Case DD- 285 - History

Case DD- 285 - History

Case

Born in Newburgh, N.Y., 3 February 1812, Augustus Ludlow Case was appointed midshipman in 1828 and attained the rank of rear admiral 24 May 1872. He participated in the Wilkes Expedition of 1837-42 which explored the South Seas and discovered the Antarctic Continent; the Mexican War, 1846-48, when with 26 men he held the town of Palisada against the Mexican cavalry for two weeks to block the escape of General Santa Ana; and the Paraguay Expedition of 1859. In the Civil War he was Fleet Captain of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in its capture of Forts Clark and Hatteras in August 1861, and commanded Iroquois in the blockade of New Inlet, N.C. From 1869 to 1873 he was Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, and from 1873 to 1875, commanded the European Squadron and the combined European, North and South Atlantic Fleet assembled at Key West in 1874. Retired in 1876, Admiral Case died in Washington 16 February 1893.

(DD-285. dp. 1,215,1. 314'4", o. 30'8"; dr. 9'4"; s. 35 k.;
cpl. 122, a. 4 4", 12 21" tt.; cl. Clemson)

Case (DD-285) was launched 21 September 1919 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass.; sponsored by Miss A. R. Case; commissioned 8 December 1919, Commander C. S. Joyce in command; and reported to Destroyer Division 43, Atlantic Fleet.

Between January and July 1920, Case operated along the east coast, and on winter maneuvers in the Caribbean, during which she obtained tactical data for Naval War College study. From July 1920 through December 1921, she operated in reduced commission with fifty percent of complement. Beginning in December 1921 Case was permanently assigned to Destroyer Division 25 for a regular schedule of operations designed to keep her operational readiness at its maximum. Along with gunnery and engineering exercises and competitions, she joined the fleet annually in maneuvers and war problems.

From 1924 to 1925 Case was flagship of her division, and with it in April 1926 sailed to the European station, where the flag was shown and good-will created by visits to various British and Mediterranean ports. Returning to the United States a year later, the destroyer resumed operations along the east coast and in the Caribbean. Designated for scrapping in accordance with the London Treaty in 1929, Case was decommissioned at Philadelphia 22 October 1930, and sold as a stripped hulk 17 January 1931.


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History of the Death Penalty

As far back as the Ancient Laws of China, the death penalty has been established as a punishment for crimes. In the 18th Century BC, the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon codified the death penalty for twenty five different crimes, although murder was not one of them. The first death sentence historically recorded occurred in 16th Century BC Egypt where the wrongdoer, a member of nobility, was accused of magic, and ordered to take his own life. During this period non-nobility was usually killed with an ax.

In the 14th Century BC, the Hittite Code also prescribed the death penalty. The 7th Century BC Draconian Code of Athens made death the penalty for every crime committed. In the 5th Century BC, the Roman Law of the Twelve Tablets codified the death penalty. Again, the death penalty was different for nobility, freemen and slaves and was punishment for crimes such as the publication of libels and insulting songs, the cutting or grazing of crops planted by a farmer, the burning [of] a house or a stack of corn near a house, cheating by a patron of his client, perjury, making disturbances at night in the city, willful murder of a freeman or a parent, or theft by a slave. Death was often cruel and included crucifixion, drowning at sea, burial alive, beating to death, and impalement (often used by Nero). The Romans had a curious punishment for parricides (murder of a parent): the condemned was submersed in water in a sack, which also contained a dog, a rooster, a viper and an ape. [1] The most notorious death execution in BC was about 399 BC when the Greek philosopher Socrates was required to drink poison for heresy and corruption of youth. [2]

Mosaic Law codified many capital crimes. In fact, there is evidence that Jews used many different techniques including stoning, hanging, beheading, crucifixion (copied from the Romans), throwing the criminal from a rock, and sawing asunder. The most infamous execution of history occurred approximately 29 AD with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ outside Jerusalem. About 300 years later, the Emperor Constantine, after converting to Christianity, abolished crucifixion and other cruel death penalties in the Roman Empire. In 438, the Code of Theodosius made more than 80 crimes punishable by death. [3]

Britain influenced the colonies more than any other country and has a long history of punishment by death. About 450 BC, the death penalty was often enforced by throwing the condemned into a quagmire. By the 10th Century, hanging from gallows was the most frequent execution method. William the Conqueror opposed taking life except in war, and ordered no person to be hanged or executed for any offense. However, he allowed criminals to be mutilated for their crimes. During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by torture. Most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows and they were used for major as well as minor crimes. For example, in 1279, two hundred and eighty nine Jews were hanged for clipping coin. Under Edward I, two gatekeepers were killed because the city gate had not been closed in time to prevent the escape of an accused murderer. Burning was the punishment for women’s high treason and men were hanged, drawn and quartered. Beheading was generally accepted for the upper classes. One could be burned for marrying a Jew. Pressing became the penalty for those who would not confess to their crimes. The executioner placed heavy weights on the victim’s chest. On the first day he gave the victim a small quantity of bread, on the second day a small drink of bad water, and so on until he confessed or died. Under the reign of Henry VIII, the numbers of those put to death are estimated as high as 72,000. Boiling to death was another penalty approved in 1531, and there are records to show some people boiled for up to two hours before death took them. When a woman was burned, the executioner tied a rope around her neck when she was tied to the stake. When the flames reached her she could be strangled from outside the ring of fire. However, this often failed and many were literally burnt alive. [4]

In Britain, the number of capital offenses continually increased until the 1700’s when two hundred and twenty-two crimes were punishable by death. These included stealing from a house in the amount of forty shillings, stealing from a shop the value of five shillings, robbing a rabbit warren, cutting down a tree, and counterfeiting tax stamps. However, juries tended not to convict when the penalty was great and the crime was not. Reforms began to take place. In 1823, five laws passed, exempting about a hundred crimes from the death [penalty]. Between 1832 and 1837, many capital offenses were swept away. In 1840, there was a failed attempt to abolish all capital punishment. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more and more capital punishments were abolished, not only in Britain, but also all across Europe, until today only a few European countries retain the death penalty. [5]

