Mehemet 'Ali - History

Mehemet 'Ali - History

The colorful history of this Albanian militia officer-turned viceroy of Egypt, unfolds like fiction. As part of a combined Turkish-Albanian detachment, Mehemet 'Ali came to Egypt during the French invasion of 1798. His support for the Egyptians' struggle against Mamelukes ultimately led to his being named viceroy in 1805, a move approved by the sultan. Mehemet 'Ali made some notable contributions to Egypt including the creation of a standing army, advances in irrigation techniques, and the annexation of Nubia. Over the course of various military campaigns, Mehemet 'Ali accumulated so much power and influence that some believed his ultimate seat of power would be in Constantinople. Though he died insane in 1849, he earned a place in Egyptian history as the man who brought elements of Europe to the area, along with increased prosperity and power.

Mehemet Ali

The families had gathered that Sunday to remember Ali Bazzal, a soldier whom the Nusra Front declared they had executed on Dec. 6.

Over the past week, Sony Pictures Entertainment has received more body blows than Muhammad Ali during the Rumble in the Jungle.

Zaim Ali, a Peshmerga commander, said: “We have established a military plan to clear ISIS from all of areas.”

Gil turned and saw Muhammad Ali stride out of the stage entrance, smiling and scowling at the same time.

Ali walked up and hugged Gil, and the pair discussed music and racism and current events before a rapt audience.

“Ali Khan” was about to guide the ekka along the rough gangway when Mohammed Rasul interfered.

Nuzzur Ali's saddle, you may remember, was old and worn, and he had taken that of the Pindharee we last killed.

Away with such idle tales, fit only to be bugbears to children, said I mentally Ameer Ali is not to be frightened by them.

It came up with a fair breeze, soon reaching the Hyder Ali, which expected a fight.

On up the bay went the other merchantmen, with the Hyder Ali in the rear, and the British squadron hot on their track.


Who Was Mehmet Ali Agca? The Assassin's Murky Story

Much of what is unknown or unclear about the assassination attempt of John Paul II centers on the shadowy assassin. Did he work for the Russians or Bulgarians, or was he a lone wolf? Even his early life is in question. More than one media report paints him as a hoodlum and troublemaker from the very beginning. However, Raymond J. Faunt in his book, “The Assassination Attempt on Pope John Paul II: Foreign Denial and Deception?” characterizes Mehmet Ali Agca as a bright student with no political ties before attending the University of Ankara. A document in the CIA’s library supports Faunt on this. But as part of Mehmet Ali Agca’s confession, he revealed that he trained at a terrorist camp in South Beirut, Lebanon in 1977. Many terrorist camps in Lebanon were allegedly subsidized by the USSR. Whatever his origins, by 1978, Agca had begun down the path to his terrible encounter with the Pope.


The Massacre of the Mamalukes

This series has three easy 5 minute installments. This first installment: Mehemet Ali.

Introduction
From 1250 to 1517 the Mamelukes, a. military organization created from a body of slaves sold to the Sultan of Egypt, ruled in that country. Under the line of sultans springing from them the land suffered from almost constant strife, intrigue, murder, and rapine. These sultans were overthrown in 1517 by the Ottoman Sultan Selim, who made a complete conquest of Egypt, but the Mamelukes remained as a famous cavalry corps in the Egyptian army until, in 1811, they were treacherously destroyed by Mehemet Ali, as related below.

At the Battle of the Pyramids, July 21, 1798, the Mamelukes, under Murad Bey, were defeated by Napoleon. For several years the French occupied Egypt and upon their expulsion by the English, Mehemet Ali rose to power as Turkish commander and (1805) viceroy of the country. The English having withdrawn from Egypt, he prepared to establish his authority. This he did after a ruthless suppression of the Mameluke beys, who made a struggle for their provincial govemorships.

By a show of clemency and conciliation toward the Mamelukes, Mehemet Ali secured an appearance of tranquillity in Egypt. This policy, however, was only a preparation for ” the act of consummate treachery which finally uprooted the Mameluke power.’

This selection is from History of the Egyptian Revolution by Andrew A. Paton published in 1870. For works benefiting from the latest research see the “More information” section at the bottom of these pages.

Andrew A. Paton was (1811-1874) was a British diplomat, orientalist, and author of travel books and novels.

Massacre of the Mamalukes by Vernet
Public domain image from Wikipedia

Being free from the English, Mehemet Ali began to develop his plans for taking firm root in Egypt. He saw that, by extracting large revenues, he could maintain his influence by rich presents to Constantinople. His military position in Egypt was improved, and the increasing and advancing power of the Wahhabees (Mahometan reformers) rendered him more than ever necessary to the Porte. With the interior of the country tranquil and freed from civil war, an interval of prosperity, however brief, might have been expected. Such, however, was not the case. An act of spoliation—unaccompanied, to be sure, by bloodshed— but of a grasp more comprehensive and ruinous than anything that had been done by the predecessors of Mehemet Ali, was shortly consummated.

It was in the years 1808—1810 that Mehemet Ali effected a revolutionary transfer of landed property in Egypt. Not content with greatly increasing the taxes on the soil, he ordered an inspection to be made of all title-deeds and, on one pretext or another, his agents objected to their validity, contesting the legitimacy of the successions, imposing additions to the land-tax, and in a great multitude of instances retaining the title-deeds, which were burned. A few influential sheiks were spared but, wherever the Government chose, the land, for want of titles, gradually lapsed to the miri so that in a few years the Pacha became landlord of nearly the whole of the soil of Egypt, some insignificant annuities being granted in compensation. Mehemet Ali’s elevation to power was founded on public opinion but his first acts, after the consolidation of his rule, were the most flagrant defiance of public opinion and of the sacred rights of private property in the modern annals of Egypt. The Mamelukes, the French, and the intervening pachas had overwhelmed the people with exactions but no attempt had been made to tear up by the very roots the pacific and legal possession of property.

The commotion which these proceedings caused was violent in the extreme, and society was agitated to its inmost depths. Even the women and the children crowded the mosques, and made the azhar resound with their wailings. Classes and individuals, utter strangers to politics and political discussion, stood aghast at an event which rendered reasoning superfluous and precipitated all the rights of property into a common abyss. The sheiks met in assembly, and used every resource, both of representation and petition to the Pacha and the Porte but Mehemet Ali was firm in his purpose. The vehement representations of the sheiks against the additional land-taxes, and even the per severing refusals of Said Omar Mekrum, the nackeeb of the sheriffs, to go near the divan of the Pacha were declared by him to savor of a stiff-necked and rebellious spirit which must be repressed. And, throughout this curious struggle, the firm defense of the indefeasible rights of property was conveniently characterized by a lawless governor as an aggression and an invasion of the supreme authority. Said Omar Mekrum was exiled to Damietta. The military governors of provinces arbitrarily collected contributions without the intervention of the Coptic clerks and thenceforth began that direct grinding of the peasantry which, before the death of Mehemet Ali, greatly reduced them in number and impoverished them almost to the minimum of possible human existence.

At this period (1809) events in Arabia were preparing a triumph for Mehemet Ali and an extension of his political power. This vast country, the cradle of Islamism, was now overrun by the Wahhabee reformers, who, from small beginnings, had mastered both Mecca and Medina, and, although without the science of European warfare, made up for their deficiencies by an enthusiastic and undaunted bravery in action, as well as by great powers of endurance in the arduous campaigns of that torrid region. Their peculiar doctrines were based on the self-denial of the early Moslems, which made them avoid both those stimulants which expend the nervous and muscular energies and those lethargic habits which are alternately the effect and the cause of inaction.

The barren shores of the Red Sea being in a great measure devoid of ports and of navigation, and the trade of Suez having sunk into insignificance, it was not easy to transport an army from Egypt to Arabia. By a series of most painful efforts, wood, cordage, and other materials for shipbuilding were carried from the ports of Turkey to Egypt, and across the desert, on the backs of camels to Suez. Numbers of men and of those useful beasts of burden perished in the attempt but at length, after incredible efforts, eighteen vessels were launched in the space of less than a year, and fitted up for the conveyance of troops and provisions. A baptism of blood accompanied their launch for the better solemnization of the departure from Cairo of the troops destined for the Arabian expedition this time was chosen for the final massacre of the Mamelukes. The infirmities of Ibrahim Bey had shown the Mamelukes that they could no longer hope for any revival of their supremacy the remaining head men were therefore disposed toward a passive and luxurious existence, giving no further umbrage to the Porte or to Mehemet Ali, and contenting themselves with as large a share as they could grasp of the produce of Egypt. Mehemet Ali, on his side, was not displeased to patch up an accommodation with these turbulent barons of Eastern feudalism so as to have more elbow room to carry out his designs of a virtual sovereignty under the mask of zeal for the service of the Porte, and at the same time to have them more securely in his power when the convenient moment came for getting entirely rid of them.


