Treaty of Prague, 23 August 1866

Treaty of Prague, 23 August 1866

Treaty of Prague, 23 August 1866

The Treaty of Prague (23 August 1866) ended the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and saw the Austrians withdraw from German affairs and acknowledge the supremacy of Prussia in northern Germany. Prussia gained some four million citizens, and leadership of a North German Confederation.

Background

The most important campaign of the war was the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, which resulted in the crushing Prussian victory at Königgrätz on 3 July 1866. Although the fighting continued for another two weeks, the outcome of the war wasn't really in doubt. The defeated Austrian army retreated east then south, but the most direct route to Vienna was cut after the Prussian victory at Tobitschau on 16 July. The two armies then moved south on opposite sides of the Carpathian Mountains, and the Prussians only just beat the Austrians to the Danube, winning one more victory at Blumenau (22 July 1866), on the approaches to Pressburg, on the same day that the first armistice came into effect.

The first Austrian peace feelers came on 4 July, when Gablenz was sent to seek an armistice. At this point the Prussians weren't ready for a truce, but were willing to open peace negotiations. Galbenz returned to the fortress of Königgrätz with nothing agreed. Gablenz returned to the Prussian camp on 8 July with more concrete terms - an eight week armistice with the armies pausing on their current positions. Once again these terms were rejected. It would take more serious diplomatic negotiations to bring around an armistice.

The peace negotiations were complicated by the intervention of Napoleon III. On 4 July he announced that the Austrians had asked for his mediation, breaching an earlier promise to Bismarck to stay neutral. Bismarck was briefly worried that this was the build-up to a French entry into the war, but in reality all Napoleon really wanted was some prestige. In addition his Italian allies were involved on the Prussian side, and he was never likely to intervene against them. Napoleon's only real contribution was to insist on a plebiscite in northern Sleswig, which Bismarck quickly agreed to but was never able to implement.

The peace negotiations probably caused more conflict within the Prussian hierarchy than between the Prussians and Austrians. Bismarck wanted to secure Prussia's position in northern Germany, but he had little interest in expanding Prussian influence into the Catholic south, and none in taking land off the Austrians. The last thing he wanted to do was turn Austria into a long-term enemy.

Bismarck had originally aimed at the creation of a North German Confederation, led by Prussia. After the Prussian victory at Königgrätz his attitude hardened, and he decided that Prussia needed to directly annex large parts of northern Germany. These terms were put to the Austrians and Napoleon III, but the Prussian ambassador in Paris didn't press them, and so Napoleon didn't originally push them.

The military leadership had more varied aims. Moltke was amongst the moderates, although he was opposed to the idea of accepting an armistice until the Austrians had officially agreed to Prussia's terms. The defeat of Prussia's Italian allies meant that the Austrians were able to rush reinforcements north, and he was worried that they might regain their confidence and try to defend the line of the Danube and Vienna.

Other senior officers had more extreme views, with many determined not to stop until they had crossed the Danube and occupied Vienna, as an aim in its own right rather than as a means towards gaining a more favourable treaty.

King Wilhelm of Prussia's views changed as the fighting continued. At the time of Königgrätz he wanted Prussia to annex the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were already in Prussia hands, limit Austria's position in Germany and increase Prussia's power over the smaller north German states. However he was opposed to Bismarck's determination to depose the northern German rules. As the army advanced towards the Danube the king's attitude hardened, and he began to support army demands to cross the Danube.

There were several clashes between Bismarck and the military. On 15 July he managed to scupper a plan to storm the fortifications of Florisdorf, pointing out that the two weeks needed to summon the heavy siege artillery would give Napoleon III even more time to interfere in the negotiations.

On 18 July the Royal Headquarters moved to the castle of Nikolsburg. On the following day the arguments between Bismarck and the military reached a low point, when the generals appeared to have got their way, and preparations were put in place for the crossing of the Danube.

