A hauberk was a knee-length mail shirt that weighed about 14 kg (31 lbs). The sleeves extended to mid-way down the forearm. Hauberks were put on over the head, and were split at the front and the back to enable the knights to ride his horse. Hauberk were constructed from overlapping metal scales riveted to a garment made of leather or cloth.
Chainmail (also maille, often called as chain mail or chain maille) is a type of armor consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. The word chainmail is of relatively recent coinage, having been in use only since the 1700s prior to this it was referred to simply as mail. The word itself refers to the armor material, not the garment made from it. A shirt made from mail is a hauberk if knee-length, haubergeon if mid-thigh length, and byrnie if waist-length. Mail leggings are called chausses, mail hoods coif and mail mittens mitons. A mail collar hanging from a helmet is camail or aventail. A mail collar worn strapped around the neck was called a pixane or standard.The use of chainmail was prominent throughout the Dark Ages, High Middle Ages and Renaissance, and reached its apex in Europe, in terms of coverage, during the 13th century, when mail covered the whole body. In the 14th century, plate armor began to supplement mail. Eventually mail was supplanted by plate for the most part. However, mail was still widely used by many soldiers as well as brigandines and padded jacks. Several patterns of linking the rings together have been known since ancient times, with the most common being the 4-to-1 pattern (where each ring is linked with four others). In Europe, the 4-to-1 pattern was completely dominant.
Chainmail was also common in East Asia, primarily Japan, with several more patterns being utilized and an entire nomenclature developing around them. Historically, in Europe, from the pre-Roman period on, the rings composing a piece of chainmail would be riveted closed to reduce the chance of the rings splitting open when subjected to a thrusting attack or a hit by an arrow. Up until the 14th century European mail was made of alternating rows of both riveted rings and solid rings. Later it was almost all made from riveted rings only. Chainmail is believed to have been invented by the Celtic people in Eastern Europe about 500 BC. When these Celts moved West they took mail with them. Most cultures who used chainmail used the Celtic word Byrnne or a variant, suggesting the Celts as the originators. The Roman Army used chainmail for almost all of its history. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD the infrastructure to make plate was largely lost in Europe, as a result mail was the best available armor during the ensuing Early Medieval period.
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|FAQ • docs|
"Times has come to close the contract and fulfill my true ambition."
The soul of Hauberk was split in three pieces: Suspicion, Ambition and Deception. The Deception Hauberk used Monk Aistis as his subordinate to grant him the Staff of Agailla Flurry through the Revelator. This lead him to seek for the help of Agailla Flurry's apparition to deprive Hauberk's pieces to merge and get back to his powerful form.
Hauberk once allied with Agailla Flurry to make a deal where he would grant her the entrance to the Fantasy Library if she gave him power. But before getting the power granted, his soul was ripped to pieces by Helgasercle. She made it so their contract could be fulfilled only if all three parts of his spirit were set free from their seals. Nevertheless, Hauberk had violated several conditions in their contract by harming humans to obtain her staff and modifying the staff and the Contract of Token.
After they were released, Ambition Hauberk, Suspicion Hauberk and Deception Hauberk tried to restore their power through their own means. Yet Ambition and Suspicion Hauberks destroyed the temple's equipments and transformed human spirits, but Deception Hauberk devised a plan to use Monk Aistis, who was hypnotized in order to use the devices, with the monastery in his benefit. He used Monk Aistis to repair the temple's equipment when the Revelator appeared. With his help, the Revelator activated the protection equipment and blocked the entrance to anymore of Deception Hauberk's enemies. Meanwhile, Agailla Flurry sends the Revelator to suggest Suspicion Hauberk to curse the Contract Token to attack Ambition and Deception Hauberk so he could merge them both into his own being.
In the end, the three pieces encounter and fight with each other, until at last Deception Hauberk could merge and become his own, whole being and fight the Revelator.
Medieval Chain Mail Armour and Hauberk
The chain mail is a type of armour made of small rings liked together in a mesh. The hauberk is a piece of armour that originally covered only the neck and shoulders but later evolved into a full-length coat of mail or military tunic.
Chain mail came into fashion during the Middle Ages (13th century) as battlefield armour – long after the destruction of the Thracians by the Roman Empire. This type of protection was extremely popular among knights and other medieval Europe brawlers.
The most common pattern for linking the rings of chain mail is 4-to1 – where each ring is linked with four others. Mail was usually more expensive than plate armour and it persisted longer in less technologically-advanced areas throughout Europe.
History of the Chain Mail
The earliest chain mail examples were found in Slovakia and Romania, and date from the 3rd century BC. Others can be tracked back to the Celts and the Etruscan around the 4th century BC. It’s believed that chain mail was inspired by earlier scale armour used by the Persians and Zoroastrians.
