Louisbourg Regional Map

Louisbourg Regional Map


Welcome to Louisbourg, Nova Scotia

Louisbourg, Nova Scotia is home to the historic jewel, the Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site. Here, you can experience what life was like in the bustling French fortified town of Louisbourg in 1744.

In Present-Day Louisbourg, A Vital Coastal Community Awaits You

From the freshest Atlantic seafood to inspiring seaside hikes – Louisbourg has something for everyone to enjoy. You might choose to spend the day combing a secluded beach, go on a geocaching hunt at the fortress, or go scuba diving among shipwrecks. As the sun goes down, take in live entertainment at the Louisbourg Playhouse or a serene sunset. After all that fresh sea air, you will sleep soundly here on Cape Breton’s east coast and awake to another day of possibility.


Historical Maps at Your Fingertips

Earlier this month, the USGS launched “TopoView 2.1”, an enhancement to the current popular TopoView mapping service that lets users discover, interact, and download historical USGS topographic maps scans.

TopoView 2.1 is a modern web application built on an open source mapping platform that is free of charge. The highly interactive service provides tools and procedures that allow users to easily find historic map scans from USGS’s Historical Topographic Map Collection and even compare those with modern day maps.

The new version is full of improvements and advancements based on hundreds of user comments and suggestions. Upgraded features include:

  • new user interface that’s faster and easier to use,
  • access and download maps from a variety of search terms
  • intuitive tools to compare historical maps with maps of the present.
  • ability to preview maps within the interface
  • filters and searches that work seamlessly with the map records table to get you the info you want with just a few clicks.

To further assist users with these features, the TopoView team has released a “how to” video to walk through the download and comparison process.

TopoView highlights one of the USGS's most important and useful products, the topographic map. In 1879, the USGS began to map the Nation's topography. This mapping was done at different levels of detail, in order to support various land use and other purposes. As the years passed, the USGS produced new map versions of each area.

The most current maps are available from The National Map and US Topo quadrangles. TopoView shows the many and varied older maps of each area, and so is useful for historical purposes—for example, the names of some natural and cultural features have changed over time, and the 'old' names can be found on these historical topographic maps.

TopoView was created by the National Geologic Map Database project, in support of topographic mapping program managed by the National Geospatial Program. Geologic mapping and topographic mapping at the USGS have a long tradition together.


Africa 3500 BCE

Most of Africa is home to bands of hunter-gatherers, but in the Nile valley, the civilization of Egypt is beginning to emerge.

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What is happening in Africa in 3500BCE

North Africa

The area now covered by the Sahara desert was cooler and wetter than it is now, although at this date it is getting dryer. Farming peoples are slowly spreading along the north African coast, and the fertile strip of land along the river Nile is already home to a dense population of farmers. In this area, some powerful chiefdoms are now emerging which will, over the next few centuries, come under one ruler to form the kingdom of Egypt.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Further south, in Nubia, in modern-day Sudan, wide grasslands give rise to cattle-herding cultures. Throughout the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, small groups of hunter-gatherers, mostly related to modern day San bushmen and Pygmy peoples, live in small, temporary encampments as they follow their prey and forage for nuts, berries and other nutritious plants. Beside rivers and lakes, settlements of fishermen are situated.


National Geospatial Program

As one of the cornerstones of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Geospatial Program, The National Map is a collaborative effort among the USGS and other Federal, State, and local partners to improve and deliver topographic information for the Nation. It has many uses ranging from recreation to scientific analysis to emergency response.

The National Map Viewer

The National Map Viewer (TNM Viewer) is the one-stop destination for visualizing all the latest National Map data. It uses easy to navigate foundational base maps and makes it simple to interact with all our data themes to create your own map.

TNM Training courses

The National Map offers you Video training courses to help you learn all you can do with The National Map.

The National Map Liaisons

The National Map (TNM) Liaisons partnership network cultivates and maintains long-term relationships with partners and develops agreements for The National Map and other initiatives that support USGS science.

The National Map is a suite of products and services that provide access to base geospatial information to describe the landscape of the United States and its territories. The National Map embodies 11 primary products and services and numerous applications and ancillary services.

The National Map supports data download, digital and print versions of topographic maps, geospatial data services, and online viewing. Customers can use geospatial data and maps to enhance their recreational experience, make life-saving decisions, support scientific missions, and for countless other activities. Nationally consistent geospatial data from The National Map enable better policy and land management decisions and the effective enforcement of regulatory responsibilities. The National Map is easily accessible for display on the Web through such products as topographic maps and services and as downloadable data. The geographic information available from The National Map includes boundaries, elevation, geographic names, hydrography, land cover, orthoimagery, structures, and transportation.

