Geoffrey Page

Geoffrey Page

Geoffrey Page was born on 16th May, 1920. The nephew of Frederick Handley Page, Page was educated at Dean Close, Cheltenham, and Imperial College, where he studied aeronautical engineering.

Page joined the Royal Air Force two weeks after the outbreak of the Second World War. After training at Cranwell he flew a Hawker Hurricane during the Battle of Britain. He was shot down on 12th August, 1940, and received serious burns to his face and hands.

Page was sent to the Queen Victoria Burns Unit in East Grinstead, and after fifteen operations carried out by the plastic surgeon, Archibald McIndoe, he returned to active service in 1942. He flew a Supermarine Spitfire before switching to the Mustang fighter.

In 1943 Page won the DFC and a second when his tally of enemy aircraft shot down reached ten. Promoted to squadron leader, Page was commander of 122 squadron until being shot in the leg during a flying operation.

Page returned to duty in 1944 and provided air cover for the D-Day landings and the assault at Arnhem. Soon after reaching his target of fifteen enemy planes shot down (one for every operation at the Queen Victoria Burns Unit) Page crash-landed and fractured his back.

After leaving the Royal Air Force Page became a founder member and first chairman of the Guinea Pig Club, an organization of men who had been the patients of Archibald McIndoe during the Second World War.

Page published his autobiography, Tale of a Guinea Pig: The Exploits of a World War II Fighter Pilot, in 1981. In later years Page worked for a variety of international aviation organizations. Geoffrey Page died on 3rd August, 2000.

Although the Spitfire and the Hurricane were basically alike, inasmuch as they were low-wing, single-seater monoplanes, powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin engines; to the fighter pilot's eye, the similarity ended there. Whereas the Spitfire had all the speed and grace of the greyhound in its sleek appearance, the Hurricane portrayed the excellent qualities of the bulldog, being slower but much more solidly built than the other. To the Spitfire pilot there will be only one machine, and similarly to the man who flew the Hurricane.

Slowly we overhauled the Domier bombers. Momentarily reassured that nothing lethal was sitting behind my aircraft, I settled down to the task of firing at one of the leading machines. Then the enemy rear gunners started firing. The mass of fire from the bomber formation closed in as I fired desperately in a race to destroy before being destroyed. The first bang came as a shock. For an instant I couldn't believe I'd been hit. Two more bangs followed in quick succession, and as if by magic a gapping hole suddenly appeared in my starboard wing. Surprise quickly changed to fear, and as the instinct of self-preservation began to take over, the gas tank behind the engine blew up, and my cockpit became an inferno.

Fear became blind terror, than agonized horror as the bare skin of my hands gripping the throttle and control column shrivelled up like burnt parchment under the intensity of the blast furnace temperature. Screaming at the top of my voice, I threw my intensity of the blast furnace temperature. Screaming at the top of my voice, I threw my head back to keep it away from the searing flames. Instinctively the tortured right hand groped for the release pin. Fresh air suddenly flowed across my burning face. I tumbled. Sky, sea, sky, over and over as a clearing brain issued instructions to outflung limbs.

Realizing that pain or no pain, the ripcord had to be pulled, the brain overcame the reaction of the raw nerve endings and forced the mutilated fingers to grasp the ring and pull firmly. It acted immediately. With a jerk the silken canopy billowed out in the clear summer sky. Quickly I looked up to see if the dreaded flames had done their work, and it was with relief that I saw the shining material was unburned.

One of the prettiest girls I'd seen in my life came into the room to help with the dressings. She was unable to hide the expression of horror and loathing that registered on her lovely face at the sight of my scorched flesh. Following her hypnotized stare, I looked down watery-eyed at my arms. From the elbows to the wrists the bare forearms were one seething mass of pus-filled boils resulting from the disturbed condition of the blood. From the wrist joints to the finger tips they were blacker than any Negro's hands.

