Hamburg City Hall

Hamburg City Hall

Hamburg City Hall’s impressive architecture dominates the centre of the Hamburg, and houses the city’s senate and parliament.

History of Hamburg City Hall

After the old city hall was destroyed in the great fire of 1842, it took 55 years for the new Hamburg City Hall (Rathaus) to open. The present building was built between 1886-1897, at a cost of 11 million German gold marks (about €80 million). It reopened on 26 October 1897 when the First Mayor Johannes Versmann received the key.

It has 647 rooms and stands on over 4,000 oak piles. Unlike the usual restrained Hanseatic style, the building has an elaborate façade, flanked by a total of 20 statues of emperors. In the Senate chamber, there is a large glass roof, symbolising an ancient Germanic custom that the council meets in the open air.

The imperial hall is named the Kaisersaal, after the visit by Kaiser Wilhelm II at the opening of the North Sea-Baltic Canal. There is also a Grand Ballroom (46 metres long, 18 metres wide and 15 metres high) housing paintings depicting the history of Hamburg from 800-1900, and 62 city coats of arms of the old Hanseatic League.

In the postwar period, various heads of state visited Hamburg and its City Hall including Queen Elizabeth II in 1965.

In 1971, a room in the tower was discovered accidentally during a search for a document that had fallen behind a filing cabinet, raising the possibility that there are even more rooms than the current count of 647.

Hamburg City Hall today

The City Hall is the seat of the government of Hamburg – one of Germany’s 16 state parliaments. Parliament meets in the debating chamber every second Tuesday at 3pm.

Many fairs, concerts and celebrations in Hamburg happen outside the City Hall in the Rathausmarkt square (such as those of Hamburger SV as German football champions back in 1983) as well as the city’s famed Christmas markets which fill the square each year.

There is also a local tradition where unmarried men sweep the steps outside the City Hall on their 30th birthday.

Getting to Hamburg City Hall

The Rathaus is located in the Altstadt quarter in the city center, at the Rathausmarkt square, and near the lake Binnenalster and the central station. The closest accessible station is U-Bahn to ‘Jungfernstieg (U2/U4)’, or take a bus to ‘Rathaus’.


In 1965 the city had about 1,850,000 inhabitants, but since then the population has been slowly decreasing. More than three-fourths of the residents are Protestants, and the remainder are predominantly Roman Catholic. There is a small Muslim community, which includes many Turkish Gastarbeiter (“guest workers”). The Jews, of whom there had been 27,000 in 1933 (when Hitler took power), now number only about 1,000.

Having absorbed Altona, Harburg, and Wandsbek in 1937, Hamburg has become Germany’s major industrial city. All processing and manufacturing industries are represented there. Hamburg treats most of the country’s copper supplies, and the Norddeutsche Affinerie, on Veddel, is Europe’s second largest copperworks. The chemical, steel, and shipbuilding industries are also important, although shipbuilding has declined as a result of competition from Japan and Korea. Hamburg is also the most important centre in Germany, after Berlin, for newspaper and periodical publishing. Nuclear plants at Krümmel and Brunsbüttel provide power at a reasonable cost to the industries bordering the Unterelbe and to parts of Hamburg.


ORDINANCE NO. 07-2021 – FIRST READING
AN ORDINANCE AMENDING CHAPTER 215- ENTITLED
ZONING ORDINANCE, ARTICLE XXVI – PROHIBITED
USES – OF THE CODE OF THE BOROUGH OF HAMBURG
COUNTY OF SUSSEX, STATE OF NEW JERSEY PROHIBITING
CANNABIS CULTIVATION, PRODUCTION, MANUFACTURE
AND SALE. DETAILS

As of June 14th Borough Hall will be open to the public with limited access. No public bathrooms will be available. Masks are no longer required but we respectfully encourage everyone to follow the guidelines set by the CDC. If you have not been vaccinated or are high risk please continue to wear a mask.

Commencing June 14, 2021 all Hamburg Borough Public Meetings (Council, Land Use Board, Recreation and Board of Public Works) will be held as in-person meetings without telephonic access. The meetings will be open to the public and everyone is encouraged to follow the CDC guidelines.

JCP&L Vegetation Management
Begins July 15th – Details

Leaf Bags are available through the DPW. Please call 973-827-7702 for more information.


Contents

Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg. [11]

The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL. [12] Hamburg borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.