The majority of The National Map effort is devoted to acquiring and integrating medium-scale (nominally 1:24,000 scale) geospatial data for the eight base layers from a variety of sources and providing access to the resulting seamless coverages of geospatial data. The National Map also serves as the source of base mapping information for derived cartographic products, including 1:24,000 scale US Topo maps and georeferenced digital files of scanned historic topographic maps. Data sets and products from The National Map are intended for use by government, industry, and academia—focusing on geographic information system (GIS) users—as well as the public, especially in support of recreation activities. Other types of georeferenced or mapping information can be added within The National Map Viewer or brought in with The National Map data into a GIS to create specific types of maps or map views and (or) to perform modeling or analyses.

Use and Download our Data and MAPS!

National Map GIS data download and other related applications for working with our topographic data are available on our Data Delivery site.

The National Map (TNM) supporting themes include boundaries, elevation, geographic names, hydrography, land cover, orthoimagery, structures, and transportation. Other types of georeferenced or mapping information can be added within TNM Viewer or brought in with TNM data into a GIS to create specific types of maps or map views and (or) to perform modeling or analyses.

The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) is managed by the USGS National Geospatial Program on behalf of the broader community with a goal of complete acquisition of nationwide lidar (IfSAR in AK) in 8 years to provide the first-ever national baseline of consistent high-resolution elevation data – both bare earth and 3D point clouds – collected in a time-frame of less than a decade. We also continue to be ready to meet growing needs for higher quality data, repeat coverage, and new products and services. These data serve government, public and private sector needs for a wide range of activities that include flood hazard mapping, precision agriculture, infrastructure planning and development, natural resource management, environmental assessment and a host of other applications.

NMCorps is an online crowdsourcing mapping project with volunteers successfully editing structures in all 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

As part of The National Map, structures include schools, hospitals, post offices, police stations, cemeteries, and other important public buildings. By updating and verifying structures data, volunteers are making significant contributions to USGS National Structures Database, The National Map, and ultimately U.S. Topo Maps!

Anyone with an interest in contributing can volunteer. It is easy to sign up and get started! All you need is access to the internet, an email address, and a willingness to learn. “How to” documentation including a comprehensive User Guide and a Quick Start Guide will have you up and editing quickly. Begin editing in your own hometown or anywhere in the U.S., Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Volunteers earn virtual badges for participating and are recognized for their contributions (with permission) via USGS and The National Map social media.


Louisbourg Regional Map - History

Texans and people writing about Texas often find it helpful to subdivide the large state's area into regions, such as north Texas, south Texas, east Texas, west Texas, and central Texas. Each of these regions has its own geographical and cultural identity.

While most Texans have a general understanding of the meaning of terms like "east Texas" and "west Texas," there are not any places that are organized as and named "East Texas" or "West Texas" as such, and any two people are likely to describe the boundaries of these regions differently. Nevertheless, these region names are used constantly, so it helps to lay them out on a map, even if for nothing else than as a starting point for discussion.

Since the mid-to-late 1960s, the counties of Texas have been organized into 24 separate area-wide councils and commissions. With names like "East Texas Council of Governments" and "South Texas Development Council," these voluntary-membership organizations provide insight into the regional identity of their members. Our map below consolidates these 24 area bodies into a total of seven regions.

The Texas Department of Health and Human Services consolidates the 24 area councils of governments into 11 regions. In east, central, and south Texas and on the Gulf Coast, the HHS regions align with ours. In north and west Texas and the Panhandle, our three regions become five HHS regions, with somewhat different alignments. The Texas HHS regions can be viewed as you hover over our map.

Map of Texas Regions

Table of Texas Regions

Region Name Number of
Counties
Population
2010
Land Area
(mi 2 )
Population
Density (/mi 2 )
Anglo
Percentage
Hispanic
Percentage
Black
Percentage
Asian
Percentage
Other
Percentage
Panhandle26427,92725,75316.660.226.18.72.03.0
North Texas306,956,03924,535283.551.425.314.95.43.1
East Texas381,878,91827,42968.566.012.617.61.22.6
Upper Gulf Coast136,087,13312,189499.439.133.517.76.92.8
South Texas474,710,34752,96488.926.665.14.41.72.3
West Texas702,136,83392,81523.038.852.45.01.22.6
Central Texas302,956,85425,547115.456.525.110.84.03.7
Statewide25425,145,561261,23296.344.536.112.34.22.9

