Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Kaydet family
The Boeing-Stearman Model 75 'Kaydet' was the main primary trainer used by the USAAF and US Navy with just over 8,500 complete aircraft built by the time production ended in 1945.
The Stearman Aircraft Company was founded by Lloyd Stearman in 1927. All versions of the aircraft built before 1939 were Stearman aircraft. In 1939 the company became the Wichita Division of Boeing, and after that the Stearman Model 75 officially became the Boeing Model 75 but the Stearman name stuck. The Navy also kept the Stearman designation for all of its later aircraft, which remained the N2S rather than becoming the N2B (Boeing had produced an XN2B in the mid 1920s).
In 1933 Stearman began work on a new biplane trainer, developed from the earlier Stearman Model C. The new aircraft made its maiden flight in December 1933 as the Stearman X-70. It was a two-seat single bay unequal span biplane, with a slightly shorter lower wing. The wings had a wooden framework with a fabric cover. The fabric-covered fuselage was built around a welded steel tube framework.
The undercarriage was fixed. It had a tail wheel and a divided axle main landing gear, with cleanly faired oleo-spring shock absorbers for the main wheels. The main difference between the six main production versions and their many sub-versions came in the engine.
The X-70 was submitted to the Air Corps in 1934 in response to a primary trainer requirement, but it was the Navy that was first to order it into production. The first Naval aircraft were given the designation Stearman NS-1 and the internal designation of Model 73.
The Army took longer to place its first orders. Stearman developed the Model X75 in 1934, giving it a 225hp Wright R-670E Whirlwind engine. The Army tested this aircraft in October 1934. The sole X75 was then given a 220hp Lycoming R-680-3 engine, and became the Model X75L3. This was also tested by the army, and finally, in 1936 the army ordered the Lycoming-powered PT-13. This was the first production version of the Model 75, and all later US versions of the aircraft kept that designation. The 'Kaydet' name was given to the Model 75 in Canadian service. It was unofficially used elsewhere.
Eventually the US military accepted 8,298 aircraft.4,359 were ordered for the Army, 3,639 for the Navy and 300 for Lend-Lease. The type was also exported, with 17 Model 73s, 48 Model 75s and 78 Model 76s sold. This makes a total of 8,441 aircraft (Boeing Aircraft since 1916 gives 8,584, but its figures include 122 cancelled aircraft from naval orders). Enough spare parts to build almost 2,000 complete aircraft were also built, for an effective production run of 10,346.
The Boeing-Stearman PT-13 was the original army version of the aircraft. It was first ordered in 1936 and was powered by a Lycoming R-680 engine. A total of 1,267 PT-13s were built.
The PT-17 was the second main army type and used the Continental R-670 engine. It was the main Army version, with 3,519 built.
A smaller run of PT-18s was also built, powered by a Jacobs R-755 engine. A total of 150 were built.
Three hundred Model 75s were built for Canada under the lend-lease scheme. The USAAF called them the PT-27, while the Canadians were the first to call the aircraft the Kaydet. They had a Continental engine and were similar to the PT-17.
The Boeing-Stearman NS was the first version to enter production. It was ordered from the independent Stearman Company, where it was called the Model 73. The NS was powered by surplus Wright J-5 (R-790-8) engines. Sixty-one were built.
The Boeing-Stearman N2S was the Naval designation for all of their Model 75 trainers, with various sub-types powered by Continental or Lycoming engines. A total of 3,578 N2Ss were built.
The Philippines bought seven aircraft in two batches in 1936-37. They were all powered by 200hp Lycoming R-680 engines and used the undercarriage from the Model 75. The first batch of three was delivered in March 1936 and was powered by US Navy R-680-4 engines. The second batch of four was delivered in April 1937 and were powered by civil R-580C-1 engines.
Seven A73B1s went to Cuba, four in October 1939 and three in March 1940. They were powered by a 235hp Wright R-760ET (J-6-7) Whirlwind engine.
The Philippines received another three aircraft in July 1938. These were slightly improved versions, also using a Lycoming engine.
The Model A75B4 was produced for Venezuela. It was powered by a 320hp Wright R-760-E2 and carried military equipment. Five were built and were delivered in November 1941.
The Model A75L3 was the export version of the PT-13, and was powered by a civil Lycoming R-680-B4D engine. Forty-three were built. Brazil was the largest customer, with 20, followed by the Philippines with 12, Venezuela with 7 and the Parks Air College with four.
