Russian Archaeologists Unearth Oldest Known Fragments of Greek Musical Instruments

Russian Archaeologists Unearth Oldest Known Fragments of Greek Musical Instruments

According to the News Agency TASS, a team of archaeologists has uncovered fragments of two ancient Greek musical instruments during an excavation in the Taman Peninsula, in southern Russia. The unearthing of remnants of musical instruments is quite rare, and the discovery is the first of its kind in many years. The discovery is an exciting one and it is showing the extent of the Greek presence in the Black Sea area in ancient times. The find will allow experts to have a better understanding of the local Greek societies.

Ancient Greeks in southern Russia

The Greeks colonized the north Black Sea area from at least the 8th century BC, drawn to the region by its rich natural resources. They established a series of colonies in the area, especially in what is now southern Russia. Over time, these became city-states or polis that became rich and powerful because of the trade in fish, grain, and slaves. The settlements remained largely Greek in culture, but they also interacted with the Steppe nomads such as the Scythians. The Taman Peninsula became the core area of the Bosporan Kingdom that endured in one form or another from the 4th century BC to the 4th century AD.

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Bosporan Kingdom - Panticapaeon and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

The find was in an area of southern Russia, that is located near the Crimea. Two important urban centers were situated there in antiquity, which became capitals of the Bosporan Kingdom. There have been extensive archaeological finds related in the Taman area in recent decades, that have deepened our understanding of Greek society in southern Russia.

Vladimir Putin visiting the excavation site of the ancient Greek city of Phanagoria on Russia’s Taman Peninsula, 2011. ( Vladimir Putin website )

Discovery of Greek instrument fragments

The find was made by archaeologists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, led by Roman Mimokhod, who have been working in the area for three years. They made the discovery of the fragments near Volna, which is located near an extensive ancient Greek settlement. The fragments were unearthed at a large necropolis and they were buried with individuals, a common practice in antiquity.

The burial in which the remains of the harp were found. Necropolis of the settlement 'Volna-1'. (Image: Institute of Archaeology, RAS)

The remains of the instruments are only the latest important discovery from the archaeological site. The team of archaeologists have excavated some 600 tombs in the necropolis and have made many discoveries that have thrown a light on Greek society in the region and the level of their interactions with local groups.

The fragments unearthed were a piece of a harp and a lyre and they have been dated to be from the 6th century BC. The instruments are only partially preserved because they were made from perishable material, namely wood. Because of this, such musical instruments are very rare to find and most of what we know about them is from images on vases.

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A bone plectrum was found at the burial site. (Image: Institute of Archaeology, RAS)

The discovery of the pieces of a harp and lyre are particularly important as, Tass quotes Mimokhad as stating that, "the harp unearthed in Taman is one of the most ancient and well-preserved as far as ancient Greek musical instruments are concerned." The fragments of the instruments, according to the News Network Archaeology are believed to be older than previous significant discoveries, including those at the ‘Piraeus necropolis in Athens and the tuning pegs of a harp uncovered from a necropolis in Taranto, southern Italy."

A woman playing a harp. ca. 320–310 BC. From Anzi. ( Public Domain )

Strong Greek Culture

The find of the fragments of a harp and a lyre was unexpected and demonstrates the archaeological importance of the necropolis near the Volna settlement. The musical instruments will be investigated further and compared to the few other examples from antiquity. Such discoveries in the Taman Peninsula underline how the settlements north of the Black Sea remained culturally Greek, despite their interactions with native groups.


    Archaeology discovery: 2,700-year-old find rewrites understanding of Jerusalem's past

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    The 2,700-year-old piece is an ancient weight, which dates back to the Iron age and is made of limestone. It was unearthed as part of an excavation completed between the Israel Antiquities Authorities, and the Western Hall Heritage Foundation, and was found beneath Wilson's Arch - the first row of arches that aided a large bridge connecting the Herodian Temple Mount with the Upper City on the opposite Western Hill. Reports say the find helps experts understand the monetary system employed while Solomon's Temple - also known as the First Temple - was built centuries ago.

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    The weight is the measurement of two shekalim, a weight system used during the First Temple period.

    The weights were used as part of an annual tax system, with the payment going towards temple maintenance, CBN News reports.

    In a statement, Dr Barak Monnickendam-Givon and Tehillah Lieberman, directors of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, said the weight was "dome-shaped with a flat base".

    They added: "On the top of the weight is an incised Egyptian symbol resembling a Greek gamma (&gamma), representing the abbreviated unit 'shekel.'

    Archaeology discovery: 2,700-year-old find rewrites understanding of Jerusalem's past (Image: Israel Antiquities Authorities/GETTY)

    Archaeology discovery: 2,700-year-old find rewrites understanding of Jerusalem's past (Image: GETTY)

    "Two incised lines indicate the double mass: two shekalim.

    "According to previous finds, the known weight of a single shekel is 11.5 grammes, thus a double shekel should weigh 23 grammes &ndash exactly as this weight does."

    They added: "The accuracy of the weight attests to advanced technological skills as well as to the weight given to precise trade and commerce in ancient Jerusalem.

    "Coins were not yet in use during this period, therefore the accuracy of the weights played a significant role in business."

    Archaeology discovery: 2,700-year-old find rewrites understanding of Jerusalem's past (Image: GETTY)

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    As well as going towards the temple, the weights would also be used for sacrifices, offerings, food and other day-to-day items.

    Mordechai Eliav, director of the Western Wall Heritage Foundation, said the find was significant as a result of the coronavirus pandemic.

    He explained it would offer "encouragement" at a time when the restrictions due to the virus continue to limit our everyday lives.

    He added of the October find: "How exciting, in the month of Tishrei, whose symbol is the scales of justice, to find a souvenir from the First Temple period.

    Archaeology discovery: 2,700-year-old find rewrites understanding of Jerusalem's past (Image: GETTY)

    "Actually now, when coming to the Western Wall is so restricted due to the coronavirus pandemic, this finding strengthens the eternal connection between the Jewish nation, Jerusalem, and the Western Wall while offering us all encouragement."

    According to the Hebrew Bible, the First Temple was constructed under Solomon, the king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, and was dedicated to Yahweh - the kingdom's national god.