The first recorded execution in the English American colonies was in 1608 when officials executed George Kendall of Virginia for supposedly plotting to betray the British to the Spanish. In 1612, Virginia’s governor, Sir Thomas Dale, implemented the Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws that made death the penalty for even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, killing dogs or horses without permission, or trading with Indians. Seven years later these laws were softened because Virginia feared that no one would settle there. [6]

In 1622, the first legal execution of a criminal, Daniel Frank, occurred in Virginia for the crime of theft. [7] Some colonies were very strict in their use of the death penalty, while others were less so. In Massachusetts Bay Colony the first execution was in 1630, but the earliest capital statutes do not occur until later. Under the Capital Laws of New-England that went into effect between 1636-1647 the death penalty was meted out for pre-meditated murder, sodomy, witchcraft, adultery, idolatry, blasphemy, assault in anger, rape, statutory rape, manstealing, perjury in a capital trial, rebellion, manslaughter, poisoning and bestiality. Early laws were accompanied by a scripture from the Old Testament. By 1780, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts only recognized seven capital crimes: murder, sodomy, burglary, buggery, arson, rape, and treason. [8]

The New York colony instituted the so-called Duke’s Laws of 1665. This directed the death penalty for denial of the true God, pre-meditated murder, killing someone who had no weapon of defense, killing by lying in wait or by poisoning, sodomy, buggery, kidnapping, perjury in a capital trial, traitorous denial of the king’s rights or raising arms to resist his authority, conspiracy to invade towns or forts in the colony and striking one’s mother or father (upon complaint of both). The two colonies that were more lenient concerning capital punishment were South Jersey and Pennsylvania. In South Jersey there was no death penalty for any crime and there were only two crimes, murder and treason, punishable by death. [9]

However under the direction of the Crown, harsher penal codes were execution there until 1691 [sic]. In Pennsylvania, William Penn’s Great Act (1682) made passed in the colonies [sic]. By 1776, most of the colonies had roughly comparable death statutes which covered arson, piracy, treason, murder, sodomy, burglary, robbery, rape, horse-stealing, slave rebellion, and often counterfeiting. Hanging was the usual sentence. Rhode Island was probably the only colony which decreased the number of capital crimes in the late 1700’s.

Some states were more severe. For example, by 1837, North Carolina required death for the crimes of murder, rape, statutory rape, slave-stealing, stealing bank notes, highway robbery, burglary, arson, castration, buggery, sodomy, bestiality, dueling where death occurs, hiding a slave with intent to free him, taking a free Negro out of state to sell him, bigamy, inciting slaves to rebel, circulating seditious literature among slaves, accessory to murder, robbery, burglary, arson, or mayhem and others. However, North Carolina did not have a state penitentiary and, many said, no suitable alternative to capital punishment. [10]

The first reforms of the death penalty occurred between 1776-1800. Thomas Jefferson and four others, authorized to undertake a complete revision of Virginia’s laws, proposed a law that recommended the death penalty for only treason and murder. After a stormy debate the legislature defeated the bill by one vote. The writing of European theorists such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Bentham had a great effect on American intellectuals, as did English Quaker prison reformers John Bellers and John Howard. [11]

On Crimes and Punishment, published in English in 1767 by the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria, whose exposition on abolishing capital punishment was the most influential of the time, had an especially strong impact. He theorized that there was no justification for the taking of life by the state. He said that the death penalty was “a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary, or useful to the general good.” He asked the question what if it can be shown not to be necessary or useful? His essay conceded that the only time a death was necessary was when only one’s death could insure the security of a nation — which would be rare and only in cases of absolute anarchy or when a nation was on the verge of losing its liberty. He said that the history of using punishment by death (e.g., the Romans, 20 years of Czaress Elizabeth) had not prevented determined men from injuring society and that death was only a “momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty….” [12]

Organizations were formed in different colonies for the abolition of the death penalty and to relieve poor prison conditions. Dr. Benjamin Rush, a renowned Philadelphia citizen, proposed the complete abolition of capital punishment. William Bradford, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, was ordered to investigate capital punishment. In 1793 he published An Enquiry How Far the Punishment of Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania. He strongly insisted that the death penalty be retained, but admitted it was useless in preventing certain crimes. In fact, he said the death penalty made convictions harder to obtain, because in Pennsylvania, and indeed in all states, the death penalty was mandatory and juries would often not return a guilty verdict because of this fact. In response, in 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder “in the first degree,” the first time murder had been broken down into “degrees.” In New York, in 1796, the legislature authorized construction of the state’s first penitentiary, abolished whipping, and reduced the number of capital offenses from thirteen to two. Virginia and Kentucky passed similar reform bills. Four more states reduced its capital crimes: Vermont in 1797, to three Maryland in 1810, to four New Hampshire in 1812, to two and Ohio in 1815, to two. Each of these states built state penitentiaries. A few states went the opposite direction. Rhode Island restored the death penalty for rape and arson Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut raised death crimes from six to ten, including sodomy, maiming, robbery, and forgery. Many southern states made more crimes capital, especially for slaves. [13]

The first great reform era occurred between 1833-1853. Public executions were attacked as cruel. Sometimes tens of thousands of eager viewers would show up to view hangings local merchants would sell souvenirs and alcohol. Fighting and pushing would often break out as people jockeyed for the best view of the hanging or the corpse! Onlookers often cursed the widow or the victim and would try to tear down the scaffold or the rope for keepsakes. Violence and drunkenness often ruled towns far into the night after “justice had been served.” Many states enacted laws providing private hangings. Rhode Island (1833), Pennsylvania (1834), New York (1835), Massachusetts (1835), and New Jersey (1835) all abolished public hangings. By 1849, fifteen states were holding private hangings. This move was opposed by many death penalty abolitionists who thought public executions would eventually cause people to cry out against execution itself. For example, in 1835, Maine enacted what was in effect a moratorium on capital punishment after over ten thousand people who watched a hanging had to be restrained by police after they became unruly and began fighting. All felons sentenced to death would have to remain in prison at hard labor and could not be executed until one year had elapsed and then only on the governor’s order. No governor ordered an execution under the “Maine Law” for twenty-seven years. Though many states argued the merits of the death penalty, no state went as far as Maine. The most influential reformers were the clergy. Ironically, the small but powerful group which opposed the abolitionists were also clergy. They were, almost to a person, members of the Calvinist clergy, especially the Congregationalists and Presbyterians who could be called the religious establishment of the time. They were led by George Cheever. [14]