Conteníu

Probablemente nació en Kavala (Grecia), anque los sos oríxenes yeren albaneses. Empezó trabayando como mercader de tabacu, pero dexar p'apuntase nel Exércitu otomanu. Llueu destacó como un brillante soldáu y asina arrincó una meteórica carrera militar que lu llevaría a convertise nel home más poderosu d'Exiptu.

En 1798, Napoleón Bonaparte llegara a Exiptu, entós parte del Imperiu otomanu, col fin de cortar les rutes de comunicación britániques cola India. Los mamelucos, que controlaben Exiptu, nun consiguieron detene-y y fueron ganaos na batalla de les Pirámides. Poco dempués, la flota francesa foi destruyida polos británicu na batalla del Nilu, pero les tropes napoleóniques siguíen controlando parte del país. Entós, el sultán otomanu decidió unviar tropes pa socorrer a los sos vasallos. Asina, en 1799 Mehmet Alí foi unviáu como segundu oficial d'un cuerpu de sofitu albanés con órdenes de xunise al exércitu anglu-turcu que colaba escontra Exiptu. Les tropes turques nun yeren bien eficaces por cuenta de la diversidá de xentes que les componíen, que faíen imposible la so organización. La situación agravóse cuando les pagues retrasáronse. Dellos soldaos remontáronse y desertaron pa dedicase al pillaje. Ante esto, Mehmet tomó'l mandu de too l'exércitu turcu, llogrando espulsar a los franceses tres tomar d'El Cairu en 1803.

Tres la derrota francesa, quedó n'Exiptu un vacíu de poder qu'aprovechó Mehmet. A principios de mayu de 1805 el pueblu d'El Cairu llevantar n'armes contra'l valí otomanu Khurshid Bajá, les cais de la ciudá convertir nun campu de batalla y Khurshid quedó sitiáu na ciudadela. La nueche del 12 al 13 de mayu Mehmet Alí foi escoyíu valí d'Exiptu polos ulemas (autoridaes relixoses) d'El Cairu y la situación aselóse. En xunetu la so autoridá foi reconocida pol sultán Selim III. Mehmet sabía que los mamelucos repondríen el control en cuanto recuperárense de ganar ante'l franceses. Por ello, nos primeros años del so mandatu dedicar a afitar y estender el so poder por tol país. En 1811, acabó definitivamente colos sos opositores. Cola escusa de celebrar una fiesta de invistidura del so fíu Tusun como Xeneral de los Exércitos de Arabia, convidó a los príncipes mamelucos a la so residencia. Entós, ordenó a los sos homes que-yos tendieren una emboscada nuna caleya de la ciudadela. Venticuatro príncipes y los sos cuatrocientos acompañantes fueron masacrados. En 1812, confiscó toles tierres del Altu Exiptu (sur del país) que pertenecíen a los mamelucos.

Periodu de fidelidá al sultán Editar

Campaña de Hiyaz Editar

En 1811 combatió la insurrección de los wahhabíes nel principiu de la Guerra Otomana–Wahhabi, a pidimientu del Imperiu otomanu, lo que-y dexó estender la so autoridá sobre'l Hiyaz. Al partir a la guerra dexó al so fíu Ibrahim Bajá nel gobiernu. En 1815, mientres combatía a les tribus rebalbes, recibió informes sobre la fuxida de Napoleón de la isla d'Elba y sobre una posible invasión otomana d'Exiptu. Esta difícil situación internacional podría fae-y perder el gobiernu del país, por ello partió en cuanto pudo escontra El Cairo. El 18 de xunu (día de la batalla de Waterloo) llegó a la capital. La campaña pasó entós a ser dirixida pol so fíu Tusun. En 1816, Ibrahim sustituyó al so hermanu (muertu en combate) y en 1818 acabó definitivamente cola insurrección.

Esta campaña significó'l control exipciu de les Ciudaes Santes de La Meca y Medina y de la mariña oriental del Mar Coloráu. Con ello Mehmet Alí convertir en salvaguarda del Pelegrinaxe y consiguió zones estratéxiques pa controlar les rutes comerciales d'Arabia. L'exércitu que lluchó en Hiyaz taba compuestu principalmente poles tropes albaneses coles que Mehmet llegó a Exiptu. Al so regresu causaron una serie d'incidentes violentos qu'obligaron al valí a reformar l'Exércitu.

Campaña de Sudán Editar

Dende 1820 a 1822, otru de los sos fíos, Ismail Kamil, dirixó una campaña de conquista del Sudán, una tierra rica en recursos, como'l oru y los esclavos. En febreru de 1820 conquistó'l oasis de Siwa (anguaño n'Exiptu), una zona de vital importancia pa controlar les rutes de les caravanes de mercaderes. En xunetu, la Nubia sudanesa (actual provincia Norte) cayó ensin dificultá en manes exipcies. Asina'l Reinu de Sennar sumió y Badi VII foi obligáu a arrenunciar a la corona. De siguío, Muhammed Bey, un defterdar, foi unviáu por Mehmet al mandu de 4500 homes y ocho cañones pa conquistar Kordofán. La resistencia foi feroz, pero la campaña tuvo ésitu gracies a la supremacía del exércitu exipciu y a les armes de fueu.

N'ochobre de 1822, Ismail morrió en combate. Poco dempués, tou Sudán atopábase yá en manes exipcies. En 1823 Mehmet fundó la ciudá de Ḥartum, onde en 1830 establecería a un gobernador exipciu. Pretendía usar Sudán como ponte pa nueves espediciones escontra Etiopía o la fonte del Nilu, anque a la fin quedó en proyeutu. Mientres esta campaña xunir al exércitu exipciu dellos llabradores procedentes de los reclutamientos forzosos pa sustituyir a los soldaos albaneses que nun consiguíen afaese a les condiciones climátiques de la zona, llegando entós a haber ente 8.500 y 9.500 homes lluchando en Sudán. Estos dos primeres campañes militares teníen unos intereses económicu-comerciales escamplaes: el control de les rutes comerciales, el llogru de materies primes y l'apertura de nuevos mercaos pa los productos exipcios.

Campaña de Morea Editar

En 1824, el sultán otomanu, Mahmut II, solicitó de nuevu la so ayuda, esta vegada pa combatir a los rebeldes griegos, cola promesa de fae-y valí de la Morea (actual Peloponeso). El so fíu Ibrahim dirixó nuevamente les tropes, compuestes por 17 000 homes. Tamién unvió la Flota de Guerra Exipcia. Ésta taba constituyida principalmente por buques que Mehmet encargara n'estelleros de Marsella, Tolón, Venecia, Trieste o Livorno. El númberu total de barcos yera de sesenta.

A mediaos de mayu de 1824 empezó la invasión de Creta. De siguío les tropes desembarcaron en Morea. Ante la meyora exipcia, los griegos fuxeron a los montes, onde empezaron una guerra de guerrilles contra l'invasor. El 15 d'abril de 1825 l'exércitu turcu-exipciu empezó'l sitiu de Missolonghi, que se rindió tres un llargu asediu'l 24 d'abril de 1826. El 20 d'ochobre de 1827, la flota exipcia, combinada cola turca, sufrió una gran derrota en Navarino frente a la coalición formada por Reinu Xuníu, Francia y Rusia, que lluchaben a favor de los griegos pa protexer los sos intereses nel Mediterraneu. Les potencies europees obligaron entós al Imperiu otomanu a reconocer la independencia griega. En 1828 los postreros soldaos exipcios abandonaron Grecia.

Negociaciones con Francia Editar

En 1827, Francia empezó una serie de negociaciones con Mehmet col fin de consiguir sofitu bélicu n'Arxelia. Bernardino Drovetti, el cónsul francés (con gran inflúi sobre Mehmet) pidió la intervención del exércitu exipciu en Trípoli, Tunicia y Arxelia pa sofitar la ocupación francesa d'esti últimu país. Finalmente en 1829 les negociaciones acaben en fracasu. Mehmet refugó la propuesta pola fuerte oposición de los gobiernos otomanu y británicu, y porque yá tenía en mente una campaña más rentable pa los sos planes: Siria.