    Reports suggest that the temple houses the Ark of the Covenant, a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.


    World’s oldest shipwreck reveals incredible cargo

    An entire decade of archaeological investigation into what is the world’s oldest known shipwreck has revealed a vast cornucopia of ancient treasures, and the wreck was voted by Scientific American journal to be one of the ten greatest archaeological discoveries of the 20 th century.

    Following the chance discovery of the wreck in 1982, archaeological excavations were carried out between 1984 and 1994 by George F. Bass and Cemal Pulak of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Due to the wreck’s tricky location on a steep rocky slope 50 metres beneath the surface, excavation time for each diver had to be limited to 20 minutes per dive, twice a day. The total number of dives to take place was 22,413.

    The ship was carrying over 20 tons of cargo at the time of sinking, including both raw materials and finished goods. Careful mapping of the distribution of objects allowed the excavators to distinguish between the cargo and the crew’s personal belongings. The cargo included items from at least seven different cultures, including Mycenean (Greek), Syro-Palestinian (forerunners of the Phoenicians), Cypriot, Egyptian, Kassite, Assyrian and Nubian.

    The main cargo was 10 tons of Cypriot copper in the form of 350 oxhide ingots (‘oxhide’ refers to the shape of the ingots, which had four legs or handles for easy lifting and transportation on horseback). Also on board was a ton of tin ingots of unknown origin. The copper and tin were likely destined to be melded into bronze.

    The earliest known intact ingots of glass were present on the ship. There were 175 of them, discoid in shape, with some coloured turquoise and others cobalt blue. There was also a ton of terebinth resin contained in about 150 Canaanite jars. The resin was possibly used for incense, or the jars could have originally contained wine with the resin added to prevent the growth of bacteria.

    Among the more exotic objects aboard were ebony logs from Egypt, elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth (to create ivory inlays), tortoiseshells (to be used as soundboxes for musical instruments such as the lute), ostrich eggshells (for use as containers) and Baltic amber beads from northern Europe.

    Amidst the crew’s personal belongings was found a gold scarab bearing the royal cartouche of Nefertiti, wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. It is the only known seal of Nefertiti in existence and is currently exhibited at the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology in Turkey along with other artifacts from the Uluburun shipwreck.

    Other cargo included jewellery, weaponry, fishing gear, tools, pottery, zoomorphic weights and traces of food including nuts, figs, olives, grapes, pomegranates, spices and charred grains. A small hinged wooden writing board, known as a diptych, was also found, and could lay claim to be the world’s oldest book except that the wax surface, on which any writing would have been inscribed, has not survived.

    The ship itself was 15 metres long and is the earliest known example of a ship constructed using the advanced mortise and tenon technique, where planks were joined by flat tongues of wood inserted into slots cut into the planks.

    Dendrochronological dating of a branch of fresh-cut firewood aboard the ship suggests a date of around 1306 BCE for the sinking of the ship. This fits rather well with the presence of the seal of Nefertiti, whose husband reigned during the mid-14 th century BCE.

    The excavators believe the ship was sailing westward from the east Mediterranean coast when it met its doom off the shore of Uluburun. The ship’s likely trading route was to head west from the Levantine coast to Cyprus and the southern Turkish coast, then on to Crete or even Greece before travelling south to northern Africa and Egypt and returning to the Levant.

    Bitterly unfortunate the fate of the ship must have been for its ancient crew, it has been a splendid stroke of luck for archaeology today to uncover such a well-preserved wealth of stunning artifacts, brimming with information about the people of the past.


    Contents

    A musical instrument is used to make musical sounds. Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies — for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. [1] Primitive instruments were probably designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. [2] The concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were probably unknown to early players of musical instruments. A person sounding a bone flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". [2]

    Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such as shells and plant parts. [2] As instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Virtually every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. [2] One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way — for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument, striking the surface of a drum, or blowing into an animal horn. [2]

    Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world. Some artifacts have been dated to 67,000 years old, while critics often dispute the findings. Consensus solidifying about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Artifacts made from durable materials, or constructed using durable methods, have been found to survive. As such, the specimens found cannot be irrefutably placed as the earliest musical instruments. [3]

    In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia. The carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years old, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with Neanderthal culture. [4] However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. [5] German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps. The flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, and are more commonly accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments. [6]

    Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres ( the Lyres of Ur), two harps, a silver double flute, a sistra and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the likely predecessor of modern bagpipes. [7] The cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes that allowed players to produce whole tone scales. [8] These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, together, have been used to reconstruct them. [9] The graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. [10]

    Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, [11] representing some of the "earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" ever found. [11] [12]

    Scholars agree that there are no completely reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved felling and hollowing out large trees later slit drums were made by opening bamboo stalks, a much simpler task. [13]

    German musicologist Curt Sachs, one of the most prominent musicologists [14] and musical ethnologists [15] in modern times, argues that it is misleading to arrange the development of musical instruments by workmanship, since cultures advance at different rates and have access to different raw materials. For example, contemporary anthropologists comparing musical instruments from two cultures that existed at the same time but differed in organization, culture, and handicraft cannot determine which instruments are more "primitive". [16] Ordering instruments by geography is also not reliable, as it cannot always be determined when and how cultures contacted one another and shared knowledge. Sachs proposed that a geographical chronology until approximately 1400 is preferable, however, due to its limited subjectivity. [17] Beyond 1400, one can follow the overall development of musical instruments over time. [17]

    The science of marking the order of musical instrument development relies on archaeological artifacts, artistic depictions, and literary references. Since data in one research path can be inconclusive, all three paths provide a better historical picture. [3]

    Primitive and prehistoric Edit

    Until the 19th century AD, European-written music histories began with mythological accounts mingled with scripture of how musical instruments were invented. Such accounts included Jubal, descendant of Cain and "father of all such as handle the harp and the organ" (Genesis 4:21) Pan, inventor of the pan pipes, and Mercury, who is said to have made a dried tortoise shell into the first lyre. Modern histories have replaced such mythology with anthropological speculation, occasionally informed by archeological evidence. Scholars agree that there was no definitive "invention" of the musical instrument since the definition of the term "musical instrument" is completely subjective to both the scholar and the would-be inventor. For example, a Homo habilis slapping his body could be the makings of a musical instrument regardless of the being's intent. [18]