Finally, in 1846, Michigan became the first state to abolish the death penalty (except for treason against the state), mostly because it had no long tradition of capital punishment (there had been no hanging since 1830, before statehood) and because frontier Michigan had few established religious groups to oppose it as was the case in the east. In 1852, Rhode Island abolished the death penalty led by Unitarians, Universalists, and especially Quakers. In the same year, Massachusetts limited its death penalty to first-degree murder. In 1853, Wisconsin abolished the death penalty after a gruesome execution in which the victim struggled for five minutes at the end of the rope, and a full eighteen minutes passed before his heart finally quit. [15]

During the last half of the century the death penalty abolition movement ground to a half, with many members moving into the slavery abolition movement. At the same time, states began to pass laws against mandatory death sentences. Legislators in eighteen states shifted from mandatory to discretionary capital punishment by 1895, not to save lives, but to try to increase convictions and executions of murderers. Still, abolitionists gained a few victories. Maine abolished the death penalty, restored it, and then abolished it again between 1876-1887. Iowa abolished the death penalty for six years. Kansas passed a “Maine Law” in 1872 which operated as de facto abolition. [16]

Electrocution as a method of execution came onto the scene in an unlikely manner. Edison Company with its DC (direct current) electrical systems began attacking Westinghouse Company and its AC (alternating current) electrical systems as they were pressing for nationwide electrification with alternating current. To show how dangerous AC could be, Edison Company began public demonstrations by electrocuting animals. People reasoned that if electricity could kill animals, it could kill people. In 1888, New York approved the dismantling of its gallows and the building of the nation’s first electric chair. It held its first victim, William Kemmler, in 1890, and even though the first electrocution was clumsy at best, other states soon followed the lead. [17]

The Second Great Reform era was 1895-1917. In 1897, U.S. Congress passed a bill reducing the number of federal death crimes. In 1907, Kansas took the “Maine Law” a step further and abolished all death penalties. Between 1911 and 1917, eight more states abolished capital punishment (Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Arizona, Missouri and Tennessee — the latter in all cases but rape). Votes in other states came close to ending the death penalty.

However, between 1917 and 1955, the death penalty abolition movement again slowed. Washington, Arizona, and Oregon in 1919-20 reinstated the death penalty. In 1924, the first execution by cyanide gas took place in Nevada, when Tong war gang murderer Gee Jon became its first victim. The state wanted to secretly pump cyanide gas into Jon’s cell at night while he was asleep as a more humanitarian way of carrying out the penalty, but, technical difficulties prohibited this and a special “gas chamber” was hastily built. Other concerns developed when less “civilized” methods of execution failed. In 1930, Mrs. Eva Dugan became the first female to be executed by Arizona. The execution was botched when the hangman misjudged the drop and Mrs. Dugan’s head was ripped from her body. More states converted to electric chairs and gas chambers. During this period of time, abolitionist organizations sprang up all across the country, but they had little effect. There were a number of stormy protests against the execution of certain convicted felons (e.g., Julius and Ethel Rosenberg), but little opposition against the death penalty itself. In fact, during the anti-Communist period with all its fears and hysteria, Texas Governor Allan Shivers seriously suggested that capital punishment be the penalty for membership in the Communist Party. [18]

The movement against capital punishment revived again between 1955 and 1972.

England and Canada completed exhaustive studies which were largely critical of the death penalty and these were widely circulated in the U.S. Death row criminals gave their own moving accounts of capital punishment in books and film. Convicted kidnapper Caryl Chessman published Cell 2455 Death Row and Trial by Ordeal. Barbara Graham’s story was utilized in book and film with I Want to Live! after her execution. Television shows were broadcast on the death penalty. Hawaii and Alaska ended capital punishment in 1957, and Delaware did so the next year. Controversy over the death penalty gripped the nation, forcing politicians to take sides. Delaware restored the death penalty in 1961. Michigan abolished capital punishment for treason in 1963. Voters in 1964 abolished the death penalty in Oregon. In 1965 Iowa, New York, West Virginia, and Vermont ended the death penalty. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 1969. [19]

Trying to end capital punishment state-by-state was difficult at best, so death penalty abolitionists turned much of their efforts to the courts. They finally succeeded on June 29, 1972 in the case Furman v. Georgia. In nine separate opinions, but with a majority of 5-4, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the way capital punishment laws were written, including discriminatory sentencing guidelines, capital punishment was cruel and unusual and violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. This effectively ended capital punishment in the United States. Advocates of capital punishment began proposing new capital statutes which they believed would end discrimination in capital sentencing, therefore satisfying a majority of the Court. By early 1975, thirty states had again passed death penalty laws and nearly two hundred prisoners were on death row. In Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Supreme Court upheld Georgia’s newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel and unusual punishment. Death row executions could again begin. Another form of execution was soon found. Oklahoma passed the first death by lethal injection law, based on economics as much as humanitarian reasons. The old electric chair that had not been used in eleven years would require expensive repairs. Estimates of over $200,000 were given to build a gas chamber, while lethal injection would cost no more than ten to fifteen dollars “per event.” [20]

The controversy over the death penalty continues today. There is a strong movement against lawlessness propelled by citizens’ fears for their security. Politicians at the national and state levels are taking the floor of legislatures and calling for more frequent death penalties, death penalties penalty [sic] for more crimes, and longer prison sentences. Those opposing these moves counter by arguing that tougher sentences do not slow crime and that crime is little or no worse than in the past. In fact, FBI statistics show murders are now up. (For example 9.3 persons per 100,000 population were murdered in 1973 and 9.4 persons per 100,000 were murdered in 1992). The battle lines are still drawn and the combat will probably always be fought. [21]

A number of important capital punishment decisions have been made by the Supreme Court. The following is a list of the more important ones along with their legal citations:

Wilkerson v. Utah 99 U.S. 130 (1878) — Court upheld execution by firing squad, but said that other types of torture such as “drawing and quartering, embowelling alive, beheading, public dissection, and burring alive and all other in the same line of…cruelty, are forbidden.”

