Chares, fl.367-333 BC

Chares, fl.367-333 BC

Chares, fl.367-333 BC

Chares was a competent but reckless Athenian general during the thirty years before the rise of Alexander the Great, and who gained a reputation for being unusually greedy and corrupt. The length of his military career was probably due to a combination of his alliance with Demosthenes and a lack of more successful rivals at Athens.

Chares first appears in 367 BC, during the Wars of the Theban Hegemony. He was sent to help the people of Phlius (an inland city in the Argolid in the north-east of the Peloponnese, who were under pressure from the Arcadians to the west, the Argives to the east and the Theban garrison of Sicyon to their north. Chares escorted a supply convoy from Corinth to Phlius, and then helped escort the non-combatants as they were evacuated to Pellene. Chares won two battles against the Argives and lifted the pressure on Phlius.

After successfully defending Phlius, Chares was sent to Oropus, in the north-west of Attica, which had recently been captured by a group of anti-Athenian exiles who now supported the Thebans. Chares was summoned to command the Athenian army that was sent to retake Oropus, but no Athenian allies joined the army, and the expedition was abandoned.

In 361, after the end of the Theban wars, Chares succeeded Leosthenes, who had been defeated by Alexander of Pherae during an Athenian attempt to help Peparethos, on the island of Skopelos, to the north of Euboea. Chares ignored the fighting in the Aegean, and instead sailed around to Corcyra on Corfu, where he became involved in an oligarchic conspiracy that resulted in the fall of the local democracy. This soon backfired on Athens - the oligarchs remained hostile to Athens, and the democrats became hostile. Chares's actions effectively saw Corcyra leave the Second Athenian League and also worried her other allies. When Athens's allies rebelled against her, triggering the Social War, Corcyra joined the revolt.

In 358 Chares was sent to Thrace. He forced Charidemus, then the power behind the throne of Cersobleptes, king of Thrace, to ratify the treaty he had agreed with Athenodorus, in which the Chersoneses was given to Athens. This was a key area for Athens, as possession of harbours on the Chersoneses helped to secure their grain routes to the Black Sea. Despite the important of the area, the Athenians don't appear to have taken possession of the area until 353 BC.

In 357 Chios, Rhodes and Byzantium rebelled against Athens, triggering the Social War. Chares was given joint command of the Athenian war effort, alongside Chabrias. Their first effort was a joint land and sea attack on the rebels who had concentrated at Chios. Chares commanded the land attack, Chabrias the naval attack. The battle of Chios (357 or 356 BC) ended as an Athenian defeat in which Chabrias was killed, leaving Chares as the sole commander. He only had 60 ships and was unable to intervene as the allies attacked Lemnos and Imbros, and then besieged Samos.

In 356 the Athenians raised a new fleet. The command was either given to Iphicrates and Timotheus, or to Iphicrate's son Menestheus, with Iphicrates and Timotheus along as advisors. Chares either shared the command of the joint fleet, or brought his original fleet to the same area to make sure he would share the credit for any victory. The Athenians headed towards Byzantium, in an attempt to raise the siege of Samos. The allies were forced to rush north to defend their most important city. As the two fleets approached each other, probably at Embata, in the straits beween Chios and the mainland of Asia Minor, a storm blew up. Iphicrates and Timotheus decided to ride out the storm, but Chares refused to join them, and rushed ahead. He was defeated in the resulting battle of Embata, After the battle he complained to the people of Athens. Iphicrates and Timotheus were put on trial. Timotheus was found guilty, fined and probably went into exile. Iphicrates may or may not have been found guilty, but he wasn't given another command.

This just left Chares, who was now short of supplies and money. In order to try and raise some funds, he agreed to fight for Artabazus, satrap of Hellespontine Phrgia, who was then involved in a revolt against Artaxerxes III (Satrap's Revolt). Chares won at least one victory for Artabazus, and was richly rewarded for his success, but this merely provoked Artaxerxes. He sent an ultimatum to Athens, demanding that Chares should be recalled. This was backed up by the news that the Persians were building a large fleet. Athens was exhausted, and had to agree to the terms of a new 'King's Peace'. She lost most of the Second League, apart from a few key islands in the Cyclades and possession of the Chersonese, key to her grain supplies.

In 353 Chares was sent to the Chersonese to enforce Athenian authority at Sestus. He captured the town, killed the men and sold the women and children into slavery. While he was on his way to or from Sestus he passed close to Thessaly, just as the Phocians were campaigning against Philip II of Macedon (Third Sacred War). Athens was often allied with Phocis during this was, so his presence might not have been by chance. Whatever the original plan was, it was upset by Philip's victory at the battle of the Crocus Field. Many of the Phocians attempted to escape to the safety of the Athenian fleet, and were drowned. Amongst them many have been their commander Onomarchus, whose exact fate is reported differently in different sources.