Como prueba de bona voluntá, en 1829, Mehmet Ali ufiertó a Francia los dos obeliscos de la entrada al templu de Luxor. Un obeliscu llegó a París en 1833, y trés años más tarde, en 1836, el rei Luis Felipe mandó alzalo nel centru de la Plaza de la Concordia, onde se llevantó una guillotina mientres la revolución. L'otru obeliscu quedar n'Exiptu por ser demasiáu difícil y pesáu pa treslladalo a Francia cola teunoloxía de la dómina.

Editar

En 1831, Abdallah, valí d'Acre, aceptó que 6000 llabradores, que fuxíen del reclutamiento forzosu, abelugar nel so territoriu. Asina, cola escusa de prindar a los desertores, Mehmet Alí entró en conflictu col sultán al devasar la frontera de Siria. L'entamu d'esta nueva campaña coincide coles necesidaes de madera y otres materies primes pa la construcción de barcos. Mehmet unvió les sos tropes mandaes nuevamente pol so fíu Ibrahim. L'exércitu exipciu crució la frontera con Siria y punxo sitiu a Acre'l 3 de payares. La ciudá cayó'l 27 de mayu de 1832. L'exércitu victoriosu siguió la so marcha escontra Anatolia. El 21 d'avientu en Konya l'exércitu otomanu foi derrotáu. Tres esta batalla, Ibrahim tenía'l camín llibre hasta la capital, Constantinopla. Ante l'amenaza de la meyora, los turcos aceptaron l'ayuda que-yos ufiertaba Rusia pa mediar nel conflictu. Asina se robló'l Tratáu de Unkiar Skelessi en Kütahya en 1833. Les condiciones de paz yeren: retirada de les tropes exipcies d'Anatolia, Exiptu se anexionaría Acre, Damascu, Alepo y Adana y recibiría Candía (Creta) y el Hiyaz como compensación de guerra y Ibrahim Bajá convertir en gobernador (valí) de Siria.

Al aportar al gobiernu en Siria, Ibrahim empezó una serie de reformes pa modernizar el país cola instalación n'Acre del gobiernu militar exipciu y la proclamación de la igualdá de cultu y de relixón. En 1835 el preláu apostólicu de Siria declara: «Llueñe de tener quexes del tratu que reciben los cristianos, tenemos de felicitanos pola tolerancia que se-yos brinda» y «El Xeneralísimu exipciu confía a los cristianos los puestos más importantes. Autorízase-yos a montar a caballu, a llevar turbante blancu, privilexu esclusivu de los musulmanes»

Autorizar a los cristianos a realizar negocios comerciales nes mesmes condiciones que los musulmanes y refórmase l'agricultura (Funda'l Creitu Agrícola, fomenta'l cultivu del tabacu, multiplica'l plantíu de la morera y llántense 260 000 cepes de vide importaes de Burdeos). La industria sirio, sobremanera la del algodón, vive tamién un gran florecimientu compitiendo col algodón indio. Tamién ameyora del puertu de Sidón. El comerciu inglés y francés nun ye fadiáu, pero alvertir a los sos cónsules qu'estos tienen d'afaese a les lleis del país. Esta paz yera humillante pa los turcos, yá que perdíen una gran cantidá de terrén a manes de quien fora'l so vasallu.

Segunda Crisis Oriental Editar

En 1838 Mehmet Alí anunció'l so deséu de consiguir la independencia del Imperiu otomanu y convertir a Exiptu nun reinu hereditariu. Esti anunciu provocó una segunda crisis nes tirantes rellaciones ente'l sultán y el so vasallu. La situación paeció aselase, pero esi mesmu añu, el gobiernu otomanu y el británicu roblaron el Tratáu de Balta Llimen, qu'obligaba a abolir los monopolios en toles provincies del Imperiu, Exiptu incluyíu, ya imponía nueves tarifes aduaneres peraltes. Estes midíes, especialmente la segunda, afectaríen enforma a la economía exipcia y baleraríen les sos arques. Exiptu negar a aceptar el tratáu, lo cual provocó una nueva guerra turcu-exipcia.

L'exércitu otomanu foi ganáu en Nísibis, cerca d'Urfa, el 24 de xunu de 1839. De nuevu quedaba llibre'l camín hasta Constantinopla, pero esta vegada, Mehmet prohibió al so fíu Ibrahim siguir la marcha. Ante esta situación, Gran Bretaña, Rusia, Austria y Prusia, que víen medroses l'aumentu del poder exipciu, sofitaron la causa otomana. Namái Francia sofitaba a Exiptu. Les potencies aliaes esixíen que Mehmet retirar de la rexón interior de Siria y del actual El Líbanu, en cuenta de caltener Acre y el derechu a tresmitir el tronu a los sos descendientes, so amenaza d'intervenir. Mehmet nun aceptó les condiciones y prosiguió la llucha. La reacción de les potencies aliaes nun se fixo esperar: Naves britániques y austriaques bloquiaron la salida del Nilu al Mediterraneu, los británicos cortaron les víes de comunicación d'Exiptu con Siria y dexaron al escosu exércitu exipciu ensin refuerzos, el 11 de setiembre de 1840 Beirut ye bombardeada y el 3 de payares Acre capitula. Ante tal acontecimientos, Francia rompió la so alianza con Exiptu. La guerra taba perdida. El 27 del mesmu mes, Mehmet aceptó les condiciones que-y impunxeren, arrenunciando amás a Creta y al Hiyaz. Amás, a partir d'entós Exiptu quedar ensin Armada y l'exércitu nun podría superar los 18.000 efectivos. No único que salía ganando Mehmet yera en que podría tresmitir los sos derechos sobre Exiptu a los sos descendientes, quien gobernaríen Exiptu hasta'l derrocamientu del rei Fuad II en 1953.

Amás de los sos grandes llogros en política esterior, la so aportación al reinu foi perimportante, yá que s'atopó con un país atrasao y falto d'infraestructures. En cuanto afitó'l so gobiernu, empezó una serie de reformes na alministración del país, modernizó y reorganizó l'exércitu, potenció l'agricultura, construyó canales y presas ya impulsó el comerciu y la industria. Coles mesmes, ameyoró'l sistema educativu y construyó escueles. Por tou ello ye consideráu'l fundador del Exiptu modernu.

Reforma agraria Editar

Les primeres midíes que tomó teníen como fin reestructurar el sistema de posesión de les tierres. En 1809, ordenó la tasación de les tierres waqf (propiedaes de calter relixosu), hasta entós exentes, y la confiscación esi mesmu añu de la metá de los beneficios llograos polos multazim (aquellos qu'esfrutaben del derechu de la llibre esplotación de determinaes propiedaes rurales o urbanes).

En 1814, confiscó les tierres del So Exiptu (norte del país) de los multazim. A cambéu dio-yos una suma de dineru equivalente al porcentaxe de beneficios que llograben por elles. Esta compensación nun la recibieron los multazim del Alto Exiptu (sur del país), una y bones la mayoría yeren mamelucos. Una vegada fechu esto, Mehmet fixo estremar los terrenes en parceles y distribuyiles ente'l llabradores exipcios. Pero l'alministración direuta de gran parte de les tierres cultivables quedó en manes del Estáu.

Gran parte de les tierres waqf corrieron la mesma suerte que les tierres de los multazim. Los beneficios d'estos campos yeren teóricamente utilizaos pal financiamientu d'instituciones y actividaes relixoses. Aquellos propietarios que nun pudieron demostrar los sos derechos d'esplotación sobre diches propiedaes, perder en beneficiu del Estáu. Según l'historiador y ulema Abdalrahman Al-Yabarti:

«Un quintu de les tierres cultivables del país convirtiérense de forma illegal en waqf»

Pa un meyor control sobre les tierres y la so alministración, ordenó realizar un catastru de les propiedaes del país. El catastru del baxu Exiptu taba llistu en 1814, pero hasta 1820 nun se completó'l del Altu Exiptu. Les tierres estremar en categoríes de tasación y la mayoría d'elles quedaben rexistraes a nome de los pueblos y aldegues circundantes.

