Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier (UK)

Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier (UK)

Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier (UK

During the Second World War, the British Army didn't have any armoured personnel carriers are such, but it did use the Bren and Lloyd Carriers, as well as the Kangaroo (a converted Ram tank). After the war, a number of tracked armoured personnel carrier prototypes were developed, but it wasn't until the late 1950s that a suitable design was found. The Fighting Vehicle Development Division of GKN was awarded a contract for the construction of four prototype and 10 trials vehicles from the FV420 unarmoured Light Tracked Vehicle family. All of these vehicles were to be delivered by 1958. Subsequent to this, GKN was awarded the contract for design and development to of the FV432 family of armoured personnel carriers with the initial contract covering four prototypes and thirteen vehicles for troop trials. Additionally, Royal Ordnance (today it is called RO Defence, part of the BAE Systemsgroup) was awarded a contract to build an additional seven vehicles under GKN's designer parentage. By late 1961, all of these vehicles had been delivered. In 1962, GKN Sankey, which is now Alvis Vehicles, was awarded the production contract for the FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier with the first production vehicles been completed the following at their facility in Wellington, Shropshire. The FV432 was designed to replace the Alvis Saracen (6 x 6) APC in British Army service. Additionally, the company was awarded design and development contracts for the FV431 Light Tracked Load Carrier (which did not enter service) so, and the FV434 Armoured Fitters Vehicle. Production of the FV432 continued until 1971, by which time around 3,000 vehicles had been built. For initial production models of the Mark 1, followed by the Mark 2 and finally the Mark 2/1. FV432s were deployed to Saudi Arabia and took part in Operation Granby in early 1991. A simple air conditioning system had been developed for the vehicle but they didn't enter service due to the premature end to the conflict. FV432 s have more recently been deployed in the former Yugoslavia.

The FV432 is very similar in appearance to the American M113 armoured personnel carrier of the same period. The one major difference between them however, is that the M113 is of all-welded aluminium construction, while FV432's hull is made of welded steel, which provides protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. The driver sits at the front of the vehicles on the right hand side and has a single piece hatch that opens to the left. The driver has an AFV No. 33 Mark 1 wide-angle day periscope, which for driving at night, can be replaced by an L5A1 passive periscope. The commander sits behind the driver and has a cupola that can be traversed through 360 degrees and has a single piece hatch with three AFV No. 32 Mark 1 day periscopes. Mounted on the forward part of the cupola is a 7.62mm GPMG. Many FV432s have been fitted with a Peak Engineering lightweight turret, armed with a 7.62mm GPMG. The turret has a single piece hatch cover, three day periscopes, as well as eight 66 mm grenade dischargers mounted in two sets of four, on either side of the turret. The turret is mounted over the forward part of the circular troop compartment hatch. The original hatch, which came in four parts, was removed and replaced by a circular steel piece, which contains the turret, with a hatch to the immediate rear. Some of these turrets have subsequently been removed from FV432s and fitted to Saxon (4 x 4) vehicles are deployed to Bosnia. The engine is the left of the driver with the air inlet (forward), air outlet (rear) louvres in the roof and the exhaust pipe on the left side of the hull. The engine is a Rolls-Royce K60 No. 4 Mark 4F 6 cylinder multi-fuel unit (240bhp) coupled to a General Motors Allison Division TX-200-4A semi automatic transmission, which has built under licence by Rolls-Royce in the UK. The troop compartment is at the rear if the vehicle with 10 (five-a-side) infantrymen seated on bench seats the run along either side of hull. Alternatively, the seats can be folded upwards, enabling the vehicle to carry up to 3670 kg of cargo. The infantrymen enter and leave the vehicle through a large door at the rear of hull, which opens to the right and is provided with a vision bloc. The suspension and is also a torsion and bar type, consisting of five dual rubber-tyred road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front, idler at the rear and two track return rollers. The first and last road wheels have a friction shock absorber and there is a side skirts to protect the upper part of the track. The vehicle comes equipped with an NBC system and the engine compartment has a Firewire detection system. There are numerous of variants of the FV432 including an ambulance, command vehicle, 81mm mortar carrier, maintenance carrier, minelayer, radar vehicle, recovery vehicle, Royal Artillery vehicles, Royal Engineers vehicles, Royal Signals vehicles, the FV438 Wavell and opposition force vehicles.

Hull length: 5.25m. Hull width: 2.8m. Height: 1.88m. Crew: 2+10. Ground Clearance: 0.41m. Weight: 15,280kg (combat) Ground pressure: 0.78kg/sq.cm Max speed: 52km/h. Max range (internal fuel - diesel): 480km on road. Armament: 7.62mm GPMG machine gun.

Bibliography
Alvis Vehicles FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier in Jane's Armour and Artillery 2001 - 2002 at http://is.rmcs.cranfield.ac.uk/janes/janes/jaa2001/jaa_0242.htm.



FV430 series

The FV430 series covers a number of armoured fighting vehicles of the British Army, all built on the same chassis. The most common of the series is the FV432 armoured personnel carrier.

Although the FV430 series has been in service for a long time and some of the designs had been replaced in whole or part by vehicles such as those of the CVR(T) range or the Warrior, many have been retained and are receiving upgrades in the engine and control gear.

The FV430 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. The hatch for the vehicle commander is directly behind the drivers and a pintle mount next to it can take a machine gun. There is a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading, and in most models a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof. In common with such an old design there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight.

There is a wading screen as standard, and the vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming.

FV430 vehicles, if armed, tend to have a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG. There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.