List of Texas Regions and Their Component Counties

The Panhandle

The Texas Panhandle derives its name from its proximity to the distinctive handle-shaped section of neighboring Oklahoma. It consists of the northwesternmost 26 counties in Texas: Armstrong, Briscoe, Carson, Castro, Childress, Collingsworth, Dallam, Deaf Smith, Donley, Gray, Hall, Hansford, Hartley, Hemphill, Hutchinson, Lipscomb, Moore, Ochiltree, Oldham, Parmer, Potter, Randall, Roberts, Sherman, Swisher, and Wheeler. These counties make up the Panhandle Regional Planning Commission.

North Texas

Perhaps counterintuitively, the region called North Texas does not include the counties at the most northern latitudes those are referred to as the Panhandle. Instead, north Texas refers to the area that is north of the central part of the state. It includes, roughly speaking, the metropolitan areas of Dallas-Fort Worth and Wichita Falls and their surrounding counties. North Texas does not include Abilene to the west, Waco to the south, or Tyler to the east.

Our map of the regions of Texas places 29 counties in north Texas. These include:

  • The 16 counties in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that make up the North Central Texas Council of Governments: Collin, Dallas, Denton, Ellis, Erath, Hood, Hunt, Johnson, Kaufman, Navarro, Palo Pinto, Parker, Rockwall, Somervell, Tarrant, and Wise.
  • The 11 counties surrounding Wichita Falls that make up the Nortex Regional Planning Commission: Archer, Baylor, Clay, Cottle, Foard, Hardeman, Jack, Montague, Wichita, Wilbarger, and Young.
  • The 3 counties on the Red River that are in the Texoma Council of Governments: Cooke, Fannin, and Grayson.

East Texas

East of the Trinity River, Texas begins to take on a Southern appearance that resembles its neighbors, Arkansas and Louisiana. A dense pine forest known as the Piney Woods covers the entire region. so much that "Piney Woods" and "east Texas" can usually be used interchangeably.

Our map of the regions of Texas places the following 38 counties in east Texas:

  • The 9 northeastern counties that belong to the Ark-Tex Council of Governments: Bowie, Cass, Delta, Franklin, Hopkins, Lamar, Morris, Red River, and Titus.
  • The 14 counties further south that make up the East Texas Council of Governments: Anderson, Camp, Cherokee, Gregg, Harrison, Henderson, Marion, Panola, Rains, Rusk, Smith, Upshur, Van Zandt, and Wood.
  • The next group of 12 counties yet further south that belong to the Deep East Texas Council of Governments: Angelina, Houston, Jasper, Nacogdoches, Newton, Polk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Shelby, Trinity, and Tyler.
  • The 3 southeastern counties that make up the South East Texas Regional Planning Commission: Hardin, Jefferson, and Orange.

Upper Gulf Coast

Although Houston and the counties surrounding it are unquestionably in the southern half of the state, their region's climate, geography, and demographic makeup is dissimilar from the region called south Texas. By the same token, although the Houston area is definitely in the eastern part of the state, it is not usually considered part of east Texas. Instead, this area makes up its own region. We call it "Upper Gulf Coast" to distinguish it from the coastal counties of south Texas.

The Upper Gulf Coast region consists of the 13 counties that belong to the Houston-Galveston Area Council: Austin, Brazoria, Chambers, Colorado, Fort Bend, Galveston, Harris, Liberty, Matagorda, Montgomery, Walker, Waller, and Wharton. This same group of 13 counties is referred to as the Gulf Coast region by the Texas Department of Health and Human Services.

The counties of Walker, Liberty, and Chambers are also commonly considered to be part of east Texas.

South Texas

South Texas consists roughly of the territory from the San Antonio metropolitan area to the Rio Grande and the Gulf of Mexico.

Our map of the regions of Texas places the following 47 counties in south Texas:

  • The 12 San Antonio-area counties that make up the Alamo Area Council of Governments: Atascosa, Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Frio, Gillespie, Guadalupe, Karnes, Kendall, Kerr, Medina, and Wilson.
  • The 7 counties in the Victoria area that belong to the Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission: Calhoun, DeWitt, Goliad, Gonzales, Jackson, Lavaca, and Victoria.
  • The 12 counties in the Coastal Bend Council of Governments, headquartered in Corpus Christi: Aransas, Bee, Brooks, Duval, Jim Wells, Kenedy, Kleberg, Live Oak, McMullen, Nueces, Refugio, and San Patricio.
  • The 3 counties in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Development Council: Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy.
  • The 4 counties the make up the South Texas Development Council: Jim Hogg, Starr, Webb, and Zapata.
  • The 9 counties belonging to the Middle Rio Grande Development Council: Dimmit, Edwards, Kinney, La Salle, Maverick, Real, Uvalde, Val Verde, and Zavala.