News from Paris now saved Bismarck's position. Napoleon III accepted the Prussian demands for annexations, and the news reached Nikolsburg soon after the crisis of 19 July. Bismarck was now able to insist on a five day armistice, to begin on 22 July. This only affected the Austro-Prussian front. A separate armistice came into effect in Italy on 25 July, but fighting continued in western Germany until the start of August.

Formal peace talks began on 23 July. The Austrians were willing to agree to Bismarck's terms, and the Prussian military had now been largely won over by his diplomatic successes. King Wilhelm was now the major obstacle to peace, insisting that some territory be taken from Saxony, who he blamed for the war, and from Austria. Bismarck later claimed that he came close to resigning, but was saved by the Crown Prince, who convinced his father to accept Bismarck's terms.

The preliminary peace terms were signed on 26 July by Bismarck and Moltke for Prussia and Count Karolyi and General Degenfeld for Austria on 26 July. The truce was extended to 2 August, when it would be replaced by a formal armistice that included all fronts.

Terms of the Treaty

The treaty formally acknowledged Prussia's position as the major power in northern Germany.

She officially annexed the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, the Kingdom of Hanover, Electoral Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau and the city of Frankfurt.

A new North German Confederation was formed, with Prussian leadership. Its members included Saxony.

Austria agreed to abandon any authority in southern Germany. The south German states were given the freedom to form their own Confederation if they so desired, although this didn't happen in the short gap before full German unification.

Austria paid a war indemnity of forty million thalers.

In Italy the Austrians agreed to give up Venetia, but were left free to defend the South Tyrol.


Native Americans massacre 81 soldiers

Determined to challenge the growing American military presence in their territory, Native Americans in northern Wyoming lure Lieutenant Colonel William Fetterman and his soldiers into a deadly ambush on December 21, 1866.

Tensions in the region started rising in 1863, when John Bozeman blazed the Bozeman Trail, a new route for emigrants traveling to the Montana gold fields. Bozeman’s trail was of questionable legality since it passed directly through hunting grounds that the government had promised to the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapahoe in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. Thus when Colorado militiamen massacred more than two hundred peaceful Cheyenne during the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864, the Native Americans began to take revenge by attacking whites all across the Plains, including the emigrants traveling the Bozeman Trail. The U.S. government responded by building a series of protective forts along the trail the largest and most important of these was Fort Phil Kearney, erected in 1866 in north-central Wyoming.

Native Americans under the leadership of Red Cloud and Crazy Horse began to focus their attacks on Fort Phil Kearney, constantly harassing the soldiers and raiding their wood and supply parties. On December 6, 1866, Crazy Horse discovered to his surprise that he could lead a small detachment of soldiers into a fatal ambush by dismounting from his horse and fleeing as if he were defenseless. Struck by the foolish impulsiveness of the soldiers, Crazy Horse and Red Cloud reasoned that perhaps a much larger force could be lured into a similar deadly trap.

On the bitterly cold morning of December 21, about 2,000 Natives concealed themselves along the road just north of Fort Phil Kearney. A small band made a diversionary attack on a party of woodcutters from the fort, and commandant Colonel Henry Carrington quickly ordered Colonel Fetterman to go to their aid with a company of 80 troopers. Crazy Horse and 10 decoy warriors then rode into view of the fort. When Carrington fired an artillery round at them, the decoys ran away as if frightened. The party of woodcutters made it safely back to the fort, but Colonel Fetterman and his men chased after the fleeing Crazy Horse and his decoys, just as planned. The soldiers rode straight into the ambush and were wiped out in a massive attack during which some 40,000 arrows rained down on the hapless troopers. None of them survived.

With 81 fatalities, the Fetterman Massacre was the army’s worst defeat in the West until the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. Further attacks eventually forced the army to reconsider its commitment to protecting the Bozeman Trail, and in 1868 the military abandoned the forts and pulled out. It was one of only a handful of clear Native American victories in the Plains Indian Wars.


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August 23, 1866: The Peace of Prague was signed between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, ending the Austro-Prussian War. The Habsburgs were permanently excluded from German affairs, and the Kingdom of Prussia established itself as the only major power among the German states.