UK Defence Forum

SKB Senior Member Posts: 6949 Joined: 30 Apr 2015, 18:35 Location:

FV430 Armoured Vehicles (British Army)

Post by SKB » 03 Jun 2015, 19:52


^ FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier variant

Introduction
The FV430 series covers a number of armoured fighting vehicles of the British Army, all built on the same chassis. The most common of the series is the FV432 armoured personnel carrier.

Although the FV430 series has been in service for a long time, and some of the designs had been replaced in whole or part by other vehicles, such as those of the CVR(T) range or the Warrior, many have been retained and are receiving upgrades in the engine and control gear.

The FV430 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. The hatch for the vehicle commander is directly behind the driver's a pintle mount next to it can take a machine gun. There is a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading, and in most models a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof. In common with other such old designs, there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight.

There is a wading screen as standard, and the vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming.

FV430 vehicles, if armed, tend to have a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG. There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.

Other British Army Variants

FV431 - Armoured load carrier - one prototype produced, Alvis Stalwart 6x6 vehicle selected instead for load carrier role.
FV432 - Armoured Personnel Carrier
FV433 - Field Artillery, Self-Propelled "Abbot" - 105 mm self propelled gun built by Vickers
FV434 - "Carrier, Maintenance, Full Tracked" - REME Maintenance carrier with a crew of four and a hydraulically driven crane with a lifting capacity of 3,050 kg
FV435 - Wavell communications vehicle
FV436 - Command and control - some fitted with Green Archer radar, later Cymbeline radar
FV437 - Pathfinder vehicle - based on an FV432 with integral buoyancy and other waterjets - prototyped only
FV438 - Swingfire - Guided missile launcher
FV439 - Signals vehicle - Many variants
FV430 Mk3 Bulldog - Upgraded troop carrier that began serving in Iraq in August 2007

FV430 Mk3 Bulldog
Introduced in December 2006, the Bulldog was designed to meet an urgent operational requirement for extra armoured vehicles for use in counter-insurgency campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. It features an applique reactive armour package designed by Israeli company Rafael capable of defeating hollow charge warheads such as the RPG-7 rockets used by insurgents. A new engine and steering gear provide better mobility and manoevrability. Other features include air conditioning and a gun station fitted with a 7.62mm machine-gun that can be controlled from inside the vehicle. Nine hundred FV430s are expected to be modified in this way and are being deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan alongside the new Mastiff PPV and Pinzgauer High Mobility All-Terrain Vehicle (Vector), relieving some of the pressure on the Warrior fleet.

The modifications, as well as bringing the vehicle's level of protection up to that of the Warrior, give it better cross country performance and a new top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h).

Modifications on the first 50 units were underway between January and October 2006 at the ABRO facility in Dorset by BAE Systems Land Systems at a cost of £85 million. However, these were deployed to Operation Telic in an incomplete state and were brought to completion, along with the rest of the Bulldog fleet during Operation Telic 10, in theatre, in a joint venture between BAE Systems Land Systems and 6 Battalion Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers.

Type: Armoured Personnel Carrier
Place of origin: United Kingdom
Weight: 15.3 t
Length: 5.25 m
Width: 2.8 m
Height: 2.28 m
Crew: 2 minimum
Armour: 12.7 mm max
Main armament: 7.62 mm L7 GPMG
Secondary armament: smoke dischargers
Engine: Rolls-Royce K60 multi-fuel 240 hp
Power/weight: 15.7 hp/tonne
Suspension: torsion-bar, 5 road wheel
Operational range: 360 mile (580 km)
Speed: 32mph (52 km/h)


Contents

1927 12/50 Sportsman's 2-door saloon

1928 12/75 Front Wheel Drive
open two-seater T.T. replica

Early history [ edit | edit source ]

The original company, T.G. John and Company Ltd., was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John (1880 –񎦚). Its first products were stationary engines, carburetors and motorscooters. Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the word "Alvis" evolved. On December 14, 1921, the company officially changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville (1883 –񎦭) designed the first Alvis engine and is also responsible for the company name. Ώ]

The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of speculation over the years. Some have suggested that de Freville proposed the name Alvis as a compound of the words "aluminium" and "vis" (meaning "strength" in Latin), or perhaps it may have been derived from the Norse mythological weaponsmith, Alvíss. De Freville however vigorously rejected all of these theories. In 1921, he specifically stated that the name had no meaning whatsoever, and was chosen simply because it could be easily pronounced in any language. He reaffirmed this position in the early 1960s, stating that any other explanations for the source of the name were purely coincidental. Ώ]

Production was relocated to Holyhead Road in Coventry, where from 1922 to 1923 they also made the Buckingham car. In 1922 George Thomas Smith-Clarke (1884 –񎦨) left his job as assistant works manager at Daimler and joined Alvis as Chief Engineer and Works Manager. Smith-Clarke was accompanied by William M. Dunn, who also left his job as a draughtsman at Daimler to become Chief Draughtsman at Alvis. This partnership lasted for nearly 28 years and was responsible for producing some of the most successful products in the company's history. Smith-Clarke left in 1950, and Dunn assumed Smith-Clarke's position as Chief Engineer, remaining in that position until 1959. Ώ]

De Freville's first engine design was a four-cylinder engine with aluminium pistons and pressure lubrication, which was unusual for that time. The first car model using de Freville's engine was the Alvis 10/30. It was an instant success and established the reputation for quality workmanship and superior performance for which the company was to become famous. The original 10/30 side-valve engine was improved, becoming by 1923 the overhead valve Alvis 12/50, a highly successful sports car which was produced until 1932. Around 700 of the 12/50 models and 120 of the later Alvis 12/60 models survive today. [ citation needed ]

