The Consolidated XA-11 was a two seat single engined attack aircraft developed from the Detroit/ Lockheed P-24, but only a handful of aircraft were produced.
The P-24 was developed by the Lockheed subsidiary of the Detroit Aircraft Company, and was based on the successful Lockheed Altair. On 23 September 1931, after early tests with the YP-24, the Army ordered four more fighters and four Y1A-9 attack aircraft. However the design appeared to be doomed after the prototype YP-24 crashed on 19 October 1931 and the Detroit Aircraft company went bankrupt on 27 October 1931.
Work on the design resumed after Consolidated hired Robert J Woods, the designer of the P-24. He produced an improved design, with a new tail, a supercharged engine and metal wings to replace the wooden wings of the P-24. The Air Corps ordered two prototypes in March 1932, one Y1P-25 and one that emerged as the XA-11 (Model 27). The first prototype was delivered on 9 December 1932, but lost in a crash on 13 January 1933. The XA-11 was lost in a second crash a week later. Despite these losses on 1 March 1933 another eight aircraft were ordered, four of each type. The fighter was ordered as the P-30, the attack version as the A-11. These were the last A-11s to be ordered, so the total remained at five - one prototype and four production aircraft.
The A-11 was a low wing monoplane, powered by a Curtiss V-1570-59 engine without a supercharger, driving a two blade propeller. It had metal wings and a metal fuselage, and a crew of two carried in a long cockpit. The second crewman sat facing backwards under the open end of the cockpit canopy and was armed with a single flexibly mounted 0.3in machine gun. The A-11 carried four fixed forward firing 0.3in guns (the P-30 only carried two) and could carry up to 400lb of bombs.
One of the A-11s was given a 1,000hp Allison XV-1710-7 engine, and became the XA-11A.
Engine: Curtiss V-1570-59 engine
Span: 43ft 11in
Length: 30ft 0in
Height: 8ft 3in
Guns: Four fixed forward firing and one flexibly mounted 0.3in machine guns
Bomb load: 400lb
Consolidated XA-11 - History
Post by GOOSE » Fri Jan 16, 2015 8:13 pm
2006 – AH-64D Apache 03-5385 from B Company, 1–4th Aviation Regiment shot down north of Baghdad, killing the two pilots.
2003 – Launch: Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 at 15:39:00 UTC. Mission highlights: SPACEHAB Loss of vehicle and crew before landing at KSC.
2001 – Death of Constantin Balta, Romanian WWII flying ace, Post War high-ranking officer before entering the Civil Aviation General Authority.
2001 – Shenzhou 2, 2nd Chinese unmanned Shenzhou spacecraft, is back on earth
1981 – Death of Leo C. Young, American radio engineer who had many accomplishments during a long career at the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory. Although self-educated, he was a member of a small, creative team that is generally credited with developing the world's first true radar system.
1979 – Death of Squadron Commander Christopher Draper, DSC Croix de guerre, English flying ace of WWI. His penchant for flying under bridges earned him the nickname "the Mad Major. "
1975 – USAF sets new climb-time records with a stripped and unpainted McDonnell Douglas F-15 A Streak Eagle aircraft, operating from Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. The Streak Eagle reaches a height of 3,000 m (9,843 ft.) in 27.57 s., 6,000 m (19,685 ft.) in 39.33 s., 9,000 m (929,528 ft.) in 48.86 s., 12,000 m (39,370 ft.) in 59.38 s. and 15,000 m (42,2132 ft.) in 1 min. 17.02 s
1969 – Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 docked, first-ever docking of two manned spacecraft of any nation, and the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another of any nation.
1965 – U.S. Navy LCDR. Dick Oliver crashes Grumman F-11A Tiger, Blue Angel Number 5, BuNo 141869, doing a dirty roll during practice, but receives minor injuries. The new aircraft 5 became BuNo 141859, which he flies on the European tour. Oliver will be killed in a crash during a performance at Toronto, Canada on 2 September 1966.
1965 – A USAF Boeing KC-135A-BN Stratotanker, 57-1442, c/n 17513, crashed after an engine failure shortly after take off from McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, USA. The fuel laden plane crashed at the intersection of 20th and Piatt in Wichita, Kansas causing a huge fire. 30 were killed, 23 on the ground and the 7 member crew.
1962 – A South Vietamese Air Force C-47 Skytrain crashes at Pleiku, South Vietnam, killing 33.
1962 – A Strategic Air Command (SAC) Boeing B-47E Stratojet of the 380th Bomb Wing, Plattsburgh AFB, New York, on low-altitude bombing run training mission, is reported overdue at 0700 hrs. Last radio call was at
0200 hrs. After four day search, wreckage is spotted in the Adirondack High Peaks. Bomber clipped the top of Wright Peak (16th tallest mountain in the Adirondacks, at 4580 feet) after veering 30 miles off course in inclement weather, high winds. Aircraft Commander 1st Lt. Rodney D. Bloomgren, of Jamestown, New York, copilot 1st Lt. Melvin Spencer, navigator 1st Lt. Albert W. Kandetski and observer A1C Kenneth R. Jensen KWF. Pilot, copilot remains found after
a week, navigator found later. Observer's remains never recovered. A memorial plaque was erected on a rock near the summit by the 380th Bomb Wing.
1957 – Operation Power Flite, USAF mission, five B-52 B aircraft of the 93rd Bombardment Wing of the 15th Air Force took off from Castle Air Force Base in California with two of the planes flying as spares to demonstrate that the USA had the ability to drop a hydrogen bomb anywhere in the world.
1955 – Birth of Jerry Michael Linenger, M. D., M. S. S. M., M. P. H., Ph. D., USN Officer and NASA astronaut.
1952 – Birth of Lloyd Blaine Hammond, Jr.,Gulfstream test pilot, USAF officer, and NASA astronaut
1950 – A new record is set by a 412 Squadron North Star for a flight from Vancouver to Halifax: 8 hours 25 min.
1948 – Birth of Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev, Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
1946 – Birth of Michael Lloyd Coats, USN Pilot, engineer and NASA astronaut,
1945 – Task Force 38 aircraft strike Hong Kong, Hainan, and Canton and sweep the coast of China from the Liuchow Peninsula to Swatow. Hampered by bad weather, they sink two merchant ships and damage four others and destroy 13 Japanese planes in exchange for the loss of 22 U. S. aircraft in combat and five to non-combat causes.
1945 – The new British Pacific Fleet departs Ceylon for Australia.
1945 – (16-20) The U. S. Army Air Forces Fourteenth Air Force destroys over 100 Japanese planes on the ground in and around Shanghai, China.
1945 – U. S. Navy escort carrier support to the Lingayen Gulf landings ends. During 12 days of support, their aircraft have flown 6,152 sorties and claimed 92 Japanese aircraft destroyed in exchange for the loss of two aircraft, both FM Wildcat fighters.
1943 – (Overnight) British bombing accuracy is poor in a raid on Berlin, which is beyond the range of the Gee and Oboe navigation aids. British bomber losses are small.
1941 – 60 German dive bombers make a massed attack on the dockyard at Malta in an attempt to destroy the damaged British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, but she receives only one bomb hit. Incessant German and Italian bombing raids will target Malta through March, opposed by only a handful of British fighters.
1936 – Death of James "Jimmy" Armand Meissner, American WWI flying ace who organized the Birmingham Flying Club, nicknamed the "Birmingham Escadrille", which became Alabama's first Air National Guard unit and the 7th in the USA.
1926 – Death of Jean Georges Bouyer, French WWI flying ace, in the crash of his Hanriot.
1922 – Death of Alan John Lance Scott, New Zealand WWI flying ace. He has been Winston Churchill's flying instructor.
1919 – Maj A. S. C. MacLaren and Cpt Robert Halley arrive in Delhi, completing the first England-India flight, in a Handley Page V/1500
1911 – Birth of Major Floyd Bruce Parks, WWII USMC Pilot
1910 – Birth of David McCampbell, American WWII fighter pilot, US Navy all-time leading ace.
1894 – Birth of Konrad Mettlich, German WWI flying ace.
1888 – Birth of Alfred William Saunders, Irish WWI fighter ace
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Mon Jan 19, 2015 3:51 pm
2013 – Algerian attack helicopters open fire on vehicles carrying hostages and their captors during a hostage crisis at the Ain Amenas natural gas facility in Algeria, apparently killing dozens, although casualty estimates vary widely.
2009 – A Eurocopter AS 532 helicopter of the French Navy crashes into the sea off Gabon shortly after take-off from the amphibious assault ship Foudre, killing eight of the ten personnel on board.
2003 – A USMC McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18D Hornet crashes into the Pacific Ocean off of MCAS Miramar, California, due to a material failure during a functional check flight with one engine shut down. Both crew eject safely and are recovered.
1997 – A Delta II 7925 rocket carrying the first GPS Block IIR satellite, GPS IIR-1, exploded only 13 seconds after liftoff, raining flaming debris all over Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
1977 – Avro Vulcan B.2, XM600, of 101 Squadron, crashes at Spilsby, Lincs. after the five crew abandon the aircraft due to a fire in the bomb bay.
1991 – US-led forces attack Iraq in a massive air assault after a United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from occupied Kuwait passes unheeded.
1991 – On the first day of Gulf War, USN pilots Nick Mongilio and Mark I. Fox were sent from the USS Saratoga in the Red Sea to bomb an airfield in southwestern Iraq. While en route, they were warned by an E-2 C of approaching MiG-21 aircraft. The Hornets shot down two MiGs and resumed their bombing run, each carrying four 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, before returning to Saratoga.
1991 – An unarmed USAF EF-111 A Raven, crewed by Captain James A. Denton and Captain Brent D. Brandon scored a kill against an Iraqi Dassault Mirage F1EQ, which they managed to maneuver into the ground, making it the only F-111 to achieve an aerial victory over another aircraft.
1982 – Death of William Thomas Price, British WWI flying ace.
1974 – Death of Wilhelm "Willy" Thöne, German WWI flying ace.
1967 – First flight of the Sukhoi Su-24 T-6:2I
1966 – A B-52 Stratofortress collides with a KC-135 Stratotanker during aerial refueling near Palomares, Spain. Seven crewmembers are killed in the crash, and two of the B-52's four nuclear weapons rupture, scattering radioactive material over the countryside. One bomb lands intact near the town, and another is lost at sea. It is later recovered intact 5 miles (8 km) offshore.
1966 – A Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star on a night mission crashes and burns in a wooded area 11 miles NW of Eglin AFB, killing both crew. According to the base information officer, the wreckage was located in a densely wooded area which made the approach of rescue vehicles difficult. KWF were Capt. Robert D. Freeman, 30, of Lindsey, Oklahoma, and 2nd Lt. Roger A. Carr, 26, of Ames, Iowa. Both were residents of Fort Walton Beach, Florida and were assigned to the Air Proving Ground Center. Capt. Freeman is survived by his widow, Faith, and three children, Donna, 7, Robert L., 5, and Alison C., 18 months and his parents Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Freeman, of Lindsey. Lt. Carr is survived by his widow, Karen, and a five-month-old son, Craig and by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert W. Carr, of Ames.
1966 – Two crew of an Republic F-105F Thunderchief based at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, escape injury when the engine of the fighter-bomber in which they are engaged in a photo-chase mission catches fire, forcing them to eject. The airframe impacts in East Bay, near Tyndall AFB, Florida at 1008 hrs. Pilot Capt. James D. Clendenen and photographer S/Sgt. J. G. Cain are recovered from the water by a Tyndall base helicopter.
1963 – Joe Walker flies the North American X15 A to a height of 82,600 m (271,000 feet) and, having flown higher than 50 miles, he qualifies for astronaut wings.
1957 – During the second bomber stream of training mission, "WEDDING BRAVO", by 30 Convair B-36 Peacemaker bombers of the 7th Bomb Wing, out of Carswell AFB, Texas, a jet engine explosion results in one B-36 landing at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, on fire. There was no further damage to the aircraft and no injuries to the crew, commanded by Capt. Robert L. Lewis.
1948 – First flight of a RCAF de Havilland Vampire in Canada.
1945 – Twentieth Air Force B-29 s bomb Formosa.
1943 – Birth of Daniel Charles Brandenstein, US Navy test pilot and NASA astronaut.
1943 – (Overnight) 188 British bombers attack Berlin, with poor accuracy. The Germans expect a return visit to Berlin and put up a better defense the British lose 22 bombers, a very high 11.8 percent loss rate
1941 – During the French-Thai War, the Battle of Koh Chang opens with a bombing attack on Royal Thai Navy warships at Koh Chang, Thailand, by a French Loire 130 flying boat and ends with Royal Thai Air Force aircraft bombing French warships. All air attacks in the battle are ineffective, although a Thai bomb which fails to explode hits the French light cruiser La Motte-Picquet.
1941 – Sinclair-Ralston agreement noted that 25 RCAF squadrons were to form in UK over the next 18 months (exclusive to the three already in the UK).
1939 – Prototype Belgian Renard R-36 all-metal fighter, OO-ARW, crashes near Nivelles, killing pilot Lt. Visconte Eric de Spoelberg. Official investigation is inconclusive, no evidence of material failure being discovered. Most probable causes are concluded to be either that radio equipment came loose during a high-G manoeuver, jamming the controls, or that the pilot became incapacitated. Development programme suspended after this accident. Airframe had accumulated 75:30 hours flight time.
1938 – Spanish Nationalist Fiat CR.32 fighters clash with Republican Polikarpov fighters over the front lines at Teruel, Spain, during the Battle of Teruel.
1936 – The United States Army Air Corps orders 13 Boeing Y1 B-17 Flying Fortresses, previously known by the manufacturer’s designation, Model 299.
1920 – The first United States Navy airplane flight in the Hawaiian Islands takes place when a plane takes off from Honolulu.
