital near Chicago. The hospital was founded as a part of the healthcare mission of the Seventh-day Adventist church, where hospital leaders and staff incorporated Judeo-Christian values at every level of service, most notably, the value of seeing each and every patient as a whole person—mind, body, and spirit—worthy of care.

The Ketterings wanted to give people in the Dayton area access to that same care. They rallied the support of local community and business leaders to raise the money needed to build a new hospital on the 90-acre Kettering estate.

Though not Adventists themselves, the Ketterings enlisted the help of the Seventh-day Adventist Church to build and operate the hospital because of their admiration to the Adventist healthcare philosophy.

Known for his integrity, competence, sound judgment, and leadership skills, George Nelson was named Kettering Hospital’s founding administrator and first president.

The hospital’s groundbreaking took place on July 7, 1961. Two years later, the hospital was dedicated, and on March 3, 1964, Kettering Memorial Hospital admitted its first patients.

The campus, now known as Kettering Health Main Campus, continued to expand its offerings. In 1967, Kettering College opened adjacent to the hospital, offering degrees in health science and related fields.


Charles F. Kettering

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Charles F. Kettering, in full Charles Franklin Kettering, (born August 29, 1876, Loudonville, Ohio, U.S.—died November 25, 1958, Dayton, Ohio), American engineer whose inventions, which included the electric starter, were instrumental in the evolution of the modern automobile.

In 1904 Kettering began working for the National Cash Register Company in Dayton, where he developed the first electric cash register. He became chief of the inventions department before he resigned in 1909.

With Edward A. Deeds, Kettering founded Delco (Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company) to design automotive electrical equipment. He developed improved lighting and ignition systems as well as the first electric starter, which was introduced on Cadillacs in 1912.

In 1916 Delco became a subsidiary of United Motors Corporation, later General Motors Corporation (GM). Kettering was vice president and director of research for GM from 1920 to 1947. In 1914 he also founded the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company, which during World War I developed a propeller- driven guided missile with a 200-pound (90-kilogram) bomb load.

Kettering contributed much to the development of quick-drying lacquer finishes for automobiles and of antiknock fuels and leaded gasoline in collaboration with the American chemist Thomas Midgley, Jr. He developed the high-speed, two-cycle diesel engine, making it more efficient by improving its design. In 1951 he also developed a revolutionary high-compression automobile engine.

Kettering’s interest in science was manifested in the establishment of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research at the Memorial Cancer Center, New York City, and the C.F. Kettering Foundation for the Study of Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Charles F. Kettering, the namesake of Dayton&rsquos largest suburb, a health network and slew of other entities wasn&rsquot your typical innovator who struck it big.

Raised on a farm, and enrolling in and out of college due to bad eyesight, Kettering had no problem putting the work in. For him, that was a given. Thinking, tinkering and not taking things too seriously was his way to get away from it all.

Any Google search for Charles Kettering quotes will open your eyes to a truly open mind. What kind of famous inventor would say don&rsquot take your education too seriously?

Kettering at a glance: Charles Franklin Kettering (born August 29, 1876, and died November 24 or 25, 1958) was an American inventor, engineer, businessman, and the holder of 186 patents. Kettering&rsquos first job took him to Dayton&rsquos National Cash Register (NCR). After five years and 23 patents (including NCR&rsquos electric cash register), he and Colonel Edward Deeds (whose home you can visit on Stroop Rd. in Kettering) went off to form Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO). Just a few years later General Motors would go on to buy Delco, and Boss Kett as many called him, would be named VP of GM&rsquos new research division.

Three things to thank Boss Kett for

1. Not hand cranking your car to start it
Likely Kettering&rsquos most famous invention, as part of DELCO, Kettering invented the electric self-starter. Instead of starting your car by hand with a crank, beginning in 1912 you could start your Cadillac with the turn of a key.

2. Today&rsquos air conditioning and refrigerators
Prior to the development of freon by Kettering and Thomas Midgley, Jr., air conditioners and refrigerators used toxic and/or flammable substances like ammonia and sulfur dioxide as refrigerants. While freon (a CFC) would later be found later to hurt the ozone layer, it was important to the progression of refrigerants and is still used today. Charles Kettering home (off Southern Blvd. in Kettering) is often referred to as the first home with air conditioning.

3. His contributions to Dayton jobs
We may not often think of an inventor in this way, but Kettering&rsquos creations were instrumental in Dayton&rsquos economy. NCR, DELCO & GM manufacturing jobs made up the backbone of Dayton&rsquos working class for decades. Kettering improved NCR&rsquos core product by creating the first electric cash register. He also founded DELCO, whose plants would provide jobs for years to come. Many of the ideas he patented at DELCO and as head of Research at GM would go on to be used at GM&rsquos Moraine Assembly and plants around the world.