Richard Hillary paused at the end of the bed and stood silently watching me. He was one of the queerest apparitions I had ever seen. The tall figure was clad in a long, loose-fitting dressing gown that trailed to the floor. The head was thrown right back so that the owner appeared to be looking along the line of his nose. Where normally two eyes would be, were two large bloody red circles of raw skin. Horizontal slits in each showed that behind still lay the eyes. A pair of hands wrapped in large lint covers lay folded across his chest. Cigarette smoke curled up from the long holder clenched between the ghoul's teeth. There was a voice behind the mask. It was condescending in tone. "Bloody fool should have worn gloves." Hillary's hands were equally badly burned and for the same reason - no gloves.

I suppose in physical appearance one would have described Archie McIndoe as being on the short side of medium height, with broad shoulders and a solid body. His hair was parted in the middle and brushed back above a broad open face that was difficult to imagine without glasses. His walk which was was usually rapid had the slight rolling gait of a sailor. His humorous, twinkling eyes and enormous workmanlike hands were perhaps the most striking features of this unique man. Unique inasmuch that apart from indefatigable skill as a surgeon, he had an insight into human nature and a willingness to help that is rare.

At our new airfield at Ford on the south coast of England, the pilots were allowed no respite. Dive-bombing training now took a more practical shape, and every day a load of bombs was dropped on targets in France. These usually took the form of Hitler's secret V.I launching sites hidden away in various corners of the French countryside. The objectives consisted of two or three small concrete buildings no larger than cottages, and a hundred-yard-long launching ramp.

My concentration relaxed for a moment as my gaze took in the roughness of the sea. It needed little imagination to conjure up a miserable picture of the thousands of troops cooped up in their landing barges, many of them prey to sea sickness despite their wonderful pills. The greyness receded from the early morning, and soon I was able to pick out the shape of the Cherbourg Peninsular ahead on the starboard. My keen sight soon spotted the low formation lying inland and covering the beach area.

Almost immediately afterwards I saw a sight that brought a flood of feeling into mind and body, both of which had felt little emotion, except resentment for so long.

Hundreds of ships of all sizes and shapes, from the vast battleships to small barges, littered the surface of the sea. Some were still completing their rough passage across the Channel, others lay at anchor while the big grey men-o-war belched forth sixteen inch shells from their gun turrets in the direction of the French countryside; two Seafire fighters buzzed above the battleships like flies around a cart horse, spotting the accuracy of the gunners below and supplying them with corrections.

Sleek destroyers guarded the flanks of the shipping armada, while overhead patrolled the ever-watchful fighter cover. Minesweepers plied their steady patrol back and forth, and an occasional column of water rose to prove the value of their efforts.

Superimposed on this fantastic picture were the ghostly outlines, in my mind, of the pathetic little fleet that I had watched standing off the beaches of Dunkirk. The pendulum had gone full swing. A feeling of savage delight passed through me.

Including ground-strafing, dive bombing and air-to-air fights, I had probably by now killed several hundred people, but from the air it was completely impersonal, and made no mental impact. This man was different.

I was out alone on another "cannon test", which was the usual thinly veiled excuse to look for trouble. None of the aircraft in the air had the slightest smell of the Luftwaffe, so I confined my searchings to objects on the ground many miles behind the enemy front. Suddenly I saw him!

His motorbike had caused a small cloud of dust to arise, giving away his position. Like a Kestrel hawk pouncing, I wheeled my Spitfire and streaked towards the ground.

By now my man had stopped on the corner of a hairpin bend, and as the range closed rapidly, I guessed he was studying a map. His military camouflaged bike and his grey-green uniform spelt him out as a dispatch rider, and therefore a legitimate military target. As I placed the orange reflected dot of my gunsight on the centre of his body, he looked up straight at me, and knew the moment of truth had arrived.

As I stabbed the gun button he threw up his left arm as if to shield his face from the impact. I cursed him with all my soul for making such a simple pathetic human gesture, and loathed myself as I saw a man and bike disappear in a torrent of bullets.

I returned straight to base, and found it difficult to talk to anyone for several days.

I can still see his face and the raised arm.