In 349 BC Philip II of Macedon attacked the Chalcidic League, after Olynthus, the key power in the League, attempted to negotiation an alliance with Athens. Chares was given command of the first Athenian force that was sent to help Olynthus, but achieved very little before he was replaced by Charidemus, recalled to Athena and charged with misconduct. In 348 Chares was put back in command, at the head of a force of 2,000 hoplites, 300 cavalry and 17 triremes, largely made up of Athenian citizens. He has some success during this campaign, but caused some controversy when he gave a feast using some of the money taken from Delphi during the Third Sacred War. Athens had been an ally of the Phocians (who had seized the sanctuary at Delphi) for much of this war, and some of the treasure taken from the Oracle had ended up in Athens. Once again Chares was prosecuted on his return to Athens.

In 346 Chares was sent to Thrace to help King Cersobleptes, who was then at war with Philip II. When the fighting began, Chares was nowhere to be found, probably having taken his fleet off on a private raid. Cersobleptes complained, and the Athenians had to send a squadron to try and find Chares. Later in the year Chares reported that Cersobleptes's position was helpless, and this may have helped convince the Athenians to make peace with Philip (Peace of Philocrates).

For the next few years Chares may have lived at Sigeum, at the mouth of the Scamader River in the north-western corner of Asia Minor.

The peace with Philip didn't last for long. In 340 BC the Athenians agreed to support Byzantium, but they made the mistake of placing Chares in command of their forces. The Byzantines didn’t trust him, and wouldn't let him into the city. At one point he was fooled by Philip, who sent four light but well manned ships ahead of his fleet. Chares, who was waiting to ambush the main Macedonian fleet, fell for the trick and attempted to catch these four ships, but he was unable to catch them. While he was distracted Philip's main fleet sailed past to safety. Chares spent most of his brief period in the area raiding Athenian allies, before being replaced by Phocion, who was able to work so well with the Byzantines that Philip eventually had to abandon the siege.

This was a short-lived success for the Athenians. Philip was drawn south by the outbreak of the Fourth Sacred War. His presence in southern Greece forced the Athenians and Thebans to ally together, but even their combined strength wasn't enough. After a rapid advance that saw him bypass Therompylae, Philip paused in Phocis. The Athenians and their allies were able to block the mountain passes into Boeotia and Amphissa. Chares and the Theban general Proxenus were given the task of defending the passes to Amphissa. Polyaenus reports that Philip fooled them into dropping their guard by allowing them to capture a fake message to his general Antipater, informing him that due to a revolt in Thrace the expedition into southern Greece would have to be abandoned. Philip was able to cross the key passes, putting him on the Boeotian side of the mountains, and forcing the allies to retreat to Chaeronea.

Chares was one of the Athenian commanders at the battle of Chaeronea, where Philip finally defeated the southern Greek cities. Chares's role in the battle is obscure, and he doesn't appear to have been punished by either side in the aftermath.

Alexander the Great wasn't quite as forgiving. In 335 Chares was one of a list of men who he wanted Athens to hand over, although he was later persuaded to forgive all but Charidemus. In 334 Chares was living in Sigeum once again, and he paid his respect to Alexander the Great during his trip to Troy early in his invasion of the Persian Empire.

Despite this Chares's last recorded military effort was actually against Alexander. In 333 BC Pharnabazus and Autophradates, two of Darius III's commanders, captured Mytilene. Chares was put in command of the place, but he was forced to surrender it to the Macedonians in 332 BC. After that he disappeared, possibly back into retirement at Sigeum.


The Rape of the Sabine Women

The Rape of the Sabine Women (Latin: Sabinae raptae), also known as the Abduction of the Sabine Women or the Kidnapping of the Sabine Women, was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region. It has been a frequent subject of artists and sculptors, particularly during the Renaissance and post-Renaissance eras.

The word "rape" (cognate with "rapto" in Portuguese and other Romance languages, meaning "kidnap") is the conventional translation of the Latin word raptio used in the ancient accounts of the incident. Modern scholars tend to interpret the word as "abduction" or "kidnapping" as opposed to a sexual assault. [2]


Ancient origins of the city

The earliest traces of human settlement in the city area, found on a hill to the southeast, are from the late Chalcolithic Period (Copper Age) and Early Bronze Age (c. 3000 bce ). Excavations have revealed that a settlement existed on a site south of the Temple Mount, and a massive town wall was found just above the Gihon Spring, which determined the location of the ancient settlement. The name, known in its earliest form as Urusalim, is probably of western Semitic origin and apparently means “Foundation of Shalem (God).” The city and its earliest rulers, the Egyptians, are mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts (c. 1900–1800 bce ) and again in the 14th-century Tell el-Amarna correspondence, which contains a message from the city’s ruler, Abdi-Kheba (Abdu-Ḥeba), requiring his sovereign’s help against the invading Hapiru (Habiru, ʿApiru). A biblical narrative mentions the meeting of the Canaanite Melchizedek, said to be king of Salem (Jerusalem), with the Hebrew patriarch Abraham. A later episode in the biblical text mentions another king, Adonizedek, who headed an Amorite coalition and was vanquished by Joshua.