Reforma de l'alministración Editar

En 1814, llevar a cabu la reestructuración de la división territorial alministrativa. Estableciéronse trece gobernaciones, estremaes en departamentos, y establecióse un sistema jerarquizado de gobernadores provinciales y oficiales de departamentos col fin de llograr un mayor control de la producción agrícola. Más tarde, esta división territorial foi modificada en diverses ocasiones. Ente 1830 y 1834, llevar a cabu la definitiva reestructuración: el país quedaba estremáu en diez provincies, estremaes de la mesma en distritos y estos, en subdistritos. Cada provincia yera asignada a un oficial gubernamental que dependía direutamente del valí.

L'alministración central Editar

L'alministración central controlaba de forma direuta la gran mayoría de los asuntos del país. El gabinete virreinal tomaba les decisiones últimes, tantu alministratives como militares, al traviés de "órdenes virreinales" (un amiestu de Decreto Ley y Real Decretu). Al traviés d'él, el valí exercía'l so control sobre tolos asuntos del país, supervisaba les cuentes y designaba a los oficiales gubernamentales (y xulgába-yos si fuera necesariu). Los miembros del gabinete yeren curioso escoyíos y controlábase la so formación continua. Otros cuerpos alministrativos centrales yeren los departamentos ministeriales (diwan), encargaos de la xestión alministrativa cotidiana y los conseyos (maŷlliriu), encargaos de les funciones xudicial y disciplinariu, anque les decisiones d'estos cuerpos munches vegaes yeren sustituyíes poles del gabinete virreinal de Mehmet.

En 1837, reestructuróse l'alministración central, aboliéronse los conseyos y partiéronse les sos obligaciones ente los departamentos ministeriales. La nueva alministración quedó asina constituyida:

  • Gabinete virreinal: les sos funciones nun variaron.
  • Departamentu d'asuntos civiles (Diwan al-Jidiwi): tenía al so cargu'l serviciu postal, los pasaportes, el censu de población, les obres públiques, les instituciones relixoses, l'arsenal, los hospitales, los conseyos de comerciu y los xulgaos.
  • Departamentu d'educación (Diwan al-Madaris): tenía al so cargu les escueles, les imprentes y el telégrafu.
  • Departamentu de guerra (Diwan al-Yihandiya): encargáu del exércitu y la defensa del país.
  • Departamentu de marina: encargáu de la construcción y caltenimientu de los barco de guerra.
  • Departamentu d'asuntos esteriores: encargáu de les rellaciones coles potencies, el comerciu y el sistema d'aduanes.
  • Departamentu de finances: encargáu del presupuestu y el cobru d'impuestos.
  • Departamentu d'industria: encargáu de la construcción y suministru de les fábriques.
  • Departamentu d'obres públiques ya instrucción pública: encargáu de la construcción y caltenimientu de canales, preses, etc.

Mientres los primeros años de gobiernu de Mehmet, los funcionarios otomanos fueron gradualmente sustituyíos por oficiales de la redolada del valí.

Reforma del exércitu Editar

Mehmet Alí entendió que pa caltener el poder yera prioritariu tener unes tropes numberoses coles que caltener l'orde y defender el país y reformar l'exércitu, p'amontar la so eficacia. Pa ello llevó a Exiptu el modelu européu. Los primeros oficiales estranxeros que llegaron yeren italianos.

En 1816, abrir en El Cairu la primer escuela militar d'Exiptu. Ellí, nuevos mamelucos al serviciu personal del valí aprendíen el Corán, idiomes (turcu, persa ya italianu), realizaben exercicios físicos y equitación, aprendíen táctiques militares, y l'usu de les armes. En 1820, establecióse'l primer campamentu de formación militar nel Alto Exiptu so les órdenes d'un militar francés, el coronel» Joseph Sève. [6] Ellí adomó a un reximientu d'antiguos mamelucos y a dellos esclavos de Sudán. Les bones resultancies de Sève influyeron en Mehmet, qu'a partir d'entós empezó a sustituyir a los instructores italianos por franceses.

El nucleu central del exércitu exipciu taba formáu poles tropes albaneses coles que Mehmet llegara a Exiptu, a les que se xunieren delles tropes turcu y mamelucu, dalgunos tunecíns y arxelíns y auxiliares beduinos. L'exércitu nun taba correchamente jerarquizado, los soldaos obedecíen namái a los sos propios oficiales, de los que cobraben direutamente, y cada grupu tenía'l so propiu estilu. Por cuenta de la so esperiencia nes files otomanes, sabía qu'esti tipu de formación nun sería una fuercia fiable al llargu plazu. Mehmet quería un exércitu de soldaos regulares y disciplinaos dependientes d'una sola llinia de mandu. Tamién quería dotalos con armes modernes y artillería. Los homes que tenía disponibles pa la llucha nun yeren abondes pa los sos planes d'espansión. [7] Por ello, tuvo qu'adoptar el modelu de reclutamiento forzosu de Napoleón. Esta decisión foi bien meditada y adoptóse nel últimu momentu, yá que Mehmet nun taba acordies con ello, pero nun vía otra solución. [8] Anque en 1820 dalgunos llabradores yá fueren reclutados pa la campaña de Sudán, foi en 1823 cuando empezó a ponese en práutica con avezamientu. El refugu a esti sistema foi xeneralizáu y provocó graves disturbios ente la población.

Convencíu de la eficacia del nuevu exércitu, eslleió tolos vieyos reximientos d'albaneses y de mamelucos. Pa dirixir a les nueves tropes precisábense oficiales formaos nes nueves maniobres militares. Por ello, construyéronse numberoses escueles militares en distintos puntos d'Exiptu. Nelles, profesores turcos y europeos impartíen táctiques militares, idiomes, música y usu d'armes y artillería. Les campañes militares sirvieron de campu de pruebes del nuevu exércitu. Les impresionantes resultancies sirvieron pa siguir impulsando les reformes entamaes. Creóse un nuevu cuerpu de caballería al estilu européu y una Armada de construcción propia.

Reforma de l'agricultura Editar

Los trataos comerciales que l'Imperiu otomanu roblara coles potencies occidentales, dexaben la llibre circulación de los productos europeos en toles provincies otomanes, incluyíu Exiptu. Esta política arruinaba'l comerciu exipciu, que nun podía competir colos productos estranxeros.

En 1808, Exiptu robló un alcuerdu col gobiernu británicu pol que se comprometía a vender grandes cantidaes de grano a Gran Bretaña pa desaniciar la escasez de cebera provocada poles Guerres napoleóniques. Gracies a ello, Mehmet diose cuenta de les posibilidaes de controlar la producción y el comerciu. Esto llevó a un sistema desaxeradamente proteicionista y a monopolizar la producción y la vienta de tolos productos exipcios. En 1811, prohibió'l comerciu priváu de granu del Altu Exiptu. En 1812, fixo lo mesmo col arroz del baxu Exiptu y, en 1815, col azucre del sur. Finalmente, en 1816, pasó a controlar el restu de cultivos.

En 1821, empezar a cultivar a gran esguila'l algodón de fibra llarga: se delimitaron grandes terrenales pal so cultivu nel fértil delta y distribuyéronse granes ente les aldegues. Tamién se concedieron creitos a los llabradores pa mercar lo que precisaren, que seríen devueltos descontándolos del dineru que pagaba l'Estáu pola collecha. L'algodón yera un cultivu de branu, [9] lo qu'obligó a ameyorar les obres hidráuliques y construyir otres nueves. Coles nueves construcciones apaecieron nuevos cultivos de branu como'l azucre, l'índigo, el opiu y el arroz, qu'apurrieron grandes beneficios al país. Cola introducción del algodón de fibra llarga a gran escala, el llabradores empezaron a trabayar la mayor parte del añu, como resultancia del nuevu sistema de rotación de cultivus, y nos periodos de nula actividá agrícola teníen de trabayar nel caltenimientu y construcción d'obres hidráuliques. Per otra parte, les muyeres y los neños empiecen a trate nos campos, yá que s'incorporen a los llabores agrícoles mientres la recueya del algodón. La producción de cultivos d'iviernu, como les ceberes, tamién creció considerablemente.