    Among the first devices external to the human body that are considered instruments are rattles, stampers, and various drums. [19] These instruments evolved due to the human motor impulse to add sound to emotional movements such as dancing. [20] Eventually, some cultures assigned ritual functions to their musical instruments, using them for hunting and various ceremonies. [21] Those cultures developed more complex percussion instruments and other instruments such as ribbon reeds, flutes, and trumpets. Some of these labels carry far different connotations from those used in modern day early flutes and trumpets are so-labeled for their basic operation and function rather than resemblance to modern instruments. [22] Among early cultures for whom drums developed ritual, even sacred importance are the Chukchi people of the Russian Far East, the indigenous people of Melanesia, and many cultures of Africa. In fact, drums were pervasive throughout every African culture. [23] One East African tribe, the Wahinda, believed it was so holy that seeing a drum would be fatal to any person other than the sultan. [24]

    Humans eventually developed the concept of using musical instruments to produce melody, which was previously common only in singing. Similar to the process of reduplication in language, instrument players first developed repetition and then arrangement. An early form of melody was produced by pounding two stamping tubes of slightly different sizes—one tube would produce a "clear" sound and the other would answer with a "darker" sound. Such instrument pairs also included bullroarers, slit drums, shell trumpets, and skin drums. Cultures who used these instrument pairs associated them with gender the "father" was the bigger or more energetic instrument, while the "mother" was the smaller or duller instrument. Musical instruments existed in this form for thousands of years before patterns of three or more tones would evolve in the form of the earliest xylophone. [25] Xylophones originated in the mainland and archipelago of Southeast Asia, eventually spreading to Africa, the Americas, and Europe. [26] Along with xylophones, which ranged from simple sets of three "leg bars" to carefully tuned sets of parallel bars, various cultures developed instruments such as the ground harp, ground zither, musical bow, and jaw harp. [27] Recent research into usage wear and acoustics of stone artefacts has revealed a possible new class of prehistoric musical instrument, known as lithophones. [28] [29]

    Antiquity Edit

    Images of musical instruments begin to appear in Mesopotamian artifacts in 2800 BC or earlier. Beginning around 2000 BC, Sumerian and Babylonian cultures began delineating two distinct classes of musical instruments due to division of labor and the evolving class system. Popular instruments, simple and playable by anyone, evolved differently from professional instruments whose development focused on effectiveness and skill. [30] Despite this development, very few musical instruments have been recovered in Mesopotamia. Scholars must rely on artifacts and cuneiform texts written in Sumerian or Akkadian to reconstruct the early history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia. Even the process of assigning names to these instruments is challenging since there is no clear distinction among various instruments and the words used to describe them. [31]

    Although Sumerian and Babylonian artists mainly depicted ceremonial instruments, historians have distinguished six idiophones used in early Mesopotamia: concussion clubs, clappers, sistra, bells, cymbals, and rattles. [32] Sistra are depicted prominently in a great relief of Amenhotep III, [33] and are of particular interest because similar designs have been found in far-reaching places such as Tbilisi, Georgia and among the Native American Yaqui tribe. [34] The people of Mesopotamia preferred stringed instruments, as evidenced by their proliferation in Mesopotamian figurines, plaques, and seals. Innumerable varieties of harps are depicted, as well as lyres and lutes, the forerunner of modern stringed instruments such as the violin. [35]

    Musical instruments used by the Egyptian culture before 2700 BC bore striking similarity to those of Mesopotamia, leading historians to conclude that the civilizations must have been in contact with one another. Sachs notes that Egypt did not possess any instruments that the Sumerian culture did not also possess. [36] However, by 2700 BC the cultural contacts seem to have dissipated the lyre, a prominent ceremonial instrument in Sumer, did not appear in Egypt for another 800 years. [36] Clappers and concussion sticks appear on Egyptian vases as early as 3000 BC. The civilization also made use of sistra, vertical flutes, double clarinets, arched and angular harps, and various drums. [37]

    Little history is available in the period between 2700 BC and 1500 BC, as Egypt (and indeed, Babylon) entered a long violent period of war and destruction. This period saw the Kassites destroy the Babylonian empire in Mesopotamia and the Hyksos destroy the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. When the Pharaohs of Egypt conquered Southwest Asia in around 1500 BC, the cultural ties to Mesopotamia were renewed and Egypt's musical instruments also reflected heavy influence from Asiatic cultures. [36] Under their new cultural influences, the people of the New Kingdom began using oboes, trumpets, lyres, lutes, castanets, and cymbals. [38]

    Unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, professional musicians did not exist in Israel between 2000 and 1000 BC. While the history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia and Egypt relies on artistic representations, the culture in Israel produced few such representations. Scholars must therefore rely on information gleaned from the Bible and the Talmud. [39] The Hebrew texts mention two prominent instruments associated with Jubal: the ugab (pipes) and kinnor (lyre). [40] Other instruments of the period included the tof (frame drum), pa'amon (small bells or jingles), shofar, and the trumpet-like hasosra. [41]

    The introduction of a monarchy in Israel during the 11th century BC produced the first professional musicians and with them a drastic increase in the number and variety of musical instruments. [42] However, identifying and classifying the instruments remains a challenge due to the lack of artistic interpretations. For example, stringed instruments of uncertain design called nevals and asors existed, but neither archaeology nor etymology can clearly define them. [43] In her book A Survey of Musical Instruments, American musicologist Sibyl Marcuse proposes that the nevel must be similar to vertical harp due to its relation to nabla, the Phoenician term for "harp". [44]

    In Greece, Rome, and Etruria, the use and development of musical instruments stood in stark contrast to those cultures' achievements in architecture and sculpture. The instruments of the time were simple and virtually all of them were imported from other cultures. [45] Lyres were the principal instrument, as musicians used them to honor the gods. [46] Greeks played a variety of wind instruments they classified as aulos (reeds) or syrinx (flutes) Greek writing from that time reflects a serious study of reed production and playing technique. [8] Romans played reed instruments named tibia, featuring side-holes that could be opened or closed, allowing for greater flexibility in playing modes. [47] Other instruments in common use in the region included vertical harps derived from those of the Orient, lutes of Egyptian design, various pipes and organs, and clappers, which were played primarily by women. [48]