According to biblical accounts, Jerusalem, on the frontier of Benjamin and Judah and inhabited by a mixed population described as Jebusites, was captured by David, founder of the joint kingdom of Israel and Judah, and the city became the Jewish kingdom’s capital. This has been dated to about 1000 bce . David’s successor, King Solomon, extended the city and built his Temple on the threshing floor of Araunah (Ornan) the Jebusite. Thus Jerusalem became the place of the royal palace and the sacred site of a monotheistic religion.

On Solomon’s death the northern tribes seceded. About 930 bce the Egyptian pharaoh Sheshonk I sacked the city, to be followed by the Philistines and Arabians in 850 and Joash of Israel in 786. After Hezekiah became king of Judah, he built new fortifications and an underground tunnel, which brought water from Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam inside the city, but he succumbed to the might of Sennacherib of Assyria, who in 701 forced payment of a heavy tribute. In 612 Assyria yielded its primacy to Babylon. Eight years later Jerusalem was despoiled, and its king was deported to Babylon. In 587/586 bce the city and Temple were completely destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar II (Nebuchadnezzar), and the Hebrew captivity began. It ended in 538 bce when Cyrus II (the Great) of Persia, who had overcome Babylon, permitted the Jews, led by Zerubbabel, of the Davidic house, to return to Jerusalem. The Temple was restored (515 bce ) despite Samaritan opposition, and the city became the centre of the new statehood. Its position was strengthened when Nehemiah (c. 444) restored its fortifications.


Symptoms Symptoms

Hallucinations associated with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) can be simple, non-formed images such as lines, light flashes, patterns, or geometric shapes. They also can be complex, such as images of people, animals, or scenes. They are usually not disturbing and do not involve other senses. People with CBS are generally aware that the hallucinations are not real and do not have an underlying psychological disease or dementia . [1] [2]

The timing and frequency of hallucinations can vary widely. The hallucinations tend to occur upon awakening. They usually last several minutes, but can be seconds or hours. Typically, there is a distinctive pattern to the timing and frequency of the hallucinations. The degree and complexity of the hallucinations also vary among individuals, but no association has been found between the complexity of the hallucinations and the severity of visual loss. [1] [4] [3]

Associated symptoms depend upon the underlying disorder producing the visual loss. For example, strokes involving the visual pathways produce vision loss and sometimes other neurologic deficits, while macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy produce loss of vision loss without neurologic deficits. [1]


Chares, fl.367-333 BC - History

O n a day in 399 BC the philosopher Socrates stood before a jury of 500 of his fellow Athenians accused of "refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state" and of "corrupting the youth." If found guilty his penalty could be death. The trial took place in the heart of the city, the jurors seated on wooden benches surrounded by a crowd of spectators. Socrates' accusers (three Athenian citizens) were allotted three hours to present their case, after which, the philosopher would have three hours to defend himself.

Socrates
Socrates was 70 years old and familiar to most Athenians. His anti-democratic views had turned many in the city against him. Two of his students, Alcibiades and Critias, had twice briefly overthrown the democratic government of the city, instituting a reign of terror in which thousands of citizens were deprived of their property and either banished from the city or executed.

After hearing the arguments of both Socrates and his accusers, the jury was asked to vote on his guilt. Under Athenian law the jurors did not deliberate the point. Instead, each juror registered his judgment by placing a small disk into an urn marked either "guilty" or "not guilty." Socrates was found guilty by a vote of 280 to 220.

The jurors were next asked to determine Socrates' penalty. His accusers argued for the death penalty. Socrates was given the opportunity to suggest his own punishment and could probably have avoided death by recommending exile. Instead, the philosopher initially offered the sarcastic recommendation that he be rewarded for his actions. When pressed for a realistic punishment, he proposed that he be fined a modest sum of money. Faced with the two choices, the jury selected death for Socrates.

The philosopher was taken to the near-by jail where his sentence would be carried out. Athenian law prescribed death by drinking a cup of poison hemlock. Socrates would be his own executioner.