1927 saw the introduction of the six-cylinder Alvis 14.75 and this engine became the basis for the long line of luxurious six-cylinder Alvis cars produced up to the outbreak of World War II. These cars were elegant and full of technical innovations. Independent front suspension and the world's first all-synchromesh gearbox came in 1933 followed by servo assisted brakes. The Alvis 12/75 model was introduced in 1928, a model bristling with innovation, such as front-wheel drive, in-board brakes, overhead camshaft and, as an option, a Roots type supercharger. [ citation needed ]

As with many upmarket engineering companies of the time, Alvis did not produce their own coachwork, relying instead on the many available coachbuilders in the Midlands area, such as Carbodies, Charlesworth Bodies, Cross and Ellis, Duncan Industries (Engineers) Ltd, E. Bertelli Ltd, Grose, Gurney Nutting, Hooper, Lancefield Coachworks, Martin Walter Ltd, Mayfair, Mulliners, Tickford, Vanden Plas, Weymann Fabric Bodies, and William Arnold Ltd. Several cars also survive with quite exotic one-off bodywork from other designers such as Holbrook, a U.S. coachbuilder. ΐ]

In 1936 the company name was shortened to Alvis Ltd, and aircraft engine and armoured vehicle divisions were added to the company by the beginning of World War II. Smith-Clarke designed several models during the 1930s and 1940s, including the six-cylinder Speed 20, the Speed 25, and the Alvis 4.3 Litre model. Ώ]

Second World War [ edit | edit source ]

Car production was initially suspended in September 1939 following the outbreak of war in Europe, but was later resumed and production of the 12/70, Crested Eagle, Speed 25, and 4.3 Litre continued well into 1940. The car factory was severely damaged on November 14, 1940 as a result of several bombing raids on Coventry by the German Luftwaffe, although ironically the armaments factory suffered little damage. Much valuable cutting gear and other equipment was lost and car production was suspended for the duration of the war, only resuming during the latter part of 1946. Despite this, Alvis carried out war production on aircraft engines (as sub-contractor of Rolls-Royce Limited) and other aircraft equipment. Ώ]

Post war [ edit | edit source ]

1948 Fourteen drophead coupé-cabriolet

Car production resumed with a four-cylinder model, the TA 14, based on the pre-war 12/70. A solid, reliable and attractive car, the TA 14 fitted well the mood of sober austerity in post war Britain, but much of the magic attaching to the powerful and sporting pre-war models had gone and life was not easy for a specialist car manufacturer. Not only had Alvis lost their car factory but many of the prewar coachbuilders had not survived either and those that had were quickly acquired by other manufacturers. In fact, the post war history of Alvis is dominated by the quest for reliable and reasonably priced coachwork. [ citation needed ]

1950s [ edit | edit source ]

Smith-Clarke himself retired in 1950 and Dunn took over as chief engineer. In 1950 a new chassis and six-cylinder 3 Litre engine was announced and this highly successful engine became the basis of all Alvis models until production ceased in 1967. Saloon bodies for the TA 21, as the new model was called, again came from Mulliners of Birmingham as they had for the TA 14, with Tickford producing the dropheads. But with the first of these committing themselves in October 1954 to supply only Standard Triumph who purchased it in 1958 and the second being acquired by David Brown owner of Aston Martin Lagonda in late 1955, it was becoming clear that new arrangements would have to be made. Some of the most original and beautiful designs on the 3 Litre chassis were being produced by master coachbuilder Carrosserie Herman Graber of Switzerland and indeed these often one-off–designed cars are highly sought after today. Graber had begun to use TA 14 chassis soon after the war building three Tropic coupés which were much admired. When the Three Litre chassis was introduced his bodies displayed at the Geneva Motor Shows in 1951 and 1952 attracted sufficient interest for Graber to set up a standing order of 30 chassis per year. Swiss-built Graber coupés were displayed on the Alvis stand at both Paris and London Motor Shows in October 1955.

With a licence in place, from late 1955 all Alvis bodies became based on Graber designs however few chassis and few bodies were built over the next two years. Around 15 or 16 TC108/Gs were built by Willowbrook Limited of Loughborough and Willowbrook was subsequently taken over by Duple Coachbuilders. Over the same two years Graber built 22 TC 108Gs and complained that if he had received chassis he would have committed himself to buying 20 a year. Only after late 1958 with the launch of the TD 21 did something resembling full-scale production resume as Rolls-Royce subsidiary Park Ward began to build the new bodies now modified in many small ways. These cars, the TD 21 and its later variants, the TE 21 and finally the TF 21 are well built, attractive and fast cars. However it was clear by the mid-1960s that with a price tag of nearly double that of the mass-produced Jaguar, the end could not be far off. [ citation needed ]

From 1952 to 1955 Alec Issigonis, the creator of the later Mini, worked for Alvis and designed a new model with a V8 engine which proved too expensive to produce. [ citation needed ]

1960s [ edit | edit source ]

1967 Three Litre series IV
drophead coupé or cabriolet

Rover took a controlling interest in Alvis in 1965 and a Rover-designed mid-engined V8 coupé prototype named the P6BS was rumoured to be the new Alvis model but with the takeover by British Leyland this too was shelved. By the time the TF 21 was launched in 1966, (available, like its predecessors in both saloon and drophead form and with either manual or automatic gearbox), the model was beginning to show its age despite a top speed of 127 mph - the fastest Alvis ever produced. With only 109 sold and with political troubles aplenty in the UK car manufacturing business at that time, production finally ceased in 1967.