Weems v. U.S. 217 U.S. 349 (1910) — Court held that what constitutes cruel and unusual punishment had not been decided, but that it should not be confined to the “forms of evil” that framers of the Bill of Rights had experienced. Therefore, “cruel and unusual” definitions are subject to changing interpretations.

Louisiana ex rel. Francis v. Resweber 329 U.S. 459 (1947) — On May 3, 1946, convicted seventeen year old felon Willie Francis was placed in the electric chair and the switch was thrown. Due to faulty equipment, he survived (even though he was severely shocked), was removed from the chair and returned to his cell. A new death warrant was issued six days later. The Court ruled 5-4 that it was not “cruel and unusual” to finish carrying out the sentence since the state acted in good faith in the first attempt. “The cruelty against which the Constitution protects a convicted man is cruelty inherent in the method of punishment,” said the Court, “not the necessary suffering involved in any method employed to extinguish life humanely.” He was then executed.

Tropp v. Dulles 356 U.S. 86 (1958) — The Court Ruled that punishment would be considered “cruel and unusual” if it was one of “tormenting severity,” cruel in its excessiveness or unusual in punishment “must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Furman v. Georgia 408 U.S. 238 (1972) — The Court looking at three cases struck down the death penalty in many states and set up the standard that punishment would be considered “cruel and unusual” if any of the following were present: 1) it was too severe for the crime 2) it was arbitrary (some get the punishment and others do not, without guidelines) 3) it offends society’s sense of justice 4) it was not more effective than a less severe penalty.

Gregg v. Georgia 428 U.S. 153 (1976) — [The] Court upheld Georgia’s newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel and unusual punishment.

Tison v. Arizona 481 U.S. 137 (1987) — [The] Court upheld Arizona’s death penalty for major participation in a felony with “reckless indifference to human life.”

Thompson v. Oklahoma 108 S. Ct. 2687 (1987) — The Court considered the question of execution of minors under the age of 16 at the time of the murder. The victim was the brother-in-law, who he accused of beating his sister. He and three others beat the victim, shot him twice, cut his throat, chest, and abdomen, chained him to a concrete block and threw the body into a river where it remained for four weeks. Each of the four participants were tried separately and all were sentenced to death. In a 5-3 decision, four Justices ruled that Thompson’s death sentence was cruel and unusual. The fifth, O’Connor, concurred but noted that a state must set a minimum age and held out the possibility that if a state lowers, by statute, the minimum death penalty age below sixteen, she might support it. She stated, “Although, I believe that a national consensus forbidding the execution of any person for a crime committed before the age of 16 very likely does exist, I am reluctant to adopt this conclusion as a matter of constitutional law without better evidence that [sic] we now possess.” States with no minimum age have rushed to specify a statute age.

Penry v. Lynaugh 492 U.S. [sic] (1989) — [The] Court held that persons considered retarded, but legally sane, could receive the death penalty. It was not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment if jurors were given the opportunity to consider mitigating circumstances. In this case, the defendant had the mental age of approximately a six-year old child.

[1] John Laurence, A History of Capital Punishment (N.Y.: The Citadel
Press, 1960), 1-3.

[2] Michael Kronenwetter, Capital Punishment: AReference Handbook (Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1993), 71.

[4] Ibid., p.72 Laurence, op.cit., 4-9.

[7] Hugo Adam Bedau, The Death Penalty in America (N.Y.: Oxford
University Press, 1982).

[9] Phillip English Mackey, Voices Against Death: American Opposition to
Capital Punishment, 1787-1975
(N.Y.: Burt Franklin & Co., Inc., 1976),
xi-xii.

[12] Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishment, trans. Henry Paolucci
(Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963).


Developmental Disabilities Services: History

Oklahoma first established services for people with intellectual disabilities during the second legislature in 1909 with the creation of the Oklahoma Institution for the Feeble Minded in the city of Enid. After several name changes, the institution became known as Enid State School. The Pauls Valley State School was established in 1907 as a state training school for boys and was operated as such until converted to a state hospital for people with epilepsy in 1945 and to a state facility for people with intellectual disabilities in 1953.

In 1959, the 52nd legislature recognized the need for additional beds to serve a rapidly growing population of citizens with intellectual disabilities and appropriated one million dollars for the construction of a third institution on land donated by Mr. and Mrs. Wiley Hissom, near Sand Springs. Later, in 1961, an additional 5 million dollars was appropriated to complete construction and fully equip the facility to be named The Hissom Memorial Center.

Until 1963, The Pauls Valley State School, the Enid State School and The Hissom Memorial Center, as well as the Taft State Hospital, were operated by the Department of Mental Health and Retardation. On July 1, 1963, these facilities were transferred to the Department of Public Welfare. At the time of the transfer, there were 2,300 residents in the Enid and Pauls Valley facilities, with a total of 709 employees. The Enid State School was extremely crowded with 1,444 children and adults in residence. The Hissom Memorial Center would be licensed for 500 additional beds.

To meet the needs of this growing population and to relieve overcrowding at the public facilities, the Medical Services Division of the Department of Human Services began contracting with private nursing homes to provide residential services for people with intellectual disabilities.

In 1971, institutional services for children and adults with intellectual disabilities were greatly influenced by the establishment of Medicaid reimbursement to facilities meeting the standard for care as Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded (ICF/MR) (Now called Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ICF/IID)). Regulations required compliance with standards of staffing levels, development of treatment plans, provision of active treatment, use of medications and appropriate physical environment. The state operated facilities as well as many private nursing homes became licensed as ICF/IIDs to qualify for the Medicaid reimbursement.

The Robert M. Greer Center became operational April 3, 1989 as a 48-bed unit of the Enid State School. This facility serves a maximum of 52 people with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental illness. On January 1, 1992 the Greer Center began operation as a separate entity although remaining on the campus of Enid State School.