Plato was Socrates' most famous student. Although he was not present at his mentor's death, he did know those who were there. Plato describes the scene through the narrative voice of the fictional character Phaedo.

'Just drink it and walk around until your legs begin to feel heavy, then lie down. It will soon act.' With that he offered Socrates the cup.

The latter took it quite cheerfully without a tremor, with no change of color or expression. He just gave the man his stolid look, and asked, 'How say you, is it permissible to pledge this drink to anyone? May I?'

The answer came, 'We allow reasonable time in which to drink it.'

'I understand', he said, 'we can and must pray to the gods that our sojourn on earth will continue happy beyond the grave. This is my prayer, and may it come to pass.' With these words, he stoically drank the potion, quite readily and cheerfully. Up till this moment most of us were able with some decency to hold back our tears, but when we saw him drinking the poison to the last drop, we could restrain ourselves no longer. In spite of myself, the tears came in floods, so that I covered my face and wept - not for him, but at my own misfortune at losing such a man as my friend. Crito, even before me, rose and went out when he could check his tears no longer.

Apollodorus was already steadily weeping, and by drying his eyes, crying again and sobbing, he affected everyone present except for Socrates himself.

He said, 'You are strange fellows what is wrong with you? I sent the women away for this very purpose, to stop their creating such a scene. I have heard that one should die in silence. So please be quiet and keep control of yourselves.' These words made us ashamed, and we stopped crying.

As the chill sensation got to his waist, Socrates uncovered his head (he had put something over it) and said his last words: 'Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius. Do pay it. Don't forget.'

'Of course', said Crito. 'Do you want to say anything else?'

'There was no reply to this question, but after a while he gave a slight stir, and the attendant uncovered him and examined his eyes. Then Crito saw that he was dead, he closed his mouth and eyelids.

This was the end of our friend, the best, wisest and most upright man of any that I have ever known"


Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis are all in line for the throne

If Queen Elizabeth doesn't give up the throne to Prince Charles and instead chooses her grandson, Prince William, that will bump everyone else up in the line of succession, including William's three children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

When William, the second in line to the throne, welcomed Prince George into the world in 2013 with his wife, Kate Middleton, Prince Harry was pushed back in the royal order and little George became the third person in line. Thanks to a modern change in the rules that saw female offspring included in the direct line of succession, Princess Charlotte took the fourth spot after her older brother when she was born, and Prince Louis is now #5.

Frankly, William and Kate are already prepping Prince George to be king, which is something that all royals in line for the throne have to be prepared for, including these relations of the current queen who could all one day take over the throne.


The Burning of the Library of Alexandria

The loss of the ancient world's single greatest archive of knowledge, the Library of Alexandria, has been lamented for ages. But how and why it was lost is still a mystery. The mystery exists not for lack of suspects but from an excess of them.

Alexandria was founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great. His successor as Pharaoh, Ptolemy I Soter, founded the Museum (also called Museum of Alexandria, Greek Mouseion, “Seat of the Muses”) or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC. The Museum was a shrine of the Muses modeled after the Lyceum of Aristotle in Athens. The Museum was a place of study which included lecture areas, gardens, a zoo, and shrines for each of the nine muses as well as the Library itself. It has been estimated that at one time the Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt, India and many other nations. Over 100 scholars lived at the Museum full time to perform research, write, lecture or translate and copy documents. The library was so large it actually had another branch or "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis.

The first person blamed for the destruction of the Library is none other than Julius Caesar himself. In 48 BC, Caesar was pursuing Pompey into Egypt when he was suddenly cut off by an Egyptian fleet at Alexandria. Greatly outnumbered and in enemy territory, Caesar ordered the ships in the harbor to be set on fire. The fire spread and destroyed the Egyptian fleet. Unfortunately, it also burned down part of the city - the area where the great Library stood. Caesar wrote of starting the fire in the harbor but neglected to mention the burning of the Library. Such an omission proves little since he was not in the habit of including unflattering facts while writing his own history. But Caesar was not without public detractors. If he was solely to blame for the disappearance of the Library it is very likely significant documentation on the affair would exist today.

The second story of the Library's destruction is more popular, thanks primarily to Edward Gibbon's "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire". But the story is also a tad more complex. Theophilus was Patriarch of Alexandria from 385 to 412 AD. During his reign the Temple of Serapis was converted into a Christian Church (probably around 391 AD) and it is likely that many documents were destroyed then. The Temple of Serapis was estimated to hold about ten percent of the overall Library of Alexandria's holdings. After his death, his nephew Cyril became Patriarch. Shortly after that, riots broke out when Hierax, a Christian monk, was publicly killed by order of Orestes the city Prefect. Orestes was said to be under the influence of Hypatia, a female philosopher and daughter of the "last member of the Library of Alexandria". Although it should be noted that some count Hypatia herself as the last Head Librarian.