Geoffrey Page - History

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Basic papers on deep learning

LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y. and Hinton, G. E. (2015)
Deep Learning
Nature, Vol. 521, pp 436-444. [pdf]

Hinton, G. E., Osindero, S. and Teh, Y. (2006)
A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets.
Neural Computation, 18, pp 1527-1554. [pdf]
Movies of the neural network generating and recognizing digits

Hinton, G. E. and Salakhutdinov, R. R. (2006)
Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks.
Science, Vol. 313. no. 5786, pp. 504 - 507, 28 July 2006.
[ full paper ] [ supporting online material (pdf) ] [ Matlab code ]
Papers on deep learning without much math

Hinton, G. E. (2007)
To recognize shapes, first learn to generate images
In P. Cisek, T. Drew and J. Kalaska (Eds.)
Computational Neuroscience: Theoretical Insights into Brain Function. Elsevier. [pdf of final draft]

Hinton, G. E. (2007)
Learning Multiple Layers of Representation.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 11, pp 428-434. [pdf]

Hinton, G. E. (2014)
Where do features come from?.
Cognitive Science, Vol. 38(6), pp 1078-1101. [pdf]

Qin, Y., Frosst, N., Sabour, S., Raffel, C., Cottrell, C. and Hinton, G.
Detecting and Diagnosing Adversarial Images with Class-Conditional Capsule Reconstructions
ICLR-2020 [pdf]

Kosiorek, A. R., Sabour, S., Teh, Y. W. and Hinton, G. E.
Stacked Capsule Autoencoders
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32 [pdf]

Zhang, M., Lucas, J., Ba, J., and Hinton, G. E.
Lookahead Optimizer: k steps forward, 1 step back
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32 [pdf]

Muller, R., Kornblith, S. and Hinton G. (2019)
When Does Label Smoothing Help?
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32 [pdf]

Deng, B., Kornblith, S. and Hinton, G. (2019)
Cerberus: A multi-headed derenderer.
3D Scene Understanding Workshop, CVPR 2019 [pdf]

Deng, B., Genova, K., Yazdani, S., Bouaziz, S., Hinton, G. and Tagliasacchi, A. (2019)
Cvxnet: Learnable convex decomposition.
Perception as Generative Reasoning Workshop, NeurIPS 2019 [pdf]

Kornblith, S., Norouzi, M., Lee, H. and Hinton, G. (2019)
Similarity of neural network representations revisited
ICML-2019 [pdf]

Hinton, G. E., Sabour, S. and Frosst, N.
Matrix Capsules with EM Routing
ICLR-2018 [pdf]

Kiros, J. R., Chan, W. and Hinton, G. E.
Illustrative Language Understanding: Large-Scale Visual Grounding with Image Search
ACL-2018 [pdf]

Anil, R., Pereyra, G., Passos, A., Ormandi, R., Dahl, G. and Hinton, G. E.
Large scale distributed neural network training through online distillation
ICLR-2018 [pdf]

Guan, M. Y., Gulshan, V., Dai, A. M. and Hinton, G. E.
Who Said What: Modeling Individual Labelers Improves Classification
AAAI-2018 [pdf]

Sabour, S., Frosst, N. and Hinton, G. E.
Dynamic Routing between Capsules
NIPS-2017, [pdf]

Shazeer, N., Mirhoseini, A., Maziarz, K., Davis, A., Le, Q., Hinton, G., & Dean, J. (2017)
Outrageously large neural networks: The sparsely-gated mixture-of-experts layer
arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.06538 [pdf]

Ba, J. L., Hinton, G. E., Mnih, V., Leibo, J. Z. and Ionescu, C. (2016)
Using Fast Weights to Attend to the Recent Past
NIPS-2016, arXiv preprint arXiv:1610.06258v2 [pdf]

Ba, J. L., Kiros, J. R. and Hinton, G. E. (2016)
Layer normalization
Deep Learning Symposium, NIPS-2016, arXiv preprint arXiv:1607.06450 [pdf]


Page, Alan Geoffrey (Oral history)

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Major Works: &aposThe Canterbury Tales&apos

The precise dates of many of Chaucer’s written works are difficult to pin down with certainty, but one thing is clear: His major works have retained their relevancy even in the college classroom of today.