1906 – Zeppelin LZ2 (makes a forced landing and is destroyed in high winds the following day).
1892 – Birth of Thomas Mottershead VC, DCM, British WWI pilot.
1892 – Birth of Amedeo Mecozzi, Italian WWI flying ace, WWII general of the Italian Regia Aeronautica and a military theorist credited as the founding father of the "Attack air force" doctrine.
1891 – Birth of Hans Klein, German WWI fighter ace, and WWII Luftwaffe high-ranking officer.
1890 – Birth of Paul Armand Petit, French WWI flying ace.
1886 – Birth of Glenn Luther Martin, American aviation pioneer, Founder of the Glenn L. Martin Company.
1885 – Birth of Karl Nikitsch, Austro-Hungarian WWI flying ace.
1847 – Birth of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky, Russian scientist, founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics. Whereas contemporary scientists scoffed at the idea of human flight, Zhukovsky was the first to undertake the study of airflow.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Mon Jan 19, 2015 3:55 pm
2005 – A United States Air Force Cessna T-37B, 66-8003, Cider 21, of the 89th Flying Training Squadron, 80th Flying Training Wing collides in midair with a civilian Air Tractor AT-502B, registration number N8526M, during a training flight over an unpopulated area near Hollister, Oklahoma, USA both aircraft spiral out of control, 2 aircrew in T-37 eject, 1 suffers minor injuries, pilot and sole occupant of N8526M is killed. The crash is attributed to the failure of both pilots to watch for conflicting air traffic during VFR flight, a rare example of a midair collision in daylight VFR conditions during cruise flight in uncongested airspace distant from an airport.
1992 – The United States armed forces retire the last F-4 Phantom II from front-line service
1991 – Seven Coalition aircraft are lost, all to Iraqi ground fire.
1986 – STS-61-C Space Shuttle Columbia returns on earth, last shuttle mission before the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
1982 – Death of Josef Mai, German WWI fighter ace and WWII instructor.
1982 – 1982 Thunderbirds Indian Springs Diamond Crash: The worst accident in U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds Demonstration Team history involving show aircraft, when four Northrop T-38A Talons, Numbers 1-4, 68-8156, -8175, -8176 and -8184, crashed during pre-season training on Range 65 at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada (now Creech Air Force Base). While practicing the four-plane line abreast loop, the formation impacted the ground at high speed, instantly killing all four pilots: Major Norm Lowry, leader, Captain Willie Mays, Captain Pete Peterson and Captain Mark Melancon. The cause of the crash was officially listed by the USAF as the result of a mechanical problem with the #1 aircraft's control stick actuator. During formation flight, the wing and slot pilots visually cue off the #1 lead aircraft, completely disregarding their positions in relation to the ground. The crash of a team support Fairchild C-123 Provider on 10 October 1958 killed 19.
1979 – Death of Giovanni Ballestra, Italian Air Force pilot, not bailing out of his F-104 Starfighter on fire in order to avoid victims in a high denisity population zone.
1973 – Results of the USAF A-X fly-off announced, with the Fairchild YA-10 selected over the Northrop YA-9.
1972 – General Dynamics F-111E-CF, 68-018, c/n A1-127 / E-28, tailcode 'JS', out of RAF Upper Heyford, crashes on high ground in Scotland, both crew KWF.
1968 – (overnight) – A U. S. Navy UH-2A Seasprite piloted by Lieutenant junior grade Clyde Everett Lassen makes a daring rescue of downed fliers in North Vietnam. For his actions, Lassen will become the only U. S. Navy helicopter pilot to be awarded the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War.
1965 – Death of Charles Marie Joseph Leon Nuville, French WWI fighter ace and WWII officer.
1958 – Birth of Jeffrey Nels Williams, USAF test pilot and NASA astronaut.
1957 – Three United States Air Force B-52 Stratofortress bombers make the world’s first round-the-world, non-stop flight by turbojet-powered aircraft. They complete the flight in 45 hours 19 min, at an average speed of 534 mph (859 km/h).
1946 – A Dornier Do 335A-12 Pfeil (Arrow), AM223, ex-DP+UB, a twin piston engined "push-pull" aircraft, out of RAE Farnborough, suffers a rear-engine fire whilst in flight which severs the control runs and crashes into Cove School, Cove, Hampshire, killing 2 people, according to one source, and injuring six persons on the ground, with the pilot, Group Captain A. F. Hards DSO, killed.
1944 – Death of Eugene Jules Emile Camplan, French WWI flying ace.
1941 – A large German air raid strikes Malta’s airfields and other facilities.
1938 – The RCAF accepted the first of 1,384 Tiger Moth training aircraft.
1935 – First flight of the Blohm & Voss Ha 137
1920 – Death of Albert René Chabrier, French WWI flying ace.
1918 – Birth of Frederick C. Bock, WWII pilot who took part in the atomic bombing of Nagasaki in 1945, flying the B-29 bomber 'The Great Artist'.
1916 – First flight of the Junkers J 1
1916 – Birth of Giorgio Savoja (Savoia), Italian WWII fighter pilot.
1913 – Birth of Wing Commander George Cecil Unwin DSO, DFM & Bar, British WWII fighter ace.
1911 – Eugene Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania anchored in San Francisco Bay, marking the first time an aircraft landed on a ship.
1906 – The Zeppelin LZ2 is destroyed in high winds.
1905 – The Wright brothers begin discussions with the United States Government about selling it an airplane.
1893 – Birth of Douglas Evan Cameron, British WWI flying ace.
1891 – Birth of Herbert Wilhelm Franz Knappe, German WWI flying ace.
1888 – Thomas Sopwith, British aviation pioneer, is born (d. 1989). Sopwith with Fred Sigrist and others set up The Sopwith Aviation Company. The company produced key British World War I aircraft, most famously the Sopwith Camel.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Mon Jan 19, 2015 3:59 pm
2013 – The Syrian Air Force strikes a mosque and a school building sheltering Syrian refugees in Salqin, Syria, killing and wounding dozens.
2013 – Two American unmanned aerial vehicle strikes during the evening kill a total of eight people in Yemen ' Ma'rib province, including at least two members of al-Qaeda.
2006 – Launch of New Horizons, NASA robotic spacecraft mission to the dwarf planet Pluto. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix, and Hydra. NASA may also attempt flybys of one or more other Kuiper belt objects.
2006 – A Slovak Air Force Antonov An-24 carrying peace-keepers from Kosovo crashes near Telkibánya, Hungary. Of the 43 people on board, only one survived.
1995 – Rockwell-MBB X-31, BuNo 164584, first of two testbed airframes, crashes on 67th flight, north of Edwards AFB, California. German Federal Ministry of Defense test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang, assigned to the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO), ejects safely at 18,000 feet. He is taken to hospital for examination, a fire department spokesman said.
1993 – STS-54, space shuttle Endeavour is back on earth.
1991 – The second Rockwell X-31 enhanced fighter makes its first flight.
1991 – Two Coalition aircraft are shot down, both by Iraqi ground fire. The Iraqi Air Force loses five aircraft in air-to-air combat, all shot down by U. S. Air Force F-15 C Eagle fighters employing AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles.
1991 – Death of Paul F. Bikle, American Engineer, Record setting glider pilot and Director of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility.
1975 – Death of Antonio Reali, Italian WWI fighter ace.
1972 – Flying a United States Navy F-4 J Phantom II fighter of Fighter Squadron 96 (VF-96) off of USS Constellation (CVA-64), Lieutenants Randy “Duke” Cunningham (pilot) and William “Irish” Driscoll (radar intercept officer) shoot down a North Vietnamese MiG fighter. It is the first air-to-air victory by an American aircraft over Vietnam since March 1970.
1965 – Suborbital flight of Gemini 2, US unmanned mission intended as a test flight for the Gemini spacecraft's heat shield.
1961 – Boeing B-52B-35-BO Stratofortress, 53-0390, c/n 16869, of the 95th Bomb Wing, Biggs AFB, Texas, crashes in Utah after failure of tail section in turbulence-induced accident.
1956 – First flight of The Supermarine Scimitar (type 544), British naval fighter aircraft.
1950 – First flight of the Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck (affectionately known as the "Clunk") RCAF 18101 in Malton by Canadian test pilot Bill Waterton.
1949 – First flight of Martin XSSM-A-1 Matador test vehicle, from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, ends in crash.
1948 – First Vampires were taken on strength by RCAF.
1946 – First Flight of the Bell X-1. Originally designated XS-1, joint NACA-U. S. Army/USAF supersonic research project, first of the so-called X-planes.
1944 – Allied heavy and medium bombers strike Viterbo, Rieti, and Perugia, Italy. The Allied air forces claim that their air campaign has cut all communications between northern Italy and the Rome area, although this does not turn out to be true.
1941 – German aircraft again attack the Malta dockyard, causing underwater damage to HMS Illustrious.
1927 – Second of two Naval Aircraft Factory PN-7 flying boats, BuNo A-6617, delivered 6 June 1924, is wrecked this date at San Diego, California, with total flight time of 423:32 hours.
1926 – Death of Leopoldo Eleuteri, Italian WWI flying ace.
1923 – First flight of the Armstrong Whitworth Wolf.
1918 – Birth of Tadeusz Góra, Polish glider pilot and WWII pilot.
1918 – The second and last Zeppelin raid on Paris inflicts 54 casualties.
1915 – First Zeppelin raid on the UK by the German Navy.
1915 – Birth of Ennio "Banana" Tarantola, Spanish War and WWII Italian fighter ace.
1899 – Birth of George Ebben Randall, British WWI Flying ace.
1898 – Birth of Basil Henry Moody, South African WWI Flying ace.
1898 – Birth of Carl-August von Schoenebeck, German WWI flying ace, Raid pilot, Arado test pilot and WWII high-ranking officer.
1895 – Birth of Air Marshal Sir Arthur "Mary" Coningham KCB, KBE, DSO, MC, DFC, AFC, RAF, Royal Flying Corps flying ace during WWI, Conningham was later a senior Royal Air Force commander during WWII, as Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief 2nd Tactical Air Force and subsequently the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Flying Training Command.
1893 – Birth of Maurice Joseph Emile Robert, French WWI flying ace.
1888 – Birth of Millard Fillmore Harmon Jr. American WWI pilot and Lieutenant General in the USAAF during the Pacific campaign in WWII.
1883 – Birth of James McKinley Hargreaves, Scottish WWI flying ace, One of the first Aces in history.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by tm74sqn » Mon Jan 19, 2015 5:29 pm
1919 – The second and last Zeppelin raid on Paris inflicts 54 casualties.
Didn't WW1 finish in 1918 - if so, then a very sneaky raid by the German military.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Tue Jan 20, 2015 5:18 pm
2013 – A Syrian Air Force strike against rebel-held areas in al-Barika reportedly kllls seven people.
2013 – Islamist rebel forces withdraw from Diabaly, Mali, to avoid further airstrikes after days of bombing by French aircraft. French aircraft have flown 140 bombing sorties since the French intervention in Mali began.
2012 – Launch of WGS-4, (Wideband Global SATCOM system) American high capacity satellite communications system.
2011 – Launch of SA-224, also known as NRO Launch 49 (NRO L-49), American reconnaissance satellite.
2011 – Launch of Elektro-L No.1, also known as Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite No.2 or GOMS No.2, Russian geostationary weather satellite.
2011 – A Ecuadorian Air Force De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter FAE449 crashed near Tena, Ecuador, killing all six on board.
2009 – Two Spanish Air Force Dassault Mirage F1 on a training flight, collide in midair. The three pilots were found dead in the debris of the airplanes.
2007 – A US AH-64 Apache helicopter crashed near Najaf. One soldier killed.
2007 – A UH-60 Black Hawk from C Company, 1–131 Aviation Regiment shot down by a combination of several heavy machine guns and a shoulder-fired missile north-east of Baghdad. All 12 crew and passengers on board are killed in the incident.
1996 – STS-72, Space shuttle mission, recovers in space the Japanese spacecraft 'Space Flyer Unit' and lands back on earth.
1991 – Five Coalition aircraft are lost in combat – All to Iraqi ground fire – And two to non-combat causes.
1988 – Death of Robert Miles Todd, American WWI flying ace.
1980 – Death of André Dubonnet, French WWI flying ace, WWII fighter pilot, athlete, racecar driver, and inventor.
1977 – AA USCG Sikorsky HH-52A Seaguard, 1448, strikes three electrical transmission wires and crashes into the ice-filled Illinois River. The crew had been performing an aerial ice patrol along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. The names of the personnel killed in the incident were: LTJG Frederick William Caesar III USN, LTJG John Francis Taylor (CG Aviator #1620), AT2 John B. Johnson, Mr. Jim Simpson (Civilian). The Air Station the aircraft and/or crew were assigned to was AIRSTA Chicago.
1977 – Death of Ernest Archibald "Ernie" McNab, Canadian WWII fighter pilot, first scoring pilot for the RCAF in WWII.
1975 – Death of Howard Burdick, American WWI flying ace.
1974 – First 'accidental' flight of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, US multirole jet fighter aircraft, during a high-speed taxi test. While gathering speed, a roll-control oscillation caused a fin of the port-side wingtip-mounted missile and then the starboard stabilator to scrape the ground, and the aircraft then began to veer off the runway. The GD test pilot, Phil Oestricher, decided to lift off to avoid crashing the machine, and safely landed it six minutes later.
1971 – Entered Service: McDonell Douglas RF-4E Phantom II with Luftwaffe.
1971 – First flight of the Northrop Grumman E-2 C Hawkeye, a American all-weather, aircraft carrier-capable tactical airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft, evolution of the E-2 A and E-2 B.
1969 – Death of Arthur Eyguem De Montaigne 'Jacko' Jarvis, Canadian WWI flying ace.
1965 – Death of Ludwig "Lutz" Beckmann, German WWI flying ace.