Climate Edit

Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and maritime influences that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location in the north of Germany provides extremes greater than typical marine climates, but definitely in the category due to the prevailing westerlies. [13] Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has varied greatly in recent decades. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy snowfall sometimes occurred, [14] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall just a few days per year. [15] [16]

The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F). [17]

Climate data for Hamburg-Fuhlsbuttel (Hamburg Airport), elevation: 15 m, 1981-2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
17.2
(63.0)
23.0
(73.4)
29.7
(85.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.6
(94.3)
36.9
(98.4)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
26.1
(79.0)
20.2
(68.4)
15.7
(60.3)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.0
(46.4)
12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72.0)
17.9
(64.2)
13.0
(55.4)
7.5
(45.5)
4.6
(40.3)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.6
(34.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.8
(46.0)
12.5
(54.5)
15.2
(59.4)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
13.7
(56.7)
9.5
(49.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.3
(36.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.1
(34.0)
3.3
(37.9)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.5
(54.5)
9.6
(49.3)
6.0
(42.8)
2.4
(36.3)
0.0
(32.0)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−15.3
(4.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.1
(19.2)
−15.4
(4.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−29.1
(−20.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 67.8
(2.67)
49.9
(1.96)
67.7
(2.67)
43.0
(1.69)
57.4
(2.26)
78.6
(3.09)
76.7
(3.02)
78.9
(3.11)
67.4
(2.65)
67.0
(2.64)
69.2
(2.72)
68.9
(2.71)
792.6
(31.20)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.1 9.2 11.3 8.9 9.6 11.3 11.4 10.2 10.8 10.5 11.7 12.4 129.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.9 69.0 108.8 171.6 223.4 198.7 217.5 203.1 144.6 107.9 53.0 37.4 1,581.9
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3
Source: WMO (UN), [17] DWD [18] and Weather Atlas [19]

View climate chart 1986-2016 or 1960-1990

Climate data for Hamburg-Fuhlsbuttel (Hamburg Airport), elevation: 15 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
16.7
(62.1)
23.0
(73.4)
29.7
(85.5)
29.2
(84.6)
32.7
(90.9)
33.2
(91.8)
34.8
(94.6)
30.3
(86.5)
24.0
(75.2)
20.2
(68.4)
15.7
(60.3)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.8
(38.8)
7.2
(45.0)
11.9
(53.4)
17.0
(62.6)
20.2
(68.4)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
18.0
(64.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.6
(45.7)
4.0
(39.2)
12.4
(54.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
1.1
(34.0)
3.7
(38.7)
7.3
(45.1)
12.2
(54.0)
15.5
(59.9)
16.8
(62.2)
16.6
(61.9)
13.5
(56.3)
9.7
(49.5)
5.1
(41.2)
1.9
(35.4)
8.7
(47.6)
Average low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−1.8
(28.8)
0.4
(32.7)
3.0
(37.4)
7.2
(45.0)
10.4
(50.7)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
9.4
(48.9)
6.3
(43.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−13.8
(7.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.6
(33.1)
4.2
(39.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
−15.4
(4.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−20.8
(−5.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.0
(2.40)
41.0
(1.61)
56.0
(2.20)
51.0
(2.01)
57.0
(2.24)
74.0
(2.91)
82.0
(3.23)
70.0
(2.76)
70.0
(2.76)
63.0
(2.48)
71.0
(2.80)
72.0
(2.83)
768
(30.23)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.0 9.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 131
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.2 67.0 104.7 160.7 216.8 221.8 206.7 207.3 141.1 100.7 53.0 35.2 1,557.2
Source: NOAA [20]

Origins Edit

Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century AD) reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva. [21]

The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, [22] but its location is estimated to be at the site of today's Domplatz. [23] [24]

Medieval Hamburg Edit

In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric. The first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. [25]

Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. [25] In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. The Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. [26] Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. [27]

In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access (or free-trade zone) up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. [28] This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League. [29] In 1270, the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence). [30] On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. [31]

Modern times Edit

In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France.

When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" (Neustadt) whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced. [32]

Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1804–1814/1815). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–1866).

In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years.

After periodic political unrest, particularly in 1848, Hamburg adopted in 1860 a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire (1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in 1888, the last (along with Bremen) of the German states to join. The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. [33] The Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin as its director, became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there.

A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.

Second World War Edit

In Nazi Germany (1933–1945), Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. During the Second World War, Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, Royal Air Force (RAF) and United States Army Air Force (USAAF) firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook and Hamm South. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts.

At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished [34] in the Neuengamme concentration camp (about 25 km (16 mi) outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the RAF at the end of the war [ citation needed ] .

Systematic deportations of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (District Northwest). On 10 June 1943 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree. [35] The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished.

Post-war history Edit

Hamburg surrendered to British Forces on 3 May 1945, [36] three days after Adolf Hitler's death. After the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the British Zone of Occupation it became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany in 1949.

From 1960 to 1962, the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city.

On 16 February 1962, a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.

The Inner German border – only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg – separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since German reunification in 1990, and the accession of several Central European and Baltic states into the European Union in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.