West Texas

There are probably more definitions for west Texas than for any other region of the state. Its eastern boundary has been defined as far west as the Pecos River and as far east as the Brazos River. Our concept of west Texas is based on the five principal metropolitan areas it contains: El Paso, Lubbock, Abilene, Midland/Odessa, and San Angelo.

Our map of the regions of Texas places the following 70 counties in west Texas:

  • The 13 counties centered around San Angelo, who are members of the Concho Valley Council of Governments: Coke, Concho, Crockett, Irion, Kimble, Mason, McCulloch, Menard, Reagan, Schleicher, Sterling, Sutton, and Tom Green.
  • The 17 counties centered around Midland and Odessa, which comprise the Permian Basin Regional Planning Commission: Andrews, Borden, Crane, Dawson, Ector, Gaines, Glasscock, Howard, Loving, Martin, Midland, Pecos, Reeves, Terrell, Upton, Ward, and Winkler.
  • The far western 6 Texas counties belonging to the Rio Grande Council of Governments: Brewster, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, and Presidio. These counties were formerly known as the West Texas Council of Governments, until the addition of Dona County, New Mexico.
  • The 15 counties in the Lubbock-based South Plains Association of Governments: Bailey, Cochran, Crosby, Dickens, Floyd, Garza, Hale, Hockley, King, Lamb, Lubbock, Lynn, Motley, Terry, and Yoakum.
  • The 19 counties centered around Abilene that make up the West Central Texas Council of Governments: Brown, Callahan, Coleman, Comanche, Eastland, Fisher, Haskell, Jones, Kent, Knox, Mitchell, Nolan, Runnels, Scurry, Shackelford, Stephens, Stonewall, Taylor, and Throckmorton.

Central Texas

The central region of Texas lies in between the state's three largest metropolitan areas - Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, and San Antonio - and along its three largest interior rivers: the Trinity, the Brazos, and the Colorado. The limestone peaks of the Texas Hill Country make up a large part of central Texas, but the region also includes a large amount of flat land.

Our map of the regions of Texas places the following 30 counties in central Texas:

  • The 7 counties around Bryan and College Station that are in the Brazos Valley Council of Governments: Brazos, Burleson, Grimes, Leon, Madison, Robertson, and Washington.
  • The 10 counties in the Capital Area Council of Governments, centered around Austin: Bastrop, Blanco, Burnet, Caldwell, Fayette, Hays, Lee, Llano, Travis, and Williamson.
  • The 7 member counties of the Central Texas Council of Governments: Bell, Coryell, Hamilton, Lampasas, Milam, Mills, and San Saba.
  • The 6 counties that participate in the Heart of Texas Council of Governments, headquartered in Waco: Bosque, Falls, Freestone, Hill, Limestone, and McLennan.

The same four groups of 30 counties are administered collectively as the Central Texas Region by the Texas Department of Health and Human Services.


Europe 750 CE

Medieval Europe is beginning to emerge from the wreckage of the Ancient World.

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Civilizations

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What is happening in Europe in 750CE

Western Europe

The past two and a half centuries have seen the Franks come to rule most of modern-day France and much of Germany. Their kings are active supporters of the Catholic church and its leaders, the popes (based in Rome). The Franks will shortly intervene in Italy to safeguard a pope against his enemies, the Lombards.

In these areas of western Europe, urban life and culture is mostly a thing of the past. Economic life is now largely based on huge self-contained estates (the precursors of medieval “manors”) a class of warrior land-owners dominates society. Literacy and education is almost exclusively the preserve of the Christian clergy, and Graeco-Roman learning is preserved only in monasteries.

The frontiers of Europe

Pagan tribes still inhabit central, eastern and northern Europe. England is now divided amongst a group of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, with Celtic kingdoms to their north and west. Most of these have now converted to Christianity.

Spain has been conquered by the vast Muslim Caliphate. The Christians hang on only in the mountainous north.

The Byzantine empire

To the East, the Roman empire has also been battered by Muslim armies. Other enemies, pagan tribes from central Europe, have occupied most of the Balkans.