Boeing Model 76
The Model 76 was an armed combat trainer and light attack aircraft. It used 300-400hp engines and could carry two fixed guns, one flexibly mounted gun and up to 120lb of bombs. It was produced in five variants, and a total of 78 were sold.
Engine: Varies (see text)
Span: 32ft 2in
Length: 24ft 1/4in
Height: 9ft 2in
Empty Weight: 1,936lb
Loaded Weight: 2,717lb
Maximum Speed: 124mph
Cruising Speed: 106mph
Climb rate: 840ft/ min
Range: 505 miles
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Kaydet family - History
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Biplane History
The Boeing-Stearman Model 75 is one of the most recognisable biplanes of all time. Originally designed by Lloyd Stearman, of Stearman Aircraft, as the Stearman Model 75, it was a relatively sophisticated and expensive aircraft. When Boeing acquired Stearman Aircraft in 1934, making it a subsidiary of Boeing, they effectively gained the rights to the Boeing-Stearman Model 75 trainer and renamed it the Boeing Kaydet.
The Boeing Kaydet aircraft was first introduced as a tandem biplane military trainer in 1934. It was widely used by the USAAF, USN and the RCAF with a total of over 10,000 aircraft being produced.
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 During WW2
The Boeing-Stearman Model 75 trainers used during WW2 by the USAAF (United States Army Air Force) were designated PT-13, PT-17 and PT-18. The USN (United States Navy) designated it's Boeing Kaydet biplanes as either NS, N2S-1, N2S-2, N2S-3, N2S-4, N2S-5. The designation variants primarily designate the engine model fitted.
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Post WW2
After WW2 thousands of surplus Boeing Kaydet trainers found their way on to the civilian market where they made excellent crop dusters, personal aerobatic aircraft and air taxi transports.
Various scale models, model kits and plans of this aircraft have been available in the market place.
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Specifications:
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Crew: Student and instructor
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Length: 24 ft 3 in (7.39 m)
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Wingspan: 32 ft 2 in (9.81 m)
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Height: 9 ft 2 in (2.79 m)
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Empty weight: 1,936 lb (878 kg)
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Max takeoff weight: 2,717 lb (1,232 kg)
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Engine: Single 220 hp (164 kW) Continental R-670-5
Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Maximum speed: 124 mph (198 km/h)
N2S-2 Kaydet (Stearman)
The Commemorative Air Force (CAF) Airbase Georgia has recently acquired a World War II-era Boeing-Stearman N2S restoration project. The Boeing-Stearman Model 75, nicknamed “Kaydet” but more often called “Stearman” by its pilots, was the primary trainer for Army and Navy pilots for more than a decade beginning in 1936. The restoration project will be dedicated to “Rosie the Riveter,” the cultural icon representing women who worked in factories and shipyards during World War II, helping transform America into the Arsenal of Democracy. The group’s goal is to return the classic biplane to the air in time to celebrate the 90 th Anniversary of the First Stearman Flight in 2024.
Over 8,428 “Kaydets” were built for the United States and her Allies. During its 11 years of military service, more American military pilots learned to fly in the “Kaydet” than any other airplane. The two-seater biplane’s simple and sturdy design made it ideal for novice pilots. Volunteers will restore the aircraft at the CAF Airbase Georgia Warbird Museum at Atlanta Regional Airport-Falcon Field, Peachtree City, Georgia.
Meet Robyn, Alisa and Robin, our three Rosie the Riveter who will restore our Stearman.
Airbase Georgia intends to develop a restoration program led by several of the unit’s female members as a way of honoring “Rosie the Riveter,” the cultural icon who represented the women workers in factories and shipyards during World War II.
According to the Encyclopedia of American Economic History, “Rosie the Riveter” inspired a social movement that increased the number of working American women from 12 million to 20 million by 1944, a 57% increase from 1940. By 1944 only 1.7 million unmarried men between the ages of 20 and 34 worked in the defense industry, while 4.1 million unmarried women between those ages did so.Although the image of “Rosie the Riveter” reflected the industrial work of welders and riveters during World War II, the majority of working women filled non-factory positions in every sector of the economy. What unified the experiences of these women was that they proved to themselves (and the country) that they could do a “man’s job” and could do it well. In 1942, just between the months of January and July, the estimates of the proportion of jobs that would be “acceptable” for women was raised by employers from 29 to 85%. African American women were some of those most affected by the need for women workers.It has been said that it was the process of whites working alongside blacks during the time that encouraged a breaking down of social barriers and a healthy recognition of diversity. ( Source Wikipedia)
According to the Federal Aviation Administration 2018 Active Civil Airmen Statistics, over 250,000 women are currently employed in the civilian aviation industry as pilots, flight engineers, flight navigators, mechanics, repair technicians, parachute riggers, dispatchers, ground instructors and flight attendants. The group plans to restore the Stearman “Kaydet” with the talents of mechanics and other volunteers, including new and long-time female members of the organization. A goal of the Boeing-Stearman N2S “Kaydet” Restoration Project is to inspire more women to become involved in the Commemorative Air Force.