Pa llevar a cabu les reformes y l'introducción de los nuevos cultivos, Mehmet llevó a Exiptu espertos granxeros estranxeros, como franceses pa los cultivos d'algodón y cáñamu o armenios pal opiu. Al igual qu'asocedió col exércitu, l'ésitu inicial de les reformes de l'agricultura animaron a Mehmet a siguir cola monopolización de cultivos. Asina, tocó-y el vez al trigu, al arroz, al sésamu, a les llegumes o al índigo.

Industrialización del país Editar

Al igual que cola agricultura, Mehmet enllantó un réxime proteicionista que controlaba tol procesu industrial, dende la contratación d'obreros a la distribución del productu. El fin d'esta política yera consiguir qu'Exiptu fuera autosuficiente. La industria exipcio yera práuticamente medieval y consistía nunos pocos talleres artesanales que los sos obreros arrexuntar en gremios a la manera feudal.

Les primeres fábriques apaecieron en 1815 cola creación de delles industries militares, como les dedicaes a la fabricación d'armes o pólvora. En 1816 crear en El Cairu la primera fábrica testil. D'esta miente, esti sector convertir nel campu de pruebes de les reformes industriales. Esi mesmu añu empezó la monopolización de la producción testil, cerrando los talleres esistentes y faciendo que'l trabayadores pasaren a la nueva fábrica estatal, al empar que se prohibía l'actividá privada nel sector. Mehmet mercó modernes máquines europees y convidó a espertos por que lu ayudar. Ante la escasez d'obrerus, recurrir al reclutamiento forzosu de llabradores.

Darréu empezó la fabricación d'otros productos como'l índigo y otros tintes, farina, aceite o vidriu. L'algodón de fibra llarga, al igual que pasara cola agricultura, tamién revolucionó la industria. Hasta 1828 construyéronse trenta y cinco fábriques algodoneres testiles, que procesaben añalmente de 3.000 a 4.000 tonelaes d'algodón. En 1822, construyóse una fábrica de vidriu en Alexandría. Cinco años más tarde construyóse en Rosetta una fábrica pa tratar el arroz. Tamién se construyeron tres refineríes d'azucre y delles fábriques pa ellaborar farina, aceite o tintes. Tamién ye destacable la fábrica de papel d'El Cairu, creada en 1831.

Por cuenta de la decisión de Mehmet de tener una flota construyida n'Exiptu, la industria siderúrxico tamién florió. El estelleru establecer n'Alexandría so la supervisión d'un inxenieru francés, quien lo convirtió nel complexu industrial más importante del país. En namái trés años construyeron ventiséis modernos buques de guerra, lo que la convirtió nuna de los siete llexes más poderoses de la dómina.

Obres públiques Editar

Obres hidráuliques Editar

Los cultivos de branu favorecieron l'apaición de nueves obres hidráuliques. Amás de nories tradicionales, empezaron a construyise canales, diques y presas. Unos 400.000 llabradores trabayaben cada añu na construcción de toes estes obres, polo que recibíen una pequeña cantidá de dineru.

El primera gran proyeutu foi la reconstrucción de la canal Mahmudiya, ente 1817 y 1819, col fin de dexar el tresporte rápidu de mercancíes dende'l Nilu hasta Alexandría. En 1833, Linant de Bellefonds, un inxenieru francés, reorganizó'l sistema d'obres públiques. Establecióse una asamblea añal d'inxenieros pa decidir les obres que se llevaríen a cabu nel añu siguiente, y cómo teníen de construyise. En 1835, crear pa tal efeutu, un cuerpu d'inxenieros especializaos na regación y un conseyu xeneral d'obres públiques.

Col fin de crear grandes estensiones de terrén dedicaos a los cultivos de branu, empecipiar en 1834 el gran proyeutu de la Presa del Delta. A les obres llegaron más de 40.000 trabayadores, los alumnos de la escuela d'inxeniería y modernes máquines y ferramientes construyíes nel complexu industrial d'Alexandría. El proyeutu foi un fracasu, les enfermedaes qu'afectaron a los trabayadores y la segunda campaña de Siria enllargaron la construcción hasta 1861. Pero esto nun significó'l so funcionamientu, una y bones la obra presentó graves defectos na so estructura. Este foi l'únicu fracasu de tolos proyeutos de Mehmet, que consiguió la construcción de 41 preses, 32 canales y 10 diques, amás d'otres construcciones menores. Tou ello apurrió más de 1.420.000 hectárees de nueves tierres cultivables.

Tresporte y telecomunicaciones Editar

El tresporte, fundamental pal comerciu, tamién tuvo un gran desenvolvimientu mientres el gobiernu de Mehmet. En 1845, Mehmet fundó una compañía de navegación a vapor que xunía Alexandría con Constantinopla. Ente 1821 y 1826, instalóse una llinia telegráfica ente El Cairo y Alexandría y en 1841 otra ente Suez y El Cairo.

Reforma de la educación Editar

Mehmet sabía que si quería que Exiptu fuera un país independiente y autosuficiente, nun podría sirvise siempres de los servicios de profesionales européos pa llevar a cabu los sos proyeutos. Por ello, frente a la enseñanza tradicional, impartida polos imanes, Mehmet creó nueves instituciones educatives como: la Escuela d'Inxeniería y Agrimensura (1821), la Escuela Naval (1824), la Escuela d'Estáu Mayor (1825), la Escuela de Medicina (1826), la Escuela de Veterinaria (1827), la Escuela de Comadrones (1831), la Escuela d'Artillería (1831), la Escuela d'Inxeniería o Escuela Politéunica (1834) o la Escuela de Llingües y Traducción (1837), ente otres. Caúna d'elles yera dirixida por un miembru de la élite exipciu-otomana y na so plantía había tantos profesores otomanos como europeos (anque terminaríen siendo sustituyíos polos exipciu formaos n'Europa). La Escuela de Medicina foi la primer escuela cimera exipcia en tener un alumnáu íntegramente árabe-exipciu.

Les clases de les escueles militares impartir en turcu, una y bones la mayoría del alumnáu yera otomanu-exipciu. Otra manera, les escueles civiles” utilizaben l'árabe. Sacante na Escuela de Llingües y Traducción, les clases nun s'impartíen n'idiomes estranxeros, lo que provocaría dalgún problema colos profesores europeos. Los ex-alumnos d'estes escueles pasaron a formar parte activa nes reformes del país. Munchos fueron a parar a l'alministración central, otros al Exércitu, como inxenieros a los proyeutos de construcción, etc.

Na década de 1810, Mehmet mandó instalar una imprenta gubernamental n'El Cairo en sustitución de la que montaren los franceses (devuelta a Francia). Pero foi en 1822, cola instalación d'una nueva en Bulaq, cuando empezaron a publicar decenes de llibros n'árabe, tantos, qu'esta llingua desbancó al turcu como idioma difusor de la ciencia. Darréu instaláronse otres, ente les que destacó la de la Escuela de Medicina, onde s'imprimieron importantes obres científiques. Hasta 1849 traduciéronse o se compunxeron n'árabe 52 obres pa esta escuela

Dende 1822 hasta 1845 publicar n'Exiptu 430 obres, de les que 221 taben escrites en turcu, 198 n'árabe, 10 en persa (l'idioma cultu nel Imperiu otomanu) y un diccionariu italianu-árabe. Tamién ye destacable la publicación, en 1845, d'una obra de medicina popular pa les comadronas y los ciruxanos barberos, que la so tirada algamó los 10.000 exemplares. La mayor parte d'estes publicaciones trataben sobre temes militares o navales, siguíes poles obres de medicina y veterinaria y pola hestoria natural, la física o la química.

Dende la publicación en 1798 de -y Courrier de l'Égypte (del que'l mesmu Napoleón Bonaparte yera'l redactor xefe), tolos periódicos d'Exiptu escribir en francés. Pero en 1828 empezó a publicar la gaceta oficial al-Waqai al-Misriya, el primeru n'árabe y turcu. Anque esto nun significó la desapaición de les publicaciones en francés, yá que yera un idioma cultu. D'esta dómina son: L'Echo des Pyramides (1827) o Le Moniteur Egyptien (1833).

El sistema desaxeradamente proteicionista del valí sobrevivió dellos años, pero la desastrosa segunda campaña de Siria llevar práuticamente a la destrucción. En 1837, les graves epidemies y una crisis financiera internacional fueron un duru golpe pal país. Los ingresos baxaron y el gobiernu tuvo que tomar midíes. El Estáu vendió tierres a los que se comprometieren a pagar puntualmente por elles y a contratar llabradores pa trabayales. Tamién s'esaniciaron munches barreres proteicionistes.