Side bar: Dayton&rsquos largest production brewery, Warped Wing, certainly knows Charles F Kettering. TWO of their famed beers reference the inventor. Warped Wing&rsquos Self-Starter IPA is named and designed for Kettering&rsquos most famous invention, the car&rsquos electric self-starter. Warped Wing&rsquos Barn Gang Saison pays homage to the group started by Kettering and Colonel Edward Deeds that would later become the Engineers Club of Dayton.


Engineering Hall of Fame: Charles Kettering

Charles Kettering was one of the most distinguished (and wealthiest) engineers of the twentieth century, serving for decades as the director of General Motors’ research division. He came from a humble beginning on a farm forty miles outside Columbus, Ohio, and got his start with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Ohio State University in 1904. And it was as an electrical engineer that he first earned his reputation and his fortune, before moving on to a distinguished career in research management and a broader interest in automotive engineering as a whole.

Kettering’s path to his degree was anything but smooth. He was born in 1876 and raised on his family’s farm forty miles northeast of Columbus, Ohio. After high school he worked as a school teacher, entered Ohio State as an EE major, left after a year due to eye problems, and then worked two years on a telephone line crew before returning to Ohio State to complete his degree. His excellent college record helped land him a job with the National Cash Register Company in Dayton, Ohio with the position of NCR’s “electrical inventor.” National’s line of cash registers at that time were mechanical devices, hand operated by a clerk turning a large crank. Kettering was hired to revitalize the largely stagnant product line through innovation. He soon invented the first system that enabled a central department store office to quickly approve credit sales made by clerks on the store floor, by coupling existing telephones at the sales counters to solenoid operated stamping machines by which the central office could quickly approve the sale after checking the customer’s records. This increased NCR’s sales to department stores, many of which had previously resisted cash registers. It also earned Kettering a promotion to head of a nine-person inventions department.

In early 1905, Kettering turned his attention to designing an electrically powered cash register. Within a few months he had succeeded. He had a key insight–that the motor needed to operate only in short intense bursts, and not continuously. This enabled him to design and use a motor small enough to fit into a standard cash register. Building on this motor, he designed a system with a series of incremental refinements, including an overrunning clutch, a magnetic relay, a universal AC motor, and improved windings. NCR introduced its first electric cash register to great success in 1906, and soon had a line of electric cash registers to meet the requirements of various retailers.

Kettering’s next project for NCR was the design of a more complex electrical cash register system to meet the need of restaurants. This successful system combined a printer that produced a duplicate stub, an ability to divide the total into subcategories such as food, beverages, and cigars, and the ability to subtract as well as add. NCR introduced it commercially in 1908.

But like many young men of the early twentieth century, Kettering became interested in a newer and more rapidly evolving technology, the automobile, and looked in his spare time for ways to improve it. And as an electrical engineer, he turned his attention to the one electrical subsystem present in the gasoline-powered car of the time–the ignition system. American cars of the time used non-rechargeable dry cells to provide the electricity that sent a shower of sparks into the combustion cylinder to ignite the air/fuel mixture. The batteries had to be replaced every few hundred miles. Kettering adapted the magnetic relay from his cash register into a device that would produce one spark from a spark plug instead of a shower, decreasing the drain on the battery and increasing its life. Kettering and a handful of associates formed the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco) to commercialize the invention. In July 1909, Cadillac purchased 8,000 units. Delco was on its way, and Kettering soon left NCR to devote his full attention to Delco and automotive electrical systems.


Charles F. Kettering with his automobile self-starter.
Photo: Public domain via IEEE History Center.

Kettering next turned his attention, as did many others, to what seemed clearly one of the major weaknesses of the gasoline-powered automobile–the hand crank that had to be inserted in the front of the car and manually rotated with considerable force to start the car. Not only was this a nuisance that kept some, especially women, from operating cars, it also was dangerous–there were many reported incidents of the crank kicking back, leading to broken arms, broken jaws, and worse. From the first, Kettering envisioned not just an electric self-starter, but an integrated electrical system for starting, ignition and lighting. He conceived of a system that would use a single motor for starting the car and for operating the ignition system and the lighting system. He and his team developed a motor which could operate at a 1:1 ratio with the engine when the car was running, but could be geared up for more torque during starting. Like with his cash register, the motor could produce a substantial burst of power for a brief period of time. He switched from dry cells to a storage battery, with the electric motor serving as a generator to recharge the battery when the car was running. He also devised a voltage regulator to maintain the generator’s output at a reasonable voltage for charging, regardless of the variable speed of the engine. Finally, he developed a series-multiple battery arrangement that could be switched to provide the 6 volts required for the headlamps then in use, and the higher voltage required for starting. In 1911, Kettering installed the system in a Cadillac, which he successfully demonstrated to that company, which in turn committed to the self-starter, ordering 12,000 systems in November. Cadillac introduced the self-starter in its 1912 model.


Advertisement for the 1912 Cadillac, the first car with a self-starter.
Photo: Public Domain, via IEEE History Center.