Historical population
YearPop. ±%
950500
143016,000+3100.0%
1840136,956+756.0%
1900705,738+415.3%
1910931,035+31.9%
19201,026,989+10.3%
19301,145,124+11.5%
19401,725,500+50.7%
19501,605,606−6.9%
19611,840,543+14.6%
19701,793,640−2.5%
19801,645,095−8.3%
19901,652,363+0.4%
20001,715,392+3.8%
20101,786,448+4.1%
2012 (census)1,734,272−2.9%
20131,746,342+0.7%
20141,762,791+0.9%
20151,787,408+1.4%
20161,860,759+4.1%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.
Largest groups of foreign residents [37] [38] [39]
Nationality Population (31.12.2020)
Turkey 44,760
Poland 24,025
Afghanistan 22,205
Syria 17,175
Russia 10,300
Romania 10,005
Portugal 9,755
Iran 9,425
Bulgaria 8,825
Italy 7,800
Serbia 7,450
North Macedonia 7,400
Ghana 7,120
Croatia 6,630
China 6,335
Philippines 6,185

On 31 December 2016, there were 1,860,759 people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of 755.3 km 2 (291.6 sq mi). The population density was 2,464/km 2 (6,380/sq mi). [40] The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to 5,107,429 living on 196/km 2 (510/sq mi). [41]

There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg. For every 1,000 females, there were 1,033 males. In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg (of which 38.3% were to unmarried women) 6422 marriages and 3190 divorces, and 17,565 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out, with 16.1% under the age of 18, and 18.3% were 65 years of age or older. 356 people in Hamburg were over the age of 100. [42]

According to the Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig Holstein, the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% (631,246). [43] Immigrants come from 200 different countries. 5,891 people have acquired German cititzenship in 2016. [44]

In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18 54.4% of all households were made up of singles. 25.6% of all households were single parent households. The average household size was 1.8. [45]

Foreign citizens in Hamburg Edit

Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows [44]

Citizenship Number %
Total 288,338 100%
Europe 193,812 67.2%
European Union 109,496 38%
Asian 59,292 20.6%
African 18,996 6.6%
American 11,315 3.9%
Australian and Oceanian 1,234 0.4%

Language Edit

Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low German, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation. [46] All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German. [47]

Religion Edit

Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of an organized religious group. In 2018, 24.9% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 9.9% to the Roman Catholic Church. 65.2% of the population is not religious or adherent other religions. [48]

According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" (Muslim life in Germany) estimated 141,900 Muslim migrants (counting in nearly 50 countries of origin) lived in Hamburg in 2008. [49] About three years later (May 2011) calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8.4% percent of the population. [50]

Hamburg is seat of one of the three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. There are several mosques, including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city, [51] the Islamic Centre Hamburg, and a Jewish community. [52]

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.

Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus (Hamburg City Hall), with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament. [53] From 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust, [54] who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance 90/The Greens party. [55] Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010. [56] On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz (SPD) became mayor. After the 2015 election the SPD and the Alliance 90/The Greens formed a coalition.

Boroughs Edit

Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: Stadtteile). There are 181 localities (German: Ortsteile). The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws. [6] [57] Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. [58] The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality. [59] Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times.

Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter). The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate. [57] The quarters have no governing bodies of their own.

Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze. [60]

Eimsbüttel is split into nine-quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen. [60] Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel.

Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf. [60]

Architecture Edit

Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers (see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg). Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. The skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (Hauptkirchen) St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St Peter's, St James's (St. Jacobi) and St. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible).

The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam and Venice put together. [61] Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world. [62] The Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways.

The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. The tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high. Its façade, 111 m (364 ft) long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. [63] The Chilehaus, a brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner.

Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. The Elbphilharmonie (Elbe Philharmonic Hall), opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects Herzog & de Meuron. [64] [65]

The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. The biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen. The Stadtpark, Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria. The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s.

Parks and gardens Edit

The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen park (Low German dialect for "plants and flowers") located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city. Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg, which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses.

The Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October.

Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London). [66] Hamburg has entered the European Green Capital Award scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011.

Theatres Edit

The state-owned Deutsches Schauspielhaus, the Thalia Theatre, Ohnsorg Theatre, "Schmidts Tivoli" and the Kampnagel are well-known theatres. [67]

The English Theatre of Hamburg [68] near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.

Museums Edit

Hamburg has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg with its contemporary art gallery (Galerie der Gegenwart), the Museum for Art and Industry (Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe) and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg (Archäologisches Museum Hamburg) in Hamburg-Harburg, the Hamburg Museum of Work (Museum der Arbeit), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum (Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg). Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship era (Rickmer Rickmers). [69] The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland with 15.4 km (9.57 mi) total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken in a former warehouse.

BallinStadt (Emigration City) is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals.

Music Edit

Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The city's other well-known orchestra is the NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra. The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Before it was the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg. The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. György Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg. [70] [71]

Hamburg is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz.

Since the German premiere of Cats in 1986, there have always been musicals running, including The Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King, Dirty Dancing and Dance of the Vampires (musical). This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city.

In addition to musicals, opera houses, concert halls and theaters, the cityscape is characterized by a large music scene. This includes, among other things, over 110 music venues, several annual festivals and over 50 event organizers based in Hamburg. [72] Larger venues include the Barclaycard Arena, the Bahrenfeld harness racing track and Hamburg City Park.

Hamburg was an important center of rock music in the early 1960s. The Beatles lived and played in Hamburg from August 1960 to December 1962. They proved popular and gained local acclaim. Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the band during the time they performed there. One of the venues they performed at was the Star Club on St. Pauli.