Chaucer’s body of best-known works includes the Parliament of Fouls, otherwise known as the Parlement of Foules, in the Middle English spelling. Some historians of Chaucer’s work assert that it was written in 1380, during marriage negotiations between Richard and Anne of Bohemia. Critic J.A.W. Bennet interpreted the Parliament of Fouls as a study of Christian love. It had been identified as peppered with Neo-Platonic ideas inspired by the likes of poets Cicero and Jean De Meun, among others. The poem uses allegory, and incorporates elements of irony and satire as it points to the inauthentic quality of courtly love. Chaucer was well acquainted with the theme firsthand𠅍uring his service to the court and his marriage of convenience to a woman whose social standing served to elevate his own.

Chaucer is believed to have written the poem Troilus and Criseyde sometime in the mid-1380s. Troilus and Criseyde is a narrative poem that retells the tragic love story of Troilus and Criseyde in the context of the Trojan War. Chaucer wrote the poem using rime royal, a technique he originated. Rime royal involves rhyming stanzas consisting of seven lines apiece. 

Troilus and Criseyde is broadly considered one of Chaucer’s greatest works, and has a reputation for being more complete and self-contained than most of Chaucer’s writing, his famed The Canterbury Tales being no exception.

The period of time over which Chaucer penned The Legend of Good Women is uncertain, although most scholars do agree that Chaucer seems to have abandoned it before its completion. The queen mentioned in the work is believed to be Richard II’s wife, Anne of Bohemia. Chaucer’s mention of the real-life royal palaces Eltham and Sheen serve to support this theory. In writing The Legend of Good Women, Chaucer played with another new and innovative format: The poem comprises a series of shorter narratives, along with the use of iambic pentameter couplets (seen for the first time in English).

The Canterbury Tales is by far Chaucer’s best known and most acclaimed work. Initially Chaucer had planned for each of his characters to tell four stories a piece. The first two stories would be set as the character was on his/her way to Canterbury, and the second two were to take place as the character was heading home. Apparently, Chaucer’s goal of writing 120 stories was an overly ambitious one. In actuality, The Canterbury Tales is made up of only 24 tales and rather abruptly ends before its characters even make it to Canterbury. The tales are fragmented and varied in order, and scholars continue to debate whether the tales were published in their correct order. Despite its erratic qualities, The Canterbury Tales continues to be acknowledged for the beautiful rhythm of Chaucer’s language and his characteristic use of clever, satirical wit.

A Treatise on the Astrolabe is one of Chaucer’s nonfiction works. It is an essay about the astrolabe, a tool used by astronomers and explorers to locate the positions of the sun, moon and planets. Chaucer planned to write the essay in five parts but ultimately only completed the first two. Today it is one of the oldest surviving works that explain how to use a complex scientific tool, and is thought to do so with admirable clarity.


Geoffrey Page - History

Click on one of the subject buttons above, or click on Site Index to search for specific topics or titles.

Most recent additions:

Interlinear Translations of The Canterbury Tales, which is now complete (Oct 3 2010). A trial version of A Glossary to the works of Chaucer is now ready (though it still needs work.) click here

A translation of Sir Gawain is now in progress.
click here

A trial version of An Index to the Spellings in Chaucer's Works (Riverside edition (Nov 17, 2008 click here Nov 6. 2008

An Index to the Tales and Subjects in John Gower's Confessio amantis is also now available.

A trial version of the first Book of Troilus is also now ready
The other books of Troilus are in preparation.