Although there’s no agreement on the origin of the word mail, it’s believed to be linked to macula (spot or opacity in Latin), or maillier (to hammer in French).
Chain mail was a common battlefield armour during the Middle Ages. The oldest intact mail hauberk is thought to have been worn by Leopold III, Duke of Austria, who died in 1386 during the Battle of Sempach. By the 14th century, mail was supplanted by plate, which provided greater protection against crossbows, lancer charges, and bludgeoning weapons. However, many soldiers still used chain mail as brigandines and padded jacks.
Effectiveness of the Chain Mail
Chain mail armour was effective against slashing blows made by edged weapons and some thrusting and piercing ones. Generally speaking, they couldn’t be pierced by conventional medieval weapons.
The reason chain armour was so effective was due to four factors:
- Linkage type, which could be riveted, butted, or welded.
- Material used, which could be iron, bronze, or steel.
- Weave density, which means a tighter weave needs a thinner weapon to surpass it.
- Ring thickness, which could range from 18 to 14 gauge wire.
A mail that was not riveted could be penetrated by a thrust from most sharp weapons. However, if it was riveted, only strong thrusts could damage and break it. Strong projectile weapons such as recurve bows and crossbows could penetrate riveted chain armour.
Because chain mail was flexible, a blow would often injure the wearer, which could cause bruising and fractures. Chain mail was also a particularly poor defence against head trauma, reason why mail-clad fighters frequently used rigid helms over their mail coifs. A soft gamberson was also worn under the hawberk to protect from maces’ and warhammers’ impact.
Hauberk - History
Chainmail was the earliest form of metal armour and was probably invented before the 5th century by the ancient Celts. The name mail comes from the French word "maille" which is derived from the Latin "macula" meaning "mesh of a net". The armour itself involved the linking of iron or steel rings, the ends of which were either pressed together, welded or riveted. Sometimes the rings were stamped out of a sheet of iron and these were then used in alternate rows with riveted links. The most common form of chainmail is the "four-in-one" pattern in which each link has four others linked through it. A few shirts have been found that appear to have been made of quilted fabric or leather to which were sewn rings and scales, and these shirts are not considered "true" mail.
Each piece of mail was fashioned specifically for whichever part of the body it was intended to protect. For the head there were the coif, aventail, mail fringe and a "bishop's mantle" for the torso, the shirt, hauberk, skirt and breeches for the upper limbs, mail sleeves and mittens for the lower limbs, chausses and sabatons.
Until the 14th century, mail was the primary armour for the average soldier. The main use of chainmail was to stop the wearer from being cut by the opponents blade. Mail did nothing to stop the damage from the force of the blow however, and was usually worn over a thick, padded undergarment. From the 1320's, shirts of mail, known as hauberks or byrnies, were often provided with flared sleeves covering to the middle of the forearms, and were long enough to reach past the wearer's knees. Some of the larger hauberks often had sleeves that were extended to form mittens for the hands. This was also the period when a shorter type of hauberk, the haubergeon, began to be used more regularly, its lower edge stopping to just above the knees. Some haubergeons had a flap-like extension at the center of the rear edge of the base which could be pulled up between the legs and laced in front to form a breke of mail to protect the genitals.
As there were developments in the armouring world, mail began to have a subordinate role in relation to plate armour, first being used as a linking elements for the various plates and then, in the 15th century, it was used to protect the more vulnerable parts of the body such as the elbow, neck, and knees joints. Mail shirts retained defensive importance during the 16th century with light horse and infantry armours, especially in conjunction with small pauldrons or spaulders and elbow length gauntlets which left part of the arms bare. In these cases, sleeves of mail were attached to the arming doublet worn under the armour. After this time, the use of mail slowly diminished as better plate armour was developed for the arms and legs, although it was still in use as late as the 17th century in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The craft of making mail is quite separate and distinct from that of the process of manufacturing plate armour. Because so much mail was produced, we can assume the method of manufacture must have been fast, allowing for division of the labour within the workshop. The most skilled task, the final linking of the rings, would have been done by the master craftsman, who would have been kept supplied with rings and rivets. The early stages in the production of mail, (the simple, labour intensive tasks) were left to apprentices and assistants.