Random History of the Day

Text from The History of Wales: "Today is the feast day of Saint Nectan

According to a 12th-century manuscript, Nectan was born in Ireland. He was the son of Brychan, the 5th century King of Brycheiniog and the eldest of his 24 children. He moved to Wales with his father in 423 AD.

Inspired by St Anthony who had lived as a hermit in the Egyptian desert, Nectan left Wales and landed at Hartland on the northern coast of Devon. Here he lived in dense forest for several years only visited by his family on the last day of each year. He later lived as a hermit above a waterfall at which was later called St Nectan's Glen, near Tintagel, in Cornwall. Here, according to the legend, he warned ships of the dangerous nearby rocks by ringing a silver bell.

There is also a story of him being given two cows from a local pig farmer, who Nectan helped find his lost herd. The cows, however, were stolen and after pursuing and catching up with the robbers, Nectan attempted to convert them to Christianity. One of the robbers cut off Nectan's head. Nectan picked up his severed head and struggled back to his well, where he collapsed and died. He was buried at the spot where he died and tradition has it that it is the site of many miracles and that foxgloves grew where his blood fell.

Throughout the Middle Ages, a considerable cult grew up around Nectan's shrine. Athelstan, King of the Anglo-Saxons visited and donated property to Nectan's church in 937, following his victory at the Battle of Brunanburgh and Lyfing, the 11th century Bishop of Cornwall provided the church with a sculptured reliquary, bells and lead for the roof. The tradition of laying foxgloves at his well continues to this day."


(1866) U.S. Treaty with the Cherokee Nation

All the Cherokees and freed persons who were formerly slaves to any Cherokee, and all free negroes not having been such slaves, who resided in the Cherokee Nation prior to June first, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, who may within two years elect not to reside northeast of the Arkansas River and southeast of Grand River, shall have the right to settle in and occupy the Canadian district southwest of the Arkansas River, and also all that tract of country lying northwest of Grand River, and bounded on the southeast by Grand River and west by the Creek reservation to the northeast corner thereof from thence west on the north line of the Creek reservation to the ninety-sixth degree of west longitude and thence north on said line of longitude so far that a line due east to Grand River will include a quantity of land equal to one hundred and sixty acres for each person who may so elect to reside in the territory above-described in this article: Provided, That that part of said district north of the Arkansas River shall not be set apart until it shall be found that the Canadian district is not sufficiently large to allow one hundred and sixty acres to each person desiring to obtain settlement under the provisions of this article.

The inhabitants electing to reside in the district described in the preceding article shall have the right to elect all their local officers and judges, and the number of delegates to which by their numbers they may be entitled in any general council to be established in the Indian Territory under the provisions of this treaty, as stated in Article XII, and to control all their local affairs, and to establish all necessary police regulations and rules for the administration of justice in said district, not inconsistent with the constitution of the Cherokee Nation or the laws of the United States Provided, The Cherokees residing in said district shall enjoy all the rights and privileges of other Cherokees who may elect to settle in said district as hereinbefore provided, and shall hold the same rights and privileges and be subject to the same liabilities as those who elect to settle in said district under the provisions of this treaty Provided also, That if any such police regulations or rules be adopted which, in the opinion of the President, bear oppressively on any citizen of the nation, he may suspend the same. And all rules or regulations in said district, or in any other district of the nation, discriminating against the citizens of other districts, are prohibited, and shall be void.

The Cherokee Nation having, voluntarily, in February, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, by an act of the national council, forever abolished slavery, hereby covenant and agree that never hereafter shall either slavery or involuntary servitude exist in their nation otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, in accordance with laws applicable to all the members of said tribe alike. They further agree that all freedmen who have been liberated by voluntary act of their former owners or by law, as well as all free colored persons who were in the country at the commencement of the rebellion, and are now residents therein, or who may return within six months, and their descendants, shall have all the rights of native Cherokees: Provided, That owners of slaves so emancipated in the Cherokee Nation shall never receive any compensation or pay for the slaves so emancipated.