Alexandria had long been known for its violent and volatile politics. Christians, Jews and Pagans all lived together in the city. One ancient writer claimed that there was no people who loved a fight more than those of Alexandria. Immediately after the death of Hierax a group of Jews who had helped instigate his killing lured more Christians into the street at night by proclaiming that the Church was on fire. When the Christians rushed out the largely Jewish mob slew many of them. After this there was mass havoc as Christians retaliated against both the Jews and the Pagans - one of which was Hypatia. The story varies slightly depending upon who tells it but she was taken by the Christians, dragged through the streets and murdered.

Some regard the death of Hypatia as the final destruction of the Library. Others blame Theophilus for destroying the last of the scrolls when he razed the Temple of Serapis prior to making it a Christian church. Still others have confused both incidents and blamed Theophilus for simultaneously murdering Hypatia and destroying the Library though it is obvious Theophilus died sometime prior to Hypatia.

The final individual to get blamed for the destruction is the Moslem Caliph Omar. In 640 AD the Moslems took the city of Alexandria. Upon learning of "a great library containing all the knowledge of the world" the conquering general supposedly asked Caliph Omar for instructions. The Caliph has been quoted as saying of the Library's holdings, "they will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, so they are superfluous." So, allegedly, all the texts were destroyed by using them as tinder for the bathhouses of the city. Even then it was said to have taken six months to burn all the documents. But these details, from the Caliph's quote to the incredulous six months it supposedly took to burn all the books, weren't written down until 300 years after the fact. These facts condemning Omar were written by Bishop Gregory Bar Hebræus, a Christian who spent a great deal of time writing about Moslem atrocities without much historical documentation.

So who did burn the Library of Alexandria? Unfortunately most of the writers from Plutarch (who apparently blamed Caesar) to Edward Gibbons (a staunch atheist or deist who liked very much to blame Christians and blamed Theophilus) to Bishop Gregory (who was particularly anti-Moslem, blamed Omar) all had an axe to grind and consequently must be seen as biased. Probably everyone mentioned above had some hand in destroying some part of the Library's holdings. The collection may have ebbed and flowed as some documents were destroyed and others were added. For instance, Mark Antony was supposed to have given Cleopatra over 200,000 scrolls for the Library long after Julius Caesar is accused of burning it.

It is also quite likely that even if the Museum was destroyed with the main library the outlying "daughter" library at the Temple of Serapis continued on. Many writers seem to equate the Library of Alexandria with the Library of Serapis although technically they were in two different parts of the city.

The real tragedy of course is not the uncertainty of knowing who to blame for the Library's destruction but that so much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost forever.

Selected sources:
"The Vanished Library" by Luciano Canfora
"Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" by Edward Gibbons


Chares, fl.367-333 BC - History

Greek Legend - Pegasus
Bellerophon the Valiant, son of the King of Corinth, captured Pegasus, a winged horse. Pegasus took him to a battle with the triple headed monster, Chimera.

Icarus and Daedalus - An Ancient Greek Legend
Daedalus was an engineer who was imprisoned by King Minos. With his son, Icarus, he made wings of wax and feathers. Daedalus flew successfully from Crete to Naples, but Icarus, tired to fly too high and flew too near to the sun. The wings of wax melted and Icarus fell to his death in the ocean.

King Kaj Kaoos of Persia
King Kaj Kaoos attached eagles to his throne and flew around his kingdom.

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great harnessed four mythical wings animals, called Griffins, to a basket and flew around his realm.

Early Efforts of Flight

Around 400 BC - China
The discovery of the kite that could fly in the air by the Chinese started humans thinking about flying. Kites were used by the Chinese in religious ceremonies. They built many colorful kites for fun, also. More sophisticated kites were used to test weather conditions. Kites have been important to the invention of flight as they were the forerunner to balloons and gliders.

Humans try to fly like birds

For many centuries, humans have tried to fly just like the birds. Wings made of feathers or light weight wood have been attached to arms to test their ability to fly. The results were often disastrous as the muscles of the human arms are not like a birds and can not move with the strength of a bird.

The ancient Greek engineer, Hero of Alexandria, worked with air pressure and steam to create sources of power. One experiment that he developed was the aeolipile which used jets of steam to create rotary motion.

Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turned the water into steam, and the gas traveled through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the gas to escape, which gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate.

1485 Leonardo da Vinci - The Ornithopter

Leonardo da Vinci's Ornithopter

Leonardo da Vinci made the first real studies of flight in the 1480's. He had over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on flight.