1965 – Death of Friedrich Hefty, Austro-Hungarian WWI flying ace.
1952 – Death of Ronald Malcolm Fletcher, British WWI observer/gunner ace in two-seater fighters in conjunction with his pilot, Lt. S. F. H. Thompson.
1948 – Birth of Jerry Lynn Ross, USAF pilot and NASA astronaut.
1943 – A RCAF Wellington Bomber (BR 432) from 429 Squadron, stationed at East-Moor, UK, went down in the Zuider Zee. Wreckage was recovered 29 years later in May 1972.
1941 – The Brazilian Air Force is created by the amalgamation of the Brazilian Army and Brazilian Navy air arms.
1941 – Death of Frederick Erastus Humphreys, American aviator, one of the original three military pilots trained by the Wright brothers and the first to fly solo.
1940 – First flight of the Arsenal VG-34, a French light fighter aircraft prototype developed from the VG-33.
1938 – First flight of the Latécoère 523, a 6 engine high wing monoplane reconnaissance Flying boat for the French Navy, Based on the 521, variant of the 522
1936 – Italian troops take the Ethiopian town of Negele Boran without firing a shot. Its inhabitants have all fled after Italian aircraft drop 40 tons (36,288 kg) of bombs on the town during the Battle of Genale Doria.
1934 – First flight of the Boeing P-29 (originated as the Model 264), a US Fighter prototype, fully-cantilever wings, wing flaps, enclosed "greenhouse" canopy, and retractable undercarriage.
1933 – The sole prototype Consolidated XA-11 attack plane, 32-322, crashes due to structural failure, killing Lieut. Irvin A. Woodring.
1930 – Edwin Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr., American pilot and astronaut, is born. Aldrin was the Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 11, the first lunar landing. He was the second person to have set foot on the Moon, after Mission Commander Neil Armstrong.
1928 – Introduction: Boeing F2 B
1923 – After suffering an engine failure in flight, the Cierva C.4 autogyro uses autorotation to land without damage.
1920 – Birth of Ferruccio Serafini, WWII Italian fighter ace.
1916 – The first airship raid on Britain. Zeppelins of the Imperial German Navy Airship Division dropped bombs on Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn, Norfolk, killing 5 people. The RFC flew its first ever night sorties against the raiders, but two aircraft failed to intercept.
1913 – Birth of Gheorghe Popescu-Ciocanel, Romanian WWII fighter ace.
1896 – Birth of James Dudley Beane, American WWI flying ace.
1893 – Birth of Howard John Thomas Saint, Welsch WWI flying ace.
1892 – Birth of Ludwig Hanstein, German WWI fighter ace.
1890 – Birth of Arthur Whitehair "Wiggy" Vigers, British WWI fighter ace, 3d ranking of theaces who flew the Sopwith Dolphin.
1890 – Birth of Pierre Henri Edmond Dufaur de Gavardie, French WWI flying ace.
1889 – Birth of Allan Haines Loughead, later changed to Allan Haines Lockheed, American aviation pioneer and engineer. He formed the Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company along with his brother, Malcolm Loughead that became Lockheed Corporation.
1889 – Birth of Alfred Mohr, German WWI flying ace.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Wed Jan 21, 2015 6:59 pm
2009 – An Indian Air Force HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk.2 military trainer aircraft from the No. 52 Squadron Surya Kiran (Sun Rays) Aerobatics display team based at the Bidar Air Force Station in Karnataka, India crashed into a field during a routine training exercise killing the pilot.
1999 – Royal Air Force Panavia Tornado GR.1 ZA330, 'B-08', crashed into a Cessna 152 II, G-BPZX near Mattersley Nottinghamshire. In the Air Accident Report 3/2000 the conclusion was none of the pilots saw each other in time to take avoiding action. Both crew of the Tornado, Flight Lieutenant Greg Hurst and Sottotenete Matteo Di Carlo, as well as the pilot and passenger in the Cessna, were killed.
1999 – A Nicaraguan Air Force Antonov An-26, 126, c/n 14206, crashes into a mountain near Bluefields, Nicaragua, killing all 28 on board.
1996 – Death of Kaj Birksted, WWII Danish Flying ace serving with the RAF.
1991 – An Iraqi surface-to-air missile shoots down a U. S. Navy F-14 Tomcat and a United States Army attack helicopter is lost to non-combat causes in the Gulf War. Coalition aircraft have flown more than 4,000 sorties against Iraqi forces since Operation Desert Storm began, targeting command-and-control centers, airfields, and Scud short-range ballistic missile launchers. They now shift their focus to Iraqi positions around Basra and along the Iraq-Kuwait border.
1991 – The Soviet Union commissions the “heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser” Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov. A hybrid ship combining the capability of a Western aircraft carrier to operate high-performance fighters for fleet air defense with the heavy shipboard antiship missile armament of Soviet guided-missile cruisers, she is the first Soviet or Russian ship with a full-length flight deck similar to that of Western aircraft carriers and the only such ship ever to be built prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
1978 – Death of Theodor Hermann Dahlmann, German WWI flying ace, influential aviation administrator before and during WWII.
1974 – Death of Everett Richard Cook, American WWI flying ace, High-ranking officer during WWII and later, one of the Directors of Eastern Airlines.
1973 – Death of François Portron, French WWI flying ace.
1972 – First flight of the Lockheed S-3 B Viking
1968 – 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash: A Boeing B-52G-100-BW Stratofortress, 58-0188, c.n. 4642256, of the 528th Bomb Squadron, 380th Bomb Wing, from Plattsburgh AFB, New York, carrying four hydrogen bombs crashes on the ice seven miles from Thule Air Base, Greenland at 1639 hrs. AST, 1 crew member killed all four B-28 weapons are consumed in post-crash fire, however one bomb unaccounted for after debris is audited extensive contamination of site and several relief workers exposed to radiation.] This accident caused the Department of Defense to suspend Operation Chrome Dome, the nuclear airborne alert program of SAC.
1963 – First flight of the Fairchild Hiller FH-1100, an American single-engine, single two-bladed rotor, light helicopter
1960 – Little Joe 1 B, Launch Escape System test of the Mercury spacecraft, lifts off from Wallops Island, Virginia with Miss Sam, a female rhesus monkey on board.
1960 – Death of John Stanley Chick, British WWI fighter ace, and RAF officer until the end of WWII.
1958 – The last Fokker C. X in military service, the Finnish Air Force FK-111 target tower, crashed, killing the pilot and winch-operator.
1952 – Second prototype of Arsenal VG 90 turbojet strike fighter design for the Aéronavale, VG-90.02, first flown June 1951, crashes this date killing pilot Claude Dellys.
1952 – The Saab 210 experimental delta-winged research aircraft makes its first flight in Sweden.
1951 – Lockheed P2V-4 Neptune, of VP-22, deployed to WestPac during the Korean War on 1 November 1950 and based at Naha Air Base, Okinawa, is lost this date due to starboard engine failure during takeoff. The P2V crashed and sank in 20 fathoms of water one mile off the end of the runway. There were 11 survivors and two crewmen were listed as missing (their bodies were later recovered).
1951 – The U. S. Air Force F-84 Thunderjet makes its first kill, when F-84 pilot Lieutenant Colonel William E. Bertram shoots down a MiG-15 during the Korean War.
1951 – First non-stop unrefuelled transatlantic crossing by a jet is made by an English Electric Canberra.
1950 – First flight of the Tupolev Tu-75, a Soviet 4 engine military transport prototype variant of the Tu-4 bomber.
1950 – Birth of Joseph Richard "Joe" Tanner, jet pilot, and NASA astronaut.
1945 – The British East Indies Fleet aircraft carriers HMS Ameer and HMS Shah support the landings of the 26th Indian Infantry Division on Ramree Island off the coast of Burma.
1945 – Task Force 38 aircraft fly 1,164 sorties in strikes on Formosa, the Pescadores, and the Sakishima Gunto, sinking five tankers and five other merchant ships and destroying two Japanese aircraft in the air and 104 on the ground. In Japanese air attacks on the task force, a bomber damages the aircraft carrier USS Langley (CVL-27) and kamikazes damage the carrier USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) and a destroyer an accidental bomb explosion during a landing accident damages the carrier USS Hancock (CV-19).
1944 – Launch of Operation Steinbock (Baby Blitz), nocturnal WWII Luftwaffe offensive against southern England launched primarily for the sake of propaganda and as a measure of retaliation than for any military objective
1944 – Death of Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, a German of aristocratic descent and a Luftwaffe WWII night fighter flying ace.
1944 – German ace Hauptmann Manfred Meurer is killed when his Heinkel He 219 night fighter collides with a British Lancaster bomber over Magdeburg, Germany. He has 65 kills at the time of his death.
1943 – The Combined Chiefs of Staff issue the Casablanca Directive. Its principal aim was to weld RAF and USAAF strategic bomber forces into one mighty air arm able to crush the German industrial, military and economic system.
1931 – First flight of the Vickers Type 161, a British unusual pusher biplane prototype interceptor, designed to attack aircraft from below with a single upward-angle large calibre gun.
1920 – The last Royal Navy balloon ship, HMS Canning, which has operated since December 1916 as a balloon depot ship, is sold.
1920 – 10 de Havilland DH-9 are dispatched to form "Z Force", and are used for bombing, strafing and as air ambulances during the RAF first ‘Little War’ against the tribal leader Mohammed bin Abdulla Hassan, the ‘Mad Mullah’, in British Somaliland.
1919 – Birth of Eric Melrose "Winkle" Brown, CBE, DSC, AFC RN, British Navy test pilot who has flown more types of aircraft than anyone else in history and holds the world record for aircraft carrier landings.
1917 – First flight of the Nielsen & Winther Type AA (also known as the Type Aa), a First single seat Danish designed fighter aircraft
1911 – Lieutenant Paul Ward Beck sends the first wireless-telephonic message from an aeroplane, sending a message from a Wright biplane over Selfridge Field in Michigan.
1900 – Birth of Anselm Franz, pioneering Austrian jet engine engineer known for the development of the Jumo 004, the world’s first mass-produced turbojet engine.
1899 – Birth of Leslie Reginald Warren, British WWI flying ace.
1899 – Birth of Maurice Michael Freehill, British WWI flying ace.
1899 – Birth of Pruett Mullens Dennett, British WWI flying ace.
1897 – Birth of Ernest Thomas Morrow, Canadian WWI flying ace.
1897 – Birth of Carlo Francesco "Francis" Lombardi, Italian WWI flying ace, Aircraft and Automobile designer who made post war record breaking flights. He formed the Avia aviation company.
1896 – Birth of Fritz Thiede, German WWI flying ace, Pilot of Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich who also served in WWII.
1893 – Birth of Duerson "Dewey" Knight, American WWI flying ace.
1893 – Birth of Trevor Durrant, British WWI flying ace.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Thu Jan 22, 2015 12:00 pm
2013 – An American unmanned aerial vehicle attacks a ground vehicle in Yemen 's Al Jawf Governorate, killing three suspected al-Qaeda members.
2013 – The United States announces that the United States Air Force has begun airlifting French military personnel and materiel into Mali, having made five flights thus far.
2013 – (Overnight) Two Russian Emergencies Ministry transport aircraft carry 77 Russian citizens fleeing the Syrian Civil War from Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport in Beirut, Lebanon, to Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow.
2011 – Launch of Kounotori 2, or HTV-2, second Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
2010 – A Myanmar Air Force Chengdu F-7 fighter crashed while attempting to land at Yangon airport, killing its pilot.
2008 – A Pakistan Air Force Cessna T-37 Tweet trainer faced mechanical failure while in first solo flight of Pilot Officer Raja Jahanzeb flying over Topi, Pakistan. Declining ejection orders to prevent loss of life on the ground he chose to crash land the plane on a campus road of GIK Institute merely avoiding faculty buildings and blew up into pieces on crashing. The crash killed the pilot and a gardener. Raja Jahanzeb was posthumously awarded Tamgha-e-Basalat (Medal of Good Conduct).
1998 – Launch: Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-89 at 9:48:15 pm EST. Mission highlights: Shuttle-Mir docking.
1992 – Launch: Space Shuttle Discovery STS-42 at 14:52:33 UTC. Mission highlights: Spacelab mission, Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian woman in space.
1991 – In the Gulf War, Iraqi antiaircraft artillery downs a Royal Air Force Tornado ground-attack aircraft and the U. S. Army loses an attack helicopter to non-combat causes. Four U. S. Navy A-6E Intruders disable an Iraqi Navy T43 class minesweeper.
1985 – Death of Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gromov, famous Russian aviator.
1982 – A F/A-18 Hornet makes a fully automated landing, its autopilot linked to a ground radar at the Naval Air Test Center Patuxent River
1971 – A US Navy P-3 Orion sets a distance record of 7,010 miles (11,282 km) for an aircraft in its class.
1970 – The last CF Sabre flight 23102. It was ferried Canadair-Trenton by pilot Bob Ayers.
1969 – The U. S. 9th Marine Regiment begins Operation Dewey Canyon – an operation dependent completely on helicopters – in South Vietnam's Da Krong Valley. It will conclude on March 19, rated as the 9th Marines' most successful operation of the Vietnam War.
1968 – Apollo 5 lifts off carrying the first Lunar module into space with a Saturn IB rocket.
1964 – In its first public violation of the 1959 requirement for all aircraft operating from the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais to belong to the Brazilian Air Force, the Brazilian Navy steams Minas Gerais into Guanabara Bay at Rio de Janeiro with four navy T-28 Trojan trainers on her flight deck.