In 1968, a management buyout of the car operations was finalised and all the Alvis car design plans, customer records, stock of parts and remaining employees were transferred to Red Triangle. [ citation needed ]

1970s to present [ edit | edit source ]

As part of Rover, Alvis Limited was incorporated into British Leyland but was bought by United Scientific Holdings plc in 1981. Subsequently the company's name was changed to Alvis plc. Alvis plc acquired a British truck manufacturer Universal Power Drives in 1994, naming their new subsidiary Alvis Unipower Limited. The trucks were subsequently branded as Alvis-Unipower. In 1998, Alvis plc acquired the armoured vehicle business of GKN plc, and the main UK manufacturing operation was moved from Coventry to Telford. The site of the Alvis works in Holyhead Road is now an out-of-town shopping complex, but its name, Alvis Retail Park, reflects the heritage of the site. In 2002 Alvis plc purchased Vickers Defence Systems to form the subsidiary Alvis Vickers Ltd, which was in turn purchased by BAE Systems in 2004. BAE Systems ended the use of the Alvis distinctive red triangle trademark. [ citation needed ]

In 2009, Red Triangle disambiguation needed negotiated the legal transfer of the Alvis car trademarks. The following year, the company announced that the 4.3 Litre Short Chassis tourer would once again be available. All Alvis' records remain intact at the company’s Kenilworth headquarters along with a large stock of period parts. One of the men to have worked on the very last Alvis car produced in 1967 is still retained by Red Triangle in a training capacity. Built to the original plans, the new car has been named the "Continuation Series", to reflect the 73-year interruption in its production between 1937 and 2010. It differs only in detail from the pre-war examples: for emissions, the engine is governed by an electronic fuel injection system with electronic ignition, brakes are hydraulic rather than cable, the steering column collapsible and the rear light arrangement reconfigured to conform to modern standards. [ citation needed ]


REF: Wikipedia GKN Sankey FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier

The FV432 is the armoured personnel carrier variant of the British Army‘s FV430 series of armoured fighting vehicles. Since its introduction in the 1960s, it has been the most common variant, being used for transporting infantry on the battlefield. In the 1980s, almost 2,500 vehicles were in use, with around 1,500 now [ when? ] remaining in operation – mostly in supporting arms rather than front-line infantry service.

Although the FV432 Series was to have been phased out of service in favour of newer vehicles, such as the Warrior and the CVR(T) series, 500 have been upgraded to extend their service into the next decade. [1]

Specifications
Mass 15 tons (15.3 t)
Length 5.25 m
Width 2.8 m
Height 2.28 m
Crew 2 + 10 troops

The FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier was designed to be the Armoured pPersonnel Carrier in the FV430 series. Production started in 1962 by GKN Sankey and ended in 1971, after constructing approximately 3,000 vehicles


Contents

Early history

The original company, T.G. John and Company Ltd., was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John (1880 – 1946). Its first products were stationary engines, carburetors and motorscooters. Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the word "Alvis" evolved. On December 14, 1921, the company officially changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville (1883 – 1965) designed the first Alvis engine and is also responsible for the company name. Ώ]

The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of speculation over the years. Some have suggested that de Freville proposed the name Alvis as a compound of the words "aluminium" and "vis" (meaning "strength" in Latin), or perhaps it may have been derived from the Norse mythological weaponsmith, Alvíss. De Freville however vigorously rejected all of these theories. In 1921, he specifically stated that the name had no meaning whatsoever, and was chosen simply because it could be easily pronounced in any language. He reaffirmed this position in the early 1960s, stating that any other explanations for the source of the name were purely coincidental. Ώ]

Production was relocated to Holyhead Road in Coventry, where from 1922 to 1923 they also made the Buckingham car. In 1922 George Thomas Smith-Clarke (1884 – 1960) left his job as assistant works manager at Daimler and joined Alvis as Chief Engineer and Works Manager. Smith-Clarke was accompanied by William M. Dunn, who also left his job as a draughtsman at Daimler to become Chief Draughtsman at Alvis. This partnership lasted for nearly 28 years and was responsible for producing some of the most successful products in the company's history. Smith-Clarke left in 1950, and Dunn assumed Smith-Clarke's position as Chief Engineer, remaining in that position until 1959. Ώ]

De Freville's first engine design was a four-cylinder engine with aluminium pistons and pressure lubrication, which was unusual for that time. The first car model using de Freville's engine was the Alvis 10/30. It was an instant success and established the reputation for quality workmanship and superior performance for which the company was to become famous. The original 10/30 side-valve engine was improved, becoming by 1923 the overhead valve Alvis 12/50, a highly successful sports car which was produced until 1932. Around 700 of the 12/50 models and 120 of the later Alvis 12/60 models survive today.

1927 saw the introduction of the six-cylinder Alvis 14.75 and this engine became the basis for the long line of luxurious six-cylinder Alvis cars produced up to the outbreak of World War II. These cars were elegant and full of technical innovations. Independent front suspension and the world's first all-synchromesh gearbox came in 1933 followed by servo assisted brakes. The Alvis 12/75 model was introduced in 1928, a model bristling with innovation, such as front-wheel drive, in-board brakes, overhead camshaft and, as an option, a Roots type supercharger.

