How sophisticated were efforts to track the spread of past pandemics?

How sophisticated were efforts to track the spread of past pandemics?

I am currently inquiring into the COVID Tracking Project for a first-year university course. I would like to give some historical context, i.e. past attempts at epidemic tracking.

Searching the web revealed very little information on this topic, and it is unlikely that a 2003 SARS tracking site (if there was such a thing) would still be available for analysis.

Are current pandemic resources such as the COVID Tracking Project totally unprecedented in terms of completeness and sophistication, or do they stand on the shoulders of earlier undertakings?

P.S. I am also interested in pre-Internet epidemic tracking. After all, some of the most interesting plagues occurred many centuries ago.