This site provides materials for Harvard University's Chaucer classes in the Core Program, the English Department, and the Division of Continuing Education. (Others of course are welcome to use it.) It provides a wide range of glossed Middle English texts and translations of analogues relevant to Chaucer's works, as well as selections from relevant works by earlier and later writers, critical articles from a variety of perspectives, graphics, and general information on life in the Middle Ages. At the moment the site concentrates on the Canterbury Tales, but the longer-term goal is to create a more general Chaucer page. Please send any comments or suggestions about the site to [email protected]>. The site is constantly being corrected, and in this it has much benefited from the editorial skills of Kevin Psonak. I am grateful for his good work. I am also very grateful to Jane Tolmie, whose hard and skillful work contributed greatly to the early stages of this project.

chaucer Last Modified: Oct 3, 2006
Permission is granted to use this material for non-commercial purposes. Please use proper attribution. Copyright © President and Fellows of Harvard College

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Did the Nazi government have a deliberate plan to exterminate Jews? The folks using Dan Gannon’s hate machine tell us “No!”, but perhaps SS Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler, speaking to assembled SS Major-Generals at Posen on October 4th., 1943, can answer that question for us with more authority:

“Our basic principle must be the absolute rule for the SS man we must be honest, decent, loyal, and comradely to members of our own blood and to nobody else. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech does not interest me in the slightest. What the nations can offer in the way of good blood of our type, we will take, if necessary by kidnapping their children and raising them here with us. … Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging an anti-tank ditch interests me only in so far as the anti-tank ditch for Germany is finished. We shall never be rough and heartless when it is not necessary, that is clear. We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude towards animals, will also assume a decent attitude towards these human animals. …

I also want to talk to you, quite frankly, on a very grave matter. Among ourselves it should be mentioned quite frankly, and yet we will never speak of it publicly …

I mean the clearing out of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish race. It’s one of those things it is easy to talk about – `The Jewish race is being exterminated,’ says one party member, `that’s quite clear, it’s in our program – elimination of the Jews, and we’re doing it, exterminating them.’ And then they come, 80 million worthy Germans, and each one has his decent Jew. Of course the others are vermin, but this one is an A-1 Jew. Not one of all those who must know what it means when 100 corpses are lying side by side, or 500 or 1,000. To have stuck it out and at the same time – apart from exceptions caused by human weakness – to have remained decent fellows, that is what has made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history which has never been written and is never to be written. ”

International Military Tribunal. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression,
PS-1919, IV: 559, 563

Excerpted from: “Accounting for Genocide: Victims – and Survivors – of the Holocaust” (New York: Free Press, 1979) Helen Fein


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World religions : from ancient history to the present

Prehistoric religion -- Tribal religions in Asia -- Early Australasia -- Traditional Africa -- Aztecs and Mayas -- Andean religion -- Northern Europe in the Iron Age -- Mesopotamia -- Ancient Egypt -- Ancient Greece -- Ancient Rome -- Ancient Iran -- Hinduism -- Jainism -- Sikhism -- Buddhism -- China -- Japan -- Judaism -- Christianity -- Islam

A concise study of religions from around the world, discussing the history, beliefs, and social background of each religion

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Taking a Page From Xi on Rewriting History

Visitors watch a screen showing Chinese President Xi Jinping speaking next to a Communist Party's flag, at an exhibition promoting China's achievement under communist party from 1921 to 2021, in Beijing.

Regarding “China Repackages History in Support of Xi’s Vision” (Page One, June 16): What is different about the Chinese Communist Party’s efforts and similar efforts here by leftist news outlets cheered on by corrupt academia and liberal politicians? Fortunately, both efforts are mostly incoherent, easily disputed and not supported with valid evidence and actual facts.

Bruce D. Woods

Thank you for a thorough article on the Chinese government’s push to scrub any unflattering truth out of its history books and its citizens’ minds. I can only hope our representatives take this to heart for the sake of our democracy. If not, we may find ourselves beyond the looking glass, where there are facts and “alternative facts,” and insurrectionists morph into “tourists.”


The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66

The Killing Season explores one of the largest and swiftest, yet least examined, instances of mass killing and incarceration in the twentieth century—the shocking antileftist purge that gripped Indonesia in 1965–66, leaving some five hundred thousand people dead and more than a million others in detention.