En 1840, cola firma del tratáu de paz col Imperiu otomanu, Exiptu perdió estensos territorios, dineru, fábriques, materies primes y, lo más importante, homes. Les fábriques yá nun funcionar a plenu rendimientu. Amás, col obligáu amenorgamientu del Exércitu, les sos necesidaes d'armes, munición y alimentos yá nun yeren tan grandes, lo que tamién repercutió na industria. Por tou ello, anque la mayor parte de la industria siguió, el so ritmu de producción y la so calidá empioraron. Asina, les reformes de Mehmet y toles instituciones que creó resentir pola falta de dineru. Les midíes que tomó Mehmet consiguieron que Exiptu nun dependiera tantu de les potencies estranxeres, porque sabía qu'un control escesivu d'otros países, acabaríen per arruinar Exiptu y convertilo de nuevu en parte d'un imperiu (como asocedería más tarde).

Mehmet Alí gobernó hasta que la salú dexar. En 1848, abdicó en favor del so fíu Ibrahim por causa del so senilidad. Anque Mehmet sobrevivió al so fíu, yá que Ibrahim, bien enfermu, morrió apenes unos meses dempués. Tres una llarga y próspera vida morrió a los ochenta años d'edá en Alexandría el 2 d'agostu de 1849, siendo soterráu na Mezquita de Muhammad Alí d'El Cairu, mandada construyir por él en 1830.


Lëndë

Mehmet Ali Pasha (1769-1849) i njohur me emrin Muhamed Ali, lindi në Kavalla, në perandorinë osmane të atëhershme, qytet i cili ndodhet sot në Greqi. Vizitorëve dhe diplomatëve evropian shpesh u thoshte se "ishte lindur në një fshat shqiptar [1] ".

Për Mehmet Aliun tregohet që të ketë lindur në një familje tregtaresh shqiptar me origjinë nga Korça. Atij i vdiqën prindërit në moshë të vogël dhe shkoi të jetoj me xhaxhanë e tij. Mehmeti për njëfarë kohë është marrë me tregti nëpër Çamëri, më vonë ka vendosur që t'i bashkohet ushtrisë së Perandorisë Osmane. Për Mehmet Aliun tregohet se edhe pse nuk ka ditur të shkruajë dhe të lexojë ka qenë një njeri i mençur dhe largpamës, gjë që e bëri atë të bëjë karrierë në ditët e më pasme të jetës.

Në ditët kur Napoleon Bonoparti pushtoi Egjiptin i cili që nga koha e Sulltan Selimit kishte qenë pjesë e pandashme e perandorisë osmane, Mehmet Aliu, ashtu si edhe shumë myslimanë të tjerë, shtetas të perandorisë u ngrit për të mbrojtur këtë tokë të perandorisë osmane nga këta kolonizator të rinj.

Në krye të një batalioni me shqiptar, Mehmet Aliu marshoi drejt Egjiptit, ku pas përpjekjeve të ndryshme luftarake me francezët më në fund, Egjipti u çlirua nga zgjedha Bonaparte. Pas çlirimit të Egjiptit dhe mosmarrëveshjeve të ndryshme civile, më në fund në vitin 1805 Mehmet Aliu më këshillën e sheikut të Azharit, morri fermanin nga Sulltani për tu bërë guvernator i Egjiptit së bashku me titullin Pasha.

Duke parë situatën e prapambetur të Egjiptit të asaj kohë, ne vitin 1811, Mehmet Aliu ishte ai që filloi zhvillimin e vendit. Por si rrjedhoje e konflikteve me çifligaret vendas (Mamluket), intrigat e tyre, kërcënimet ndaj Mehmet Aliut dhe mosbindshmërinë ndaj rregullave të shtetit, Mehmet Aliu me rastin e dërgimit të birit të tij Tosum Pasha në Arabi kundër "Vehabive" organizoi një darke për të gjithë parinë vendase Memluke (këtu fillon konspiracia Arabe J).

Pasiqe i ftoi të gjithë Memaliket në kështjellën e tij, Mehmet Aliu që e kishte rrethuar kështjellën me rojet e tij Shqiptar, i urdhëroi ata që të ekzekutonin të gjithë kundërshtaret e tij,afersisht 1000 vete që i kishte ftuar atë natë në kështjellë. Pas këtij veprimi, Mehmet Aliu e siguroi njëherë e përgjithmonë pushtetin e tij mbi Egjipt, pasiqe ai arriti që ti eliminojë rivalet e tij në atë mbrëmje. Nga ky akt, sa mizor dhe i pabese i Mehmet Aliut, shumë Memluk që shpëtuan, filluan të nxisin urrejtjen arabe kundër Mehmet Aliut që mbahet si i pari politikan Makiavelian në historinë moderne Islame.

Një nga zotësitë kryesore që Shqiptarët kanë pasur në Perandorin Osmane, ka qenë arti i luftës. Kështu, që nga ditët e marrjes së Egjiptit e deri në ditët e fundit të jetës së tij, Mehmet Aliu, me ndihmën e djemve të tij zhvilloi mjaft beteja të suksesshme nëpër botë.

Nga të parat ekspedita luftarake që Mehmet Aliu organizoi ishin disa fushata me radhë që kreu në Arabi me urdhër të Sulltanit kundër "Vehabive", ku djemtë e tij, Tosum dhe Ibrahim Pasha arritën që kryengritjen e Saudeve në Arabi ta shype dhe të ktheje qytetet e shenjta të Mekes dhe Medinës në gjendje paqeje, nga ku Haxhijte dhe Umraxhijnte të mund të kryenin vizitat e tyre në token e shenjte në mënyrë të qete dhe pa probleme.

Nga vitet 1820 deri më 1822 Mehmet Aliu filloi ekspeditat kundër Sudanit, ku në 1823 Mehmet Aliu themeloi shtetin e Sudanit dhe Khartumin si kryeqytet të tij. Më 1824, si rrjedhoje e kryengritjeve të shqiptareve(arvanitasve)dhe grekeve(romejve) në Greqi, Sulltan Mahmudi i II që nuk mund të ta shtypte dot këtë rebelim , thërriti në ndihme Mehmet Aliun, i cili duke çuar në krye të kësaj ekspedite djalin e tij Ibrahim Pasha arriti që të shuaje dhe shtype revoltat në Greqi. Si rrjedhoje e kësaj fitore, Mehmet Aliu u shpërblye nga Sulltani që të bëhej edhe guvernator i Kretës. Por fuqitë e mëdha (Britania e Madhe, Franca, Rusia), duke pare shtrirjen e gjere që Mehmet Aliu pati që nga Sudani e deri në Kretë, më 1827 dërguan armatat e tyre për të luftuar Ibrahim Pashen, të birin e Mehmet Aliut, i cili pas përplasjes me fuqitë e mëdha u thye.

Si rrjedhoje e disa mbeturinave mamluke që kishin lënë Egjiptin pas masakrës së Mehmet Aliut, shumë prej tyre që nga Siria kryenin akte sabotazhi kundër Mehmet Aliut. Për këtë arsye në 1831 Mehmet Aliu u detyrua që të pushtoje Sirine dhe të ndjeke Mamluket e hikur. Por kjo hapje e madhe e Mehmet Aliut e zemëroi Sulltan Mahmudin i cili hyri në konflikt me Mehmet Aliun (besohet se në këtë luftë ka influencuar një armik personal i Mehmet Aliut, që ishte këshilltar i Sulltanit). Pas betejës së 1839 djali i

Mehmet Aliut, Ibrahim Pasha i cili theu ushtrinë Osmane, filloi marshin për në Anadoll, ku sipas shumë historianeve ambiciet e Mehmet Aliut ishin që ai tu bënte Sulltan i shtetit Islam. Por duke parë forcën dhe vitalitetin e Mehmet Aliut fuqitë e mëdha e ndaluan dhe kërcënuan serisht Mehmet Aliun që të mos avanconte me tej. Nëse ky plan do të kishte ndodhur, bota nuk do ti njihte me Shtetet e Bashkuara Islame, si Khalifati Osmanli, por do ta njihnin si Khalifati Shqiptar.