    Evidence of musical instruments in use by early civilizations of India is almost completely lacking, making it impossible to reliably attribute instruments to the Munda and Dravidian language-speaking cultures that first settled the area. Rather, the history of musical instruments in the area begins with the Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around 3000 BC. Various rattles and whistles found among excavated artifacts are the only physical evidence of musical instruments. [49] A clay statuette indicates the use of drums, and examination of the Indus script has also revealed representations of vertical arched harps identical in design to those depicted in Sumerian artifacts. This discovery is among many indications that the Indus Valley and Sumerian cultures maintained cultural contact. Subsequent developments in musical instruments in India occurred with the Rigveda, or hymns. These songs used various drums, shell trumpets, harps, and flutes. [50] Other prominent instruments in use during the early centuries AD were the snake charmer's double clarinet, bagpipes, barrel drums, cross flutes, and short lutes. In all, India had no unique musical instruments until the Middle Ages. [51]

    Musical instruments such as zithers appeared in Chinese writings around 12th century BC and earlier. [52] Early Chinese philosophers such as Confucius (551–479 BC), Mencius (372–289 BC), and Laozi shaped the development of musical instruments in China, adopting an attitude toward music similar to that of the Greeks. The Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and developed a unique system of classifying their musical instruments according to their material makeup. [53]

    Idiophones were extremely important in Chinese music, hence the majority of early instruments were idiophones. Poetry of the Shang dynasty mentions bells, chimes, drums, and globular flutes carved from bone, the latter of which has been excavated and preserved by archaeologists. [54] The Zhou dynasty saw percussion instruments such as clappers, troughs, wooden fish, and (wooden tiger). Wind instruments such as flute, pan-pipes, pitch-pipes, and mouth organs also appeared in this time period. [55] The xiao (an end-blown flute) and various other instruments that spread through many cultures, came into use in China during and after the Han dynasty. [56]

    Although civilizations in Central America attained a relatively high level of sophistication by the eleventh century AD, they lagged behind other civilizations in the development of musical instruments. For example, they had no stringed instruments all of their instruments were idiophones, drums, and wind instruments such as flutes and trumpets. Of these, only the flute was capable of producing a melody. [57] In contrast, pre-Columbian South American civilizations in areas such as modern-day Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile were less advanced culturally but more advanced musically. South American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as varieties of flutes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood trumpets. [58]

    An instrument that can be attested to the Iron Age Celts is the carnyx which is dated to

    300 BC, the elongated trumpet-like instrument which had the end of the bell crafted from bronze into the shape of a screaming animal head which was held high above their heads, when blown into, the carnyx would emit a deep, harsh sound, the head also had a tongue which clicked when vibrated, the intention of the instrument was to use it on the battleground to intimidate their opponents. [59] [60]

    Middle Ages Edit

    During the period of time loosely referred to as the Middle Ages, China developed a tradition of integrating musical influence from other regions. The first record of this type of influence is in 384 AD, when China established an orchestra in its imperial court after a conquest in Turkestan. Influences from Middle East, Persia, India, Mongolia, and other countries followed. In fact, Chinese tradition attributes many musical instruments from this period to those regions and countries. [61] Cymbals gained popularity, along with more advanced trumpets, clarinets, pianos, oboes, flutes, drums, and lutes. [62] Some of the first bowed zithers appeared in China in the 9th or 10th century, influenced by Mongolian culture. [63]

    India experienced similar development to China in the Middle Ages however, stringed instruments developed differently as they accommodated different styles of music. While stringed instruments of China were designed to produce precise tones capable of matching the tones of chimes, stringed instruments of India were considerably more flexible. This flexibility suited the slides and tremolos of Hindu music. Rhythm was of paramount importance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle Ages. The emphasis on rhythm is an aspect native to Indian music. [64] Historians divide the development of musical instruments in medieval India between pre-Islamic and Islamic periods due to the different influence each period provided. [65]

    In pre-Islamic times, idiophones such as handbells, cymbals, and peculiar instruments resembling gongs came into wide use in Hindu music. The gong-like instrument was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Tubular drums, stick zithers (veena), short fiddles, double and triple flutes, coiled trumpets, and curved India horns emerged in this time period. [66] Islamic influences brought new types of drum, perfectly circular or octagonal as opposed to the irregular pre-Islamic drums. [67] Persian influence brought oboes and sitars, although Persian sitars had three strings and Indian version had from four to seven. [68] The Islamic culture also introduced double-clarinet instruments as the Alboka (from Arab, al-buq or "horn") nowadays only alive in Basque Country. It must be played using the technique of the circular breathing.

    Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian influence that ended around 920 AD. [69] Balinese and Javanese music made use of xylophones and metallophones, bronze versions of the former. [70] The most prominent and important musical instrument of Southeast Asia was the gong. While the gong likely originated in the geographical area between Tibet and Burma, it was part of every category of human activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java. [71]

    The areas of Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula experiences rapid growth and sharing of musical instruments once they were united by Islamic culture in the seventh century. [72] Frame drums and cylindrical drums of various depths were immensely important in all genres of music. [73] Conical oboes were involved in the music that accompanied wedding and circumcision ceremonies. Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far as Java. [74] Various lutes, zithers, dulcimers, and harps spread as far as Madagascar to the south and modern-day Sulawesi to the east. [75]

    Despite the influences of Greece and Rome, most musical instruments in Europe during the Middles Ages came from Asia. The lyre is the only musical instrument that may have been invented in Europe until this period. [76] Stringed instruments were prominent in Middle Age Europe. The central and northern regions used mainly lutes, stringed instruments with necks, while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a crossbar. [76] Various harps served Central and Northern Europe as far north as Ireland, where the harp eventually became a national symbol. [77] Lyres propagated through the same areas, as far east as Estonia. [78]

    European music between 800 and 1100 became more sophisticated, more frequently requiring instruments capable of polyphony. The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire, typical instruments included the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre), salandj (probably a bagpipe) and the lyra. [79] The Byzantine lyra, a bowed string instrument, is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. [80]