As with many upmarket engineering companies of the time, Alvis did not produce their own coachwork, relying instead on the many available coachbuilders in the Midlands area, such as Carbodies, Charlesworth Bodies, Cross and Ellis, Duncan Industries (Engineers) Ltd, E. Bertelli Ltd, Grose, Gurney Nutting, Hooper, Lancefield Coachworks, Martin Walter Ltd, Mayfair, Mulliners, Tickford, Vanden Plas, Weymann Fabric Bodies, and William Arnold Ltd. Several cars also survive with quite exotic one-off bodywork from other designers such as Holbrook, a U.S. coachbuilder. ΐ]

In 1936 the company name was shortened to Alvis Ltd, and aircraft engine and armoured vehicle divisions were added to the company by the beginning of World War II. Smith-Clarke designed several models during the 1930s and 1940s, including the six-cylinder Speed 20, the Speed 25, and the Alvis 4.3 Litre model. Ώ]

Second World War

Car production was initially suspended in September 1939 following the outbreak of war in Europe, but was later resumed and production of the 12/70, Crested Eagle, Speed 25, and 4.3 Litre continued well into 1940. The car factory was severely damaged on November 14, 1940 as a result of several bombing raids on Coventry by the German Luftwaffe, although ironically the armaments factory suffered little damage. Much valuable gear cutting and other equipment was lost and car production was suspended for the duration of the war, only resuming during the latter part of 1946. Despite this, Alvis carried out war production on aircraft engines (as sub-contractor of Rolls-Royce Limited) and other aircraft equipment. Ώ]

Post war

Car production resumed with a four-cylinder model, the TA 14, based on the pre-war 12/70. A solid, reliable and attractive car, the TA 14 fitted well the mood of sober austerity in post war Britain, but much of the magic attaching to the powerful and sporting pre-war models had gone and life was not easy for a specialist car manufacturer. Not only had Alvis lost their car factory but many of the prewar coachbuilders had not survived either and those that had were quickly acquired by other manufacturers. In fact, the post war history of Alvis is dominated by the quest for reliable and reasonably priced coachwork.

1960s

Rover took a controlling interest in Alvis in 1965 and a Rover-designed mid-engined V8 coupé prototype named the P6BS was rumoured to be the new Alvis model but with the takeover by British Leyland this too was shelved. By the time the TF 21 was launched in 1966, (available, like its predecessors in both saloon and drophead form and with either manual or automatic gearbox), the model was beginning to show its age despite a top speed of 127 mph - the fastest Alvis ever produced. With only 109 sold and with political troubles aplenty in the UK car manufacturing business at that time, production finally ceased in 1967. In 1968, a management buyout was finalised and all the Alvis design plans, customer records, stock of parts and remaining employees were transferred to Red Triangle. The Alvis name lived on with armoured fighting vehicle production.

1970s to present

As part of Rover, Alvis Limited was incorporated into British Leyland but was bought by United Scientific Holdings plc in 1981. Subsequently the company's name was changed to Alvis plc. Alvis plc acquired a British truck manufacturer Universal Power Drives in 1994, naming their new subsidiary Alvis Unipower Limited. The trucks were subsequently branded as Alvis-Unipower. In 1998, Alvis plc acquired the armoured vehicle business of GKN plc, and the main UK manufacturing operation was moved from Coventry to Telford. The site of the Alvis works in Holyhead Road is now an out-of-town shopping complex, but its name, Alvis Retail Park, reflects the heritage of the site. In 2002 Alvis plc purchased Vickers Defence Systems to form the subsidiary Alvis Vickers Ltd, which was in turn purchased by BAE Systems in 2004.

In 2004, the board of Alvis approved a £309m takeover bid by the American defence company General Dynamics. Within 3 months BAE Systems, which already had a 29% stake in the company, outbid General Dynamics by offering £355m. The action was seen as a defence of the home market from a foreign rival. David Mulholland of Jane's Defence Weekly said "I don't believe BAE expects to make money from this deal," characterising the purchase as strategic rather than commercial. The bid was accepted by the majority of shareholders.

In September 2004, BAE announced the creation of BAE Systems Land Systems, a new company bringing together the BAE subsidiaries "BAE Systems RO Defence" (the former Royal Ordance factories) and "Alvis Vickers". Alvis Vickers became BAE Systems Land Systems (Weapons & Vehicles) Limited, a subsidiary of BAE Systems Land Systems. In 2005, the acquisition of United Defence led to the creation of BAE Systems Land and Armaments. Alvis also took over Unipower as part of a plan to tender for the contact to build the new Heavy Haulage tank transporter tractor units for the UK army to replace the Scammell Commander units then in operation that dated from the 1980s and had Leyland heritage. The operation was renamed Alvis Unipower and also provides parts support for the former Scammell operations. BAE Systems ended the use of the Alvis distinctive red triangle trademark.


In 2009, Red Triangle negotiated the legal transfer of the Alvis car trademarks. The following year, the company announced that the 4.3 Litre Short Chassis tourer would once again be available. All Alvis' records remain intact at the company’s Kenilworth headquarters along with a large stock of period parts. One of the men to have worked on the very last Alvis car produced in 1967 is still retained by Red Triangle in a training capacity. Built to the original plans, the new car has been named the "Continuation Series", to reflect the 73-year interruption in its production between 1937 and 2010. It differs only in detail from the pre-war examples: for emissions, the engine is governed by an electronic fuel injection system with [[Ignition_system#Electronic_ignition|elec

Product History

A late model Alvis at the Boroughbridge Classic Vehicle show in 2009

The manufacture of cars was stopped in the 1967. For detailed info on Alvis Cars see Wikipedia Alvis Cars article here

Military vehicles and aircraft crash tenders becoming the main product lines then.

In the late 1990s they designed a Supper Heavy Tractor unit to tender for contract for a new British army Tank transporter unit. Several evaluation units were built, but they lost the contact to American firm Oshkosh. The units were sold to Alstom for ultra Heavy Haulage use as ballasted tractors.