Hamburg has produced a number of successful (pop) musicians. Among the best known are Udo Lindenberg, Deichkind and Jan Delay. The singer Annett Louisan lives in Hamburg.

An important meeting place for Hamburg musicians from the 1970s to the mid-80s was the jazz pub Onkel Pö, which was originally founded in the Pöseldorf neighborhood and later moved to Eppendorf. Many musicians who were counted as part of the "Hamburg scene" met here. In addition to Udo Lindenberg, these included Otto Waalkes, Hans Scheibner and groups such as Torfrock and Frumpy. One of the members of the band Frumpy was the Hamburg-born singer and composer Inga Rumpf.

Hamburg is famous for a special kind of German alternative music, the "Hamburger Schule", a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte or Kante. The meeting point of the Hamburg School was long considered to be the Golden Pudel Club in Altona's old town near the Fischmarkt. Alongside clubs such as the Pal, the Moondoo or the Waagenbau, today the Pudel is a central location of the Hamburg electro scene. Well-known artists of this scene include the DJ duo Moonbootica, Mladen Solomun and Helena Hauff. [73]

Hamburg is also home to many music labels, music distributors and publishers. These include Warner Music, Kontor Records, PIAS, Edel, Believe Digital and Indigo. The high proportion of independent labels in the city, which include Audiolith, Dial Records, Grand Hotel van Cleef, among others, is striking. Before its closure, the label L'Age D'Or also belonged to these.

In addition, Hamburg has a considerable alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze

The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Helloween, Gamma Ray, Running Wild and Grave Digger started in Hamburg. [74] The industrial rock band KMFDM was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal.

In the late 90s, Hamburg was considered one of the strongholds of the German hip-hop scene. Bands like Beginner shaped Hamburg's hip-hop style and made the city a serious location for the hip-hop scene through songs like "Hamburg City Blues." In addition to Beginner, several successful German hip-hop acts hail from Hamburg, such as Fünf Sterne Deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Fettes Brot and 187 Strassenbande. [75]

Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone. [76]

Festivals and regular events Edit

Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events. Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival [77] or the Alster fair (German: Alstervergnügen), [78] held at the Binnenalster. The Hamburger DOM is northern Germany's biggest funfair, held three times a year. [79] Hafengeburtstag is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship parade. [80] The annual biker's service in Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers. [81] Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus square, among other places. [82] The long night of museums (German: Lange Nacht der Museen) offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. [83] The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life. [84] The Filmfest Hamburg — a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days (German: Film Tage) — presents a wide range of films. [85] The Hamburg Messe and Congress offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show. [86] Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, [87] the tennis tournament Hamburg Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby.

Hamburg is also known for its music and festival culture. For example, the Reeperbahn alone has between 25 - 30 million visitors every year. In addition, there are over a million visitors to the annual festivals and major music events. [88] Hamburg's festivals include the Elbjazz Festival, which takes place 2 days a year (usually on the Whitsun weekend) in Hamburg's harbor and HafenCity.

For contemporary and experimental music, the "blurred edges" festival usually follows in May at various venues within Hamburg. In mid-August, the MS Dockville music and arts festival has run annually since 2007 in the Wilhelmsburg district. [89] This is followed at the end of September by the Reeperbahn Festival, which has been running since 2006. As Europe's largest club festival, it offers several hundred program points around the Reeperbahn in Hamburg over four days and is one of the most important meeting places for the music industry worldwide. [90] In November, the ÜBERJAZZ Festival, which aims to expand the stylistic boundaries of the concept of jazz, starts every year at Kampnagel. [91]

Cuisine Edit

Original Hamburg dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck (green beans cooked with pears and bacon), [92] Aalsuppe (Hamburgisch Oolsupp) is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool translated 'eel'), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [aˑlns] , meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. [93] There is Bratkartoffeln (pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce), [94] Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde) [95] and Labskaus (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas). [96]

Alsterwasser (in reference to the city's river, the Alster) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer. [97]

There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a "French roll". Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Schrippe (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück ("round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot "bread"), [98] a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish.

The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America. [99] The name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries.

There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity.

Main sights Edit

Reeperbahn, nightlife district of St. Pauli

Spielbudenplatz at Reeperbahn

View over frozen Alster towards Radisson Hotel and Hertz-Turm

Hamburg Hauptbahnhof, the busiest railway station in Germany

Hanseatisches Oberlandesgericht ("HansOLG"), upper court

Highrises in St. Pauli (Hafenkrone)

Traditional sailing ships at Sandtorkai in HafenCity

View over Hamburg and the Alster

Alternative culture Edit

Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements. The boroughs of St. Pauli, Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations. [100]

During the 2017 G20 summit, which took place in Hamburg from 7–8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora. On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests. [101]

After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression. In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood. [102]

British culture Edit

There are several English-speaking communities, such as the Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club e.V., [103] Professional Women's Forum, [104] The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg, The Hamburg Players e.V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg Exiles Rugby Club, several cricket clubs, and The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. 850 [105] within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany [106] under the United Grand Lodges of Germany [107] works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership. There is also a 400-year-old Anglican church community worshipping at St Thomas Becket Church. [108]

American and international English-speaking organisations include The American Club of Hamburg e.V., [109] the American Women's Club of Hamburg, [110] the English Speaking Union, the German-American Women's Club, [111] and The International Women's Club of Hamburg e.V. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs. [112] The International School of Hamburg serves school children.