    The monochord served as a precise measure of the notes of a musical scale, allowing more accurate musical arrangements. [81] Mechanical hurdy-gurdies allowed single musicians to play more complicated arrangements than a fiddle would both were prominent folk instruments in the Middle Ages. [82] [83] Southern Europeans played short and long lutes whose pegs extended to the sides, unlike the rear-facing pegs of Central and Northern European instruments. [84] Idiophones such as bells and clappers served various practical purposes, such as warning of the approach of a leper. [85]

    The ninth century revealed the first bagpipes, which spread throughout Europe and had many uses from folk instruments to military instruments. [86] The construction of pneumatic organs evolved in Europe starting in fifth-century Spain, spreading to England in about 700. [87] The resulting instruments varied in size and use from portable organs worn around the neck to large pipe organs. [88] Literary accounts of organs being played in English Benedictine abbeys toward the end of the tenth century are the first references to organs being connected to churches. [89] Reed players of the Middle Ages were limited to oboes no evidence of clarinets exists during this period. [90]

    Modern Edit

    Renaissance Edit

    Musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident from 1400 on, indeed, the most profound changes occurred during the Renaissance period. [18] Instruments took on other purposes than accompanying singing or dance, and performers used them as solo instruments. Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature. Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments. [18] In the latter half of the sixteenth century, orchestration came into common practice as a method of writing music for a variety of instruments. Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion. [91] The polyphonic style dominated popular music, and the instrument makers responded accordingly. [92]

    Beginning in about 1400, the rate of development of musical instruments increased in earnest as compositions demanded more dynamic sounds. People also began writing books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments the first such book was Sebastian Virdung's 1511 treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen ('Music Germanized and Abstracted'). [91] Virdung's work is noted as being particularly thorough for including descriptions of "irregular" instruments such as hunters' horns and cow bells, though Virdung is critical of the same. Other books followed, including Arnolt Schlick's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten ('Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players') the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing. [93] Of the instructional books and references published in the Renaissance era, one is noted for its detailed description and depiction of all wind and stringed instruments, including their relative sizes. This book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius, is now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenth-century musical instruments. [94]

    In the sixteenth century, musical instrument builders gave most instruments – such as the violin – the "classical shapes" they retain today. An emphasis on aesthetic beauty also developed listeners were as pleased with the physical appearance of an instrument as they were with its sound. Therefore, builders paid special attention to materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums. [95] It was during this period that makers began constructing instruments of the same type in various sizes to meet the demand of consorts, or ensembles playing works written for these groups of instruments. [96]

    Instrument builders developed other features that endure today. For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time. [97] Trumpets evolved into their modern form to improve portability, and players used mutes to properly blend into chamber music. [98]

    Baroque Edit

    Beginning in the seventeenth century, composers began writing works to a higher emotional degree. They felt that polyphony better suited the emotional style they were aiming for and began writing musical parts for instruments that would complement the singing human voice. [92] As a result, many instruments that were incapable of larger ranges and dynamics, and therefore were seen as unemotional, fell out of favor. One such instrument was the shawm. [99] Bowed instruments such as the violin, viola, baryton, and various lutes dominated popular music. [100] Beginning in around 1750, however, the lute disappeared from musical compositions in favor of the rising popularity of the guitar. [101] As the prevalence of string orchestras rose, wind instruments such as the flute, oboe, and bassoon were readmitted to counteract the monotony of hearing only strings. [102]

    In the mid-seventeenth century, what was known as a hunter's horn underwent a transformation into an "art instrument" consisting of a lengthened tube, a narrower bore, a wider bell, and a much wider range. The details of this transformation are unclear, but the modern horn or, more colloquially, French horn, had emerged by 1725. [103] The slide trumpet appeared, a variation that includes a long-throated mouthpiece that slid in and out, allowing the player infinite adjustments in pitch. This variation on the trumpet was unpopular due to the difficulty involved in playing it. [104] Organs underwent tonal changes in the Baroque period, as manufacturers such as Abraham Jordan of London made the stops more expressive and added devices such as expressive pedals. Sachs viewed this trend as a "degeneration" of the general organ sound. [105]

    Classical and Romantic Edit

    During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, many musical instruments capable of producing new timbres and higher volume were developed and introduced into popular music. The design changes that broadened the quality of timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety of expression. Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of modern instruments. Since instruments were involved in collaborations of a much larger scale, their designs had to evolve to accommodate the demands of the orchestra. [106]

    Some instruments also had to become louder to fill larger halls and be heard over sizable orchestras. Flutes and bowed instruments underwent many modifications and design changes—most of them unsuccessful—in efforts to increase volume. Other instruments were changed just so they could play their parts in the scores. Trumpets traditionally had a "defective" range—they were incapable of producing certain notes with precision. [107] New instruments such as the clarinet, saxophone, and tuba became fixtures in orchestras. Instruments such as the clarinet also grew into entire "families" of instruments capable of different ranges: small clarinets, normal clarinets, bass clarinets, and so on. [106]

    Accompanying the changes to timbre and volume was a shift in the typical pitch used to tune instruments. Instruments meant to play together, as in an orchestra, must be tuned to the same standard lest they produce audibly different sounds while playing the same notes. Beginning in 1762, the average concert pitch began rising from a low of 377 vibrations to a high of 457 in 1880 Vienna. [108] Different regions, countries, and even instrument manufacturers preferred different standards, making orchestral collaboration a challenge. Despite even the efforts of two organized international summits attended by noted composers like Hector Berlioz, no standard could be agreed upon. [109]

    Twentieth century to present Edit

    The evolution of traditional musical instruments slowed beginning in the 20th century. [110] Instruments such as the violin, flute, french horn, and harp are largely the same as those manufactured throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Gradual iterations do emerge for example, the "New Violin Family" began in 1964 to provide differently sized violins to expand the range of available sounds. [111] The slowdown in development was a practical response to the concurrent slowdown in orchestra and venue size. [112] Despite this trend in traditional instruments, the development of new musical instruments exploded in the twentieth century, and the variety of instruments developed overshadows any prior period. [110]