Every Cherokee and freed person resident in the Cherokee Nation shall have the right to sell any products of his farm, including his or her live stock, or any merchandise or manufactured products, and to ship and drive the same to market without restraint, paying any tax thereon which is now or may be levied by the United States on the quantity sold outside of the Indian Territory.


August 23 in German History

Birth of Jakob Friedrich Fries in Barby, Germany. Fries was a professor of philosophy at the Universities of Heidelberg and Jena. In Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft he attempted to provide a foundation of psychological analysis to the critical theory of Kant.

Birth of Moritz Benedikt Cantor in Mannheim, Germany. Cantor was a professor of mathematics at the University of Heidelberg. He is considered one of the greatest historians of mathematics. His greatest work was Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik. This comprehensive history of mathematics appeared as follows:

Volume 1 (1880) – From the earliest times until 1200
Volume 2 (1892) – From 1200 to 1668
Volume 3 (1894-1896) – From 1668 to 1758
Volume 4 (1908) (with nine collaborators, Cantor as editor) – From 1759 to 1799

The Treaty of Prague ends the war between Austria and Prussia.

Birth of Ernst Krenek in Vienna, Austria. Krenek was a composer who was a leader in the development of serial composition of music. He immigrated to the U. S. in 1938 and taught composition at Vassar College, and Hamline University. Among his compositions are the operas, Zwingburg, Jonny spielt auf, and Karl V.

The British Expeditionary Force in Belgium is attacked and driven back by German General von Kluck’s forces.

The Russian forces being stronger than anticipated and German armies being deemed incapable of holding East Prussia, German General Max von Prittwitz is relieved of command and replaced by General Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff as chief of staff. Von Hindenburg is 67 at this time and has been retired since 1911. Ludendorf had distinguished himself at the Battle of Liege.

Japan declares war on Germany (WWI).

A non-aggression pact is signed between Germany and the Soviet Union.

Romania is freed from German occupation.

West Germany is readmitted to the International Amateur Athletic Federation.

The United Nations opens its office in Vienna.

Death of Alfred Eisenstaedt in Oak Bluffs, Mass (born in Dirschau, Germany, now in Poland). Eisenstaedt was a photojournalist who began his career in the 20’s and 30’s. He covered the rise of the Nazi party in pictures. In 1935 he immigrated to the United States where he became one of the first Life Magazine photographers. During his career with Life he was credited with 2,500 picture stories and 90 cover photos.

Based on his refusal to participate in the war in Iraq and his continuing opposition to the war, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize. Der Spiegel‘s Gabor Steingart wrote: “Schröder stuck to his guns. Never was he more clear (and more lonely) than in the months leading up to the war. “Under my leadership, Germany will not participate in a war in Iraq,” he said. After six years and more than 106,000 dead, the reasoning seems prophetic: “I can only warn people not to talk about a war in Iraq without thinking of the political consequences and without an overarching vision for the Middle East. Those who march across borders must know exactly what they want and how they plan to get out.””


Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Signed: August 5, 1963

In June 1963, the test ban negotiations resumed, with compromises from all sides. On August 5, 1963, the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in Moscow by U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk (1909-94), Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko (1909-89) and British Foreign Secretary Alec Douglas-Home (1903-95). France and China were asked to join the agreement but refused.

The treaty was a small but significant step toward the control of nuclear weapons. In the years to come, discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union grew to include limits on many nuclear weapons and the elimination of others.


"The Charbor Chronicles"

Once again, it should be reiterated, that this does not pretend to be a very extensive history of what happened on this day (nor is it the most original - the links can be found down below). If you know something that I am missing, by all means, shoot me an email or leave a comment, and let me know!

Aug 23, 1939: The Hitler-Stalin Pact

On this day in 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression pact, stunning the world, given their diametrically opposed ideologies. But the dictators were, despite appearances, both playing to their own political needs.