In 1992 Enid State School and Pauls Valley State School underwent another name change, and the two were renamed the Northern and Southern Oklahoma Resource Centers (NORCE and SORC respectively)

In 2012, the 243 individuals residing at NORCE and SORC began successfully transitioning into the community. NORC closed its doors on November 11th, 2014 and SORC closed on July 10th, 2015.

Group Home Program
The Group Home program, established in 1981 by former first lady Donna Nigh, was the first community residential option for adults with intellectual disabilities. These group homes gave people an opportunity to live in a home setting in the community with a small number of their peers, while receiving training for independent living skills. There are currently more than one hundred group homes around the state.

The Strategy
From 1909 until the 1980's, Oklahoma's strategy for serving people with developmental disabilities relied almost exclusively on institutional placement. In 1985, two developments occurred which continued to exert great pressure on the state to de-institutionalize its service program.

The first was the creation by the Health Care Financing Administration, now known as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), of a home and community-based waiver to the ICF/IID program. This waiver permitted ICF/IID level services to be provided outside an institutional setting. The second was the filing of the Homeward Bound class action lawsuit to compel the state to create community-based alternatives to institutional placements. The resulting court order also required the closure of The Hissom Memorial Center.

To comply with the federal court's 1987 order in the Homeward Bound case, funding was appropriated to create a system of community-based services to serve the 950 members of the Homeward Bound class in community settings. Although there has been no similar mandate to serve people in the community who were not members of that class action lawsuit, the Department has offered these services to residents of the remaining two facilities and the general public as funding allows. Residents of the resource centers have been transitioned from the facilities into community homes.

Alternative Care
People in Oklahoma, seeking an alternative to institutional care for family members, began applying for Home and Community-Based Waiver services. These services include residential service options such as: Specialized Foster Care, Agency Companion, Daily Living Supports and Group Homes. Employment programs include: Sheltered Workshops, Community Integrated Employment and Supported Employment.

In 1992, the Oklahoma Legislature passed the Oklahoma Family Support Act. This bill authorized the Department of Human Services to set up a program which would provide assistance payments to families who wanted to keep their children with developmental disabilities at home. By 1993, the Developmental Disabilities Services Division had in place the Family Support Assistance Payment Program. This program provides a cash payment to families who are raising children with developmental disabilities under the age of 18.

Making a Difference

In August 1999, the Department submitted applications for two new waivers to CMS and these were approved effective July 1, 1999. The In-Home Support Waivers for children and adults were developed in response to the 1997 study of Oklahoma's waiting list conducted by Oklahoma State University. This study surveyed the entire waiting list to identify what services people most needed. The findings, based on a better than 50% response rate, showed that 82% of the waiting list lived in their own homes and that the most needed services were for help with daily living activities, respite care, and vocational services. The capitated In-Home Support Waivers allow individuals and families to select services necessary for each individual to remain in his or her own home or family home. Individuals on the IHSW are assigned to Developmental Disabilities Services (DDS) case managers to assist them in locating, securing, and coordinating needed services


Enron

The collapse of energy company in December 2001 precipitated what would become the most complex white-collar crime investigation in the FBI’s history.

Top officials at the Houston-based company cheated investors and enriched themselves through complex accounting gimmicks like overvaluing assets to boost cash flow and earnings statements, which made the company even more appealing to investors. When the company declared bankruptcy in December 2001, investors lost millions, prompting the FBI and other federal agencies to investigate.

The sheer magnitude of the case prompted creation of the multi-agency Enron Task Force, a unique blend of investigators and analysts from the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service-Criminal Investigation Division, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and prosecutors from the Department of Justice.

Agents conducted more than 1,800 interviews and collected more than 3,000 boxes of evidence and more than four terabytes of digitized data. More than $164 million was seized to date about $90 million has been forfeited to help compensate victims. Twenty-two people have been convicted for their actions related to the fraud, including Enron’s chief executive officer, the president/chief operating officer, the chief financial officer, the chief accounting officer, and others.


Marbury v. Madison establishes judicial review

On February 24, 1803, the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice John Marshall, decides the landmark case of William Marbury versus James Madison, Secretary of State of the United States and confirms the legal principle of judicial review—the ability of the Supreme Court to limit Congressional power by declaring legislation unconstitutional—in the new nation.

The court ruled that the new president, Thomas Jefferson, via his secretary of state, James Madison, was wrong to prevent William Marbury from taking office as justice of the peace for Washington County in the District of Columbia. However, it also ruled that the court had no jurisdiction in the case and could not force Jefferson and Madison to seat Marbury. The Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Supreme Court jurisdiction, but the Marshall court ruled the Act of 1789 to be an unconstitutional extension of judiciary power into the realm of the executive.

In writing the decision, John Marshall argued that acts of Congress in conflict with the Constitution are not law and therefore are non-binding to the courts, and that the judiciary’s first responsibility is always to uphold the Constitution. If two laws conflict, Marshall wrote, the court bears responsibility for deciding which law applies in any given case. Thus, Marbury never received his job.

Jefferson and Madison objected to Marbury’s appointment and those of all the so-called “midnight judges” appointed by the previous president, John Adams, after Jefferson was elected but mere hours before he took office. To further aggravate the new Democratic-Republican administration, many of these Federalist judges𠄺lthough Marbury was not one of them–were taking the bench in new courts formed by the Judiciary Act, which the lame-duck Federalist Congress passed on February 13, 1801, less than a month before Jefferson’s inauguration on March 4.


Outbreaks in Alberta

    Acute care and continuing care facilities (including group homes) are reported publicly when there are 2 or more cases, indicating that a transmission within the facility has occurred.
      are put in place at continuing care facilities and group homes with a single confirmed case, as a precaution. provides more information on outbreaks in hospitals.

    Outbreak locations by zone

    • Outbreak information is updated on Tuesdays and Fridays each week.
    • Case numbers for outbreaks at specific sites are not provided online because they change rapidly and often.