    The proliferation of electricity in the 20th century lead to the creation of an entirely new category of musical instruments: electronic instruments, or electrophones. [113] The vast majority of electrophones produced in the first half of the 20th century were what Sachs called "electromechanical instruments" they have mechanical parts that produce sound vibrations, and these vibrations are picked up and amplified by electrical components. Examples of electromechanical instruments include Hammond organs and electric guitars. [113] Sachs also defined a subcategory of "radioelectric instruments" such as the theremin, which produces music through the player's hand movements around two antennas. [114]

    The latter half of the 20th century saw the evolution of synthesizers, which produce sound using circuits and microchips. In the late 1960s, Bob Moog and other inventors developed the first commercial synthesizers, such as the Moog synthesizer. [115] Whereas once they had filled rooms, synthesizers now can be embedded in any electronic device, [115] and are ubiquitous in modern music. [116] Samplers, introduced around 1980, allow users to sample and reuse existing sounds, and were important to the development of hip hop. [117] 1982 saw the introduction of MIDI, a standardized means of synchronizing electronic instruments that remains an industry standard. [118] The modern proliferation of computers and microchips has created an industry of electronic musical instruments. [119]

    There are many different methods of classifying musical instruments. Various methods examine aspects such as the physical properties of the instrument (material, color, shape, etc.), the use for the instrument, the means by which music is produced with the instrument, the range of the instrument, and the instrument's place in an orchestra or other ensemble. Most methods are specific to a geographic area or cultural group and were developed to serve the unique classification requirements of the group. [120] The problem with these specialized classification schemes is that they tend to break down once they are applied outside of their original area. For example, a system based on instrument use would fail if a culture invented a new use for the same instrument. Scholars recognize Hornbostel–Sachs as the only system that applies to any culture and, more importantly, provides the only possible classification for each instrument. [121] [122] The most common classifications are strings, brass, woodwind, and percussion.

    Ancient systems Edit

    An ancient Hindu system named the Natya Shastra, written by the sage Bharata Muni and dating from between 200 BC and 200 AD, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings percussion instruments with skin heads instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air and "solid", or non-skin, percussion instruments. [121] This system was adapted to some degree in 12th-century Europe by Johannes de Muris, who used the terms tensibilia (stringed instruments), inflatibilia (wind instruments), and percussibilia (all percussion instruments). [123] In 1880, Victor-Charles Mahillon adapted the Natya Shastra and assigned Greek labels to the four classifications: chordophones (stringed instruments), membranophones (skin-head percussion instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), and autophones (non-skin percussion instruments). [121]

    Hornbostel–Sachs Edit

    Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs adopted Mahillon's scheme and published an extensive new scheme for classification in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Hornbostel and Sachs used most of Mahillon's system, but replaced the term autophone with idiophone. [121]

    The original Hornbostel–Sachs system classified instruments into four main groups:

      , which produce sound by vibrating the primary body of the instrument itself they are sorted into concussion, percussion, shaken, scraped, split, and plucked idiophones, such as claves, xylophone, guiro, slit drum, mbira, and rattle. [124] , which produce sound by a vibrating a stretched membrane they may be drums (further sorted by the shape of the shell), which are struck by hand, with a stick, or rubbed, but kazoos and other instruments that use a stretched membrane for the primary sound (not simply to modify sound produced in another way) are also considered membranophones. [125] , which produce sound by vibrating one or more strings they are sorted according to the relationship between the string(s) and the sounding board or chamber. For example, if the strings are laid out parallel to the sounding board and there is no neck, the instrument is a zither whether it is plucked like an autoharp or struck with hammers like a piano. If the instrument has strings parallel to the sounding board or chamber and the strings extend past the board with a neck, then the instrument is a lute, whether the sound chamber is constructed of wood like a guitar or uses a membrane like a banjo. [126] , which produce a sound with a vibrating column of air they are sorted into free aerophones such as a bullroarer or whip, which move freely through the air reedless aerophones such as flutes and recorders, which cause the air to pass over a sharp edge reed instruments, which use a vibrating reed (this category may be further divided into two classifications: single-reeded and double-reeded instruments. Examples of the former are clarinets and saxophones, while the latter includes oboes and bassoons) and lip-vibrated aerophones such as trumpets, trombones and tubas, for which the lips themselves function as vibrating reeds. [127]

    Sachs later added a fifth category, electrophones, such as theremins, which produce sound by electronic means. [113] Within each category are many subgroups. The system has been criticised and revised over the years, but remains widely used by ethnomusicologists and organologists. [123] [128]

    Schaeffner Edit

    Andre Schaeffner, a curator at the Musée de l'Homme, disagreed with the Hornbostel–Sachs system and developed his own system in 1932. Schaeffner believed that the pure physics of a musical instrument, rather than its specific construction or playing method, should always determine its classification. (Hornbostel–Sachs, for example, divides aerophones on the basis of sound production, but membranophones on the basis of the shape of the instrument). His system divided instruments into two categories: instruments with solid, vibrating bodies and instruments containing vibrating air. [129]

    Range Edit

    Musical instruments are also often classified by their musical range in comparison with other instruments in the same family. This exercise is useful when placing instruments in context of an orchestra or other ensemble.

    These terms are named after singing voice classifications:

    Some instruments fall into more than one category. For example, the cello may be considered tenor, baritone or bass, depending on how its music fits into the ensemble. The trombone and French horn may be alto, tenor, baritone, or bass depending on the range it is played in. Many instruments have their range as part of their name: soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone horn, alto flute, bass guitar, etc. Additional adjectives describe instruments above the soprano range or below the bass, for example the sopranino saxophone and contrabass clarinet. When used in the name of an instrument, these terms are relative, describing the instrument's range in comparison to other instruments of its family and not in comparison to the human voice range or instruments of other families. For example, a bass flute's range is from C3 to F♯6, while a bass clarinet plays about one octave lower.