1964 – A USAF Lockheed F-104B-10-LO Starfighter, 57‑1306, c/n 283-5019, of the 319th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Air Defense Command, Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, crashes at
1330 hrs. on Santa Rosa Island,
one mile E of Fort Walton Beach, Florida, shortly after departure from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, to return to Homestead. The pilot, Capt. Lucius O. Evans, ejects safely just before the fighter impacts in sand dunes just short of the Coronado Motor Hotel, parachuting into the Choctawhatchee Bay. He is then transported to the Eglin base hospital by Assistant Police Chief Jack McSwain, where he is reported to have sustained no injuries. Over sixty occupants at the hotel are not injured although flaming wreckage sprays an area close to the business. Eyewitness Andrew Christiansen, of Chester, Connecticut, reported that the aircraft was on fire as it descended and observed Capt. Evans' ejection from the Starfighter. A secondary explosion after the impact further scatters the burning wreckage.
1955 – Birth of Thomas David Jones, USAF pilot and NASA astronaut.
1951 – Saunders-Roe absorbs the Cierva autogyro company.
1949 – Death of Frederick Robert Gordon McCal, Canadian WWI fighter ace, Post war stunt flyer who founded McCall Aero Corp. Ltd and Great Western Airway, and who returned in RCAF service for WWII.
1945 – U. S. Army Air Forces aircraft begin a heavy bombing campaign against Japanese forces on Corregidor. By the time U. S. ground forces land on Corregidor on February 15–16, they will drop over 3,200 tons (2,903,021 kg) of bombs on the island.
1945 – Task Force 38 aircraft conduct an early morning night strike against Formosa, sinking a large tanker in exchange for the loss of three U. S. aircraft, then fly 682 sorties during daylight hours to strike and conduct photographic reconnaissance missions against Okinawa, the Sakishima Gunto, Ie Shima, and Amami O Shima, destroying 28 Japanese aircraft, all on the ground. Task Force 38 then retires to its base at Ulithi Atoll. During January 1945, its aircraft have destroyed 300,000 tons of Japanese shipping and claimed 615 Japanese planes destroyed in exchange for the loss of 201 U. S. carrier aircraft.
1944 – In Operation Shingle, Allied forces land at Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. Allied air forces fly 1,200 sorties in support of the landings.
1943 – Death of Edmond Eugene Henri Caillaux, French WWI flying ace.
1936 – Italian aircraft play a decisive role in the first Battle of Tembien, dropping mustard gas to defeat a promising offensive by Ethiopian forces.
1919 – Death of Carrick Stewart Paul, New Zealand WWI flying ace, drowned at sea while on the voyage home to New Zealand.
1893 – Birth of Wilhelm Thöne, German WWI flying ace.
1892 – Birth of Marcel Dassault, born Marcel Bloch, French aircraft industrialist.
1891 – Birth of Bruno Loerzer, German WWI flying ace and high-ranking officer in WWII.
1889 – Birth of Harry George Hawker MBE, AFC, Australian aviation pioneer and co-founder of Hawker Aircraft.
1887 – Birth of Elmer "Archie" Fowler Stone, US naval aviator and a Commander in the US Coast Guard. He was a pilot on the first successful transatlantic flight on a Curtiss NC-4.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Fri Jan 23, 2015 12:14 pm
2013 – An American unmanned aerial vehicle attacks a ground vehicle in Al-Masna`Ah, Yemen, killing six Islamic militants, including two senior al-Qaeda commanders.
2010 – A United States Navy Beechcraft T-34C Turbo-Mentor, an upgraded version of the T-34 Mentor, crash-landed in Lake Pontchartrain near New Orleans. One pilot was rescued and the other was missing. The plane, on a routine nighttime instrument training mission, crashed about 1845 hrs. and was 1-nautical-mile (1.9 km) north of Lakefront Airport in New Orleans on an apparent approach to land. Coast Guard teams rescued the student pilot about 9 p.m. with mild hypothermia and moderate injuries from the 57 degree water. The pilot, Lt. Clinton Wermers, 33, from Mitchell, South Dakota, was presumed dead. He had been assigned to Naval Air Station Whiting Field since March 2007. A memorial service was held for Lt. Wermers on 1 February at Whiting Field.
2008 – A Polish military airplane EADS CASA C-295, '019', c/n S-043, crashed in forested area near Polish city Miroslawiec killing all 20 people aboard - 16 Polish Air Force officers (incl. one general, Gen. Andrzej Andrzejewski, who survived an ejection from a Su-22M-4K on 18 August 2003, and six colonels) and 4 crew.
2007 – First flight of the Lockheed Martin CATBird
2004 – An OH-58D Kiowa (93-0950) from 3–17 Cavalry Regiment crashes just after take-off outside Mosul, killing both pilots.
2003 – The final communication is made between Earth and Pioneer 10, a spacecraft intended to fly past Jupiter. It was launched in 1972, and its last trajectory would have the craft the first artificial object to leave the solar system.
1991 – Iraqi antiaircraft fire downs a U. S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon over Kuwait, and a United States Marine Corps AV-8 B Harrier II and a U. S. Army attack helicopter are lost to non-combat causes. U. S. Navy A-6E Intruders attack Iraqi ships, disabling a tanker, sinking a Winchester-class hovercraft refueling from the tanker, and sinking a Zhuk-class patrol boat.
1990 – Mid-air collision between two Blue Angels McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 aircraft during a practice session at El Centro. One airplane, Angel Number 2, BuNo 161524, piloted by Capt. Chase Moseley (ejected) was destroyed and the other, Angel Number 1, badly damaged but managed to land safely. Both pilots survived unharmed.
1979 – Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Italian Air Force Lockheed C-130H Hercules MM62000, '46-14', c/n 4497, of the 46 Aerobrigata, jumped chocks during engine run-up, hit tree, written-off. Parts used to support c/n 4491, MM61995 damaged in hard landing, Pisa, January 1999. Hull at Milan-Malpensa, Italy, December 1979, 1989.
1972 – The United States suspects that SA-3 Goa surface-to-air missiles have become operational in North Vietnam.
1961 – Death of Redford Henry “Red” Mulock, first Canadian WWI flying ace and the first in the RNAS, High ranking RCAF post WWI before joining Canadian Airways.
1957 – First Flight of the Nord 1500-02 Griffon II, 2nd experimental ramjet-powered fighter aircraft, evolution of the Griffon I.
1953 – First peacetime award of DFC to member of the RCAF granted to F/L Ernie Glover for his Korean fighter exploits (3 Migs destroyed, 2 damaged).
1951 – First flight of the Douglas F4D-1 (Skyray)
1949 – Birth of Robert Donald Cabana, USMC test pilot and NASA astronaut.
1946 – Death of Heinrich Bongartz Pour le Merite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross, German WWI fighter ace. He also served as a night fighter commander in WWII.
1944 – Off the Anzio beachhead, a raid by 55 German aircraft sinks the British destroyer HMS Janus with a torpedo and damages the destroyer HMS Jervis with a Fritz X radio-guided bomb.
1943 – The pilot of a Japanese Nakajima A6 M2-N (Allied reporting name “Rufe”) floatplane fighter discovers that American forces have occupied Amchitka. Japanese aircraft from Kiska begin frequent raids against Amchitka that day and continue them for almost four weeks.
1939 – First flight of the Douglas A-20 Havoc
1939 – Sole prototype Douglas 7B twin-engine attack bomber, designed and built as a company project, suffers loss of vertical fin and rudder during demonstration flight over Mines Field (now Los Angeles International Airport, California), flat spins into parking lot of North American Aviation, burns. Another source states that the test pilot, in an attempt to impress the Gallic passenger, attempted a snap roll at low altitude with one engine feathered, resulting in the fatal spin. Douglas test pilot Johnny Cable bails out at 300 feet, chute unfurls but does not have time to deploy, killed on impact, flight engineer John Parks rides airframe in and dies, but 33-year old French Air Force Capt. Paul Chemidlin, riding in aft fuselage near top turret, survives with broken leg, severe back injuries, slight concussion. Presence of Frenchman, a representative of foreign purchasing mission, causes furor in Congress by isolationists over neutrality and export laws. Type will be developed as Douglas DB-7.
1934 – First flight of the Berliner-Joyce XF3J
1930 – Birth of William Reid Pogue, USAF test pilot and NASA Astronaut.
1918 – First American Expeditionary Force (AEF) balloon ascent is made at the Balloon School at Cuperly in France.
1917 – Death of Hans Imelmann, German WWI flying ace, killed when gun fire from a B. E.2c struck his fuel tank Near Miraumont.
1916 – Birth of Siegfried Schnell, German WWII flying ace.
1898 – Birth of Ulrich Neckel, German WWI fighter ace.
1897 – Birth of Ernst Zindel, German Engineer and designer of the Junkers Ju-52.
1894 – Birth of Eric Landon Simonson, Autralian WWI flying ace.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Sun Jan 25, 2015 12:35 am
2013 – Syrian Air Force jets bomb rebel-held areas in Darayya and Moadamiya, Syria, and heavy fighting takes place near Damascus International Airport over control of the airport road.
2011 – Etihad Airways Flight 19, operated by Airbus A340-600 A6-EHH was escorted into Stansted Airport, United Kingdom by two Royal Air Force Typhoon aircraft from RAF Coningsby. The flight originated at Abu Dhabi International Airport and was bound for London Heathrow Airport when it was diverted due to an unruly passenger. The passenger was arrested after the aircraft had landed.
2010 – A Finnish Air Force McDonnell-Douglas F-18 Hornet crashed in the south of the country. The fighter crashed in Juuapajoki, north of the southern city of Tampere at about 11:50 local time. The two pilots, who were on a routine training flight, ejected safely and were uninjured.
2007 – Ecuadorian Defence Minister Guadalupe Larriva, her 17-year-old daughter and five army officers are killed when two Aérospatiale SA.342L Gazelle military helicopters, EE-343 and EE-360, of Grupo Aéreo 43, collide near Manta Air Base at 2019 hrs. during night training.
2003 – Department of Homeland Security created.
1991 – Iraqi ground fire shoots down another RAF Tornado, over Basrah, Iraq. Flying an F-15 C Eagle, Royal Saudi Air Force Captain Ayedh al-Shamrani, using AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, shoots down two Iraqi Air Force Mirage F1 jets as they approach British Royal Navy ships in the Persian Gulf. U. S. Navy aircraft attack Iraqi Navy ships A-6 Es sink a Zhuk-class patrol boat and Spasilac-class minelayer and cause a minesweeper taking evasive action to strike an Iraqi mine and sink, and a force of A-6 Es and F/A-18 Hornets hit four ships in an attack on Umm Qasr naval base. U. S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell announces that during the first week of air attacks on Iraq, Coalition air forces have flown more than 10,000 sorties, knocked out 61 of Iraq’s 66 airfields, and shot down 19 Iraqi aircraft in air-to-air-combat, losing 16 of their own number – All to ground fire.
1991 – CF-18's flew their first mission over Iraq.
1991 – LTV A-7E Corsair II, BuNo 158830, 'AC 403', of VA-72 has the dubious distinction of being the last of the type in US Navy service to need a barricade landing aboard a carrier when the nose gear was damaged on catapult launch from the CV67 USS John F. Kennedy, at start of mission 12.41 against a target in western Iraq, losing a tire of the front mount on his cat shot. Pilot, Lt. Tom Dostie succeeds in landing in the barricade also known as the net or 5th wire. Since the A-7 type was about to be retired, airframe is stripped for parts and buried at sea 25 January with full military honors, but refuses to sink due to fuel bags in the wings were not salvageable and not removed. Marines aboard CV67 JFK used it for target practice (Video of Lt. Dostie's catching the net as well as the Marines using it for target practice can be seen on linked video. At 17:00 mins into video it shows Lt. Dostie landing in the net and then later on in the video compilation it shows the Marines shooting at and sinking 403 with 50 cals after it's craned off the port side.)
1986 – The American spacecraft Voyager 2 makes its closest approach to Uranus, passing within 50,600 miles.
1985 – Launch: Space Shuttle Discovery STS-51-C at 9:50:00 UTC. Mission highlights: First classified Department of Defense (DoD) mission Magnum satellite deployment.
1977 – Death of Andrew Henry Humphrey GCB, OBE, DFC, AFC, RAF, British WWII pilot and Marshal of the Royal Air Force, who set some records with the English Electric Canberrea B2 ‘Aries IV’.
1975 – First flight of the Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin (Aérospatiale SA-365 C ‘Dauphin’ 2), a medium-weight multipurpose helicopter.
1974 – Togolese Air Force Douglas C-47 Skytrain, 5V-MAG, crashes during approach near the village of Sarakawa, northern Togo, killing several high-ranking military personnel. The President of Togo, Gnassingbé Eyadéma (1935–2005) is the sole survivor.
1971 – Death of Ferdinand von Hiddessen, German WWI pilot and politician, first German to bomb Paris in WWI.
1966 – Operation Masher, later renamed Operation White Wing, a helicopter and ground assault by the U. S. Army's First Cavalry Division (Airmobile) and South Vietnamese Army and South Korean Army units, begins against North Vietnamese Army forces in Binh Dinh Province, South Vietnam. The operation concludes on March 6.
1963 – A USAF Boeing B-52G Stratofortress on a training mission out of Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, lost its vertical stabilizer due to buffeting during low-level flight, and crashed on the west side of Elephant Mountain near Greenville, Maine. Of the nine crewmen aboard, two survived the crash.
1962 – Two US Navy F-4 Phantoms are seconded to the US Air Force as the air force plans to adopt the type.
1961 – The 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash: A United States Air Force Boeing B-52G Stratofortress carrying two Mark 39 thermonuclear bombs breaks up in mid-air over Greensboro, North Carolina, and crashes, killing three of its eight-man crew. The bombs do not arm themselves and are recovered.
1957 – Death of Georg Weiner, German WWI flying ace, author of children’s books, probably best remembered for the creation of "Biggles", the fictional WWI hero. He also was a High-ranking officer in WWII.
1952 – Birth of William Francis Readdy, USN Test pilot and NASA Astronaut.