An expert in modern Indonesian history, genocide, and human rights, Geoffrey Robinson sets out to account for this violence and to end the troubling silence surrounding it. In doing so, he sheds new light on broad and enduring historical questions. How do we account for instances of systematic mass killing and detention? Why are some of these crimes remembered and punished, while others are forgotten? What are the social and political ramifications of such acts and such silence?

Challenging conventional narratives of the mass violence of 1965–66 as arising spontaneously from religious and social conflicts, Robinson argues convincingly that it was instead the product of a deliberate campaign, led by the Indonesian Army. He also details the critical role played by the United States, Britain, and other major powers in facilitating mass murder and incarceration. Robinson concludes by probing the disturbing long-term consequences of the violence for millions of survivors and Indonesian society as a whole.

Based on a rich body of primary and secondary sources, The Killing Season is the definitive account of a pivotal period in Indonesian history. It also makes a powerful contribution to wider debates about the dynamics and legacies of mass killing, incarceration, and genocide.

Awards and Recognition

  • Winner of the George McT. Kahin Prize, Association for Asian Studies
  • Winner of the Distinguished Book Award in Non-U.S. History, Society for Military History
  • Winner of the Raphael Lemkin Book Award, Institute for the Study of Genocide
  • Longlisted for the 2019 ICAS Book Prize in Humanities, International Convention of Asia Scholars
  • One of the Financial Times' Best Books of 2018: History
  • One of Foreign Affairs' Picks for Best of Books 2018

"[Robinson’s] book skilfully combines a human rights advocate’s anger with academic rigour."—Julia Lovell, The Guardian

"In this masterful account . . . the killings receive the comprehensive, scholarly treatment they have long needed."—Tony Barber, Financial Times

"Robinson [displays his] ability to combine, with chilling calm, a broad theoretical analysis and comparative analysis with a detailed understanding of events."—Adrian Vickers, Times Literary Supplement

"A useful contribution to regional history and a much-needed voice in the ‘path of silence’ that followed a murderous time."Kirkus

"Robinson’s work is painstakingly careful and deserves as wide a readership as possible. . . . The real importance of this book is that it exposes in meticulous detail a modern genocide from the inside out. Governments and politicians could learn from this to prevent genocides before they even happen."—Richard Cockett, Literary Review

"This meticulous scholarly analysis of the country's institutions comprehensively investigates the economic, religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors behind the arrests, rape, torture, and murder that were inflicted on communist true believers and innocents alike. Robinson's authoritative scholarly work is an indispensable resource for specialists seeking a comprehensive overview of this little-studied period in Southeast Asian history."Publisher's Weekly

"Crucial. . . . The Killing Season is clearly and elegantly written, the prose often driven by a controlled anger."—Alex de Jong, Jacobin

"The facts and horrors of [the Indonesian massacres of 1965-66] are the subject of Geoffrey B. Robinson’s essential volume, The Killing Season. In careful detail, Robinson lays out the background for the slaughter and its execution, laying blame squarely on those Indonesians and Western powers responsible for what he calls a crime against humanity—the aftereffects of which are still apparent today."—Mitchell Abidor, Jewish Currents

"Robinson’s The Killing Season is a vital work in documenting one of the worst mass killings of the 20th century — and exposing the complicity of Western governments."Green Left Weekly

"An authoritative and harrowing account of the massacres in Indonesia and their aftermath. . . . Robinson spares no one, but his indictment is nuanced and rises above Cold War passions. . . . The findings of Robinson’s painstaking scholarship may shock those accustomed to triumphal readings of the Cold War, but Robinson provides a more accurate, if less inspirational, perspective on U.S. policy."—Gary Bass, Foreign Affairs

"This is an important and extensively researched account about the activities and consequences of state terrorism, using the Indonesian experience as its case study."—Joshua Sinai, Perspectives on Terrorism

"Robinson’s work is a valuable contribution to the ongoing debate on the 1965 events that draws on a rich body of primary and secondary sources. The book is an easy read when it comes to language and an enlightening read when it comes to the details of army operation and strategies. It is a must-read for Indonesianists, and many part of the book might also draw the attention of people dedicated to genocide and military studies in general."—Timo Duile, Austrian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies

"Robinson’s masterly account of the terrible slaughters that took place in Indonesia offers important reflections on the nature of mass violence."—Christopher Hale, History Today

"An authoritative and harrowing account of the massacres in Indonesia and their aftermath."—Gary J. Bass, Foreign Affairs

"This book is recommended for those trying to understand the causes, both domestic and international, behind the massacres of 1965-66. It is also an insight into Indonesia’s continuing struggle to come to terms with this painful episode in its history."—Frank Beyer, Inside Indonesia

"Robinson, an expert on human rights, concludes with a thought provoking analysis of why mass killings and illegal detentions take place, and considers the long-term consequences of the events of 1965-1966 for Indonesian society. He has written a clear and well documented book which is essential reading for anyone interested in modern Indonesian history."—Roger Hamilton, Asian Affairs

"An encyclopedic exploration into this event, why it happened, who supported it, and what its impact on the nation has been. . . . The Killing Season is a very powerful book. I strongly recommend it."—Erik Loomis, Lawyers, Guns & Money

"Geoffrey Robinson emphasizes that one of his main objectives in writing this book was to ‘disturb the troubling silence.’ I have waited many years for such a book to appear, one which I hoped would help to pierce the West’s historical amnesia. Robinson has written an extraordinary work that does full justice to this neglected topic. Deeply researched and packed with fascinating and revelatory information, The Killing Season is considered, scholarly, well-argued, and absolutely gripping reading. As soon as I finished reading this book, I wanted to dive right back into it again."—Gregory Elich, CounterPunch

"Remarkable."—Ken Silverstein, New Republic

"I see The Killing Season as a must-read for anyone interested in Indonesia and broadly defined human rights issues of Southeast Asia for its unparalleled comprehensiveness, solid archival research, and elegant writing style."—Kankan Xie, New Books Asia

"Of the world's mass killings since 1945, the genocide in Indonesia stands out as remaining unfamiliar to many, and still presenting unsolved questions while possessing high death tolls. This book is essential for understanding the Indonesian tragedy and why humans sometimes do terrible things on a vast scale."—Jared Diamond, University of California, Los Angeles

"The Killing Season left me heartbroken. I've spent fifteen years exposing the consequences of impunity for Indonesia’s genocide, and it was a painful catharsis to read this, the first morally honest, timelessly brilliant history of the killings as a whole. Geoffrey Robinson’s tone is a mixture of gentleness, empathy, and quiet anger—as though he knows Indonesia’s terrible silence can only be broken with grace. But this book also breaks an American silence, for Robinson reveals that the massacres would never have happened without U.S. support: this genocide is an American crime too. The Killing Season is a breathtaking, essential book."—Joshua Oppenheimer, director of The Act of Killing and The Look of Silence

"Finally, a full accounting of one of the most brutal events in twentieth-century history. Geoffrey Robinson's The Killing Season documents, in chilling detail, the mass murder of half a million Indonesians between 1965 and 1966. Based on fine-grained research, Robinson's book is a model of analytical and moral clarity, shining a damning light on U.S. complicity in the atrocity. This is a tour de force."—Greg Grandin, author of Fordlandia

"This elegantly written and carefully crafted book provides the single most sustained and systematic evaluation of the competing and contradictory theories concerning the coup which helped to precipitate the mass killings of late 1965 and early 1966 in Indonesia. Robinson's arguments are clear, coherent, and compelling, and the evidence presented is impressively well-documented. This is the definitive account of a highly important aspect of Indonesian history."—John T. Sidel, London School of Economics and Political Science

"This masterful and engrossing book illuminates the mass violence and incarceration that took place during the transition to the three-decade Suharto dictatorship in Indonesia. Displaying a superb command of Indonesian history and sources, The Killing Season is an important corrective to conventional wisdom about a little-known genocidal campaign that destroyed an estimated 500,000 victims."—Jens Meierhenrich, London School of Economics and Political Science

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