As a result of these attacks, the Roman empire (or Byzantine empire, as modern scholars call it) is now but a fraction of its former size. Internally, Byzantine society has also changed a great deal. The great cities of the past have now all but vanished, with Constantinople the only sizeable one left. Nevertheless, Graeco-Roman culture is still cherished, and (along with Christian teaching) remains the basis for the education of the upper classes.

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Louisbourg Regional Map - History

Isaiah 52:7 - How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!

Jesus came to his home, the Land of Israel, which was the land promised to the first Hebrew, Abraham. The Lord established a covenant with Abraham and promised that one day his "seed" (descendant) would be a blessing to all nations. This was exactly why Israel was referred to as "The Promised Land." Jesus, the promised seed of Abraham was the fulfillment of that promise, and everything beautiful about the land of Israel is because of Jesus. The geography is only secondary, yet it is truly amazing how much the Lord adored the land of Israel because in it He not only saw the beauty throughout, but He saw landmarks that revealed the promises that God had faithfully kept with His people.

An understanding of the geography of the ancient world is of tremendous value in understanding the life of Jesus. It is a true statement that a good Bible atlas is an essential tool for any serious student of the Bible, therefore this map program was created. You can follow the yellow numbers on the map in numerical order.


You can look at the Map to trace the route of Jesus' ministry. Our focus is Geography and the life of Christ.


Louisbourg Regional Map - History

Jesus in Tyre and Sidon

Jesus Ministers in the Region of Tyre and Sidon


Map of the Ministry of Jesus (Clickable Map)

Isaiah 52:7 - How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!

Jesus came to his home, the Land of Israel, which was the land promised to the first Hebrew, Abraham. The Lord established a covenant with Abraham and promised that one day his "seed" (descendant) would be a blessing to all nations. This was exactly why Israel was referred to as "The Promised Land." Jesus, the promised seed of Abraham was the fulfillment of that promise, and everything beautiful about the land of Israel is because of Jesus. The geography is only secondary, yet it is truly amazing how much the Lord adored the land of Israel because in it He not only saw the beauty throughout, but He saw landmarks that revealed the promises that God had faithfully kept with His people.

An understanding of the geography of the ancient world is of tremendous value in understanding the life of Jesus. It is a true statement that a good Bible atlas is an essential tool for any serious student of the Bible, therefore this map program was created. You can follow the yellow numbers on the map in numerical order.


You can look at the Map to trace the route of Jesus' ministry. Our focus is Geography and the life of Christ.


Louisbourg Regional Map - History

Israel and Judah

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Map of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

Israel and Judah during the period of the Kings in the ancient Biblical world.

After David and Solomon, the fame and fortunes of Israel went downhill. The nation rebelled against God and his laws. God might have destroyed Israel had He not promised to Abraham a redeemer and He still planned to use the house of David for this.

When Solomon died a civil war broke out as Solomon's sons and generals fought for the throne. Rehoboam had his fathers blessing to be the new king, but Jeroboam had more military influence. In the end, Rehoboam took the southern half of the country and called it "Judah". Jeroboam took the northern half and kept the name Israel. Each claimed to be God's chosen king.

The Northern Kingdom of Israel

The Northern Kingdom consisted of 10 of the tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin). It lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 722 BC. Its capital was Samaria. Every king of Israel was evil. In the northern kingdom there were 9 dynasties (family lines of kings) and 19 kings in all. An average of 11 years to a reign. 8 of these kings met death by violence.

The epitaph written over every one of its kings was:

I King 15:34 "and he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he had made Israel to sin."

It was king Ahab who introduced Baal worship to them.

I King 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him."

Israel was carried away captive to Assyria in 722 BC and disappeared from history.

The Southern Kingdom of Judah

The Southern Kingdom consisted of 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin). The kingdom extended in the north as far as Bethel, while in the south it ended in the dry area known as the Negev. Its eastern and western boundaries were the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem was its capital and it lasted from about 922-586 B.C., Judah had somewhat of a better record. Only 8 of Judah's kings served God. These were: Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Amaziah, Uzziah, Jotham, Hezekiah, and Josiah. The rest of the 20 kings were wicked. In the southern kingdom there was only one dynasty, that of king David, except usurper Athaliah from the northern kingdom, who by marriage, broke into David's line, and interrupted the succession for 6 years, 20 kings in all. An average of about 16 years to a reign.