Over the next few years, automobile manufacturers across the industry adopted the innovation even Henry Ford began offering it on his best-selling Model-T in 1919. Kettering biographer Stuart W. Leslie argued that the improved battery ignition and the self-starter assured that the gasoline-powered automobile would be the dominant form of personal transportation in the United States. The sales of electric-powered cars, never more than a niche, peaked with a 1 percent market share in 1913, and were largely gone from the market by the early 1920s.

Delco grew rapidly into a large manufacturing company with 2000 employees by 1915. Delco became part of the United Motor Company in 1916, which in turn became part of General Motors in 1918. Kettering, who received a mix of cash and stock for his company, in turn became a very wealthy man, the head of General Motor’s research division, a vice president of GM, and a member of GM’s board.

While this was happening, Kettering found the time, starting in 1913, to develop, and, in 1916, to commercialize, a portable electrical generating and lighting system for use in rural America. It used a one cylinder gasoline engine. This system, marketed under the name Delco-Light, found a ready market in affluent American farmers, since the electrical grid reached very few rural communities. In 1918, the company Kettering formed to exploit the Delco-Light sold 60,000 units. Sales declined during the mid-1920s as the electric grid spread to rural America, beginning with the more affluent sections.

Kettering, even after becoming a GM executive, kept his hand in a variety of research projects, though most of these were more general engineering than electrical engineering. Among the more notable were the interrelated problems of better quality gasoline and more powerful and fuel-efficient, high-compression engines, improved automotive paints, and for General Motors’ Frigidaire division, Freon, the first non-flammable non-toxic coolant for refrigeration.

Kettering retired from GM in 1947 after a long and successful career. He received many honors and awards including, in 1958, the Edison medal from the AIEE. He devoted much time in later life to philanthropy, most notably through the establishment, together with long time GM President Alfred Sloan, of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. Kettering died on 25 November 1958 at his home in Dayton at the age of 82 .


Charles F. Kettering

Charles F. “Boss” Kettering was a prolific inventor. While at National Cash Register, he invented the first electric cash register. Kettering founded the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco) in 1909 and developed the electric self-starter for automobiles, first used in 1912 Cadillacs. He also developed no-knock Ethyl gasoline, lacquer car finishes, four-wheel brakes, safety glass, and high-compression engines made significant improvements to diesel engines that led to their use in locomotives, trucks, and buses and collaborated with Thomas Midgley, Jr. in the development of the refrigerant Freon. Kettering served as President of the Society of Automotive Engineers in 1918, co-founded the Engineers' Club of Dayton (1914), and was director of research at General Motors Corporation from 1920 to 1947. His interest in medical and scientific research led to the founding of the Kettering Foundation and the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.

Automobile Self-Starter
[Charles Kettering memorial, funded by The Kettering Family, at RiverScape in Van Cleve Park, about 250 feet west across Monument Avenue from the historical marker above. A cross view of the auto self-starter and his many US Patent numbers circle his portrait]
Curiosity Creativity Perseverance
“There will always

be a frontier where there is an open mind and a willing hand”
“You never get anywhere going the obvious way”
“I know the glass [illegible]. What I want to know is why you can see through it”

Erected 2003 by The Ohio Bicentennial Commission, The Longaberger Company, Dayton Section of SAE International, Engineers Club of Dayton, and The Ohio Historical Society. (Marker Number 4-57.)

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Charity & Public Work &bull Industry & Commerce &bull Science & Medicine. In addition, it is included in the Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection series list. A significant historical year for this entry is 1909.

Location. 39° 45.839′ N, 84° 11.442′ W. Marker is in Dayton, Ohio, in Montgomery County. Marker is at the intersection of Monument Avenue (Ohio Route 4) and Jefferson Street, on the left when traveling west on Monument Avenue. Marker is in front of The Engineers Club. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 110 E Monument Avenue, Dayton OH 45402, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. The Birth of Aviation (a few steps from this marker) John Van Cleve (within shouting distance of this marker) "The History of the World is the Biography of Great Men" (within

shouting distance of this marker) Benjamin Van Cleve (within shouting distance of this marker) 1905 Wright Flyer III (within shouting distance of this marker) Paul Laurence Dunbar (within shouting distance of this marker) The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 / And The Rivers Flowed Through The City (within shouting distance of this marker) Newcom Tavern (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Dayton.

Also see . . .
1. Charles F. Kettering - Ohio History Central. (Submitted on April 2, 2009, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. Some Charles Kettering quotes. (Submitted on April 2, 2009, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)


Reflecting On The Extraordinary Genius Of Charles F. Kettering

Charles Kettering was an innovator and a deep thinker whose many inventions riveted various industries. We should keep in mind his opinions on failure and hard work as they are so applicable in our daily lives. Never be afraid to fail but be afraid to fail to try.

Confront your problems head-on and never waver away from hard work.

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