Pas kësaj përpjekje të fundit Mehmet Aliu u tërhoq në Egjipt, ku atij iu njoh e drejta e Khedivllëkut mbi Egjiptin (mbretërisë), nga ku gjenerata e nipërve të tij udhëhoqi deri në vitin 1956.

Cami Mehmet Ali, përvec betejave të tija të suksesshme në botën Islame, mbahet si i pari modernizues i botes Islame. Ai ishte i pari që në boten Islame futi shtypshkronjën, ndërtoi fabrika, ndërtoi sisteme moderne për shtetet ku ai udhëhoqi. Ne veçanti, vepra të Mehmet Aliut që vlejnë për tu theksuar janë : Krijimi i Egjiptit si shtet, modernizimi, ndërtimi i qyteteve, qendrave tregtare, qendrave industriale etj.

Krijimi i Sudanit si shtet, emancipimi i shoqërisë Sudaneze dhe dhënies së saj të një fizionomie qytetare (Hadara) përndryshe nga fizionomia fshatare (Badava) që Sudani kishte përpara ardhjes së Mehmet Aliut.

Emancipimi i shoqërisë Egjiptiane, që sot është zemra e botës Arabe, ku nëpërmjet aktivizimit të shoqërisë vendase beduino - felahe në jetën shoqërore qytetare (Hadara), Mehmet Aliu është ai që mbahet si arkitekt i Intelektualizmit dhe Iluminizmit arab abham Al - Xhedid që do të thotë sistemi i ri dhe ka të bëjë me atë se Mehmet Aliu ishte ai që për herë të parë në botën Islame, krijoi një ushtri me të vërtet profesionale, dhe mjaft herë më të avancuar sesa ajo e Osmanëve. Vetë suksesi i ushtrive të Mehmet Aliut nëpër botë, i tregoi Sulltan Muratit së Sistemi Osman ishte vjetruar, gjë që e coi Sulltanin që pas Mehmet Aliut të shpalli edhe ai "Nidham Al Xhedidin'" ala - Turce, por që asnjëherë nuk arriti suksesin e Mehmet Aliut.

Dhe pse pasardhësit e Mehmet Aliut më vonë u korruptuan dhe e dobësuan Egjiptin që Mehmet Aliu themeloi, sërisht vlerat e Mehmet Aliut për zemrën e sotshme të botës Arabo - Islame janë të panumërta. Me të drejtë për punën në themelimin e Egjiptit dhe ringjalljen Arabe që zë rrënje aty, Mehmet Ali Shqiptari mbahet si themeluesi dhe illuminatori i intelektualizmit Arab.


Mehmet Ali Şahin

He was a member of the parliament for three terms from Istanbul Province and from Antalya Province of the ruling Justice and Development Party (AK Party). He served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Justice, and as Minister of State responsible for sports. [1]

Şahin is a lawyer and a graduate of Istanbul University faculty of law. Before entering parliament, he was involved in regional politics, serving as the mayor of Fatih district in Istanbul, with the Welfare Party, and later with Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Justice and Development Party. [1] [2]

On 5 August 2009, he was elected in a third round of voting as the 24th (27th, from the establishment) Speaker of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, succeeding his party colleague Köksal Toptan. [1]

  1. ^ abcd"Mehmet Ali Şahin artık protokolde iki numara". Radikal (in Turkish). 5 August 2009 . Retrieved 5 August 2009 .
  2. ^Newspaper RadikalArchived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)

Media related to Mehmet Ali Şahin at Wikimedia Commons

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Mehemet 'Ali - History

When Pope John Paul II forgave the man who shot him

Pope John Paul II visits his would-be assassin Mehmet Ali Ağca in prison.

Image: Keystone-France/Getty Images

On May 13, 1981, Pope John Paul II was crossing St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City when an attempt was made on his life.

Mehmet Ali Ağca, who had escaped from a Turkish prison after receiving a life sentence for murdering a journalist, fired four shots with a 9-millimeter pistol. Two struck the pope in his lower intestine, one in his right arm and one in his left index finger. Two bystanders were also wounded.

Ağca’s accomplice, Oral Çelik, was supposed to set off a diversionary explosion to cover his escape, but lost his nerve and fled. Ağca was tackled and arrested while the pope was rushed to the hospital.

Pope John Paul II in agony after being shot.

Image: Tommy W. Andersen/Keystone/Getty Images

Image: Keystone/Getty Images

Despite severe blood loss, the pontiff survived, and asked for all Catholics to pray for Ağca, whom he had “sincerely forgiven.”

An Italian court sentenced Ağca to life in prison. The motive for the assassination attempt and its planners remains mysterious — theories and allegations have accused the CIA, the KGB, the Bulgarian government, the Turkish mafia and more.

In 1983, John Paul II visited his would-be assassin. They had a private conversation, and emerged as friends. The pope stayed in touch with Ağca’s family during the latter's incarceration, and in 2000 requested that he be pardoned.

The request was granted. Ağca was released and deported to Turkey, where he was imprisoned for the life sentence he had fled decades prior.

He converted to Christianity while incarcerated, and was finally released in 2010.

In December 2014, he returned to Rome and laid two dozen white roses at the pope’s tomb.


Invaded Syria

The 1830s marked the apex of Muhammad Ali's expansionist ambitions. After initial consideration of a thrust westward toward Tripoli, he launched an invasion of Syria in 1831, using the excuse that he was only trying to arrest a group of 6,000 Egyptian draft dodgers. A force of 30,000 fighters under his son Ibrahim Pasha captured the city of Acre (now in northern Israel) after a siege lasting six months, overran the rest of Syria, and then moved forward into the Anatolia region of present-day Turkey in 1832. In a battle on the Anatolian plains north of Konya, Turkey, the Pasha's forces defeated Ottoman troops under Grand Vizier Muhammad Rashid Pasha, leaving them with an open road to Constantinople and the imperial palaces.

Although Ibrahim Pasha urged his father to declare Egypt's independence from the empire, Muhammad Ali, who was culturally, linguistically, and administratively Ottoman, hesitated. The Turkish Sultan took advantage of this window of opportunity to ask for help from the European powers turned down by British foreign minister Lord Palmerston, he persuaded a Russian navy to come to his aid. The result was 1833's Peace of Kutahia, which recognized Muhammad Ali's legitimacy as wali of Egypt, the Hijaz, and Crete, and granted Ibrahim Pasha the same status in several Syrian territories. The Pasha's tax-collecting prerogatives were also expanded.

That did not prevent a decline in Egypt's financial fortunes in the 1830s, however, as the Pasha's enormous administrative and military reach showed signs of over-extension. The Pasha proposed a giant Nile River flood control project, to be built of stones from the Pyramids it was initially abandoned but was later completed in 1861. Disaffection rose in Egypt due to high taxes and punishing military conscription rates among the young, but a second glorious campaign once again showed Ibrahim Pasha's military skills, as Egyptian forces defeated those of the ailing Mahmud II at the Battle of Nezib, near Urfa in southeast Turkey, in 1839. Once again the Pasha seemed on the brink of regional rule, and once again he hesitated. This time it was British intervention that saved the new 16-year-old Sultan, Abid-ul-Mejid, and allowed him to maintain control over the Ottoman Empire.

According to the Treaty of London that was then negotiated, Muhammad Ali agreed to limit his army to 18,000 troops and to relinquish his Syrian conquests. In return, he was declared ruler of Egypt for life, and his rule was extended to his heirs, giving them a unique status within the Ottoman realm. During the 1840s Muhammad Ali consolidated many of his innovations before beginning to show signs of age-related cognitive deterioration. He was removed as wali in 1848, died in Alexandria on August 2, 1849, and was buried in the magnificent Muhammad Ali mosque that remains a Cairo landmark today.


Muhammad Ali

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Muhammad Ali, original name Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., (born January 17, 1942, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.—died June 3, 2016, Scottsdale, Arizona), American professional boxer and social activist. Ali was the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions he successfully defended this title 19 times.

What is Muhammad Ali known for?

Muhammad Ali was one of the greatest boxers in history, the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions. In addition, he was known for his social message of black pride and black resistance to white domination and for refusing induction into the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War.

What awards did Muhammad Ali win?

Muhammad Ali was a member of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2005 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

What were Muhammad Ali’s achievements?

Muhammad Ali achieved renown as a boxer through his speed, superb footwork, ability to take a punch, and tremendous courage. His final record of 56 wins and 5 losses with 37 knockouts has been matched by others, but the quality of his opponents and his overwhelming success during his prime placed him among boxing’s immortals.

Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., grew up in the American South in a time of segregated public facilities. His father, Cassius Marcellus Clay, Sr., supported a wife and two sons by painting billboards and signs. His mother, Odessa Grady Clay, worked as a household domestic.

When Clay was 12 years old, he took up boxing under the tutelage of Louisville policeman Joe Martin. After advancing through the amateur ranks, he won a gold medal in the 175-pound division at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome and began a professional career under the guidance of the Louisville Sponsoring Group, a syndicate composed of 11 wealthy white men.

In his early bouts as a professional, Clay was more highly regarded for his charm and personality than for his ring skills. He sought to raise public interest in his fights by reading childlike poetry and spouting self-descriptive phrases such as “float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.” He told the world that he was “the Greatest,” but the hard realities of boxing seemed to indicate otherwise. Clay infuriated devotees of the sport as much as he impressed them. He held his hands unconventionally low, backed away from punches rather than bobbing and weaving out of danger, and appeared to lack true knockout power. The opponents he was besting were a mixture of veterans who were long past their prime and fighters who had never been more than mediocre. Thus, purists cringed when Clay predicted the round in which he intended to knock out an opponent, and they grimaced when he did so and bragged about each new conquest.

On February 25, 1964, Clay challenged Sonny Liston for the heavyweight championship of the world. Liston was widely regarded as the most intimidating, powerful fighter of his era. Clay was a decided underdog. But in one of the most stunning upsets in sports history, Liston retired to his corner after six rounds, and Clay became the new champion. Two days later Clay shocked the boxing establishment again by announcing that he had accepted the teachings of the Nation of Islam. On March 6, 1964, he took the name Muhammad Ali, which was given to him by his spiritual mentor, Elijah Muhammad.

For the next three years, Ali dominated boxing as thoroughly and magnificently as any fighter ever had. In a May 25, 1965, rematch against Liston, he emerged with a first-round knockout victory. Triumphs over Floyd Patterson, George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London, and Karl Mildenberger followed. On November 14, 1966, Ali fought Cleveland Williams. Over the course of three rounds, Ali landed more than 100 punches, scored four knockdowns, and was hit a total of three times. Ali’s triumph over Williams was succeeded by victories over Ernie Terrell and Zora Folley.

Then, on April 28, 1967, citing his religious beliefs, Ali refused induction into the U.S. Army at the height of the war in Vietnam. This refusal followed a blunt statement voiced by Ali 14 months earlier: “I ain’t got no quarrel with them Vietcong.” Many Americans vehemently condemned Ali’s stand. It came at a time when most people in the United States still supported the war in Southeast Asia. Moreover, although exemptions from military service on religious grounds were available to qualifying conscientious objectors who were opposed to war in any form, Ali was not eligible for such an exemption, because he acknowledged that he would be willing to participate in an Islamic holy war.

Ali was stripped of his championship and precluded from fighting by every state athletic commission in the United States for three and a half years. In addition, he was criminally indicted and, on June 20, 1967, convicted of refusing induction into the U.S. armed forces and sentenced to five years in prison. Although he remained free on bail, four years passed before his conviction was unanimously overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court on a narrow procedural ground.

Meanwhile, as the 1960s grew more tumultuous, Ali’s impact upon American society was growing, and he became a lightning rod for dissent. Ali’s message of Black pride and Black resistance to white domination was on the cutting edge of the civil rights movement. Having refused induction into the U.S. Army, he also stood for the proposition that “unless you have a very good reason to kill, war is wrong.” As Black activist Julian Bond later observed, “When a figure as heroic and beloved as Muhammad Ali stood up and said, ‘No, I won’t go,’ it reverberated through the whole society.”

In October 1970, Ali was allowed to return to boxing, but his skills had eroded. The legs that had allowed him to “dance” for 15 rounds without stopping no longer carried him as surely around the ring. His reflexes, while still superb, were no longer as fast as they had once been. Ali prevailed in his first two comeback fights, against Jerry Quarry and Oscar Bonavena. Then, on March 8, 1971, he challenged Joe Frazier, who had become heavyweight champion during Ali’s absence from the ring. It was a fight of historic proportions, billed as the “Fight of the Century.” Frazier won a unanimous 15-round decision.

Following his loss to Frazier, Ali won 10 fights in a row, 8 of them against world-class opponents. Then, on March 31, 1973, a little-known fighter named Ken Norton broke Ali’s jaw in the second round en route to a 12-round upset decision. Ali defeated Norton in a rematch. After that he fought Joe Frazier a second time and won a unanimous 12-round decision. From a technical point of view, the second Ali-Frazier bout was probably Ali’s best performance in the ring after his exile from boxing.

On October 30, 1974, Ali challenged George Foreman, who had dethroned Frazier in 1973 to become heavyweight champion of the world. The bout (which Ali referred to as the “ Rumble in the Jungle”) took place in the unlikely location of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Ali was received by the people of Zaire as a conquering hero, and he did his part by knocking out Foreman in the eighth round to regain the heavyweight title. It was in this fight that Ali employed a strategy once used by former boxing great Archie Moore. Moore called the maneuver “the turtle” but Ali called it “ rope-a-dope.” The strategy was that, instead of moving around the ring, Ali chose to fight for extended periods of time leaning back into the ropes in order to avoid many of Foreman’s heaviest blows.

Over the next 30 months, at the peak of his popularity as champion, Ali fought nine times in bouts that showed him to be a courageous fighter but a fighter on the decline. The most notable of these bouts occurred on October 1, 1975, when Ali and Joe Frazier met in the Philippines, 6 miles (9.5 km) outside Manila, to do battle for the third time. In what is regarded by many as the greatest prizefight of all time (the “ Thrilla in Manila”), Ali was declared the victor when Frazier’s corner called a halt to the bout after 14 brutal rounds.

The final performances of Ali’s ring career were sad to behold. In 1978 he lost his title to Leon Spinks, a novice boxer with an Olympic gold medal but only seven professional fights to his credit. Seven months later Ali regained the championship with a 15-round victory over Spinks. Then he retired from boxing, but two years later he made an ill-advised comeback and suffered a horrible beating at the hands of Larry Holmes in a bout that was stopped after 11 rounds. The final ring contest of Ali’s career was a loss by decision to Trevor Berbick in 1981.

Ali’s place in boxing history as one of the greatest fighters ever is secure. His final record of 56 wins and 5 losses with 37 knockouts has been matched by others, but the quality of his opponents and the manner in which he dominated during his prime placed him on a plateau with boxing’s immortals. Ali’s most-tangible ring assets were speed, superb footwork, and the ability to take a punch. But perhaps more important, he had courage and all the other intangibles that go into making a great fighter.

Ali’s later years were marked by physical decline. Damage to his brain caused by blows to the head resulted in slurred speech, slowed movement, and other symptoms of Parkinson syndrome. However, his condition differed from chronic encephalopathy, or dementia pugilistica (which is commonly referred to as “punch drunk” in fighters), in that he did not suffer from injury-induced intellectual deficits.

Ali’s religious views also evolved over time. In the mid-1970s he began to study the Qurʾān seriously and turned to Orthodox Islam. His earlier adherence to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad (e.g., that white people are “devils” and there is no heaven or hell) were replaced by a spiritual embrace of all people and preparation for his own afterlife. In 1984 Ali spoke out publicly against the separatist doctrine of Louis Farrakhan, declaring, “What he teaches is not at all what we believe in. He represents the time of our struggle in the dark and a time of confusion in us, and we don’t want to be associated with that at all.”

Ali married his fourth wife, Lonnie (née Yolanda Williams), in 1986. He had nine children, most of whom avoided the spotlight of which Ali was so fond. One of his daughters, however, Laila Ali, pursued a career as a professional boxer during which she went undefeated in 24 bouts between 1999 and 2007 while capturing a number of titles in various weight classes.

In 1996 Ali was chosen to light the Olympic flame at the start of the Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta, Georgia. The outpouring of goodwill that accompanied his appearance confirmed his status as one of the most-beloved athletes in the world. The dramatic period of his life from 1964 to 1974 was the subject of the film Ali (2001), in which Will Smith starred as Ali. His life story is told in the documentary film I Am Ali (2014), which includes audio recordings that he made throughout his career and interviews with his intimates. Ali was a member of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2005 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.


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