After Nazi Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia, Britain had to decide to what extent it would intervene should Hitler continue German expansion. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, at first indifferent to Hitler's capture of the Sudetenland, the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, suddenly snapped to life when Poland became threatened. He made it plain that Britain would be obliged to come to the aid of Poland in the event of German invasion. But he wanted, and needed, an ally. The only power large enough to stop Hitler, and with a vested interest in doing so, was the Soviet Union. But Stalin was cool to Britain after its effort to create a political alliance with Britain and France against Germany had been rebuffed a year earlier. Plus, Poland's leaders were less than thrilled with the prospect of Russia becoming its guardian to them, it was simply occupation by another monstrous regime.

Hitler believed that Britain would never take him on alone, so he decided to swallow his fear and loathing of communism and cozy up to the Soviet dictator, thereby pulling the rug out from the British initiative. Both sides were extremely suspicious of the other, trying to discern ulterior motives. But Hitler was in a hurry he knew if he was to invade Poland it had to be done quickly, before the West could create a unified front. Agreeing basically to carve up parts of Eastern Europe—and leave each other alone in the process—Hitler's foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, flew to Moscow and signed the non-aggression pact with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov (which is why the pact is often referred to as the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Supporters of bolshevism around the world had their heretofore romantic view of "international socialism" ruined they were outraged that Stalin would enter into any kind of league with the fascist dictator.

But once Poland was German-occupied territory, the alliance would not last for long.

Now, here's something that I bet you did not know. I'll admit that I was unaware of this, and found it quite fascinating. Several counties of what was then North Carolina, and now lie within the boundaries of present-day Tennessee, declared their independence on this day in 1784! History.com explains it in greater detail:

Aug 23, 1784: State of Franklin declares independence

On this day in 1784, four counties in western North Carolina declare their independence as the state of Franklin. The counties lay in what would eventually become Tennessee.

The previous April, the state of North Carolina had ceded its western land claims between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi River to the United States Congress. The settlers in this area, known as the Cumberland River Valley, had formed their own independent government from 1772 to 1777 and were concerned that Congress would sell the territory to Spain or France as a means of paying off some of the government's war debt. As a result, North Carolina retracted its cession and began to organize an administration for the territory.

Simultaneously, representatives from Washington, Sullivan, Spencer (modern-day Hawkins) and Greene counties declared their independence from North Carolina. The following May, the counties petitioned for statehood as "Frankland" to the United States Congress. A simple majority of states favored acceptance of the petition, but it fell short of the two-thirds majority needed to pass, even after the counties' changed their proposed name to "Franklin" in an attempt to curry Benjamin Franklin's and others' favor.

In defiance of Congress, Franklin survived as an independent nation for four years with its own constitution, Indian treaties and legislated system of barter in lieu of currency, though after only two years, North Carolina set up its own parallel government in the region. Finally, Franklin's weak economy forced its governor, John Sevier, to approach the Spanish for aid. North Carolina, terrified of having a Spanish client state on its border, arrested Sevier. When Cherokee, Chickamauga and Chickasaw began to attack settlements within Franklin's borders in 1788, it quickly rejoined North Carolina to gain its militia's protection from attack.


On this day in history, there were the first stirrings of Mount Vesuvius, on the feast day of the Vulcan - ironically, the Roman god of fire. Philip VI was crowned King of France. This date was an important one for Napoleon, as he left Egypt for France, in order to take over power. Some years later, his French forces were defeated by the Prussians during the Battle of Grossbeeren. The British captured Hong Kong from China on this day. The Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian War. Japan declared war on Germany in 1914, although the same two countries would be allied with one another in the next global war. Sacoo and Vanzetti were sentenced on this day. Arabs attacked Jews in Palestine, in what would later become Israel. The world found out that Hitler's Nazi Germany and Stalin's Communist Soviet Union had signed a non-aggression treaty (known officially as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), that proved anything but non-aggressive in fact, as it effectively gave Hitler the green light to invade Poland, which started World War II. The Germans took over the western portion of Poland, while the Soviet Union then took over in the Eastern portion shortly thereafter. East Germany imposed increased travel restrictions to West Germany. This was an important day in the history of the Beatles, as they released "She Loves You", and on the same day, Ringo Starr admitted that he did not write "Don't Pass Me By". A few years later on this same day, Ringo temporarily left the Beartles. Years after the actual breakup of the Beatles, John Lennon reported seeing a UFO on this day in 1974. Communists took over in Laos. It was on this day in 1990 that East and West Germany announced that they would reunify into one Germany later that year, on October 3rd.