    Acute care facilities

    Supportive living/home living sites

    • Dr. W.R. Keir Continuing Care Centre, Barrhead
    • Hillcrest Lodge, Barrhead
    • Stone Brook Lodge, Grimshaw

    Other facilities and settings

    • 4 Wing Military Family Resource Centre Childcare, Cold Lake
    • Arc Resources, Grande Prairie
    • Cenovus Christina Lake, Lac La Biche
    • Cenovus Sunrise Lodge, Fort Mckay
    • Civeo Athabasca, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Civeo McClelland Lake Lodge, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • CNOOC Long Lake, Anzac
    • CNRL Albian, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • CNRL Horizon, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Happy House Daycare, Cold Lake
    • Imperial Oil, Cold Lake
    • Kearl Lake work site, Fort Mckay
    • MEG Energy, Conklin
    • Mercer Peace River
    • Private dayhome, High Level
    • RCCC West Kakwa Lodge, Grande Prairie
    • Salvation Army Shelter, Fort McMurray
    • Suncor base plant, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Suncor Firebag, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Suncor Fort Hills, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Syncrude Aurora, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Syncrude Mildred Lake site, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • Tolko Industries, High Level
    • Walmart, Fort McMurray
    • Walmart, Grande Prairie
    • Wapasu Creek Lodge, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo
    • West Fraser Blue Ridge Lumber Manufacturing, Blue Ridge
    • Wood Buffalo Municipality

    Acute care facilities

    Long term care facilities

    • Covenant Health St. Joseph’s, Edmonton
    • Jasper Place Continuing Care Centre, Edmonton
    • Salem Manor, Leduc

    Supportive living/home living sites

    Other facilities and settings

    • Amazon, Nisku
    • Aurora Cannabis, Edmonton
    • Blue Quill Montessori Daycare, Edmonton
    • Costco (91 St. location), Edmonton
    • Happy Hands Dayhome, Edmonton
    • Heartland Petrochemical Complex – CUB unit, Fort Saskatchewan
    • Heartland Petrochemical Complex – Kiewit, Fort Saskatchewan
    • Heartland Petrochemical Complex – Polypropylene unit, Fort Saskatchewan
    • Ideal Daycare, Edmonton
    • Ideal West Daycare, Edmonton
    • Kidlets Daycare Preschool & OSC, Edmonton
    • Lilydale Sofina Foods, Edmonton
    • Private gathering, Carvel
    • Sigis JJ Nearing Childcare, St. Albert
    • Silent-Aire, Sherwood Park
    • Suncor Edmonton refinery, Sherwood Park
    • The Little Potato Company, Edmonton
    • UPS Customer Centre, Edmonton
    • Webber Greens Daycare, Edmonton

    Acute care facilities

    Supportive living/home living sites

    Other facilities and settings

    • Points West Living, Wetaskiwin
    • Private gathering, Ma Me O Beach
    • Red Deer Remand Centre

    Acute care facilities

    Long term care facilities

    • Carewest Garrison Green, Calgary
    • Carewest George Boyack, Calgary
    • Carewest Signal Pointe, Calgary

    Supportive living/home living sites

    • Holy Cross Manor, Calgary
    • Strafford Foundation Tudor Manor, Okotoks
    • Swan Evergreen Village, Calgary
    • The Mustard Seed, 1010 Building, Calgary
    • United Active Living Garrison Green, Calgary
    • Whitehorn Village, Calgary

    Other facilities and settings

    • 2000 Days Daycare, Calgary
    • 7-Eleven Food Centre, Calgary
    • A&W (Signal Hill Centre), Calgary
    • A Child’s View Learning Centre, Calgary
    • Aladdin Day Care, Calgary
    • Alpine Montessori Childcare Centre, Calgary
    • Amazon Sort Centre, Rocky View County
    • Bison Transport, Rocky View County
    • BrightPath Southwood East, Calgary
    • Brightpath Woodlands, Calgary
    • Calgary Cancer Centre construction worksite
    • Calgary Drop-In Centre
    • Calgary French and International School Daycare
    • Calgary Remand Centre
    • Cargill Case Ready, Calgary
    • Cargill Foods, High River
    • Cemrock Concrete and Construction, Calgary
    • Coca-Cola Canada Bottling, Calgary
    • Cukin Bilingual Day Home, Calgary
    • FedEx Shipping Centre, Calgary
    • Fledglings Educare Centre, Calgary
    • Fresh Direct Produce, Calgary
    • Graham Construction – Templemont site, Calgary
    • Home Depot Chinook, Calgary
    • Home Depot Distribution Centre, Calgary
    • Jump’n Jellybeans Daycare, Airdrie
    • Kids & Company (Evanston), Calgary
    • Kidsland Daycare (McKenzie), Calgary
    • Kids U – West 75 th , Calgary
    • La Societe Pommes de Reinette Daycare NE, Calgary
    • Little Metis Daycare, Calgary
    • Matrix Logistics Services, Calgary
    • Mt. Norquay Ski Resort, Banff
    • Pacekids Program, Calgary
    • Ply Gem Building Products, Calgary
    • Purple Potamus Preschool and Jr. Kindergarten Skyview, Calgary
    • Walmart Logistics, Balzac
    • Walmart Logistics Centre, Calgary
    • Walmart Supercentre, Airdrie
    • Wing Kei Montesorri, Calgary
    • Winners Signal Hill, Calgary
    • Wonder World Dayhome, Calgary
    • University of Calgary men’s hockey team

    Other facilities and settings


    The History of Chiropractic: D.D. Palmer

    Chiropractic has been evolving over the past century, but its roots go back to ancient China and Greece. Ancient writings in these cultures mention manipulation of the spine and maneuvering of the lower extremities to ease low back pain. Even Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 357 B.C. published texts detailing the importance of chiropractic care. He wrote, “Get knowledge of the spine, for this is the requisite for many diseases.”

    Modern chiropractic emerged near the end of the 19th century when health care was a conglomeration of competing theories, practitioners, potions and schemes. Except in urban centers, doctors were scarce, and most health care was provided in the home by family members. Hospitals were even scarcer than doctors and were seen as places where the terminally ill went to die. Heroic medicine was the most prevalent form of “orthodox” medicine in the first half of the 19th century. Heroic practice involved the notion that the harshness of the doctor’s remedies should be in proportion to the severity of the patient’s disease. This meant that the sickest patients were at risk of dying from the treatment since most doctors used things such as mercury and other toxins as well as lancets for letting of blood.