After Josiah there was no hope for Judah, the last 3 kings were all evil. The Babylonians swept down upon Jerusalem in 597 BC and captured it. A second attack led to Jerusalem's second defeat in 586 BC. Captives from both campaigns were taken to Babylonia to mark the captivity of the Southern Kingdom.

The Kingdom of Israel in Smith's Bible Dictionary

III. History. --The kingdom of Israel lasted 254 years, from B.C. 975 to B.C. 721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Israel, at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods: (a) B.C. 975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people. (b) B.C. 929-884. For forty-five years Israel wag governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha. (c) B.C. 884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Israel under the dynasty of Jehu. Hazael, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of Israel, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu's line. (d) B.C. 772-721. Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that "after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, B.C. 721, the name 'Israel' began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No doubt many of the kingdom of Israel joined the later kingdom of the Jews after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom.--ED.) Full Article

The Kingdom of Judah in Smith's Bible Dictionary

Judah, Kingdom of
Extent. --When the disruption of Solomon's kingdom took place at Shechem, B.C. 975, only the tribe of Judah followed David, but almost immediately afterward the larger part of Benjamin joined Judah. A part, if no all, of the territory of Simeon, 1Sa 27:6 1Ki 19:3 comp. Josh 19:1
and of Dan, 2Ch 11:10 comp. Josh 19:41,42
was recognized as belonging to Judah and in the reigns of Abijah and Asa the southern kingdom was enlarged by some additions taken out of the territory of Ephraim. 2Ch 13:19 15:8 17:2 It is estimated that the territory of Judah contained about 3450 square miles.
Advantages. --The kingdom of Judah possessed many advantages which secured for it a longer continuance than that of Israel. A frontier less exposed to powerful enemies, a soil less fertile, a population hardier and more united, a fixed and venerated centre of administration and religion, a hereditary aristocracy in the sacerdotal caste, an army always subordinate, a succession of kings which no revolution interrupted so that Judah survived her more populous and more powerful sister kingdom by 135 years, and lasted from B.C. 975 to B.C. 536.
History --The first three kings of Judah seem to have cherished the hope of re-establishing their authority over the ten tribes for sixty years there was war between them and the kings of Israel. The victory achieved by the daring Abijah brought to Judah a temporary accession of territory. Asa appears to have enlarged it still further. Hanani's remonstrance, 2Ch 16:7 prepares us for the reversal by Jehoshaphat of the policy which Asa pursued toward Israel and Damascus. A close alliance sprang up with strange rapidity between Judah and Israel. Jehoshaphat, active and prosperous, commanded the respect of his neighbors but under Amaziah Jerusalem was entered and plundered by the Israelites. Under Uzziah and Jotham, Judah long enjoyed prosperity, till Ahaz became the tributary and vassal of Tiglath-pileser. Already in the fatal grasp of Assyria, Judah was yet spared for a checkered existence of almost another century and a half after the termination of the kingdom of Israel. The consummation of the ruin came upon its people in the destruction of the temple by the hand of Nebuzaradan, B.C. 536. There were 19 kings, all from the family of David. (Population. --We have a gage as to the number of the people at different periods in the number of soldiers. If we estimate the population at four times the fighting men, we will have the following table:

King . Date . Soldiers . Population
David . B.C. 1056-1015 . 500,000 . 2,000,000
Rehoboam . 975-957 . 180,000 . 720,000
Abijah . 957-955 . 400,000 . 1,600,000
Asa . 955-914 . 500,000 . 2,000,000
Jehoshaphat . 914-889 . 1,160,000 . 4,640,000
Amaziah . 839-810 . 300,000 . 1,200,000 Full Article

The Bible Mentions why God punished Israel:

II Kings 17:7-23 "For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made.

Also the children of Israel secretly did against the LORD their God things that were not right, and they built for themselves high places in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. They set up for themselves sacred pillars and wooden images on every high hill and under every green tree. There they burned incense on all the high places, like the nations whom the LORD had carried away before them and they did wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger, for they served idols, of which the LORD had said to them, "You shall not do this thing."

Yet the LORD testified against Israel and against Judah, by all of His prophets, every seer, saying, "Turn from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by My servants the prophets." Nevertheless they would not hear, but stiffened their necks, like the necks of their fathers, who did not believe in the LORD their God. And they rejected His statutes and His covenant that He had made with their fathers, and His testimonies which He had testified against them they followed idols, became idolaters, and went after the nations who were all around them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them.

So they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, made for themselves a molded image and two calves, made a wooden image and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and soothsaying, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger.


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