The Ornithopter flying machine was never actually created. It was a design that Leonardo da Vinci created to show how man could fly. The modern day helicopter is based on this concept.

1783 - Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier- the First Hot Air Balloon

One of The Montgolfier's Balloons

The brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, were inventors of the first hot air balloon. They used the smoke from a fire to blow hot air into a silk bag. The silk bag was attached to a basket. The hot air then rose and allowed the balloon to be lighter-than-air.

In 1783, the first passengers in the colorful balloon were a sheep, rooster and duck. It climbed to a height of about 6,000 feet and traveled more than 1 mile.

After this first success, the brothers began to send men up in balloons. The first manned flight was on November 21, 1783, the passengers were Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent.

1799 - 1850's - George Cayley

One Version of a Glider

George Cayley worked to discover a way that man could fly. He designed many different versions of gliders that used the movements of the body to control. A young boy, whose name is not known, was the first to fly one of his gliders.

Over 50 years he made improvements to the gliders. He changed the shape of the wings so that the air would flow over the wings correctly. He designed a tail for the gliders to help with the stability. He tried a biplane design to add strength to the glider. He also recognized that there would be a need for power if the flight was to be in the air for a long time.

One of the many drawings of gliders

Cayley wrote On Ariel Navigation which shows that a fixed-wing aircraft with a power system for propulsion and a tail to assist in the control of the airplane would be the best way to allow man to fly.

19th And 20th Century Efforts

One of Lilienthal's Gliders

German engineer, Otto Lilienthal, studied aerodynamics and worked to design a glider that would fly. He was the first person to design a glider that could fly a person and was able to fly long distances.

He was fascinated by the idea of flight. Based on his studies of birds and how they fly, he wrote a book on aerodynamics that was published in 1889 and this text was used by the Wright Brothers as the basis for their designs.

After more than 2500 flights, he was killed when he lost control because of a sudden strong wind and crashed into the ground.

Lilienthal's Glider in Flight

Samuel Langley was an astronomer, who realized that power was needed to help man fly. He built a model of a plane, which he called an aerodrome, that included a steam-powered engine. In 1891, his model flew for 3/4s of a mile before running out of fuel.

Langley received a $50,000 grant to build a full sized aerodrome. It was too heavy to fly and it crashed. He was very disappointed. He gave up trying to fly. His major contributions to flight involved attempts at adding a power plant to a glider. He was also well known as the director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC

Model of Langley Aerodrome

Octave Chanute published Progress in Flying Machines in 1894. It gathered and analyzed all the technical knowledge that he could find about aviation accomplishments. It included all of the world's aviation pioneers. The Wright Brothers used this book as a basis for much of their experiments. Chanute was also in contact with the Wright Brothers and often commented on their technical progress.


Orville and Wilbur Wright and the First Airplane


Orville and Wilbur Wright were very deliberate in their quest for flight. First, they read about all the early developments of flight. They decided to make "a small contribution" to the study of flight control by twisting their wings in flight. Then they began to test their ideas with a kite. They learned about how the wind would help with the flight and how it could affect the surfaces once up in the air.

A Drawing of a Wright Brothers Glider (1900)

Picture of the actual 12 horsepower engine used in flight

They designed and used a wind tunnel to test the shapes of the wings and the tails of the gliders. In 1902, with a perfected glider shape, they turned their attention to how to create a propulsion system that would create the thrust needed to fly.

The early engine that they designed generated almost 12 horsepower. That's the same power as two hand-propelled lawn mower engines!

The Wright Brother's Flyer

The "Flyer" lifted from level ground to the north of Big Kill Devil Hill, North Carolina, at 10:35 a.m., on December 17, 1903. Orville piloted the plane which weighed about six hundred pounds.

Actual Flight of The Flyer at Kitty Hawk

The first heavier-than-air flight traveled one hundred twenty feet in twelve seconds. The two brothers took turns flying that day with the fourth and last flight covering 850 feet in 59 seconds. But the Flyer was unstable and very hard to control.

The brothers returned to Dayton, Ohio, where they worked for two more years perfecting their design. Finally, on October 5, 1905, Wilbur piloted the Flyer III for 39 minutes and about 24 miles of circles around Huffman Prairie. He flew the first practical airplane until it ran out of gas.

Humankind was now able to fly! During the next century, many new airplanes and engines were developed to help transport people, luggage, cargo, military personnel and weapons. The 20th century's advances were all based on this first flights by the American Brothers from Ohio.


What Are the Reasons for Dr. Charles Stanley's Divorce?