    The materials used in making musical instruments vary greatly by culture and application. Many of the materials have special significance owing to their source or rarity. Some cultures worked substances from the human body into their instruments. In ancient Mexico, for example, the material drums were made from might contain actual human body parts obtained from sacrificial offerings. In New Guinea, drum makers would mix human blood into the adhesive used to attach the membrane. [130] Mulberry trees are held in high regard in China owing to their mythological significance—instrument makers would hence use them to make zithers. The Yakuts believe that making drums from trees struck by lightning gives them a special connection to nature. [131]

    Musical instrument construction is a specialized trade that requires years of training, practice, and sometimes an apprenticeship. Most makers of musical instruments specialize in one genre of instruments for example, a luthier makes only stringed instruments. Some make only one type of instrument such as a piano. Whatever the instrument constructed, the instrument maker must consider materials, construction technique, and decoration, creating a balanced instrument that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. [132] Some builders are focused on a more artistic approach and develop experimental musical instruments, often meant for individual playing styles developed by the builder themself.

    Regardless of how the sound is produced, many musical instruments have a keyboard as the user interface. Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard, which is a row of small keys that can be pressed. Every key generates one or more sounds most keyboard instruments have extra means (pedals for a piano, stops and a pedal keyboard for an organ) to manipulate these sounds. They may produce sound by wind being fanned (organ) or pumped (accordion), [134] [135] vibrating strings either hammered (piano) or plucked (harpsichord), [136] [137] by electronic means (synthesizer), [138] or in some other way. Sometimes, instruments that do not usually have a keyboard, such as the glockenspiel, are fitted with one. [139] Though they have no moving parts and are struck by mallets held in the player's hands, they have the same physical arrangement of keys and produce soundwaves in a similar manner. The theremin, an electrophone, is played without physical contact by the player. The theremin senses the proximity of the player's hands, which triggers changes in its sound. More recently, a MIDI controller keyboard used with a digital audio workstation may have a musical keyboard and a bank of sliders, knobs, and buttons that change many sound parameters of a synthesizer.

    A person who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist or instrumental musician. [140] [141] [142] Many instrumentalists are known for playing specific musical instruments such as guitarist (guitar), pianist (piano), bassist (bass), and drummer (drum). These different types of instrumentalists can perform together in a music group. [143] A person who is able to play a number of instruments is called a multi-instrumentalist. [144] According to David Baskerville in the book Music Business Handbook and Career Guide, the working hours of a full-time instrumentalist may average only three hours a day, but most musicians spent at least 40 hours a week. [145]


    Bring up the lions

    Among other things, the Rome branch of the institute has researched one of the Colosseum's wilder technical aspects: the contraptions used to lift animals to the arena to meet their gladiator foes. The group recently did a project that recreated the "elevators" from a series of lifts and pulleys, which brought the beasts up from their holding areas under the famous fighting ring.

    The German Archaeological Institute celebrates 190 years


    Figurines of Demeter and Persephone Found in Russia’s Black Sea Town

    The figurines of Demeter and Persephone recently discovered in Anapa. Credit: HistoryHellenic/Twitter

    Figurines representing the goddess Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, were unearthed recently at a construction site in the Black Sea resort town of Anapa, in Russia.

    The terracotta statuettes, along with a relief, were discovered in early November by archaeologists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

    In antiquity, the region surrounding Anapa, known as Sinda, served as an important seaport. Pontic Greeks established a settlement called Gorgippia there in the sixth century BC, and it developed into a major power in the Black Sea throughout the years of antiquity.

    The construction site in Anapa where the artifacts were discovered. Credit: Sarah404BC/Twitter

    A number of kilns used for the production of pottery and ceramics, mainly dating from the 4th to the 2nd century BC, were also discovered on the outskirts of the ancient city.

    It is near the remains of one of the kilns that archaeologists discovered the bulk of the priceless figurines of the Greek goddesses.

    One of the priceless figurines just discovered in Anapa, Russia. Credit: Istockhistory/Twitter

    Along with a number of complete figurines of Persephone, Demeter’s daughter, archaeologists found a one-sided bust figurine of Demeter herself and an array of tiles, bowls, and pottery fragments at the site.

    Relief of an enthroned Cybele, flanked by Hermes and Hecate. Credit: Sarah404BC/Twitter

    A dedicatory relief depicting an enthroned Cybele, an Anatolian mother goddess, flanked by Hermes and Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft, was also discovered at the Anapa site.

    Archaeologists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences believe that the relief would have been displayed near a temple or important public building.

    The finds at Anapa, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea, highlight the far-reaching influence of Greece in antiquity, as well as its persistence throughout time, as Anapa is still home to a vibrant community of Pontic Greeks to this day.


    8 Oldest Artifacts in the World

    Archaeology has roots dating back to the early civilizations that were curious about the past. The Greek historian Herodotus (c.5 th century BCE) was the first to systematically study the past and may have been the first person to examine artifacts. Since then, archaeologists have uncovered thousands of artifacts from different periods of human history. The entries on this list are some of the oldest artifacts ever found in their category (instruments, tools, sculptures, etc.). Some of the oldest artifacts on this list predate Homo sapiens and were most likely created by early human ancestors such as Homo erectus.

    8. Venus of Hohle Fels

    Age: 35,000 – 40,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Ivory sculpture
    Country of Origin: Hohle Fels Cave, Schelklingen, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    The Venus of Hohle Fels figurine is the oldest sculpture depicting the human figure. It is the oldest “Venus figurine” – any Upper Paleolithic sculpture of a woman – and dates back to about 35,000 – 40,000 years ago. It was discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave by an archaeological team led by Nicholas J. Conard. The team discovered several other ancient artifacts, including the world’s oldest instrument (further down on this list).

    Since the figure’s discovery, there have been numerous debates over nature of the figure, with Conard suggesting that it is about “sex, [and] reproduction.” He added that the exaggerated female features of the figurine are “an extremely powerful depiction of the essence of being female.”

    7. Löwenmensch Figurine (Lion-man of the Hohlenstein-Stade)

    Age: 35,000 – 40,000 years old
    Type of Artifact: Ivory sculpture
    Country of Origin: Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave, Swabian Jura, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    The Löwenmensch figurine is the oldest known piece of figurative art in the world. It is an ivory sculpture of a lion headed human that is between 35,000 – 40,000 years old. The sculpture was first discovered in 1939 by geologist Otto Völzing at the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave, but the start of World War II lead to cave’s research being shelved.