1952 – Grumman SA-16A Albatross, 51-001, c/n G-74, of the 580th Air Resupply Squadron (described as a Central Intelligence Agency air unit), on cross-country flight from Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, to San Diego, California, suffers failure of port engine over Death Valley, crew of six successfully bails out at
1830 hrs. with no injuries, walks S some 14 miles to Furnace Creek, California where they are picked up the following day by an SA-16 from the 42nd Air Rescue Squadron, March AFB, California. The abandoned SA-16 crashes into Towne Summit mountain ridge of the Panamint Range W of Stovepipe Wells with starboard engine still running. Wreckage is still there.
1950 – First flight of the North American YF-93, an American jet fighter prototype, development of the F-86 Sabre.
1945 – Twentieth Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortresses bomb Iwo Jima.
1944 – German raids of 15, 43, and 52 aircraft strike Allied ships off Anzio, damaging an American destroyer and minesweeper and sinking a British hospital ship.
1943 – (24-25) German aircraft attack Convoy JW-52 while it is en route the Kola Inlet in the Soviet Union via the Barents Sea but cause no damage.
1942 – The Japanese aircraft carriers Hiryū and Sōryū begin strikes on Ambon.
1936 – Prototype Junkers Ju 87 V1, Werk Nr. 4921, fitted with a pair of vertical fins, suffers tail section oscillation during medium-angle test dive, loses starboard fin during attempted recovery, goes into inverted spin, crashes at Dessau, Germany. Wilhelm ‘Willy’ Neuenhofen, German WWI fighter ace, Junker’s Chief test pilot, was killed
1929 – Surplus Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a, (original serial unknown), presented to Aviación Naval (Argentine Naval arm), E-11/AC-21, written-off in crash landing at Campo Sarmiento, Base Naval Puerto Belgrano, Argentina when pilot Alferez de Fragata Alberto Sautu Riestra approaches field too flat and lands short, collapsing undercarriage. Pilot uninjured. As the airframe was an obsolescent one-only on strength design, with no supporting plans or parts, it is scrapped.
1925 – Total eclipse of the sun photographed near Toronto from Avro 504 flown by F/L G. E. Brookes and F/O A. L. Moore. Photos published in Toronto Daily Star.
1920 – First aircraft flight across the Sahara Desert is flown by French Joseph Vuillemin of the Aéronautique Militaire.
1919 – Army Air Service pilot first Lt. Temple M. Joyce makes 300 consecutive loops in a Morane fighter at Issoudun, France.
1919 – Death of Cecil Frederick King, British WWI fighter ace, killed in a midair collision while serving as a combat instructor.
1918 – Death of Harry Gosford Reeves, British WWI fighter ace, killed in a crash while performing an engine test on a Nieuport 27.
1917 – Death of Leopold Rudolf Reimann, German WWI flying ace, killed in a flying accident at Jastaschule near Valenciennes when the wings of his Albatros D.III collapsed.
1899 – Birth of Hoyt Sanford Vandenberg, American pilot, High-ranking officer in WWII, U. S. Air Force general, second Chief of Staff and second Director of Central Intelligence.
1897 – Birth of Malcolm Plaw MacLeod, Canadian WWI flying ace who also served during WWII.
1897 – Birth of Eric Bourne Coulter Betts, Irish WWI flying ace.
1896 – Birth of George Owen Johnson, Canadian WWI flying ace, raid pilot who remained in the RCAF until the end of WWII.
1895 – Birth of Richard Michael Trevethan, American born British WWI flying ace.
1895 – Birth of Gilbert Ware Murlis Green, British WWI flying ace who served on many theaters, commanded two of the original night fighter squadrons and shot down the first German airplane at night over Britain.
1895 – Birth of Marcel Joseph Maurice Nogues, French WWI fighter ace and balloon buster.
1893 – Birth of Marcel Marc Dhôme, French WWI flying ace, racing car driver, who also served in WWII and during the Korean war.
1888 – Birth of Dr. Ernst Heinkel, German aircraft designer and manufacturer.
1887 – Birth of Paul Wenzel, German WWI flying ace.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Sun Jan 25, 2015 4:37 pm
2013 – (Overnight) Airborne French special forces join ground forces in capturing a key bridge and airport at Gao, Mali, from Islamist forces.
2007 – A UH-60 Black Hawk shot down by gunfire near Hit. All aboard survive the incident.
2004 – Opportunity, MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B), American robotic rover lands on the planet Mars.
2004 – An OH-58D Kiowa (93-0957) from 3–17 Cavalry Regiment crashes into the Tigris River during a rescue mission, after hitting electrical wires, killing both pilots.
1994 – Launch of Clementine, NASA space probe to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid 1620 Geographos.
1979 – Roll-out at Burbank of the first CP-140 Aurora maritime patrol aircraft.
1972 – Death of Erhard Milch, German Field Marshal who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Germany following WWI.
1967 – Death of Eric John Stephens, Australian WWI flying ace and early Qantas airliner pilot.
1966 – Lockheed SR-71A, 61-7952, Article 2003, crashes near Tucumcari, New Mexico during test flight out of Edwards Air Force Base, California. Pilot Bill Weaver survives, but RSO Jim Zwayer KWF.
1965 – Death of Sumner Sewall, American WWI fighter ace, Airline executive and politician.
1964 – A Thor Agena rocket launched Echo 2, American metalized balloon satellite acting as a passive reflector of microwave signals.
1957 – The first launch attempt of an Douglas XSM-75 Thor IRBM, 56-6751, vehicle number 101, delivered in October: 1956, fails. As vehicle lifts off from Pad LC-17, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, it reaches an apogee of 6 inches (150 mm) whereupon contamination destroys a LOX supply valve causing the engine to lose thrust. The Thor slides backwards through the launch ring and explodes on contact with the thrust deflector. Vehicle destroyed by low-order detonation. Serious pad damage occurs.
1956 – Death of Otto Könnecke, German WWI flying ace, one of the founding pilots of Deutsche Luft Hansa and who had a great involvement in the development of the new Luftwaffe after WWI.
1952 – Death of Paul Joseph “Ginty” McGinness, Australian WWI flying ace who also served the RAAF during WWII, co-founder of Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services (QANTAS).
1933 – Mr. H. J. Penrose accompanied by Air Commodore P. F. M. Fellowes, set out from Westland aerodrome to perform a test climb which would prove that Everest could be cleared by a comfortable margin. They returned after an absence of an hour and forty minutes, having taken the Westland PV.3 to a height of over 10500 m, where the temperature was less than -60 °C.
1918 – Second Lieutenant Carl Mather is killed in an aircraft collision at Ellington Field, Texas. The future Mather Air Force Base, later Sacramento Mather Airport, at Rancho Cordova, California, will be named for him.
1895 – Birth of Theophile Henri Condemine, French WWI balloon buster and WWII high-ranking officer.
1894 – Birth of Alfred Michael Koch, Candian WWI flying ace.
1886 – Birth of Dean Ivan Lamb, American pilot, hired as a mercenary during the Mexican Revolution who made that was quite possibly the first dogfight in history (pilots firing pistols at each other) against Phil Rader. He also helped to establish the Honduran Air Force.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Sun Feb 01, 2015 12:12 pm
2008 – An United States Air Force McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle from the 199th Fighter Squadron, 154th Wing of the Hawaii Air National Guard flying on a routine training flight crashes into the Pacific Ocean near Oahu, Hawaii. After losing control at low altitude simulating air-to-air combat the pilot ejected about 60 miles (97 km) south of the Honolulu International Airport and was rescued by an United States Coast Guard helicopter.
2003 – The Space Shuttle Columbia, OV-102, is lost as it reenters after a two-week mission, STS-107. Damage to the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS) leads to structural failure in the shuttle's left wing and, ultimately, the spacecraft breaking apart as it decelerated over Texas. Investigations after the tragedy reveal the damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge wing panel had resulted from a piece of insulation foam breaking away from the external tank during the launch and hitting shuttle's wing. Rick Husband, William McCool, Michael P. Anderson, David M. Brown, Kalpana Chawla, Laurel B. Clark and Ilan Ramon were killed. See Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
1992 – British Aerospace’s latest Hawk demonstrator, Hawk Mk 102D, ZJ 100, takes to the skies for the first time. It is an enhanced two-seater ground-attack version with a modified wing and incorporates many improvements to its onboard sensors and weapons system.
1991 – In the Gulf War, a U. S. Navy A-6E Intruder hits an Iraqi Navy patrol boat near Min-al-Bakr oil terminal, leaving it burning.
1981 – Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company, dies at age 88 (b. 1892]).
1979 – Pakistani Air Force Lockheed C-130B Hercules 23488, c/n 3698, former USAF 62-3488, coded 'P', registered AQ-ACP, then AS-HFP, jumped chocks during night engine test run, collided with C-130E 10687, c/n 4117, former USAF 65-10687, coded 'D'. Both written off, hulls at Lahore, June 1981.
1975 – In the previous 16 days all 8 world time-to-height records have been captured by a specially modified McDonnell Douglas F15 Streak Eagle. The final record sets a time of 3 min 27 seconds from standstill on the runway to a height of 30,000 m (98,425 feet).
1973 – Death of George Clapham Dixon, Canadian WWI flying ace.
1971 – Death of Amet-khan Sultan, WWII Soviet fighter ace and test pilot, while making a test flight on Tu-16 test-bed.
1971 – The 4,000th McDonnell Phantom II, an F-4E for the Air Force, is delivered.
1968 – The Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian Navy are disestablished as they merge with the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces.
1967 – Rookie member of the Blue Angels U.S. Navy flight demonstration team, Lt. Frank Gallagher, of Flushing, New York, is KWF when his Grumman F-11A Tiger crashes during a practice flight
16 miles NW of NAS El Centro, California. Fighter impacts in rugged desert terrain on a Navy test range. Assigned to the team only six weeks before, he is the fourth Blue Angels team member to die in an accident. Gallagher flew as the solo in the four-man formation and as number 6 in the full formation.
1964 – President Lyndon Johnson publicly acknowledges the existence of the Lockheed A-12 Mach 3+ spy plane program and shows a picture that is actually an YF-12 A.
1963 – The United States Army activates the 11th Air Assault Division (Test) to test the concept of helicopter assault by ground forces.
1963 – Over 200 are injured and 73 killed when a Turkish Air Force Douglas C-47 Skytrain, CBK28, and a Middle East Airlines Vickers 745D Viscount turboprop airliner, OD-ADE, c/n 244, collide in a cloud bank in the afternoon over Ankara, Turkey, the press initially reports. Most of the victims were pedestrians and occupants of buildings lining Ulus Square in the Turkish capital. Eleven passengers and three crew aboard the commercial flight, and three crew aboard the Dakota were included in the fatalities. The C-47 was on a training flight. The body of one its crew was found on top of a building near the square with a partially opened parachute. Later description of the accident reported that the Viscount, Flight Number 265, from Cyprus to Ankara, was descending into Ankara-Esenboga Airport (ESB/LTAC), when it overtook the Dakota, which was returning to Etesmigut Airport. The airliner's number 3 (starboard inner) prop sliced off the Dakota's port horizontal stabilizer, while the starboard side of the Viscount was torn open with some passengers sucked out of the fuselage. An attempt to avoid the Dakota by the Viscount crew at the last moment was unsuccessful. This account gives ground fatalities as 87, and reports conditions as clear.
1961 – The Vickers Vanguard entered service with Trans Canada Airlines. Delivery of the first C-130 Navigation Trainer to 429 Squadron Winnipeg.
1961 – First launch of a LGM-30 Minuteman, U. S. nuclear missile, land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
1961 – Birth of Daniel Tani, American engineer and NASA astronaut.
1960 – Pilot Officer Noel H Lokuge of Royal Ceylon Air Force bailed out at 700 feet when his Jet Provost Mk2 suffered an engine failure during a formation flying training near Katunayake AFB and became the first Sri Lankan (Then Ceylon) ejectee.He suffered no injuries and resumed flying the next day. His Martin-Baker Mk4 seat earned him the No 57 of Martin Baker Tie Club.
1958 – A USAF Douglas C-118A Liftmaster military transport, 53-3277, of the 1611th ATW, and a United States Navy Lockheed P2V-5F Neptune patrol bomber, BuNo 127723, collided over Norwalk, California (a suburb of Los Angeles) at night. 47 servicemen were killed as well as a 23-year-old civilian woman on the ground who was hit by falling debris. Two crew on P2V-5F survive. A plaque commemorating the disaster was erected by the American Legion in 1961 at the location of the accident, the corner of Firestone Boulevard and Pioneer Boulevard.
1956 – Vought F8U-1 Crusader, BuNo 140444, crashes N of Edwards AFB, California, Vought test pilot Harry T. Brackett killed.
1954 – USAF Curtiss C-46D-15-CU Commando, 44-78027, c/n 33423, suffered an in-flight fire. Pilot attempted a ditching in the Tsugaru Straits, but aircraft crashed off Hokkaido, 35 killed.
1950 – Eight Grumman F9 F Panthers land on the USS Valley Forge to complete the first aircraft carrier night landing trials by jets.
1949 – Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) revives, offering women a full professional career in the air force for the first time.
1945 – First flight of the Kawasaki Ki-100, Japanese fighter aircraft.
1944 – The U. S. Navy orders two Piasecki XHRP-1 helicopters. They are the first American helicopters to be developed under a military contract.
1944 – Death of James Alexander Connelly, Jr., American WWI flying ace and businessman.
1942 – The U. S. Navy aircraft carriers USS Enterprise (CV-6) and USS Yorktown (CV-5) launch air strikes against Japanese bases in the Marshall Islands. It is the first offensive operation by American forces in World War II.
1941 – Birth of Enzo Venturini, Italian Air force pilot.
1940 – The Soviets begin a new ground offensive in Finland, supported by about 500 bombers.