There were two possible methods of producing the rings for the mail. Closed rings were made by punching them from a sheet of metal with a double punch, or by simply punching a hole in a piece of metal and trimming the outside edge. Open rings were usually made from iron wire. There has been (and still is) much controversy as to whether or not the ancient armourer knew the art of wire-drawing. This process of making wire involves the drawing of a forged metal rod through successively smaller and smaller holes until the rod was the right size for making rings. A similar method was to cut the wires from a thin metal sheet and then file, scrape and hammer them into the right size. It is more likely that a combination of both of these methods was used in which a strip of metal was cut from a sheet about 3 mm thick and then this was drawn through smaller and smaller holes, until the proper diameter of wire was reached. This length of wire was then wrapped around a rod the diameter of the required ring, using a device called a mandrill, to form a long coil. The coil was then cut up one side from end to end, producing a number of metal rings.
In all the methods described so far the metal was worked cold, but as soon as it became hard through working, it had to be annealed (heated until it was softened). This was done by bringing the rings to a red heat in the forge and then leaving them to cool. For overlapping the rings, they would be driven through a tapering hole in a steel block with a punch. After this overlapping, the rings would then be annealed once more. The next stage was the flattening of the ends, done by hammering. These flattened, overlapped ends were then punched or bored to make a hole for the rivet. Rivets were always made of iron, even if the rings were of brass. Rivets were made of wire with one end being hammered flat and the other cut to a point with wire cutters.
The last stage, the linking, was now done by the master craftsman. The most common pattern, as mentioned earlier, was the four-in-one pattern, in which each ring has four others linked through it. The rivets were burred over by the master using a hammer. When the mailmaker used closed rings he arranged them in alternated rows with open rings. The closing of the rings was sometime done by hammer welding.
While assembling the rings, the mailmaker must have used a pattern resembling a modern knitting pattern. Sadly, none of these patterns have survived, but it is known that garments of mail were shaped by adding or leaving out rings in each row. Occasionally, for a stronger shirt, two rings were used in the place of one in ordinary mail or sometime the garment was rolled up in charcoal and case-hardened. Some rings bear the maker's marks, an example being a mail shirt in the Tower of London, into which is woven three brass rings. The first ring is marked with the amourer's name (bertolt parte), and the second the name of his town (isrenloen), the third is plain.
The emergence of late medieval full plate armour wasn't really prompted by any specific discovery or advancement in metallurgical tech. Partial plate armour, in principle, can be traced all the way back to Classical Antiquity, such as the Greek muscle cuirass later Roman lorica segmentata.
Rather, the most critical development was the appearance of larger bloomeries. It was no coincidence that plate armour began in North Italy shortly after such bloomeries appeared there - they made it possible to produce sufficiently large steel plates in one piece.
The suit of armour of large articulated plates first appears in 14th century Italy, followed later by Germany and the rest of Europe. This was a result of bloomeries having grown large enough to produce metal plates of the required size.
Williams, Alan. "The Metallurgy of Medieval European Armour." Proceedings of the Forum of the 4th International Conference on the Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys. Shimane, Japan, 1996.
The problem before this was that you need quite a sizeable amount of steel, about 10kg, for a breastplate. Prior to the late 13th century or so, European bloomeries were generally not large enough to produce so much steel in a single chunk. To make a steel breastplate then, you'd have to weld two or more separate plates together, which compromised its protective value despite an enormous price tag.
A plate of armour which weighs between 2.5 and 4.5 kg will pose new problems lo the producers. Billets of metal of 10kg or more may be needed to make such a plate
Williams, Alan R. The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages & the Early Modern Period. Brill, 2003.
A significant factor behind the rise of larger bloomeries was that Late Medieval Europe began harnessing the power of rivers - using waterwheels to power furnace bellows enabled larger blooms of steel to be produced.
Once decent full plate armour became feasible to create, the main obstacle to adoption - aside from a lack of need early on - was simple economics. A full set of plate armour was extremely labour intensive to forge, and consequently very expensive. Keep in mind, even the Romans had to abandon the lorica segmentata after the Crisis of the Third Century rendered it economically and logistically unsustainable. No military in medieval Europe could rival the Roman Empire's resources.
By the 14th century, however, smiths had begun using watermills to driver hammers for shaping the steel, greatly reduced the labour required.
Water-power enabled smiths to increase their output. Bellows driven by a waterwheel could produce a continuous powerful draught from a free energy source, so it was at last possible to enlarge the size of the furnace and the bloom thus produced. Water-powered hammers were also heavy enough to fashion the larger blooms.
Blair, John, W. John Blair, and Nigel Ramsay, eds. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. A&C Black, 1991.
It was the newfound relative affordability of plate armour, combined with improved designs reducing its tactical downsides, that ultimately enabled its adoption. The full plate armour reached its peak about the same time advancements in projectile weaponry began to render it obsolete, however.