William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge spent the last two weeks of September 1798 at Hamburg. Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal (1798) by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt." [113]

A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger den Schirm auf." . "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg open their umbrellas."

Memorials Edit

A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.

In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" (Stolpersteine) were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution. [114]

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of Hamburg was 119.0 billion € in 2018, accounting for 3.6% of German economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 59,600 € or 197% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 132% of the EU average. [115] The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 160,000 businesses. The average income in 2016 of employees was €49,332. [116]

The unemployment rate stood at 6.1% in October 2018 and was higher than the German average. [117]

Year [118] 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Unemployment rate in % 8.9 8.3 9.0 9.9 9.7 11.3 11.0 9.1 8.1 8.6 8.2 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.1 6.8 6.3 6.1

Banking Edit

Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. The city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank, the Berenberg Bank, M.M.Warburg & CO and Hamburg Commercial Bank. The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany.

Port Edit

The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks third to Rotterdam and Antwerpen in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo and 138.2 million tons of goods in 2016. [119] International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated 110 kilometres (70 mi) up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels. [120]

Industrial production Edit

Heavy industry of Hamburg includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and various large shipyards such as Blohm + Voss. [121]

Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse, is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. Airbus, which operates the Hamburg-Finkenwerder assembly plant in Finkenwerder, employs over 13,000 people. [122]

HafenCity Edit

The HafenCity is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort. The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers.

HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg.

Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the HafenCity project. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.

Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents, many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.

Tourism Edit

In 2017, more than 6,783,000 visitors with 13,822,000 overnight stays visited the city. [123] The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern +33%). [124]

A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. As Hamburg is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Major destinations also include museums.

The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Pauli is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures. [125]

In 2016, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. [126] The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark (395,681 overnight stays), the United Kingdom (301,000 overnight stays), Switzerland (340,156 overnight stays), Austria (about 252,397 overnight stays) and the Netherlands (about 182,610 overnight stays). [126] The largest group from outside Europe comes from the United States (206,614 overnight stays). [126]

The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards. [127]

Creative Industries Edit

Media businesses employ over 70,000 people. [128] The Norddeutscher Rundfunk which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, including the very popular news program Tagesschau, as are the commercial television station Hamburg 1, the Christian television station Bibel TV and the civil media outlet Tide TV. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland. Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records Germany, and ICT firms such as Adobe Systems and Google Germany.

A total of about 2,000 companies are located in Hamburg that are active in the music industry. With over 17,000 employees and a gross value added of around 640 million euros, this industry is one of the strongest in the city. [129] The Interessengemeinschaft Hamburger Musikwirtschaft and the Clubkombinat represent the companies in the industry. The interests of Hamburg musicians* are represented, for example, by RockCity Hamburg e.V..

Hamburg was one of the locations for the James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies. The Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat. [130] The film A Most Wanted Man was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg was also shown in An American Tail where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.

Health systems Edit

Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,736 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals. On 1 January 2011 there were about 12,507 hospital beds. [131] The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010. [132]

Transport Edit

Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia.

Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway. [133]

Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. [134] [135] There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus. Some airlines market Lübeck Airport in Lübeck as serving Hamburg. [136]

Hamburg's licence plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956 onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. "H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover since 1956) [137]

Public transport Edit

Public transport by rail, bus and ship is organised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund ("Hamburg transit authority") (HVV). Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. [138]

33 mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport. [139] The S-Bahn (commuter train system) comprises six lines and the U-Bahn four lines – U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Approximately 41 km (25 mi) of 101 km (63 mi) of the U-Bahn is underground most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn. The AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional metronom trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof, Dammtor, Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. The tram system was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978. [140]

Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 669 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. [139] Hamburg has no trams or trolleybuses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses. The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. [ citation needed ] On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. (MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.)

There are eight ferry lines along the River Elbe, operated by HADAG, that fall under the aegis of the HVV. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours. [141]

The international airport serving Hamburg, Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long-distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines, Dubai on Emirates, and Tehran on Iran Air. Hamburg is a secondary hub for Lufthansa, which is the largest carrier at the airport, and the airline also operates one of its biggest Lufthansa Technik maintenance facilities there. The second airport is located in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, officially named Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI). It is about 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus plant. It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and A380 aircraft. [142]

Public transportation statistics Edit

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. 16% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [143]

Utilities Edit

Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is largely provided by Vattenfall Europe, formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Vattenfall Europe used to operate the Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, both taken out of service as part of the nuclear power phase-out. In addition, E.ON operates the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant near Hamburg. There are also the coal-fired Wedel, Tiefstack and Moorburg CHP Plant, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße. [144]

In June 2019 City of Hamburg introduced a law governing the phasing out of coal based thermal and electric energy production ("Kohleausstiegsgesetz"). [145] This move was the result of negotiations between parliamentary parties and representatives of the popular petition Tschuess Kohle ("Goodbye Coal"). Hamburg Ministry for Environment and Energy in 2020 announced a partnership with Namibia, which is a potential supplier of woody biomass from encroacher bush as replacement of coal. [146]

Hamburger SV is a football team playing in the 2. Bundesliga (as of 2018). The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963 until a change of results saw them relegated from the Bundesliga in 2018. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: in 2000–01 and in 2006–07. They play at the Volksparkstadion (average attendance in the 12–13 season was 52,916). In addition, FC St. Pauli was a second division football club that came in second place in the 2009–10 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the first division for the first time since the 2001–02 season. St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion.