Aircraft History: The Kaydet, the two-seater biplane introduced by Stearman Aircraft Division of Boeing in Wichita, Kansas, in 1934, became an unexpected success during World War II. This aircraft was accepted by the Navy on July 9, 1941 as an N2S, the Navy version of the Model 75. The aircraft was assigned to the Naval Air Station (NAS) at Corpus Christi, Texas, and was transferred to Naval Reserve Aviation Base (NRAB) in Detroit, Mich., on April 9, 1942. Its next assignment was to Naval Air Intermediate Training (NAIT) at Rodd Field, Corpus Christi, Texas, on April 1, 1944. The aircraft was assigned to the pool in Dallas In November 1944 until it was stricken from the record on Nov. 30,1944
Our goal is to restore this historic airpane to airworthiness and then operate it as a flying museum to showcase our national war heroes. We need your help to make that happen. Click on the donate button below and you will be redirected to PayPal, a secure online contribution service. Donors can use any major credit or debit cards, an account with PayPal is not neededis not needed.
For the latest updates about the restoration click HERE.
Operational history [ edit | edit source ]
Post-War usage [ edit | edit source ]
After World War II, the thousands of PT (primary trainer)-17 Stearmans were auctioned off to civilians and former pilots. Many were modified for cropdusting use, with a hopper for pesticide or fertilizer fitted in place of the front cockpit. Additional equipment included pumps, spray bars, and nozzles mounted below the lower wings. A popular approved modification to increase the maximum takeoff weight and climb performance involved fitting a larger Pratt & Whitney R-985 engine and a constant speed propeller.
Bradley, James (2003). Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-10584-8.
Military Factory, Boeing-Stearman Kaydet Trainer Aircraft (1941), version of June 20, 2013. http://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=334.
Wilson, Randy, “Flying the Army Primary Trainers: A Comparison of the Stearman, Fairchild, and Ryan PTs, The Dispatch, 24(2) (Summer 1999). Commemorative Air Force.
Wikipedia, Boeing-Stearman Model 75, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing-Stearman_Model_75. Last accessed June 14, 2015.
Wright, Theodore, Love Affair with a Stearman. http://flightaware.com/squawks/view/1/unset/user/36390/Love_Affair_with_a_Stearman.
Lend a helping hand
The Boeing (Stearman) Model 75 was a biplane used as a military trainer aircraft, of which 9.700 plus were built during the 1930s and 1940s.Stearman became a subsidiary of Boeing in 1934. It continued to be widely known as the &ldquoStearman.&rdquo It served as a basic trainer for the USN designated as a N2S, It was known colloquially as the &ldquoyellow Peril due to its predominately yellow paint scheme.
During WWII, when required, N2S aircraft were &ldquoborrowed&rdquo from the nearest NAS for brief period &ndash a week to as long as 90 days and used in the CG pre -flight introduction and evaluation of individuals desiring to become Coast Guard aviators and Naval Aviation Pilots. (APs). When a Coast Guard aviation facility was co -based with an active NAS, the desired aircraft were provided the same way &ndash drawn from what was termed &ldquopool aircraft&rdquo. These machines remained property of the USN Pool they came from. and were returned When their service was no longer required they were returned. These aircraft were not assigned to the USCG.
At the end of WWII the Coast Guard received 11 N2S-3 series machines but only 10 were actually turned over to the USCG while one machine, although designated for the CG, was retained by the USN at NAS Corpus Christi . The first N2S-3 was turned over to the USCG on March 11, 1946. All were turned over the War Assets Administration by September 1947 as the evaluation pre -flight prior program was discontinued.
Boeing Stearman Model 75 is a biplane. It was used as a military training aircraft during the 2. WW. At least 10.626 were built in the US in the 1930s and 1940s. The Stearman Aircraft became a subsidiary of Boeing in 1934. Boeing Stearman or Kaydet, worked as a primary trainer for the Army and Navy.
The plane’s body is constructed with a steel frame covered with fabric, wings and tail surface is constructed of wood (spruce) also covered with fabric.