1939 – Reserve Command is formed under the command of Air Marshal C. L. Courtney.
1935 – Birth of Vladimir Viktorovich Aksyonov, Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
1933 – First flight of the Boeing XF6 B, Boeing's last biplane design for the USN, carrier based fighter/bomber.
1932 – The Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier Hōshō joins the carrier Kaga in Chinese territorial waters during the Shanghai Incident.
1930 – San Francisco’s first air ferry service starts to operate, cutting journey time across the Bay to 6 min. The ferry flies from San Francisco to Alameda, and from Oakland to Vallejo.
1929 – The aviation and space operations of Boeing and Pratt & Whitney were merged to form the United Aircraft & Transport Corp.
1923 – 1923 – The Danish Army Flying Corps is established
1920 – World War I American ace (twelve victories) Field Eugene Kindley is killed in a crash at Kelly Field near San Antonio, Texas, during a demonstration flight for General John J. Pershing. A control cable snaps on the Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 biplane Kindley is flying, AS-8137, of the 96th Aero Squadron, he stalls, falls from an altitude of 100 feet. Kindley Air Force Base, Bermuda, is later named for him. Other sources give his crash date as both 2 February and 3 February.
1920 – The South African Air Force is established as an independent air arm.
1913 – Birth of Jeffrey Kindersley Quill OBE AFC FRAeS, British WWII RAF officer, RNVR officer and Test pilot. He test-flew every mark of Spitfire.
1912 – First flight of the Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 (Blériot Experimental), a British single-engine two-seat biplane.
1898 – Birth of Francis Jefferies Williams, British WWI flying ace.
1898 – Birth of John Carbery Preston, British WWI flying ace.
1896 – Birth of James Henry Forman, Canadian WWI flying ace.
1893 – Birth of Loudoun James MacLean, British WWI flying ace.
1891 – Birth of Mario Fucini, Italian WWI flying ace.
1888 – Birth of Henri Péquet, French pioneer aviator, WWI pilot and test pilot.
1887 – Birth of Henry Meyrick Cave-Browne-Cave CB, DSO, DFC, RAF, British engineering officer in the Royal Naval Air Service during WWI and senior commander in the RAF.
Re: Today in Military Aviation history - new updates
Post by GOOSE » Tue Feb 03, 2015 5:35 pm
2013 – French aircraft pound Islamist targets in Kidal and Tessalit in the far northern part of Mali.
2011 – An Indian Army HAL Cheetah helicopter crashed at Nashik, western India, killing both crew.
2007 – A HAL Dhruv helicopter, part of the Saarang Helicopter Aerobatics team, loses altitude and crashes while practicing for the Aero India-2007 at the Yelahanka Air Base near Bangalore, India. The pilot is severely injured, and the co-pilot is killed. The Saarang team continue their planned performance for the airshow.
2007 – AH-64D Apache 02-5337 from A Company, 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division shot down by a combination of gunfire and a shoulder-fired missile, near Taji, killing the two pilots.
2001 – First flight of the Prototype General Atomics RQ-1 Predator B, later redesignated MQ-9 Reaper.
1996 – An Grumman F-14A Tomcat crashes in the northern Persian Gulf. The U.S. Navy announces a three-day stand down for F-14 operations. The safety standdown will allow the service "to assess all aspects of operations and procedures", a Navy spokeswoman said. She said the review will "assess available information to determine if any procedural or other modifications to F-14 operations are warranted."
1991 – Coalition aircraft attack Iraqi Navy vessels at the Al Kalia naval facility, hitting a missile boat with two laser-guided bombs and straddling another with twelve 500-pound (227-kg) bombs helicopters from the American guided-missile frigate USS Nicholas (FFG-47) engage four Iraqi patrol boats near Maradim Island, destroying one and damaging two and U.S. Navy A-6 Es destroy an Iraqi patrol boat in Kuwait Harbor with two laser-guided bombs. The Coalition claims to have sunk or damaged 83 Iraqi Navy vessels thus far in the Gulf War, with Coalition aircraft inflicting most of the losses. Iraqi antiaircraft artillery shoots down a U.S. Navy A-6E Intruder near Kuwait City, Kuwait, an Iraqi short-range surface-to-air missile downs a U.S. Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt II, and a U.S. Marine Corps AH-1 J SeaCobra crashes due to non-combat causes while returning from an armed escort mission.
1989 – The first prototype JAS 39 Gripen crashed on its sixth flight when landing in Linköping as a result of pilot-induced oscillation. The accident was filmed in a now famous recording by a crew from Sveriges Television's Aktuellt. The pilot remained in the tumbling aircraft, and escaped miraculously with just a fractured arm.
1971 – Two USAF crew are found dead in the escape module after their General Dynamics F-111 crashes near Mandeville, Louisiana three weeks earlier. A parachute was found hanging from a nearby tree, but it did not deploy in time to save the airmen.
1970 – An Convair F-106A-100-CO Delta Dart, 58-0787, of the 71st Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, out of Malmstrom AFB, (the Cornfield Bomber), piloted by Capt. Gary Faust, enters a flat spin during air combat maneuvering (ACM) over Montana. Faust follows procedures and ejects from the aircraft. The resulting change of balance causes the aircraft to stabilize, and it lands wheels up in a snow-covered field, suffering almost no damage. The aircraft is then sent back to base by rail, repaired and returned to service. Preserved initially at Griffiss AFB, New York, it is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.
1968 – The personnel and organization of the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Air Force were unified into a single organization, the Canadian Armed Forces.
1964 – NASA space probe Ranger 6 impacted the Moon on the eastern edge of Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquility).The orientation of the spacecraft to the surface during descent was correct, but no video signal was received and no camera data obtained.
1962 – At Halls Beach N.W.T. a 412 Squadron North Star 17520 lost power to three engines in quick succession just after takeoff. The pilot turned back and lined up to land and the fourth engine began to lose power. A wheels – up landing was made safely in the snow to the right of the runway. All on board were safe.
1944 – First flight of the Republic XP-72, American prototype interceptor fighter developed as a progression of the P-47 Thunderbolt design.
1941 – Eight Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal attack the dam at San Chiar d’Ula, Sardinia, with torpedoes, but inflict no visible damage on the dam.
1938 – Two U.S. Navy Consolidated PBY-2 Catalinas, BuNo 0462 of VP-13 and BuNo 0463 of VP-11 collide in midair off San Clemente, California, killing 3 officers and 8 enlisted men, 11 of the 14 onboard.
1919 – Death of Leslie Jacob "Rummy" Rummell, American WWI flying ace.
1918 – The first operational squadrons of the American Expeditionary Force are formed in France.
1916 – Zeppelin LZ54 (L19), damaged and with 3 engines over 4 failing, came under Dutch fire. It sank in the North Sea, drowning all crew members.
1916 – The only Imperial Russian Navy seaplane carrier to see service in the Baltic Sea during World War I, Orlitza, is commissioned.
1914 – Birth of Nicolas Roland Payen, French engineer and first designer of the Delta wing. Builder of the world's smallest jet aircraft (Pa-49).
1904 – Birth of Valery Pavlovich Chkalov, Russian aircraft test pilot.
1898 – Birth of Richard Pearman Minifie, Australian WWI fighter ace who also served as a squadron leader in the Air Training Corps of the RAAF during WWII.
On 19 October 1931, the sole aircraft crashed. The aircraft had a partially stuck landing gear, and Wright Field pilots painted messages on the side of their P-12D and O-25C aircraft, indicating to test pilot Lt. Harrison Crocker to bail out. [ 3 ]
Shortly after, in October 1931, events in the Great Depression forced Detroit Aircraft into bankruptcy with Lockheed following suit in June 1932. [ 2 ] Although Lockheed was resuscitated by a group of investors only five days after it closed doors, the financial hardships had taken their toll and the P-24/A-9 project was cancelled with no aircraft built beyond the original prototype. Four pre-production Y1P-24s, 32-321/324, were cancelled. [ 4 ] However, after Robert Woods left Detroit Aircraft for Consolidated Aircraft, he continued to develop the YP-24/A-9 concept into Consolidated Y1P-25/Y1A-11 which eventually entered service as Consolidated P-30. [ 5 ]
Nandrolone esters are used clinically, although increasingly rarely, for people in catabolic states with major burns, cancer, and AIDS, and an ophthalmological formulation was available to support cornea healing.  : 134
The positive effects of nandrolone esters include muscle growth, appetite stimulation and increased red blood cell production, [ medical citation needed ] and bone density.  Clinical studies have shown them to be effective in treating anemia, osteoporosis, and breast cancer.
Nandrolone sulfate has been used in an eye drop formulation as an ophthalmic medication.  
Side effects of nandrolone esters include masculinization among others.  In women, nandrolone and nandrolone esters have been reported to produce increased libido, acne, facial and body hair growth, voice changes, and clitoral enlargement.  However, the masculinizing effects of nandrolone and its esters are reported to be slighter than those of testosterone.  Nandrolone has also been found to produce penile growth in prepubertal boys.  Amenorrhea and menorrhagia have been reported as side effects of nandrolone cypionate. 
Nandrolone theoretically may produce erectile dysfunction as a side effect, although there is no clinical evidence to support this notion at present.  Side effects of high doses of nandrolone may include cardiovascular toxicity as well as hypogonadism and infertility. [ citation needed ] Nandrolone may not produce scalp hair loss, although this is also theoretical. 
Nandrolone is an agonist of the AR, the biological target of androgens like testosterone and DHT . Unlike testosterone and certain other AAS, nandrolone is not potentiated in androgenic tissues like the scalp, skin, and prostate, hence deleterious effects in these tissues are lessened.  This is because nandrolone is metabolized by 5α-reductase to the much weaker AR ligand 5α-dihydronandrolone (DHN), which has both reduced affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) relative to nandrolone in vitro and weaker AR agonistic potency in vivo.  The lack of alkylation on the 17α-carbon drastically reduces the hepatotoxic potential of nandrolone. [ medical citation needed ] Estrogen effects resulting from reaction with aromatase are also reduced due to lessened enzyme interaction,  but effects such as gynecomastia and reduced libido may still occur at sufficiently high doses. [ citation needed ]
In addition to its AR agonistic activity, unlike many other AAS, nandrolone is also a potent progestogen.  It binds to the progesterone receptor with approximately 22% of the affinity of progesterone.  The progestogenic activity of nandrolone serves to augment its antigonadotropic effects,   as antigonadotropic action is a known property of progestogens.  
Anabolic and androgenic activity Edit
Nandrolone has a very high ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity.  In fact, nandrolone-like AAS like nandrolone itself and trenbolone are said to have among the highest ratio of anabolic to androgenic effect of all AAS.  This is attributed to the fact that whereas testosterone is potentiated via conversion into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in androgenic tissues, the opposite is true with nandrolone and similar AAS (i.e., other 19-nortestosterone derivatives).  As such, nandrolone-like AAS, namely nandrolone esters, are the most frequently used AAS in clinical settings in which anabolic effects are desired for instance, in the treatment of AIDS-associated cachexia, severe burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  However, AAS with a very high ratio of anabolic to androgenic action like nandrolone still have significant androgenic effects and can produce symptoms of masculinization like hirsutism and voice deepening in women and children with extended use. 
The oral activity of nandrolone has been studied.       With oral administration of nandrolone in rodents, it had about one-tenth of the potency of subcutaneous injection of nandrolone.   
Nandrolone has very low affinity for human serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), about 5% of that of testosterone and 1% of that of DHT.  It is metabolized by the enzyme 5α-reductase, among others.  [ additional citation(s) needed ] Nandrolone is less susceptible to metabolism by 5α-reductase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase than testosterone.  This results in it being transformed less in so-called "androgenic" tissues like the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland and in the kidneys, respectively.  Metabolites of nandrolone include 5α-dihydronandrolone, 19-norandrosterone, and 19-noretiocholanolone, and these metabolites may be detected in urine. 
Single intramuscular injections of 100 mg nandrolone phenylpropionate or nandrolone decanoate have been found to produce an anabolic effect for 10 to 14 days and 20 to 25 days, respectively.  Conversely, unesterified nandrolone has been used by intramuscular injection once daily.  
Nandrolone levels after a single 50, 100, or 150 mg intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate in oil solution in men. 
Nandrolone levels after a single 100 mg intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate or nandrolone phenylpropionate in 4 mL or 1 mL arachis oil solution into gluteal or deltoid muscle in men. 
Nandrolone levels with a single 50 mg intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate or nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate in oil solution in men. 
Dose-normalized nandrolone exposure (serum level divided by dose administered) with nandrolone decanoate in oil solution by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection in men.  
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) or as estrenolone, as well as estra-4-en-17β-ol-3-one or 19-norandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one,  is a naturally occurring estrane (19-norandrostane) steroid and a derivative of testosterone (androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one).   It is specifically the C19 demethylated (nor) analogue of testosterone.   Nandrolone is an endogenous intermediate in the production of estradiol from testosterone via aromatase in mammals including humans and is present in the body naturally in trace amounts.  It can be detected during pregnancy in women.  Nandrolone esters have an ester such as decanoate or phenylpropionate attached at the C17β position.  
A variety of esters of nandrolone have been marketed and used medically.   The most commonly used esters are nandrolone decanoate and to a lesser extent nandrolone phenylpropionate. Examples of other nandrolone esters that have been marketed and used medically include nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate, nandrolone cypionate, nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate, nandrolone laurate, nandrolone sulfate, and nandrolone undecanoate.   
Anabolic steroids Edit
Nandrolone is the parent compound of a large group of AAS. Notable examples include the non-17α-alkylated trenbolone and the 17α-alkylated ethylestrenol (ethylnandrol) and metribolone (R-1881), as well as the 17α-alkylated designer steroids norboletone and tetrahydrogestrinone (THG). The following is list of derivatives of nandrolone that have been developed as AAS: 
- Treatment of 4 with decanoic anhydride and pyridine affords nandrolone decanoate. 