    Against this backdrop of heroic medicine, the Native American and Thompsonian traditions of herbal and other botanical remedies grew popular, and were joined in the early part of the 19th century by homeopathic medicine (promoted by Samuel Hahnemann, M.D., of Germany) and the magnetic healing methods of Franz Anton Mesmer, M.D. It was during this era of medicine that the founder of modern chiropractic, Daniel David Palmer, was born. Daniel David (known as D.D.) was born in 1845 in rural Ontario, Canada, but his family relocated to the Mississippi River valley near the end of the Civil War. It was here that D.D. took up the practice of magnetic healing.

    After nine years of clinical experience and theorizing, D.D. had decided that inflammation was the essential characteristic of all disease. With his sensitive fingers, Palmer sought to locate inflammation in his patients. By late 1895, Palmer began theorizing that inflammation occurred when displaced anatomical structures rubbed against one another, causing friction and heat. So Palmer started trying to manually reposition the parts of the body so as to prevent friction and the development of inflamed tissue.

    The first recipient of D.D. Palmer’s new strategy of treatment was a janitor in the building where Palmer operated his 40-room facility. Patient Harvey Lillard reported in the January 1897 issue of The Chiropractic that: “I was deaf 17 years and I expected to always remain so, for I had doctored a great deal without any benefit. I had long ago made up my mind to not take any more ear treatments, for it did me no good. Last January Dr. Palmer told me that my deafness came from an injury in my spine. This was new to me but it is a fact that my back was injured at the time I went deaf. Dr. Palmer treated me on the spine in two treatments I could hear quite well. That was eight months ago. My hearing remains good.”

    Pleased with his results with Harvey Lillard, D.D. Palmer extended his new work as a “magnetic manipulator” (Palmer 1897) to patients with a variety of other health problems, with reportedly good results. In the summer of 1896 he sought and obtained a charter for the Palmer School of Magnetic Cure, wherein he would teach his new method (Wiese 1896). With the assistance of his friend and patient, Reverend Samuel Weed, D.D. adopted Greek terms to form the word “chiropractic,” meaning done by hand. His school became known informally as Palmer’s School of Chiropractic (PSC), and he trained a few students, several of whom were allopathic and osteopathic doctors.

    D.D.’s son B.J. took over the running of the Palmer School while D.D. went on to open two other schools. D.D. passed away in 1913 of typhoid fever in Los Angeles, California. D.D. left the legacy of a founding a form of healthcare that has helped millions of people over the past century.

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    THE PUZZLING HISTORY OF SLEEPING SICKNESS

    The specter of falling into a sleep from which one cannot awaken has haunted many literary classics from "Snow White" and "Sleeping Beauty" to Rip Van Winkle. The movie "Awakenings" depicts survivors of the great pandemic of "sleeping sickness," or lethargic encephalitis, that swept the globe just after World War I. The patients' dramatic return to normal consciousness, after decades of a catatonic state, came during the summer of 1969 when they were given a new drug, L-dopa, used to treat Parkinson's disease.

    Today a new drama of miraculous reawakenings is unfolding in sub-Saharan Africa involving victims of African sleeping sickness, a different disease involving the same symptoms. Ornidyl or eflornithine hydrochloride, the first new drug to treat African sleeping sickness in 40 years, is being hailed by the World Health Organization as a "resurrection drug," because it has cured comatose patients who were considered hopeless and within hours or days of death.

    African sleeping sickness is fatal if left untreated. It is caused not by a virus, as was the case with the patients in "Awakenings," but by parasites transmitted by a bite from the tsetse fly. The disease begins with fatigue, fever and intense headache, joint pains and a range of other symptoms. When the protozoa finally invade the central nervous system, victims suffer extreme mental and physical lethargy -- hence the name "sleeping sickness" -- followed by seizures, coma and death.

    There are two varieties of African sleeping sickness: the Gambian form common in west and central Africa and the Rhodesian form common in east and southern Africa. Ornidyl is effective only for the Gambian strain.

    African sleeping sickness infects approximately 25,000 people annually, according to public health officials at the WHO the Gambian form is widespread in 36 central and west African countries. Fewer than 10 cases per year usually surface in the United States, most among travelers who have spent a long time in Africa.

    Until Ornidyl, developed by the U.S. pharmaceutical company Marion Merrell Dow, there was no safe drug for the late stage of the disease, when the central nervous system is involved. The only treatment was melarsoprol, an arsenic-based drug that killed up to 5 percent of patients treated with it and left a further 5 percent permanently damaged as a result of severe lesions of the central nervous system.

    Pentamidine and suramin, other sleeping sickness drugs that have been used to treat some AIDS symptoms, were only effective in the early stages of African sleeping sickness.

    One account of treatment provided by the WHO describes the case of a comatose African woman in the advanced stages of the disease who was given Ornidyl intravenously by doctors in a Belgian hospital that specializes in tropical diseases. Two days later, she was conscious and awake. After another week, she was answering questions and walking with help. Within three weeks of receiving the drug, she was able to talk spontaneously, walk without assistance and wash and dress herself. Shortly afterward, she left the hospital and was totally independent. The drug had returned her to a normal life.

    Molecular biologists investigating the genetics of the sleeping sickness parasite have recently announced advances in manipulating its genes, leading to hopes for an eventual vaccine.

    Unlike the case with African sleeping sickness, no cure or treatment was found for the type of sleeping illness portrayed in "Awakenings." The virus that caused lethargic encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain, was never clearly identified. During the this epidemic, which occurred at the same time as the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918, the illness struck between 5 million and 10 million people worldwide, killing half of them fairly quickly. Many of the sleeping-sickness survivors seemed to recover fully, only to be incapacitated years later by a paralyzing Parkinson's-like syndrome. Curiously, tissue from the encephalitis patients never showed evidence that they had had the flu. Epidemiologists still cannot say whether the two epidemics were connected.

    The sleeping sickness epidemic, which began in the Balkans in 1916, ended in 1927 for no apparent reason. Rare cases of post-encephalitic Parkinson's syndrome are seen today, but doctors believe the syndrome is caused by some other more common varieties of encephalitis, not the strange encephalitis lethargica.