The Hamburg Freezers represented Hamburg until 2016 in the DEL, the premier ice hockey league in Germany.

HSV Handball represented Hamburg until 2016 in the German handball league. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. The Club won the league in the 2010–11 season and had an average attendance of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg the same year. The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013. Since 2014, the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the licence in the last minute. On 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016–17, they were not allowed to play in the first or second league. The team lives on through their former second team (now their main team) in the third division (2016-2018) and in second division (since 2018).

The BCJ Hamburg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 1999 to 2001. Since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Hamburg Towers have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg.

Hamburg is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster.

The Hamburg Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs. [147] The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. The Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC). [148]

Hamburg Blue Devils was one of the prominent American Football teams playing in German Football League before its exit in 2017. [149] Hamburg Sea Devils is a team of European League of Football (ELF) which is a planned professional league, that is set to become the first fully professional league in Europe since the demise of NFL Europe. [150] The Sea Devils will start playing games in June 2021. [151]

There are also the Hamburg Dockers, an Australian rules football club. [152] The FC St. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg (Volleyball) and Hamburger Polo Club. [153] There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs.

The Centre Court of the Tennis Am Rothenbaum venue, with a capacity of 13,200 people, is the largest in Germany. [154]

Hamburg also hosts equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn (Deutsches Derby flat racing). [155] Besides Hamburg owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld". The Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered. [156] World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon ITU World Cup event Hamburg City Man are also held in here. [157]

Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the 2006 World Cup. In 2010 UEFA held the final of the UEFA Europa League in the arena. [158]

Hamburg made a bid for the 2024 Olympic Games, but 51.7 percent of those city residents participating in a referendum in November 2015 voted against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the games. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds. [159]

The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung). The system had approximately 191,148 students in 221 primary schools and 188 secondary schools in 2016. [160] There are 32 public libraries in Hamburg. [161]

Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 100,589 university students in total, including 9,000 resident students. [162] Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg and the Hamburg University of Technology. Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School, the Kühne Logistics University and the HSBA Hamburg School of Business Administration. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg). [163] Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg.

  • Saint Petersburg, Russia (1957)
  • Marseille, France (1958)
  • Shanghai, China (1986)
  • Dresden, Germany (1987)
  • León, Nicaragua (1989)
  • Osaka, Japan (1989)
  • Prague, Czech Republic (1990)
  • Chicago, United States (1994)
  • Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (2010)

In Hamburg it's hard to find a native Hamburger. A hurried and superficial search turns up only crayfish, people from Pinneberg, and those from Bergedorf. One accompanies the contented little kippers of a striving society mackerels from Stade, sole from Finkenwerder, herrings from Cuxhaven swim in expectant throngs through the streets of my city and lobsters patrol the stock exchange with open claws. The first so-called unguarded glance always lands on the bottom of the sea and falls into twilight of the aquarium. Heinrich Heine must have had the same experience when he tried, with his cultivated scorn and gifted melancholy, to find the people of Hamburg.


The bombing of Hamburg in 1943

Hamburg was bombed in July 1943. According to JosephGoebbels, Nazi Minister for Propaganda, the bombing of Hamburg was the first time that he thought Nazi Germany might have to call for peace.

The bombing of German cities, spearheaded by ‘BomberHarris’ and the men from Bomber Command, remains a controversial topic and the bombing of Dresden in 1945 is frequently recounted. However, the bombing of Hamburg brought utter destruction to the city and regardless of what happened to the city itself, it did a great deal to hearten people in Britain who had seen London and many other cities attacked and bombed with the resulting casualties.

In 1943, many in Hitler’s Germany still believed that they were going to be victorious in the war – primarily because of the propaganda they were fed and the punishment handed out to those labelled ‘defeatist’.

The ‘1000 Bomber’ raid on Cologne had shown that mass bombing was inaccurate and not totally fruitful in terms of strategic gains. However, Harris, supported at this time by Winston Churchill, still believed that a devastating attack on a symbolic target would push the Nazis into seeking a peace deal. Cologne, Dortmund and Dusseldorf had all been bombed. The most obvious other target of any symbolic importance to the Germans was Hamburg.

The attack on Hamburg was called ‘Operation Gomorrah’. It was a joint British-American venture. Many of the attacks on Germany up to ‘Gomorrah’ had been separate British (at night) and American (at day) attacks. The combination of both bomber forces gave Harris a substantial number of bombers and therefore a substantial number of bombs that could be dropped.