- Acylation of 4 with phenylpropionyl chloride yields nandrolone phenpropionate. 
- (19-nor-4-androstenediol) (4-chloro-19-NT) (4-hydroxy-19-NT) (δ 9,11 -19-NT)
- (MENT dione, trestione) (11β-MNT 11β-methyl-19-NT) (19-nor-4-androstenedione) (δ 9 -19-nor-4-androstenedione) (δ 9 -19-NT) (7α,11β-dimethyl-19-NT) (18-methyl-δ 2,5(10) -19-NEA 3β-methyl ether) (MENT 7α-methyl-19-NT)
- (ethylnandrol 3-deketo-17α-ethyl-19-NT) (7α,17α-dimethyl-19-NT) (17α-ethyl-19-NT) (methylestrenolone 17α-methyl-19-NT) (17α-ethyl-19-NT 3β-propionate)
- (3-deketo-17α-ethyl-19-nor-5-androstenediol) (7α,17α-dimethyl-δ 9,11 -19-NT) (17α-ethyl-δ 9 -19-NT) (17α-methyl-δ 9 -19-NT) (MOHN, MHN 4-hydroxy-17α-methyl-19-NT) (methyltrienolone, R-1881 17α-methyl-δ 9,11 -19-NT) (17α-ethyl-18-methyl-19-NT) (THG 17α-ethyl-18-methyl-δ 9,11 -19-NT)
Nandrolone, together with ethisterone (17α-ethynyltestosterone), is also the parent compound of a large group of progestins, the norethisterone (17α-ethynyl-19-nortestosterone) derivatives.   This family is subdivided into two groups: the estranes and the gonanes.  The estranes include norethisterone (norethindrone), norethisterone acetate, norethisterone enanthate, lynestrenol, etynodiol diacetate, and noretynodrel, while the gonanes include norgestrel, levonorgestrel, desogestrel, etonogestrel, gestodene, norgestimate, dienogest (actually a 17α-cyanomethyl-19-nortestosterone derivative), and norelgestromin. 
The elaboration of a method for the reduction of aromatic rings to the corresponding dihydrobenzenes under controlled conditions by A. J. Birch opened a convenient route to compounds related to the putative 19-norprogesterone.
This reaction, now known as the Birch reduction,  is typified by the treatment of the monomethyl ether of estradiol (1) with a solution of lithium metal in liquid ammonia in the presence of alcohol as a proton source. Initial reaction constituents of 1,4-dimetalation of the most electron deficient positions of the aromatic ring–in the case of an estrogen, the 1 and 4-positions. Rxn of the intermediate with the proton source leads to a dihydrobenzene a special virtue of this sequence in steroids is the fact that the double bind at 2 is in effect becomes an enol ether moiety. Treatment of this product (2) with weak acid, oxalic acid for e.g., leads to the hydrolysis of the enol ether, producing β,γ-unconjugated ketone 3. Hydrolysis under more strenuous conditions (mineral acids) results in migration/conjugation of the olefin to yield nandrolone (4).
Detection in body fluids Edit
Nandrolone use is directly detectable in hair or indirectly detectable in urine by testing for the presence of 19-norandrosterone, a metabolite. The International Olympic Committee has set a limit of 2.0 μg/L of 19-norandrosterone in urine as the upper limit,  beyond which an athlete is suspected of doping. In the largest nandrolone study performed on 621 athletes at the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games, no athlete tested over 0.4 μg/L. 19-Norandrosterone was identified as a trace contaminant in commercial preparations of androstenedione, which until 2004 was available without a prescription as a dietary supplement in the U.S.    
A number of nandrolone cases in athletics occurred in 1999, which included high-profile athletes such as Merlene Ottey, Dieter Baumann and Linford Christie.  However, the following year the detection method for nandrolone at the time was proved to be faulty. Mark Richardson, a British Olympic relay runner who tested positive for the substance, gave a significant amount of urine samples in a controlled environment and delivered a positive test for the drug, demonstrating that false positives could occur, which led to an overhaul of his competitive ban. 
Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact AAS used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport. On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000. 
Mass spectrometry is also used to detect small samples of nandrolone in urine samples, as it has a unique molar mass.
Nandrolone was first synthesized in 1950.    : 130  It was first introduced, as nandrolone phenylpropionate, in 1959, and then as nandrolone decanoate in 1962, followed by additional esters. 
Generic names Edit
Doping in sports Edit
Nandrolone was probably among the first AAS to be used as a doping agent in sports in the 1960s. It has been banned at the Olympics since 1974.  : 128 There are many known cases of doping in sports with nandrolone esters by professional athletes.
Nandrolone esters have been studied in several indications. They were intensively studied for osteoporosis, and increased calcium uptake and decreased bone loss, but caused virilization in about half of the women who took them and were mostly abandoned for this use when better drugs like the bisphosphonates became available.  They have also been studied in clinical trials for chronic kidney failure, aplastic anemia, and as male contraceptives.  : 134
The Convair XB-53 was a stillborn jet bomber project by Convair for the United States Army Air Force. It was originally designated XA-44 in 1945 under the old "attack" category. An unusual forward-swept wing-design powered by three J35-GE turbojets, the project was developed in parallel with Convair's XB-46. It would have a German-derived wing with a 30° forward-sweep and 8° dihedral. It looked promising enough at one point that the Army Air Corps considered cancelling the XB-46 in favor of the XA-44 since there was not enough funding for both. Convair argued for completion of the XB-46 prototype as a flying testbed sans armament and other equipment and substitution of two XA-44s for the other two B-46 airframes on contract. The Air Force ratified this in June 1946 but the project did not progress, nor were additional B-46s built. The XA-44 was redesignated XB-53 in 1948 when the "attack" category was dropped but the project was cancelled before the two prototypes were completed. The XA-44 program was reinstated in February 1949 but only for a short while.
Harley-Davidson XA: That Time The Motor Company Built A Boxer
Peering back through the veils of motorcycle history, it’s fascinating to contemplate what could have been. Take the Harley-Davidson XA. Short for “Experimental Army,” just 1000 of these bikes were ever made, as the U.S. Army invited both Harley-Davidson and Indian to compete for a potentially lucrative contract.during WWII
At the time, the Motor Company was already supplying the Army with its much more well-known WLAs, but the Army wanted a little something with shaft drive for some of the rough terrain they were covering. It also wanted a horizontally-opposed engine that could stay cooler, and would of course be easy to work on in the field.
So, Harley got to work reverse-engineering the sturdy, hardworking, battle-proven BMW R71. One of the many interesting things about motorcycle history as you dig into it is, just about everyone copied something from someone at some point. Most of the time, the copier took someone else’s design and iterated upon it to make it better (or at least different) in some way. Incidentally, the R71 design also went on to form the basis of Ural and Dnepr machines, as well.
When all was said and done, the XA’s air-cooled design reportedly produced oil temperatures that were an entire 100 degrees cooler than the WLA could manage. The 738cc engine made 23 horsepower, could handle a top speed of 65 mph, and had a full seven inches of ground clearance. The throttle was mounted on the left-hand side of the bike, with Harley’s first hand-operated clutch on the right, and Harley’s first foot shifter on the left. The kick-start was also on the left, and was more of a step-start, which you can see in the video. You also get to hear an XA fire up and run in this video, which is a huge treat.
Between 1942 and 1943, Harley-Davidson built 1,000 of these bikes. Only 10 had disc wheels like the first one in this video, while the rest had spokes. Sadly, the U.S. Army ended up passing on the XA, choosing instead to go with a vehicle that wasn’t a motorcycle at all: the Jeep. It was a lot easier to get soldiers trained to drive Jeeps around than riding and operating a motorcycle for the first time, and the WLAs were a lot less expensive than the XAs would have been.
Existing XAs were sold off as military surplus, leading to civilians purchasing some remaining stock and making them their own, as the video illustrates. According to a Bike-Urious writeup from 2018, around 60 working XAs still exist. It’s unclear how many in any condition exist in 2020, but they’re incredibly rare and interesting pieces of motorcycle—and Harley-Davidson—history.
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Finally, the safe cigarette has been stymied by the very groups who are most concerned about the health effects of smoking: antitobacco groups and public health officials. The cigarette industry's efforts to market safer cigarettes have been met with fierce opposition by antitobacco activists, who want to see such products labeled as nicotine delivery devices and subjected to government regulations. Although the opposition of health groups to a safe cigarette would seem contradictory, it is borne out of a deep mistrust of the cigarette companies, whose strategy of denial over the years has created a credibility gap with the public health community.
The "tar derby"
The cigarette makers first began making noises about safer cigarettes in the 1950s during a period now known among historians as the "tar derby." As a result of growing public concerns about smoking and health, the cigarette makers responded with a variety of new filter cigarettes that would ostensibly reduce tar levels. But the rise of the filter cigarette was more a marketing ploy than anything else. There was little evidence to suggest that filter cigarettes were any healthier than regular cigarettes, and the tobacco companies' own researchers knew this to be the case. A 1976 memo from Ernest Pepples, Brown & Williamson's vice president and general counsel, noted that filter cigarettes surged from less than 1 percent of the market in 1950 to 87 percent in 1975. "In most cases, however, the smoker of a filter cigarette was getting as much or more nicotine and tar as he would have gotten from a regular cigarette. He had abandoned the regular cigarette, however, on the ground of reduced risk to health," wrote Pepples.
Even today, many smokers think that low-tar or so-called light or ultra-light cigarettes are better for them than full-strength smokes. Because reducing tar levels also tends to lower nicotine levels, studies have shown that smokers inadvertently compensate for the loss of the nicotine. Smokers of low-tar cigarettes inhale more deeply, take puffs more often, and even cover up the tiny holes near the filter that were put there to reduce the amount of smoke, and subsequently the amount of tar, that a smoker inhales. (To take a closer look at ventilation holes and other design elements in today's cigarettes, see Anatomy of a Cigarette.)
To get an idea of the health effects of various ingredients of smoke, cigarette makers have painted the skin of laboratory mice with toxicants.
Toward "safer" smokes
During the 1960s cigarette makers embarked on extensive research to create a safe cigarette. The goal was to remove the toxins from a conventional cigarette without altering the taste or smoking experience. Memos from that time period show that some tobacco company executives were genuinely interested not only in profits but in making their products healthier. In 1962, Charles Ellis, a British American Tobacco research executive, noted that painting mice with "fresh" smoke condensate, more similar to the "fresh" smoke inhaled by smokers, might prove to be more harmful than the older, stored condensate often used in such experiments. "This possibility need not dismay us, indeed it would mean that there really was a chemical culprit somewhere in smoke, and one, moreover, that underwent a reaction fairly quickly to something else. I feel confident that in this case we could identify this group of substances, and it would be worth almost any effort, by preliminary treatment, additives, or filtration, to get rid of it."
Industry documents show that tobacco companies focused their safe-cigarette research on several areas, including the development of synthetic tobacco, boosting nicotine levels in low-tar cigarettes (so smokers wouldn't have to compensate for a loss of nicotine), and selective filtration of the most toxic substances in cigarette smoke, such as carbon monoxide. Research into safe cigarettes also has focused on the removal or lowering of four types of carcinogenic compounds: nitrosamines, widely viewed as the most deadly cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke aldehydes, formed by the burning of sugars and cellulose in tobacco polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which form in the cigarette behind the burning tip and traces of heavy metals present in tobacco as a result of fertilizers used on the plant.
But despite the industry's early optimism about simply removing the toxic elements from a cigarette, the quest for a safe cigarette proved to be a technically and politically daunting challenge. Industry researchers often found ways of lowering one or two of the dangerous compounds, only to discover that their tinkering had either increased the level of some other harmful compound or so dramatically altered the cigarette that it wouldn't be accepted by consumers. In 1975, Brown & Williamson introduced a new cigarette, Fact, which had been designed to selectively remove certain compounds, including cyanide, from cigarette smoke. But the product was pulled from the market after just two years.
Cigarette producers have spent fortunes trying to develop a safer cigarette, only to abandon products not long after launch in many cases.
Scientists also experimented with tobacco substitutes, including ingredients made with wood pulp, that were said to be less toxic than tobacco. But those products ran into a new set of problems because they were no longer a naturally occurring tobacco product but a synthetic creation about which health claims were being made. That meant government regulators viewed the tobacco substitutes more like drugs, subjecting them to a regulatory morass that the cigarette makers wanted to avoid. In 1977, a few British tobacco companies, Imperial, Gallaher, and Rothmans, which could avoid U.S. Food and Drug Administration scrutiny, launched several versions of cigarettes made with tobacco substitutes. But the products met with resistance from health groups, who claimed the new cigarettes were still unsafe, and the products floundered and were withdrawn after just a few months.
The XA Project
In the 1970s, Liggett Group, Inc. embarked on its own safe-cigarette program known as the "XA Project." The project focused on blending additives to tobacco to neutralize cancer-causing compounds. The company discovered that blending certain catalysts with tobacco would destroy PAH's—the dangerous compounds which form behind the cigarette's burning tip. The problem was, the company had demonstrated this in mouse skin painting tests—the same type of test conducted by Ernest Wynder that the entire tobacco industry had spent years debunking. Nonetheless, skin painting tests related to the XA Project showed that cancerous tumors were virtually eliminated when the catalyst was added to tobacco.
Do "safer" cigarettes imply that regular cigarettes are unsafe? Manufacturers have worried about that impression even as they try to develop the less-dangerous alternatives.
Liggett faced a marketing problem if it pursued the XA Project cigarettes. How could the company market the benefits of the XA Project cigarettes without making health claims that would subject it to government scrutiny? And how could the company promote mouse skin tests as proof their new cigarettes worked at the same time its lawyers were in courtrooms challenging the validity of mouse tests while defending the company against smokers' lawsuits? A former industry lawyer now says that Liggett was pressured by other cigarette makers to abandon the effort because the "marketing and sale of a safe cigarette could result in infinite liability in civil litigation as it would constitute a direct or implied admission that all other cigarettes were unsafe." Liggett eventually abandoned the project.