It is believed that chainmail was invented by the Celts. Chainmail history dates back to antiquity and was adopted by the Romans after they realised its potential after fighting the celts. A vatiety of materials were used to make chainmail including brass and iron but the most popular material was steel. In the 14th century, plate armor began to replace the chainmail worn by knights. However the chainmail was not completely disgarded by the Knights who continued to wear a shirt of chainmail beneath plate armor to protect the joints and the groin. Plate armor was extremely expensive and the average soldier during the Middle ages still used chainmail as their most effective form of protection. The history of chainmail shows its decline and use with the invention of the musket in 1520 and the subsequent use of gunpowder in variuos weapons.
Chainmail armor provided protection against being cut by the opponents blade. It was effective against the sharp points and blades of the spear, axe and sword. It helped to prevent the skin being pierced stopping the fatal infections which often followed such injuries. Chainmail armor was ineffective against heavy blows from a blunt weapon. A padded, or quilted, garment known by various names such as Aketon, Arming coat, Doublet, Gambeson, Hacketon was worn in conjunction with chainmail as a form of additional defence. These garments consisted of a quilted coat which was either sewn or stuffed with linen or even grass. This served as padding for additional armour worn over the top. Shirts made of chainmail weighed up to 25 kilograms, depending on the size and the number of chainmail garments worn.
Chainmail Hauberk and other garments
The word chainmail refers to the material of the armor. Various clothes and garments were made from the chainmail material. Each piece of chainmail was fashioned specifically for whichever part of the body it was
intended to protect.
- Chainmail Hauberk - A hauberk was a knee-length shirt made of chainmail
- Haubergeon - A haubergion was a waist-length shirt
- Chausses and Sabatons - Chausses and Sabatons were socks made of chain mail
- Chainmail coif - A coif was a hood, protecting the head
- Camail - A camail was the chain mail collar which hung from the helmet
- Mitons - Mitons were the mittens worn to protect the hands
The Advantages of Chainmail
The advantages of using chainmail a protection during the Middle Ages were as follows:
- It was flexible
- Easy to Make
- Easy and fast to repair
- Cheap and easy to fit many men, of all sizes
- Allowed ease of movement
Making chainmail during the Middle Ages was undertaken by the blacksmith. Making chainmail armor involved the linking of iron or steel rings, the ends of which were either pressed together, welded or riveted. The rings were formed when they were stamped out of a sheet of iron and then used in alternate rows with riveted links.
The demand for chainmail during the period of the Middle Ages was substantial. Each piece of mail was fashioned specifically for whichever part of the body it was intended to protect. Chainmail patterns were used for creating this type of armor, resembling a modern knitting pattern. There was a basic chainmail pattern used for each part of the body it was intended to protect. Sizing was easily accomodated by the addition of extra rings. The most common form of chainmail patterns was the "four-in-one" pattern in which each link had four others linked through it.
Each section of this Middle Ages website addresses all topics and provides interesting facts and information about these great people and events in bygone Medieval times including Chainmail. The Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts provided about the fascinating subject of the Middle Ages!
- Middle Ages era, period, life, age and times
- Interesting Facts and information about Chainmail in the Middle Ages
- Chainmail History
- Chainmail Armor
- Chainmail Hauberk and other garments
- The Advantages of Chainmail
- Making Chainmail
- Chainmail Patterns
Lear's hauberk Ώ] is an extremely unusual piece of equipment, filling four equipment slots in exchange for a massive amount of AC. To wear it, you must be able to wear chain mail, hats, boots, and gloves, meaning players that cannot wear one or more of those items due to size (ogres, trolls, spriggans), species (tengu, formicid, draconian, naga, palentonga), or mutations (horns or antennae 3, claws 3, hooves or talons 3) cannot wear Lear's hauberk. Merfolk can wear the hauberk, but the entire thing will meld into you in water, so you should search for something different to wear unless you know you'll be fighting on land in the foreseeable future.
Lear's hauberk is by no means an ideal piece of armour the chain mail base armour is cumbersome, and losing that many equipment slots will rule out many useful intrinsics and resistances that you could get by wearing enchanted or artefact equipment. Also, while its AC bonus may look impressive, the loss of any AC from the helmet, boots, and gloves slots offsets a significant chunk of this (assuming +2 versions of each of these items, the hauberk is effectively at +18, or even less once you've got some Armour skill training under your belt).
That being said, a character who finds it early on, possibly before finding magical equipment to fill the extra slots with anyway, can suddenly find themself absurdly well-protected against the threats of the early game, and if you can find all the resistances you need from your weapon, jewellery, cloak, and shield slots, it can serve all the way through to the Realm of Zot.
The information about this object, including provenance information, is based on historic information and may not be currently accurate or complete. Research on objects is an ongoing process, but the information about this object may not reflect the most current information available to CMA. If you notice a mistake or have additional information about this object, please email [email protected]
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