Other Information

OUT FROM STOCK.
FV 432 MK 2 armoured personnel carrier, all vehicles are reserve stock, recently coming out of full refurbishment having now been fitted with reconditioned engine and transmission.
Type Armoured personnel carrier
Place of origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer GKN Sankey

The FV432 is the armoured personnel carrier variant of the British Army`s FV430 series of armoured fighting vehicles. Since its introduction in the 1960s it has been the most common variant, being used for transporting infantry on the battlefield. In the 1980s, almost 2,500 vehicles were in use, with around 1,500 now remaining in operation - mostly in supporting arms rather than front-line infantry service.

Although the FV432 Series was to have been phased out of service in favour of newer vehicles such as the Warrior and the CVR(T) series, they are now gradually being upgraded to extend their service through into the next decade.

In light of the army`s need for additional armoured vehicles in the Afghan and Iraqi theatres, the Ministry of Defence announced in August 2006 that an extra 70 vehicles would be upgraded by BAE Systems in addition to 54 already ordered as part of their force protection initiative. The improvements take the form of an engine upgrade, new steering unit, and new braking system as well as improving armour protection to a level similar to that of the Warrior. The concept is that these FV430s will free up the Warrior vehicles for reserve firepower status and/or rotation out of theatre. The Updated version is to be called the "Bulldog".

The FV432 was designed to be the armoured personnel carrier in the FV430 series. Production started in 1962 by GKN Sankey and ended in 1971 giving approximately three thousand vehicles.

The FV432 is an all steel construction. The FV432 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. Directly behind the driver position is the vehicle commander`s hatch. There is a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof and a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading. In common with such an old design there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight. The passenger compartment has five seats either side - these fold up to provide a flat cargo space.

An NBC system on the right side of the hull gives fresh air for the troops. Wading screens and a trim vane were fitted as standard and an extension went on the exhaust pipe. The vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming and was propelled by its tracks. Most of these vehicles now have had their amphibious capability removed.

The FV432 with infantry regiments is equipped with a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG (if not fitted with the Peak Engineering turret). Vehicles with the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Royal Signals were originally fitted with the L4A4 variant of the Bren light machine gun, they now also use the GPMG. When equipped with the GPMG, the vehicle carries 1,600 rounds of belted 7.62mm ammunition. When carrying the Bren LMG, the vehicle has 1,400 rounds of 7.62mm ammunition (50 magazines, each holding 28 rounds). There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.

A number of surplus vehicles were sold to the Indian Army after being withdrawn from British service. Seventeen others have since been converted by a company in Leicestershire for use in Tank Paintball.[1]

Others are in private hands and can be driven in South Northamptonshire or hired for promotional purposes.

GENERAL INFORMATION FV 432

Designations FV432
Manufacturer(s) GKN Sankey, now GKN Defence
Status Production completed.

Production Quantity around 3000

Type APC (T) Crew 2 + 10
Length, overall 5.3m
Length, hull 5.3m
Width, overall 2.8m
Height, overall 2.3m
Combat Weight 15280kg

Unloaded Weight 13740kg
Radio, external n/a
Communication, crew n/a

Main Armament 7.62mm MG
Ammunition Carried 1600x7.62mm
Gun Traverse 360
Elevation/Depression n/a
Traverse Rate manual
Elevation Rate manual
Gun Stabilization none
Rangefinder none
Night Vision n/a
Auto-Loader yes
Secondary Armament none
Ammunition Carried -

MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS

Engine Rolls-Royce K60 No 4 Mk 4F 2-stroke, 6-cylinder multi-fuel
Transmission TX-200-4A semi-automatic 6F/1R
Horsepower 240hp at 3750rpm
Suspension torsion bar
Power/Weight Ratio 15.7hp/t
Track Width 34.3cm
Speed, on road 52km/h (1)
Track Ground Contact 281.9cm
Fuel Capacity 454 l
Ground Pressure n/a
Range, on road 480km
(1) Amphibious with preparation. Maximum speed of 7km/h in water.
Gradient 60%
Fuel Consumption n/a
Vertical Obstacle 0.6m
Turning Radius n/a
Trench Crossing 2.1m
Ground Clearance 0.41m
Fording 1.1m (1)


Contents

The FV432 was designed to be the armoured personnel carrier in the FV430 series. Production started in 1962 by GKN Sankey and ended in 1971 giving approximately three thousand vehicles.

The FV432 is an all steel construction. The FV432 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. Directly behind the driver position is the vehicle commander's hatch. There is a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof and a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading. In common with such an old design there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight. The passenger compartment has five seats either side - these fold up to provide a flat cargo space.

Wading screens were fitted as standard, and the vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming.

The FV432 with infantry regiments is equipped with a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG (if not fitted with the Peak Engineering turret). Vehicles with the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Royal Signals were originally fitted with the L4A4 variant of the Bren light machine gun, they now also use the GPMG. There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.

A number of surplus vehicles were sold to the Indian Army after being withdrawn from British service. Five others have since been converted by a company in Leicestershire for use in Tank Paintball. Ώ]


FV 432 MK 2 armoured personnel carrier WAS SOLD

WAS SOLD FV 432 MK 2 armoured personnel carrier, all vehicles are reserve stock, recently coming out of full refurbishment having now been fitted with reconditioned engine and transmission.
Type Armoured personnel carrier
Place of origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer GKN Sankey

The FV432 is the armoured personnel carrier variant of the British Army`s FV430 series of armoured fighting vehicles. Since its introduction in the 1960s it has been the most common variant, being used for transporting infantry on the battlefield. In the 1980s, almost 2,500 vehicles were in use, with around 1,500 now remaining in operation - mostly in supporting arms rather than front-line infantry service.