By the early 1980s, other cigarette makers also had abandoned many of their efforts to develop a safe cigarette. In addition to the technological hurdles they faced, industry lawyers had grown increasingly wary about the research, and the concession, implicit in such research, that existing cigarettes weren't safe. Nonetheless, more than 150 patents related to designing safe cigarettes have been filed in the United States and the United Kingdom during the past 25 years. Tobacco executives say the fact that a patent has been filed doesn't mean the product is necessarily marketable or acceptable to consumers, but the sheer volume of patents shows that the industry has invested heavily in developing a safer cigarette even as its own executives were denying any link between smoking and disease. And there are now several claims from former industry workers that many tobacco companies shelved research into safer products out of fear of exposing themselves to additional liability. In 1998, for instance, a former Philip Morris researcher testified that the company shelved promising research to remove cadmium, a lung irritant, from tobacco plants.
Smokers didn't give Premier a chance, its maker maintains.
Despite such criticism, the major cigarette makers have attempted to market several versions of safer cigarettes. In 1988, RJR introduced a high-tech cigarette called Premier. Premier, touted as a virtually smokeless cigarette that dramatically reduced the cancer-causing compounds inhaled by smokers, was made of aluminum capsules that contained tobacco pellets. The pellets were heated instead of burned, thereby producing less smoke and ash than traditional cigarettes. Although the product looked like a traditional cigarette, it required its own instruction booklet showing consumers how to light it.
From the beginning, Premier had several strikes against it. RJR had spent an estimated $800 million developing the brand, and the total cost was expected to soar to $1 billion by the time it was placed in national distribution. The costly project was put into test market just as Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. had embarked on a $25 billion leveraged buyout of RJR that had saddled the company with debt. And the cigarette faced a lengthy regulatory battle after public health officials argued it should be regulated by the FDA as a drug. But the biggest problem with Premier was the fact that consumers simply couldn't get used to it. Many smokers complained about the taste, which some smokers said left a charcoal taste in their mouths. RJR had also gambled that smokers would be willing to give Premier several tries before making a final decision about whether to smoke it. RLR estimated that to acquire a taste for Premier, smokers would have to consume two to three packs to be won over. But as it turned out, most smokers took one cigarette and shared the rest of the pack with friends, and few bothered to buy it again. RJR scrapped the brand in early 1989, less than a year after it was introduced.
In 1989, Philip Morris entered the fray with a virtually nicotine-free cigarette called Next that it claimed was better than other low-nicotine varieties because its taste was indistinguishable from regular cigarettes. The nicotine was removed from Next using high-pressure carbon dioxide in a process similar to the method used by coffee companies when making decaffeinated coffee. Next cigarettes were touted for their "rich flavor" and referred to as "de-nic" cigarettes. But tobacco critics complained that Next actually had higher tar levels than many cigarettes, and that heavy smokers would simply smoke more Next cigarettes to give their bodies the nicotine they crave. (To learn how the brain becomes dependent on nicotine, see The Dope on Nicotine.) The product flopped and was withdrawn.
In RJR's Eclipse, most of the tobacco doesn't burn but rather heats up, producing a smoke-like vapor.
Despite those setbacks, both RJR and Philip Morris have tried again with high-tech versions of smokeless cigarettes. In 1994, RJR began testing the Eclipse smokeless cigarette, which claimed to reduce secondhand smoke by 85 to 90 percent. Eclipse is more like an ordinary cigarette than its predecessor Premier because it contains tobacco and reconstituted tobacco. But it also includes a charcoal tip that, when lighted, heats glycerin added to the cigarette but does not burn the tobacco. The result is a cigarette that emits tobacco flavor without creating ash and smoke. But RJR isn't touting Eclipse as a safe cigarette, instead marketing it as a more socially acceptable product less offensive to non-smokers. Indeed, because Eclipse still burns some tobacco, it has tar levels similar to those of ultra-light cigarettes already on the market. Eclipse emits lower tar levels of cancer-causing compounds than many existing cigarettes, but it still produces carbon monoxide and nicotine. And questions have also been raised about the effects of heating glycerin. When burned, glycerin is known to be carcinogenic. It also remains unclear whether the FDA will attempt to regulate Eclipse if RJR launches it nationally.
Philip Morris is testing its own high-tech cigarette called Accord, which has been described as a cigarette encased in a kazoo-shaped lighter. Consumers buy a $40 kit that includes a battery charger, a puff-activated lighter that holds the cigarette, and a carton of special cigarettes. To smoke the cigarettes, a smoker sucks on the kazoolike box. A microchip senses the puff and sends a burst of heat to the cigarette. The process gives the smoker one drag and does not create ashes or smoke. An illuminated display shows the number of puffs remaining, and the batteries must be recharged after every pack. It's unclear whether smokers will find the low-smoke and -ash benefits desirable enough to justify learning an entirely new smoking ritual. Although Philip Morris doesn't make health claims about Accord, the company in 1998 told the Society of Toxicology that Accord generated 83 percent fewer toxins than a regular cigarette.
For forty dollars, the Accord smoker gets a battery charger, heating device, and carton of special cigarettes.
The Best Cigarette?
Perhaps the most promising new technology to make a safer cigarette lies in research to lower nitrosamines, those prevalent and deadly cancer-causing compounds in cigarettes. Brown & Williamson and RJR are developing cigarettes that use a special tobacco with lower nitrosamine content. The tobacco is cured with a special process that inhibits the formation of nitrosamines. But Brown & Williamson isn't planning to tout the health benefits of the nitrosamine-free smoke. "We can't be sure nitrosamine-free tobacco is necessarily safer," a B&W spokeswoman told the Wall Street Journal . "We don't want to claim the product is safer unless we are sure it is. It's a bit of a muggy area."
Although public health officials describe the quest for a nitrosamine-free cigarette as a step in the right direction, the research still raises concerns that smokers could be lulled into a false sense of security. Cigarettes without nitrosamines still produce other carcinogens, scientists say, and more smokers die of heart-related ailments than cancer. As Dietrich Hoffmann of the American Health Foundation says, "The best cigarette is no cigarette."
Post-Summer 1934 French Sanity Options
Yeah, I got that, but I hate the Boeing Peashooter so much that I was suggesting things that make the Swift a winner instead of a wiener. But it is Curtiss, so of course they will screw it up.
You can get 150 out of those spars to the wings and wheels. I think those spatted fixed landing gears are worth another 200-300 pounds. Where do you want me to cut the rest? The fuselage barrel? Thin the stringers and hoops, flange the trusses in the wings to STIFFEN and lighten them (like Mitsubishi and Douglas are doing a couple of years later) and look at the engine mount. Maybe 200 pounds. With the way Curtiss screws up the cooling circuit in the engine installation that has to be another 100 pounds.
This may be a bit of a stretch, but the plane was built like a locomotive instead of a plane. Positively RUSSIAN!
Look at the XF-13C naval fighter prototype flown 18 months later. It was the same weight, same basic engine before the Conqueror was installed, retractable undercarriage, and 40 mph/60 kph faster. The A-8 was only 500 lbs/460 kgs heavier than the XP-31.
Well, enough derailing the thread.
Look at the XF-13C naval fighter prototype flown 18 months later. It was the same weight, same basic engine before the Conqueror was installed, retractable undercarriage, and 40 mph/60 kph faster. The A-8 was only 500 lbs/460 kgs heavier than the XP-31.
Well, enough derailing the thread.
High Altitude two seat interceptor/attack, Curtiss V-1570 with GE Turbocharger 274mph at 28,000 feet in 1934
Too bad many broke up in flight as Consolidated figured out all metal aircraft
I will have to look at it. Now I have start points.
The short answer is that was the thinking among the Germans, the French and the Americans.
The British thought that way until RADAR offered an option for interception. One can see the rise of the interceptor (Spitfire, Lightning are the two extant examples) as soon as radar was proven to the British and the Americans as a warning and ground controlled intercept tool. Some would include the BF 109 in that category of indicator but the Germans built her as a battlefield tactical air superiority fighter and not a bomber killer originally. (Same as the Hurricane.) The Morane Saulnier M.S. 406
Was originally intended as a "pursuit" (Chasseur) like the Americans classified their AAC aircraft like the P-35 and P-36. The "fighter" was to chase the bomber and shoot it post facto, so in response, the bomber designers in Germany and France went for SPEED to outrun the pursuits who went after the bombers. The avions bombardiers rapides or Schnell Bomber was the result. The Americans went for the Flying Fortress and literally NAMED a bomber after that STUPID concept
As WWII lessons learned, it was actually smarter to bomb in the dark and with radar or to pick the mid-band altitude to foil flak and to use bad weather which hampered WWII fighters more than bombers as approach and escape exploits. Speed was still more effective than guns and escort fighters were a MUST. Turns out interceptors are LOUSY escort fighters, so a new class of fighter, the intruder (P-51 Mustang, P-47 Thunderbolt) evolves out of the battlefield tactical air superiority types.
This was a chasseur/pursuit. As can be seen from the photograph is a mix of hoop and tube and hoop and stringer construction with extensive fabric overlaid not only the movable controls, but also over the barrel hoops and tubes. Lest anyone think this indicates backward thinking.
That AIN'T stressed skin metal construction past the cockpit aft bulkhead and through the rondel.
As is the case for aircraft for the era, solving the airframe (wing chord for lift, tail control for turn, yaw, pitch and DRAG.) is half the problem. The other problem is the air screw and how many kilowatts you can torque through it for thrust.
The Morane Saulnier needed a better air screw, streamlining, a NACA high lift regime wing chord opted at 130-150 m/s, (290 to 330 mph) more watts and a DIET to function as a chasseur, but a better radio and a RADAR system and fighter director network with what she currently was would make her 2x as effective as she existed because then she is not used as a pursuit, but instead as an interceptor as the Hurricane was.
System of systems thinking implies that the optimum solution is not always in the platform, but what is used to SUPPORT and direct it.
Mesoglycan improves vascular reactivity and insulin sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of mesoglycan on the endothelial function and arterial elastic properties in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
MetS is defined by a clustering of vascular risk factors that demand both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, including body weight reductions and physical activity. The correction of endothelial dysfunction and arterial wall distensibility associated with MetS have lately received increasing interest.
Thirty consecutive ambulatory patients affected by MetS were 2:1 randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive mesoglycan or placebo, respectively. In the first phase of the study, we evaluated the acute effects of a single i.m. administration of mesoglycan (60 mg) or placebo on vascular reactivity, as assessed by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Then, patients were chronically treated with mesoglycan per os (50 mg twice a day) or placebo for 90 days. At the end of this period, vascular reactivity and the arterial wall elastic properties were evaluated.
In the mesoglycan group, FMD increased above baseline after acute administration, with a maximum increment of 52% after 2 h. FMD was also significantly greater than baseline after 90 days of chronic treatment. In the placebo group, FMD was unaffected by both acute and chronic mesoglycan administration. Moreover, after 90 days of mesoglycan treatment, a marked improvement in arterial distensibility and compliance was detected and arterial stiffness reduced significantly.
This small, preliminary study shows that mesoglycan exerts relevant effects on vascular physiology, both in an acute setting as well as after prolonged, three-month treatment, in patients affected by metabolic syndrome.
Consolidated XA-11 - History
Despite constant attempts by analysts and the media to complicate the basics of investing, there are really only three ways a stock can create value for its shareholders:
Changes in valuation multiples.
In this series, we drill down on one company's returns to see how each of those three has played a role over the past decade. Step on up, Consolidated Edison ( NYS: ED ) .
Edison shares returned 143% over the past decade. How'd they get there?
Dividends pulled most of the weight. Without dividends, shares returned 44% over the past 10 years.
Earnings growth was ho-hum. Edison's normalized earnings per share grew by an average of 1.8% per year from 2001 until today. That's low, but it's about what investors should expect from utilities: earnings growth that roughly tracks the rate of inflation.
But if earnings were so meek, why were returns so strong? One reason is Edison's dividend policy. The company pays out the vast majority of its earnings as dividends. Numerous academic studies show this is the best capital-allocation policy most corporate managers should follow (alas, most don't). Rather than squander profits on expensive acquisitions or ill-timed buybacks, writing shareholders a check four times a year has the best chance of creating long-lasting shareholder wealth. Edison -- along with other utilities like Southern Company ( NYS: SO ) and Dominion Resources ( NYS: D ) -- attests to that.
Edison produced strong shareholder returns over the past decade largely because shares weren't overvalued 10 years ago. This might seem obvious, but overvaluation 10 years ago is the main reason the broader market has stagnated for the past decade -- a fact that has discouraged many investors. One of the most important aspects of successful investing is understanding that starting valuations determine future returns. Buy a good company at a dear price, and returns will be low. Buy an ordinary company at a good price, and returns will be great. Edison's returns over the past decade is one of the best examples of that lesson.
Why is this stuff worth paying attention to? It's important to know not only how much a stock has returned, but where those returns came from. Sometimes earnings grow, but the market isn't willing to pay as much for those earnings. Sometimes earnings fall, but the market bids shares higher anyway. Sometimes both earnings and earnings multiples stay flat, but a company generates returns through dividends. Sometimes everything works together, and returns surge. Sometimes nothing works and they crash. All tell a different story about the state of a company. Not knowing why something happened can be just as dangerous as not knowing that something happened at all.
Add Consolidated Edison to My Watchlist.
At the time thisarticle was published Fool contributor Morgan Housel owns shares of Edison. Follow him on Twitter @TMFHousel. Motley Fool newsletter services have recommended buying shares of Dominion Resources and Southern. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.
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