    Some doctors speculate that the encephalitis lethargica virus is only lying dormant. Oliver Sacks, the New York neurologist who wrote the book "Awakenings" upon which the film was based, warns that there is no reason to think that the mysterious virus is extinct.

    In an appendix to his book, he notes a 2,000-year history of past episodes of the disease, including an epidemic in Europe in 1580 and a serious outbreak in London between 1673 and 1675. In Italy, following a famous flu epidemic in 1889-90, "the notorious 'nona' appeared -- a devastatingly severe somnolent illness, which was followed by the development of Parkinsonian and in almost all of the few survivors."

    Sacks writes that there was probably a small epidemic of the virus in the concentration camp at Theresienstadt during World War II. He also cites repeated reports of sporadic cases appearing around the world in different places.

    Smith Ely Jelliffe, a neurologist and psychoanalyst who observed the 1916-27 pandemic closely and wrote about it extensively, says Sacks, "asks again and again how it could happen that a disease which had obviously existed since the days of Hippocrates could be 'discovered' only now, and how it was possible for an illness which had been described unmistakably innumerable times to be 'forgotten' anew by each generation.

    "Such forgettings," writes Sacks, "are as dangerous as they are mysterious, for they give us an unwarranted sense of security. In 1927, with the virtual cessation of new cases of encephalitis lethargica, the medical profession heaved a huge sigh of relief."

    Richard T. Johnson, director of the department of neurology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and neurologist in chief at Johns Hopkins Hospital, sees many patients with Parkinson's-like afflictions and is sent unusual cases from all over the world. Although he is fascinated by the history of encephalitis lethargica, he says, "I don't personally think the disease occurs anymore simply because I have not seen the full-blown disease." Victims of the "Awakenings" epidemic showed peculiar kinds of eye movements and other symptoms that Johnson says he has not encountered.

    If the disease were still around, he is confident he would have seen some cases. "It's just these sort of patients who get sent to me," he says.

    Were encephalitis lethargica to appear again, says Johnson, scientists would be much better prepared than their colleagues were 75 years ago to stem an epidemic.

    "We would be able to isolate a virus and devise a treatment," he says. "At that time, the most they could do was inoculate rabbits and monkeys. There were no cell culture systems, no electron microscope and no molecular methods to look for the virus."Robin Herman is a Washington writer.


    Case DD- 285 - History

    Evidence of sporadic epidemics of polio predate recorded history.

    1789, British physician Michael Underwood provides first clinical description of the disease.

    1840, Jacob Heine describes the clinical features of the disease as well as its involvement of the spinal cord.

    1894, first outbreak of polio in epidemic form in the U.S. occurs in Vermont, with 132 cases.

    1908, Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper identify a virus as the cause of polio by transmitting the disease to a monkey.

    1921, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) contracts polio at age 39. His example has a major impact on public perceptions of individuals with disabilities. Although FDR is open about having had polio, he conceals the extent of his disability.

    1927, FDR forms Warm Springs Foundation in Georgia for polio rehabilitation.

    1929, Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw develop the &ldquoiron lung&rdquo to aid respiration.

    1930s, two strains of the poliovirus are discovered (later it was determined that there were three).

    1931, scientists create the first filter able to trap viruses.

    1933, FDR inaugurated president of the United States.

    1934, the first of the Birthday Balls to raise funds for the Warm Springs Foundation is held on FDR's birthday January 30.

    1935, Maurice Brodie and John Kolmer test polio vaccines, with disastrous results.

    1938, FDR founds the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, known today as the March of Dimes.

    1940s, Sister Kenny, an Australian nurse, comes to the U.S. to promote her new treatment for polio, using warm compresses to relax painful, contracting muscles and massage for rehabilitation.

    1945, FDR dies on April 12.

    1947 - 50, Dr. Jonas Salk is recruited by the University of Pittsburgh to develop a virus research program and receives grant to begin a polio typing project. He uses tissue culture method of growing the virus, developed in 1949 by John Enders, Frederick Robbins, and Thomas Weller at Harvard University.

    1953, Salk and his associates develop a potentially safe, inactivated (killed), injected polio vaccine.

    1954, nearly two million children participate in the field trials.

    1955, news of the success of the trials is announced by Dr. Thomas Francis in a formal press conference at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 12, the tenth anniversary of FDR's death. The news was broadcast both on television and radio, and church bells rang in cities around the United States.

    1955 - 57, incidence of polio in the U.S. falls by 85 - 90%.

    1957 - 59, mass clinical trials of Albert Sabin's live, attenuated vaccine in Russia.

    1962, the Salk vaccine replaced by the Sabin vaccine for most purposes because it is easier to administer and less expensive.

    1968, passage of the Architectural Barriers Act, requiring that all federally financed buildings be accessible to people with disabilities.

    1979, last case of polio caused by &ldquowild&rdquo virus in U.S. last case of smallpox in the world.

    1980s, post-polio syndrome identified by physicians and people who had polio.

    1980, the first National Immunization Day for polio held in Brazil.

    1981, poliovirus genome sequence published.

    1985, Rotary International launches PolioPlus program.

    1988, Rotary International, PanAmerican Health Organization, World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control, UNICEF begin international campaign to stop transmission of polio everywhere in the world.

    1990, Passage of the Americans with Disabilitites Act (ADA), providing broad legal protections for people with disabilities.

    1999, inactivated polio vaccine replaces oral polio vaccince as recommended method of polio immunization in the United States.

    2005, 50th anniversary of the announcement of the Salk vaccine on April 12.

    Sign barring children under sixteen from entering town, posted on a tree during the 1916 New York City epidemic Courtesy of March of Dimes

    Dr. Salk drawing blood from a child during the clinical trials, 1954 Courtesy of Smithsonian Archives

    Picture of poliovirus Courtesy of David Belnap and James Hogle

    Button supporting the ADA

    Ready to be vaccinated in Nepal Courtesy of Jean-Marc Giboux photographer


    Watch the video: 1952 Case DC3 Tractor