Dr. Charles Stanley's divorce from his wife in 2000 was reportedly caused by what his former wife described as many years of marital disappointments and conflict. Anna Stanley originally filed for divorce in June 1993 but was persuaded by Charles Stanley to amend it to a legal separation. Anna Stanley again filed for divorce in 1995, officially stating that their marriage of over 40 years was broken beyond repair.

Dr. Charles and Anna Stanley's divorce proceedings caused a scandal in the First Baptist Church of Atlanta, Georgia, which Charles was the senior pastor of at the time of the divorce filing. Charles had stated in 1995 that should his wife officially divorce him, he would immediately resign his position within the church. Despite the divorce becoming final, Dr. Charles Stanley remained as the church's head pastor with positive support from its congregation as they voted to retain him.

Dr. Charles' divorce also caused a rift to grow with his son, Andy Stanley. The conflict reportedly escalated due to Andy's disagreement with how his father was approaching the divorce scandal and culminated in his resignation from the First Baptist Church. Andy Stanley went on to establish the North Point Community Church in 1995.


Charles

Charles is an HTTP proxy / HTTP monitor / Reverse Proxy that enables a developer to view all of the HTTP and SSL / HTTPS traffic between their machine and the Internet. This includes requests, responses and the HTTP headers (which contain the cookies and caching information).

Recent Developments

For discussion on the latest changes to Charles, please see Karl&rsquos blog.

Charles 4.6.1 released to fix Dark Mode support on macOS Read more.

Charles 4.6 released including new features and stability improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.5.6 released with minor bug fixes and patched security vulnerability. Read more.

Charles 4.5.5 released including bug fixes for SSL certificate imports. Read more.

Charles 4.5.2 released including new features, bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.2.8 released with minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4.2.7 released with minor bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles Security Bulletin for a local privilege escalation in Charles 4.2 and 3.12.1 and earlier. Read more.

Charles 4.2.5 released with major bug fixes and minor improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.2.1 released with important bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4.2 released with major new TLS debugging capability, minor improvements and bug fixes including macOS High Sierra support. Read more.

Charles 4.1.4 released with minor improvements and bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4.1.3 released including Brotli compression support and other minor bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.1.2 released with bug fixes and minor improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.1.1 released with bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4.1 released including major new features and bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4.0.2 released including bug fixes and minor improvements. Read more.

Charles 4.0.1 released including bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.11.6 released with support for macOS Sierra and minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 4 released featuring HTTP 2, IPv6 and improved look and feel. Read more.

Charles 3.11.5 released including minor bug fixes especially fixes SSL certificate installation on Android. Read more.

Charles 3.11.4 released with support for ATS on iOS 9 and crash fixes for older versions of Mac OS X. Read more.

Charles v3.11.3 released including bug fixes and minor improvements. Read more.

Charles v3.11.2 released with SSL and Websockets improvements. Read more.

Charles 3.11 released including major new features. Read more.

Charles 3.10.2 released with bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles 3.10.1 released with minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.10 released with improved SSL (new SSL CA certificate install required), major new features and improvements. Read more.

Charles v3.9.3 released with improvements to SSL support, Mac OS X Yosemite support and other minor bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles v3.9.2 released with minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.9.1 released with minor bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles 3.9 released with major new features and bug fixes, including the ability to "focus" on hosts so they are separated from the noise. Read more.

Charles 3.8.3 released with support for Mac OS X Mavericks and minor bug fixes. Happy Mavericks Day. Read more.

Charles 3.8.2 released with minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.8.1 released with minor bug fixes and improvements. Read more.

Charles 3.8 has been released with new features and bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.7 has been released. Includes new features, bundled Java runtime (so you don’t need to install Java anymore), and bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.7 beta 2 has been released. This changes the SSL signing for Charles on Mac OS X to use Apple's new Developer ID code-signing. Read more.

Charles v3.6.5 released including bug fixes and minor changes. Read more.

Charles v3.6.4 released including major bug fixes and enhancements. Read more.

Charles v3.6.3 released including minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles v3.6.1 released including minor enhancements and bug fixes. Read more.

Charles v3.6 released including new features, enhancements and bug fixes. New features include HAR and SAZ file import. Read more.

Charles v3.5.2 released including bug fixes and minor new features. Read more.

Charles 3.5.1 released. Minor bug fixes. Read more.

Charles 3.5 released. Major new features, bug fixes and enhancements.

Charles 3.4.1 released. Minor features and bug fixes.

Charles 3.4 released. Major changes especially to SSL.

New website launched. Follow @charlesproxy on Twitter. Say hi in San Francisco when I'm there for WWDC!

Charles 3.3.1 released. Minor new features and bug fixes. Experimental 64 bit Windows support. Read more.