    The fragments of the sculpture were forgotten for over 30 years in the Museum of Ulm, until archaeologist Joachim Hahn began piecing them together. More pieces of the figure were uncovered in 1962 and they were added Hahn’s reconstruction in 1982. In 2009, further excavations were conducted and more minute fragments were discovered. Today, the figurine is almost completely restored and is displayed at the Ulm Museum.

    6. Bone Flutes

    Age: 42,000 – 43,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Musical instruments made from bone
    Country of Origin: Geissenkloesterle Cave, Blaubeuren, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    According to scientists, the bone flutes found at Geissenkloesterle Cave in Germany are the oldest musical instruments ever found in the world. Researchers used carbon dating to determine that the flutes were between 42,000 – 43,000 years old.

    The flutes were made from bird bone and mammoth ivory and are from the Aurignacian archaeological culture, which is associated with the earliest modern humans in Europe. The instruments may have been used for recreation or religious rituals. These flutes are older than the previous record holder, found at the famous Hohle Fels cave in Germany, that was dated to 35,000 years ago.

    5. Skhul Cave Beads

    Age: 100,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Shell beads most likely used for jewelry
    Country of Origin: Es Skhul Cave, Haifa, Israel

    photo source: newscientist.com

    The shell beads from Skhul Cave in Israel are thought to be the oldest pieces of jewelry created by humans. The two beads from Skhul are date back to at least 100,000 years ago and a third bead from Oued Djebbana in Algeria is between 35,000 – 90,000 years old.

    According to archaeologists studying the shells, the snails that produced the shells are from the sea, which is 3.5 kilometers away from Skhul. This means that the beads hold cultural significance because the people who made them had to travel a long distance to collect them. The discovery of the beads suggests that modern human behavior (personal ornamentation, art, music, etc.) developed much earlier in human history than originally thought.

    4. Blombos Cave Paint Making Studio

    Age: 100,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Paint making kits made of shells and assorted bones
    Country of Origin: Blombos Cave, Western Cape, South Africa

    photo source: Live Science

    The Blombos Cave archaeological site has been under excavation since 1992 and over the years, they have discovered many artifacts. One of their most recent finds from 2008, was a paint making studio consisting of two toolkits dating back to 100,000 years ago. Researchers discovered traces of a red, paint-like mixture stored in two abalone shells.

    They also found ocher (colored clay), bone, charcoal, hammer stones, and grindstones that they believe were used by early Homo sapiens to create the paints. Although the researchers don’t know what the paints were used for, they do know that they used quartzite stones to grind the ocher down and combined it with the oil from the marrow of heated bones.

    3. Acheulean Stone Tools

    Age: 1.76 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools, in particular, hand axes
    Country of Origin: Spread across Africa, Asia, and Europe oldest found in Kenya

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    Acheulean hand axes were used throughout most of early human history. The tools are believed to have first been developed by Homo erectus about 1.76 million years ago and used until the Middle Stone Age (300,000 – 200,000 years ago).

    The hand axes are named after the St. Acheul archaeological site in France where the first of these tools were uncovered in the late 1860s. The oldest Acheulean hand axes was found at archaeological site Kokiselei 4 in the Kenya and are dated to about 1.76 million years ago. The oldest hand axes found outside of Africa are about 900,000 years old and were found at two cave sites in Spain.

    2. Oldowan Stone Tools

    Age: 2.6 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools
    Country of Origin: Gona, Ethiopia

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    Until a 2015 research paper was published, the Oldowan stone tools found in Gona, Ethiopia were believed to be the oldest stone tools ever found. The oldest of the Oldowan tools was dated to about 2.6 million years ago.

    Researchers aren’t sure who created the tools from Gona as no fossils were found near the artifacts. The tools might have been made by Australopithecus garhi, a hominid species that was discovered about 55 miles south of Gona, near animal bones that show signs of butchering – suggesting the use of tools.

    The first Oldowan tools were discovered by famed paleoanthropolgist/archaeologist, Louis Leakey, in the 1930s these tools are about 1.8 million years old.

    1. Lomekwi Stone Tools

    Age: 3.3 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools
    Country of Origin: West Turkana, Kenya

    photo source: Smithsonian.com

    The stone tools unearthed at Lomekwi 3, an archaeological site in Kenya, are the oldest artifacts in the world. These stone tools are about 3.3 million years old, long before Homo sapiens (humans) showed up. While researchers aren’t sure which of our early human ancestors made the tools, the discovery suggests that our ancestors had the mental ability to craft tools before any member of the Homo genus was even born.

    Some of the artifacts uncovered at Lomekwi include anvils, cores, and flakes. The tools are the largest known stone tools and researchers suggest that they be classified as their own tool making tradition called Lomekwian.


    Old city, new discoveries

    In November, construction workers at a sewer in Athens stumbled upon the massive head of an ancient sculpture. On close examination, it turned out to be the marble head of the Greek god, Hermes, according to the Greek Ministry of Culture. Experts believe the head could be from the 3rd or the 4th century. Every now and then, an ancient artefact is discovered in Athens' old city.

    Ancient treasures found in 2020


    Magic and the macabre

    From the remains of two Vesuvius victims frozen in their agonized death throes to a suspected “witch bottle,” or protective talisman filled with nails, 2020 was filled with eerie finds. Topping the charts in the category of ritual and superstition were “witches’ marks” carved into a medieval English church (the engravings featured spoke-like lines radiating out from central holes, perhaps meant to entrap malicious spirits in an endless maze) sacrificed llamas buried alive by Inca people in the mid-15th century and the 8,000-year-old remains of a child buried without their arm and leg bones, likely as part of a ceremony, in what is now Indonesia.

    Researchers also found instruments, decorations and keepsakes crafted out of the bones of Bronze Age Britons’ relatives. “Even in modern secular societies, human remains are seen as particularly powerful objects, and this seems to hold true for people of the Bronze Age,” scholar Tom Booth told BBC News. “However, they treated and interacted with the dead in ways which are inconceivably macabre to us today.”

    Archaeologists made plaster casts of the pair, who are thought to be a high-status older man and a younger enslaved individual. (Pompeii Archaeological Park)

    The remains of Takabuti, a young woman who was murdered in Egypt in the seventh century B.C. (© Ulster Museum)


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