The aircraft is a tail wheel aircraft, with a high center of gravity and a high wind resistance which makes it challenging to land especially in crosswind. The pilot sits in the rear cockpit and have limited visibility ahead at takeoff and landing. This meant that the pilots received special training in this. A valuable skill in the transition to fighters with the same challenge.
The plane was also used as an aerobatics trainer. Extremely solid built and can withstand high stress. Because of this powerful construction, the plane quickly got a reputation as a safe training aircraft, with a good chance to survive serious casualty. During World War II two planes crashed in the landing pattern and both the pilots survived. This says a lot about the aircraft construction.
During World War II 800.000 allied pilots received their basic training on the Stearman in the US. In 1941, a new Stearman rolled out of the factory in Wichita every 90 minutes.
After the Second World War, thousands of surplus planes were sold on the private market. They were used as crop dusters as well as sporting and aerobatics planes with wing walking at airshows.
Today there are about 600 operational Stearman planes in private ownership.
This particular plane is stationed at Notodden Airport and owned by Scandinavian Aircraft AS. Aircraft Norwegian registration LN-FTX.
|Model:||C2B &rarr C3B||75 &rarr N2S|
|Length:||24 ft||7.32 m||24 ft 9 in||7.54 m|
|Wingspan Upper:||35 ft||10.66 m||32 ft 2 in||9.80 m|
|Wingspan Lower:||28 ft||8.53 m||31 ft 2 in||x10.66 m|
|Height:||9 ft||2.75 m||9 ft 8 in||2.95 m|
|Empty Weight:||1,650 lb||748 kg||1,931 lb||876 kg|
|Gross weight:||2,650 lb||1,202 kg||2,635 lb||1,195 kg|
|Fuel capacity:||?? Gal||?? L||46 US Gal||170 L|
|Powerplant:||Wright J-5||Continental R-670|
|220 hp||164 kW||220 hp||164 kW|
|Max Speed:||126 mph||204 km/h||124 mph||200 km/h|
|Cruise Speed:||108 mph||175 km/h||96 mph||154 km/h|
|Range:||620 miles||1,004 km|
|Ceiling:||13,200 ft||4,000 m|
|C3B - Top wing overhangs the lower wing by 3.5 feet |
There is a strut that goes from the main wheel axle to the centerline of the fuselage
|Kaydet - Top wing is only slightly longer than the lower wing |
Single massive strut from the wheel to the fuselage
|C3B - Landing gear struts above and below the fuselage |
Relatively squared off tail, flat at the back
|C3B - Landing gear has 6 struts per side plus flying wires going to the outboard wing struts|
|Kaydet - Single massive strut from the wheel to the fuselage |
Rounded off tail
|C3B - Different length wings |
Top wing center section is straight, can't see front cockpit
Rounded horizontal tail section, no brace wire
|Kaydet - Same length wings |
Top wing center section is cut out, can see front cockpit
Longer horizontal tail section straight leading edge, two brace wires
In 1934, the Stearman Aircraft Company became a Boeing subsidiary and placed its Model 73 into production. It was a variation of both the Stearman Model C series that was produced between 1926 and 1930 and the Model 70 prototype that was completed in 1933. Out of this biplane grew a family of primary trainers, of which more than 2,000 were produced by 1945. The Model 76 was simply a larger version of the Model 75, which was the most prominent member of the family.
The Model 75 was powered by a 215 hp Lycoming and was designated by the military as the PT-13. The series that was produced in the largest numbers was the Model A75NI. It was similar to the PT-13 but was powered by a 220 hp Continental radial engine its military designation was PT-17. The Royal Canadian Air Force ordered 300 winterized versions of the PT-17 and unofficially changed the name to Kaydet, a name that has come to apply to the entire family of Stearmans.
The last of the 75 series to be produced was the Model E-75 powered by a 220 hp Lycoming engine. When production was terminated on V-J Day, its production totaled more than 1,700 as both the PT-13D and the N2S-5. Thousands of Model 75s have become available for civilian use and are extremely popular, both as a warbird and classic open-cockpit biplanes. In some cases, their original engines have been replaced by the Pratt & Whitney Wasp juniors providing twice the power.
Postwar Civilian Life
Boeing Stearman Model 75 air show wingwalker
After the war, the Boeing Stearman Model 75 was widely used as a crop duster, sport plane, and for use in air shows. Today, there are still many air-worthy Kaydets around the world. The United States is home to more than 15 surviving models, including the one at the Pacific Aviation Museum.