Hamburg was well defended. The Nazis were aware of its historic significance as the major port in the old Hanseatic League. The city was ringed with anti-aircraft defences and there were 1,700 shelters for 230,000 citizens. Radar around the city could pick up enemy bombers when they were 100 miles away.

‘Operation Gomorrah’ was scheduled to last for three nights, starting on July 24 th . For the mission, bomber crews were issued with tin foil strips (‘chaff’) coated onto paper which were to be dropped from each bomber. These served to confuse radar crews whose screens were effectively obscured by one mass echo blob and individual bombers could not be identified.

The first attack came in the early hours of Sunday 24 th . In one hour, between 01.00 and 02.00, 2,300 tons of bombs were dropped which included 350,000 incendiary bombs. 15,000 people were killed and many more wounded. In previous bombing raids, the RAF had sent in pathfinder planes to illuminate the target by dropping incendiary bombs. The main bulk of the attack followed on to what was now a burning target. For the attack on Hamburg, the RAF combined the use of high explosive bombs and incendiary bombs, which were dropped together. The result made all but useless any form of fire fighting.

The Americans attacked on Monday 26 th July and sustained heavy losses as a result of Luftwaffe attacks. An American attack on the Tuesday was called off due to poor weather.

The raid was resumed on the Wednesday. The 722 bombers were loaded with an extra 240 tons of incendiary bombs and dropped a total of 2,313 tons of bombs in just 50 minutes. The impact of this attack led to a firestorm with temperatures estimated to have reached 1000 o C. Bomber crews reported smoke reaching 20,000 feet. Winds on the ground reached 120 mph. While not exclusively a wooden city, Hamburg did have many old wooden houses and after a dry summer they easily burned.

“We came out into a thundering, blazing hell. The streets were burning, the trees were burning and the tops of them were bent right down to the street. Burning horses out of the Hertz hauling business ran past us, the air was burning, simply everything was burning.” Henni Klank.

The tarmac on roads melted and anyone who had the chance of escape found they were stuck in the sticky mess that remained.

“Again and again, we saw burning people suddenly start to run and soon after, to fall. There was no way to save them. My wife’s head began to burn. Her hair had caught fire. With the small amount of water I had in a bucket with me I was able to put out her burning hair. At the same time I cooled my hands and face. We wife complained, “I can’t go on. My feet are burned. My hands.” We passed fused masses of people made up of four or five corpses, each probably a family, visible only as a pile of burned substance no larger than a small child. Around us were hundreds of people. All this happened in silence. The terrible heat had dried throats so much that no one could scream.”

30,000 died in this raid. On the Thursday the smoke blotted out the sunlight associated with July. Goebbels called the raids “the greatest crisis of the war.” Hamburg was cordoned off for the remainder of the war such was the unnerving impact the raids had on the Nazi hierarchy.

Did the raids have any value? There can be little doubt that the reported impact of the raids did a great deal to lift morale in Britain. They also clearly had an impact on the Nazi government – Hitler refused to visit the city, possibly not wanting to see what his war had resulted in. Hamburg was the major port of the north and the work done by the port was disrupted.

The bombing of German cities had its supporters – Harris in particular believed that an all-out campaign would have ended the war earlier. Others were less enthusiastic. Bomber Command was the only British military arm in World War Two not to receive a campaign medal – dispute the very high casualties suffered. Harris felt that the Establishment had turned its back on him and he left Britain and retired to South Africa.


B O R O U G H B U L L E T I N

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Code of Ordinances

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Hamburg Watershed Reservoir Road

Public Access & Parking Hours
Every Day From Dawn to Dusk
(1/2 Hour Before Dawn - 1/2 Hour After Dusk)
No Overnight Parking or Camping Is Permitted

Monthly Meeting Schedule

Borough Council

4th Monday of each month at 7:00 pm in the Council Chamber of the Municipal Center

Municipal Authority

3rd Wednesday of each month at 7:00 pm in the Council Chamber of the Municipal Center

Planning Commission

3rd Tuesday of each month at 7:00 pm in the Council Chamber of the Municipal Center

Library Board

2nd Tuesday of each month at 6:00 pm at the Hamburg Public Library, 35 North 3rd Street

Zoning Hearing Board & Civil Service Commission

Meetings are scheduled and advertised on an as‑needed basis.

Borough Council Committees

All Committee meetings are held in the Caucus Room of the Municipal Center:

Road Committee - 2nd Tuesday of each month at 3:00 PM

Property Committee - 2nd Tuesday of each month at 3:30 PM

Personnel Committee - 2nd Tuesday of each month at 4:00 PM

Finance Committee - 4th Monday of each month at 6:00 PM

Safety & Public Relations Committee - 4th Monday of each month at 6:30 PM


Who built the cabin?

The cabin was built by Nicholas Barker, a Quaker man who immigrated to the U.S. from England and settled in Westfield in the 1830s, according to Peyton.