Charles 3.3 released. Major new features. Download

Charles Autoconfiguration add-on for Mozilla Firefox adds support for Firefox 3.1

Charles 3.2.3 released. Minor new features and bug fixes.

Charles 3.2.2 released. Minor new features and bug fixes.

Charles 3.2.1 released. Minor new features and bug fixes.

Charles 3.2 released. Major new features. Release Notes

Charles 3.2 public beta released. Download and more information on my blog.

Charles 3.1.4 released. Bug fixes and minor new features.

Charles Mozilla Firefox add-on updated for compatibility with Firefox 3.0.

Charles 3.1.3 released. Minor bug fixes, minor new features.

  • Chart tab now includes charts for sizes, durations and types
  • Request & Response can now be displayed combined on one split-panel
  • SSL handshake and certificate errors are now displayed in the tree

Charles 3.1.2 released. Minor bug fixes.

Charles 3.1.1 released. Minor bug fixes.

Charles 3.0.4 released. Fixes SSL bug on Java 1.4.

Charles 3.0.3 re-released. Fixes launch bug on computers that haven't used Charles before.

Charles 3.0.3 released. Various improvements and minor bug fixes.

Charles 3.0.2 released. Minor bug fixes and improvements.

Charles 3.0.1 released. Minor bug fixes.

Charles 3.0 released. Major new features and improvements

Charles 3.0 public beta released.

Charles v2.6.4 release. Minor bug fixes:

Charles v2.6.3 release. Minor bug fixes:

Charles v2.6.2 release. Major improvements and bug fixes including:

  • No more recording limits. Large responses are now saved to temporary files, reducing memory usage.
  • MTU support in the throttle settings
  • AMF3 / Flex 2 bug fixes

Charles v2.6.1 release. Minor bug fixes and improvements:

  • SOAP information visible while response is still loading
  • AMF3 externalizable object parsing regression fixed
  • AMF view for AMF3/Flex messages simplified to hide Flex implementation details

Charles v2.6 release. Major improvements and bug fixes including:

Charles v2.5 release. Major improvements and bug fixes including:

  • Major UI improvements
  • Support for new filetypes including FLV
  • Major improvements to AMF / Flash remoting viewer
  • Thank you to everyone who made suggestions and participated in the long testing process.

Charles v2.4.2 release. Minor improvements and bug fixes including:

  • Support for request body compression (used by web services)
  • Fix for parsing of AMFPHP responses
  • Improvements to AMF viewer

Charles v2.4.1 release. Minor improvements and bug fixes including:

  • Firefox extension improved
  • AMF 0 and AMF 3 parsing improved
  • Look and Feel changes to give a greater (and more consistent) range of font sizes in the Charles look and feel
  • SSL error reporting improved when a connection cannot be made to a remote host
  • Port Forwarding tool and Reverse Proxy tool re-bind exception fixed

Charles v2.4 release. Major new features, improvements and bug fixes including:

  • AMF 3 support
  • SSL support for IBM JDK (thanks to Lance Bader for helping solve this)
  • Automatic Update Checking
  • Documentation wiki open to public

Charles v2.3 release. Major improvements and bug fixes including:

  • Proxy implementation improvements including better handling of keep-alive connections
  • SOCKS proxy added, so any SOCKSified application can now run through Charles
  • External proxies configuration improvements including authentication
  • Flash Remoting / AMF viewer improvements
  • Dynamic proxy port support, for multiuser systems

Charles v2.2.1 release. Minor improvements and bug fixes including:

  • Further improved Firefox proxy configuration
  • Port Forwarding enhancements including port ranges and UDP forwarding
  • Bug fixes for Reverse Proxy and AMF viewer

Charles v2.2 released. Major enhancements and bug fixes including:

  • Improved Firefox proxy configuration
  • XML viewer improvements
  • Line numbers displayed in ASCII viewer

Charles v2.1 released. Major new features and enhancements including:

  • Automatic Firefox proxy configuration
  • Formatted form posts and query string information
  • Parsing of SWF and AMF (Flash Remoting) binary formats

Charles v2.0 released. Major enhancements and improvements.

Feedback & Reviews

Better Mobile Application Testing with Charles Proxy
by Andrew Bardallis A comprehensive walkthrough of using Charles to observe and modify traffic, including using it with mobile devices.

iPhone App Store data mining
by Dan Grigsby Using Charles to explore the iPhone App Store XML.

iPhone HTTP Connection Debugging
by Gary Rogers Using Charles to debug the iPhone.

Charles review on flashgroup.net
by Darren Richardson A great review of Charles from the point of view of Flash developers.

Debugging Flash/Server Interaction with Charles
by uberGeek Using Charles to find those really annoying Flash bugs in record time.