Although the FV432 Series was to have been phased out of service in favour of newer vehicles such as the Warrior and the CVR(T) series, they are now gradually being upgraded to extend their service through into the next decade.

In light of the army`s need for additional armoured vehicles in the Afghan and Iraqi theatres, the Ministry of Defence announced in August 2006 that an extra 70 vehicles would be upgraded by BAE Systems in addition to 54 already ordered as part of their force protection initiative. The improvements take the form of an engine upgrade, new steering unit, and new braking system as well as improving armour protection to a level similar to that of the Warrior. The concept is that these FV430s will free up the Warrior vehicles for reserve firepower status and/or rotation out of theatre. The Updated version is to be called the "Bulldog".

The FV432 was designed to be the armoured personnel carrier in the FV430 series. Production started in 1962 by GKN Sankey and ended in 1971 giving approximately three thousand vehicles.

The FV432 is an all steel construction. The FV432 chassis is a conventional tracked design with the engine at the front and the driving position to the right. Directly behind the driver position is the vehicle commander`s hatch. There is a large split-hatch round opening in the passenger compartment roof and a side-hinged door in the rear for loading and unloading. In common with such an old design there are no firing ports for the troops carried - British Army doctrine has always been to dismount from vehicles to fight. The passenger compartment has five seats either side - these fold up to provide a flat cargo space.

An NBC system on the right side of the hull gives fresh air for the troops. Wading screens and a trim vane were fitted as standard and an extension went on the exhaust pipe. The vehicle has a water speed of about 6 km/h when converted for swimming and was propelled by its tracks. Most of these vehicles now have had their amphibious capability removed.

The FV432 with infantry regiments is equipped with a pintle-mounted L7 GPMG (if not fitted with the Peak Engineering turret). Vehicles with the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Royal Signals were originally fitted with the L4A4 variant of the Bren light machine gun, they now also use the GPMG. When equipped with the GPMG, the vehicle carries 1,600 rounds of belted 7.62mm ammunition. When carrying the Bren LMG, the vehicle has 1,400 rounds of 7.62mm ammunition (50 magazines, each holding 28 rounds). There are two three-barrel smoke dischargers at the front.

A number of surplus vehicles were sold to the Indian Army after being withdrawn from British service. Seventeen others have since been converted by a company in Leicestershire for use in Tank Paintball.[1]

Others are in private hands and can be driven in South Northamptonshire or hired for promotional purposes.

GENERAL INFORMATION FV 432

Designations FV432
Manufacturer(s) GKN Sankey, now GKN Defence
Status Production completed.

Production Quantity around 3000

Type APC (T) Crew 2 + 10
Length, overall 5.3m
Length, hull 5.3m
Width, overall 2.8m
Height, overall 2.3m
Combat Weight 15280kg

Unloaded Weight 13740kg
Radio, external n/a
Communication, crew n/a

Main Armament 7.62mm MG
Ammunition Carried 1600x7.62mm
Gun Traverse 360
Elevation/Depression n/a
Traverse Rate manual
Elevation Rate manual
Gun Stabilization none
Rangefinder none
Night Vision n/a
Auto-Loader yes
Secondary Armament none
Ammunition Carried -

MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS

Engine Rolls-Royce K60 No 4 Mk 4F 2-stroke, 6-cylinder multi-fuel
Transmission TX-200-4A semi-automatic 6F/1R
Horsepower 240hp at 3750rpm
Suspension torsion bar
Power/Weight Ratio 15.7hp/t
Track Width 34.3cm
Speed, on road 52km/h (1)
Track Ground Contact 281.9cm
Fuel Capacity 454 l
Ground Pressure n/a
Range, on road 480km
(1) Amphibious with preparation. Maximum speed of 7km/h in water.
Gradient 60%
Fuel Consumption n/a
Vertical Obstacle 0.6m
Turning Radius n/a
Trench Crossing 2.1m
Ground Clearance 0.41m
Fording 1.1m (1)

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5 Twentieth Century ‘British’ APCs

From the first improvised vehicles to professional, custom-made versions, the British army’s armored personnel carriers (APCs) saw some serious changes during the 20 th century.

Kangaroo

In the summer of 1944, the First Canadian Army was serving under British command as part of Allied forces sent to liberate France. The Allied advance had stalled outside Caen, and now the Canadians were tasked with taking the city.

General Simonds, commander of the Second Canadian Corps, decided that the best way to advance the infantry quickly would be in armored vehicles. Since he didn’t have anything suitable, he would have to improvise.

Ram Kangaroo armoured personnel carriers carrying infantry of 8th Royal Scots during the assault by 15th (Scottish) Division on Blerick, 3 December 1944.

With the permission of their American owners, Simonds handed 75 M7 Priest motorized howitzers to a workshop detachment codenamed Kangaroo. There, the engineers removed the howitzers, ammunition racks, and seats from the vehicles, before adding extra armor.

A Churchill Kangaroo viewed from the rear corner

Some of this armor was taken from abandoned landing craft. When supplies of armor ran out, they improvised again, packing sand between sheets of steel.

These early APCs took their name from the team who had built them – Kangaroo.

The infantry had only a day to practice with the Kangaroos before going into action. Despite this, they proved a huge success.

The British converted more vehicles, including Sherman and Ram tanks, into Kangaroos. The effectiveness of these vehicles shaped the development of post-war APCs.

A Priest Kangaroo of 209th Self-Propelled Battery, Royal Artillery, transports infantry of 78th Division near Conselice, Italy, 13 April 1945.