Barker and his wife raised 11 children in the cabin. When the home became too small, they built a new one nearby, Peyton said.

Diana Peyton and Jim Peyton of the Westfield Washington Historical Society pose inside the 1830s cabin in Westfield in January 2020. The Westfield Washington Historical Society disassembled the cabin and plans to reconstruct it on property near city hall in 2022. (Photo: Photo submitted by Diana Peyton)

Upon vacating the cabin, the Barkers built a barn around the structure, Peyton said. The Barkers later used the cabin to store grain, tools and animals, she said.

The barn helped keep the cabin in good condition over hundreds of years, she said.

“That’s what saved it for us,” she said. While the cabin will now stand outdoors, front and back porches and an overhang will be constructed around the cabin for protection, Peyton said.

The log cabin will be an important part of the community for future generations in Westfield, said Jim Peyton, Diana Peyton’s husband, who is in charge of programs for the Historical Society.

“This cabin will be sitting there and you can come in and say, ‘Well you see all the nice homes and new buildings? This is how we began.’” he said.

The Society hopes to set the foundation for the cabin in late summer or early fall this year, Diana Peyton said. The organization hopes building can commence in Spring 2022 to target an opening in Fall 2022.

“How wonderful of our town to have the foresight to be involved and to care enough to take care of such an iconic piece of our history,” she said.


6. St. Michael's Church

St. Michael's Church

The most famous of Hamburg's many churches, St. Michael's (Hauptkirche Sankt Michaelis) was built in the Baroque style between 1750 and 1762 and is one of the city's most important landmarks. One of the top things to do when visiting this catholic church is to ascend its 132-meter-high tower, known locally as "Michel." Accessible by stairs and an elevator, the tower's viewing platforms offer excellent panoramic views over the city and port, a particular treat during their regular extended evening openings.

Also, be sure to look out for the stunning bronze statue of Archangel Michael killing the devil, a fascinating piece of artwork that can be seen over the entrance. Also of note is the church's crypt, the final resting place of some 2,425 people, and one of the city's most interesting concert venues.

In a courtyard to the east of the church are the Krameramtswohnungen, dwellings originally built to house the widows of members of the local Shopkeepers' Guild, as well as a museum.

Another nearby church of note is St. James's (Hauptkirche St. Jacobi), a splendid 14th-century building housing medieval altars and an Arp Schnitger organ.

Address: Englische Planke 1, 20459 Hamburg


Welcome to the Town of Hamburg, Marathon County Wisconsin

Hamburg is located Marathon County, Wisconsin and is part of the Wausau, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area. The safe, rural community of Hamburg currently has 918 residents.

The Town of Hamburg was established February 10, 1876 when it was set apart from the Town of Berlin. Following that time, settlers slowly populated the area. A large percentage of these settlers were German emigrants that came from the German province of Pomerania. White pine forests dominated the landscape as small farms, most less than 60 acres, began to appear throughout Hamburg.

In 1904, the four now famous Fromm brothers began growing ginseng and used their profits to expand into fox farming. By 1929, they were the world's largest producer of both and their farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. Maple Grove School was also established in 1904 and remains one of the symbols of Hamburg.

From the generosity of the Fromm/Nieman family emerged the Walter and Mabel Fromm Scholarship which still awards students that attend Maple Grove School and graduate from Merrill High School, a scholarship to any public college in Wisconsin.

Help us keep the history of Hamburg alive! If you have historical photos you'd like to share, please email us at with the subject line "TOH Historical Photo". Thank you!

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Check-in: from 3 pm

Check-out: at 10 am

Late Check-out: at 2 pm

Weekend-Check-out: at 11 am

What did you particularly like during your stay with us?

From the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof) / Central Bus Station (ZOB):

On foot: In the Central Station, find the staircase over the south pier onto the Steintorplatz. There, the Adenauerallee leads past the Central Bus Station. Follow the avenue about 10 minutes to the northeast. The road ends with a right turn in Kurt-Schumacher-Allee. 50 meters further northeast, the Hammerbrookstraße runs to the right. Follow this for about 5 minutes. After the station bridge you reach the Spaldingstraße, where you turn left. Then you will see our a&o Hamburg City on the right side of the street.

By S-Bahn: Take the S1 direction Hamburg-Poppenbüttel or the S3 direction Hamburg-Harburg Rathaus one stop to Berliner Tor. Take the exit to the Bürgerweide and follow it for about 50 meters to Anckelmannsplatz. There the Spaldingstraße connects. Follow it southwest for 100 meters until you see the a&o Hamburg City on the left hand side of the street.

From Hamburg Airport:

Take the S1 towards Hamburg-Blankenes to Berliner Tor. Take the exit to the Bürgerweide and follow it for about 50 meters to Anckelmannsplatz. There the Spaldingstraße connects. Follow it southwest for 100 meters until you see the a&o Hamburg City on the left hand side of the street.

Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (HVV) with up-to-date information on the public transport network: HVV

By car:

If you travel by car simply click on this Link and enter your starting address. Google Maps’ route planner will direct you to our a&o.


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