Infantry of the 53rd (Welsh) Division in a Ram Kangaroo of the 49th Armoured Personnel Carrier Regiment, on the outskirts of Ochtrup, Germany, 3 April 1945

Saracen

Britain’s first purpose-built APC, the Saracen, entered service in 1953.

The FV603 Saracen is a six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier built by Alvis and used by the British Army. It became a recognisable vehicle as a result of its part in the policing of Northern Ireland.Photo: Tomás Del Coro CC BY-SA 2.0

While the Kangaroo had kept the tracks of the vehicles it was made from, the Saracen drove on six wheels, the front four of which were used for steering. The suspension, which involved independent springing for all six wheels, allowed the vehicle to keep going if one of those wheels was blown off.

Alvis Fv 604 Saracen Armoured Command Vehicle Mk.II V of 1959. At the North Cornwall Tank Collection, Dinscott.Photo: Oxyman CC BY-SA 2.0

The hull was made of welded steel. At the front was the engine. Behind that sat the driver, and behind him the radio operator and commander. A crew compartment behind them could seat up to ten infantrymen.

Alvis Saracen at the War and Peace show 2010.

Doors at the rear let the troops in and out, while firing ports in the sides let them fight from the safety of the vehicle. A small turret holding a machine gun gave the unit extra firepower. A hatch near the rear had a mounting for a light machine gun.

An Australian Saracen at the Edinburgh, South Australia National Military Vehicle Museum.Photo: Peripitus CC BY-SA 4.0

The Saracen was widely used by the British Army. Some were adapted to create command vehicles, ambulances, and transport for artillery targeting computers. The vehicle was also sold to other countries.

Alvis FV 603 Saracen APC in Yad la-Shiryon Museum, Israel.Photo: Bukvoed CC BY 2.5

Humber Pig

The Saracen provide the British Army with an important tool it had been missing, but it took time to manufacture the number of Saracens the Army wanted. In the interim, another vehicle was needed, so it was time to improvise and convert again.

Humber 1 ton truck, armoured – “Pig”.Photo: Robert Soar CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

In the early 1950s, motor companies produced a range of cargo vehicles with good cross-country performance, specially for use by the military. One of these, a four-wheel-drive one-ton truck, had been produced by Humber Motors. The Humber vehicle was now fitted with an armored body, turning it into a primitive APC.

Mk 1 British Army Pig.Photo: By Aubrey Dale, CC BY-SA 2.0

An unsophisticated solution to the problem of moving troops around, the Humber armored truck was little more than a steel box on wheels. Its relatively soft suspension and the extra weight of armor meant that it wallowed when crossing broken ground, earning it the nickname “The Armored Pig.”

1953 Humber 1 Ton.Photo: kenjonbro CC BY-NC 2.0

It was only used until enough Saracens could be built to equip British infantry, then the vehicles were scrapped or sold.

In the late 1960s, the Humber Pig saw a new lease of life. Northern Ireland broke out into the period of heightened violence known as The Troubles, during which British troops policed a region torn apart by Catholic and Protestant terrorists. The surviving Pigs were bought back by the Army and used for internal security work.

Pig interior.Photo: macspite CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

AT105 Saxon

Developed by GKN-Sankey Ltd in 1970, the Saxon was meant to provide an inexpensive APC for security work. It used the engine, chassis, and suspension of a Bedford MK truck, and this use of civilian parts helped to keep costs down.

On top of this chassis, the designers built a blocky, flat-sided body of welded steel with a cupola on the roof. The driver sat at a center-front position, immediately behind the engine, with the commander behind him – a common layout for APCs.

A Saxon Armoured Personnel Vehicle from the Cheshire Regiment moves at speed into battle. Soldiers from The Cheshire Regiment, 1 Mechanised Brigade 3 (UK) Armoured Division take part in Exercise Iron Anvil at the British Army Training Unit, Suffield, Canada.

The cupola provided the commander with a good field of vision around the vehicle and could also be fitted with a machine gun or grenade launcher.

The main crew compartment had both doors and firing ports in the sides and rear. It could carry nine infantrymen.

GKN Saxon AT105 APC in use by Hong Kong Police.Photo: Dennis Chan CC BY-SA 3.0

Extra options for the Saxon included searchlights, smoke projectors, a winch, and a front-mounted blade for clearing obstacles.

As well as being used by the British Army, the Saxon was sold to other countries, including the Netherlands and Brunei.

AT-105 Saxon Ukrainian Armed Forces.Photo: Ministry of Defense of Ukraine CC BY-SA 2.0

FV432 Trojan

Unofficially known as the “Trojan,” the FV432 was another GKN-Sankey creation which was introduced in the early 1960s.

FV432 at the 2012 War and Peace Show

It had a simple rectangular shape with flat sides, a sloped front, and a relatively low profile. The driver sat at the front right of the vehicle with the engine to his left. The commander sat behind him and had a hatch for observation and for the use of a mounted 7.62mm machine gun.

The interior of an FV432.Photo: geni CC BY-SA 4.0

The crew compartment of the FV432 could carry ten soldiers. It was accessed through a full-width door at the rear and a hatch in the roof.

A FV432 in Kuwait during the Gulf War

A product of the Cold War, the FV432 reflected advances made since the Second World War. Filters provided the inhabitants with protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical agents. A screen could be erected around the hull that gave it the buoyancy needed to cross rivers.

The FV432 could be adapted to a variety of uses. Variants included ambulances, mine-laying vehicles, and a mortar carrier.


Watch the video: FV432 Armoured Personnel Carrier.