Here's a more detailed look at events that transpired on this date throughout history:


AUGUST 23

MOUNT VESUViUS began stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan on the 23rd August in the year 79. Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a stratovolcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy, about 9 kilometres (5.6 miles) east of Naples. Mount Vesuvius buried and destructed the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing approximately 6,000 people due to hydrothermalpyroclastic flows. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of 2 letters by Pliny the Younger sent to the historian Tacitus. Vesuvius is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. It’s regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because It’s the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, with a population of 3,000,000 people living close-by, and its tendency towards explosive Plinian eruptions.

Vesuvius volcanic eruption seen from Portici & painted by Joseph Wright of Derby in the 18th century (1774 – 1776)

painting from the Art collection of the Huntington Library in Pasadena, CA

JACQUES CARTiER the French explorer landed near Quebec City on the 23rd August 1541, in his 3rd voyage to Canada. Jacques Cartier claimed what is now Canada for France.

Anton von Schmerling the Austrian statesman was born on the 23rd August 1805 (died 1893).

Austro-Prussian War ended on the 23rd August 1866, with the Treaty of Prague.

Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London opened on the 23rd August 1873.

The Southern Cross Expedition, the 1st British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, departed from London on the 23rd August 1898.

Automobile tire chains were patented on the 23rd August 1904.

Japan declared war on Germany on the 23rd August 1914, and bombed Qingdao, China, during World War I.

Vera Miles the American actress was born on the 23rd August 1930.

Barbara Eden the American actress and singer was born on the 23rd August 1934.

Keith Moon the English drummer from The Who was born on the 23rd August 1946 (died 1978).

World Council of Churches was formed on the 23rd August 1948.

Shelley Long the American actress was born on the 23rd August 1949.

RiCK SPRiNGFiELD the Australian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor was born on the 23rd August 1949. Rick Springfield was a member the pop rock group Zoot from 1969 to 1971 before he started his solo career. In 1972 Rick relocated to the United States, where he won a Grammy Award for Best Male Rock Vocal for his No.1 hit Jessie’s Girl in 1981. As an actor, he portrayed Dr. Noah Drake on General Hospital.

PETER LAFFY the Australian singer and guitarist from the original lineup of Mondo Rock, Fox, Freeway and The King Bees was born in East Melbourne on the 23rd August 1951 (died 15th February 2011 age 59). Peter Julian Laffy was a guitarist, vocalist, songwriter, television presenter on Asylum TV, radio presenter on Laffy’s Lounge radio show at 3MDR 97.1FM with Trevor Upton and Anton K. Kressnig. Peter Laffy wrote and performed songs with Ross Wilson in the Mondo Rock early years, which included Primal Park (1979), Love Shock (live on Countdown 1979, see video below), Fugitive Kind (1978 Countdown), and wrote Sure Fire Thing (1982) for The Runners which was No.22 on the 3XY Melbourne charts, and played some songs with Jim Keays and many others

see more exact details on the Peter Laffy Discography. Listen to Peter Laffy n’ Friends on www.Reverbnation.com/PeterLaffy

Press the the Reverbnation player button below to hear Peter Laffy singing and playing guitar with friends: Frog Legs, I Can’t Stand The Rain, Mercury Blues, Wind Cries Mary, Gangster of Love, Polk Salad Annie and Addicted To You…

Peter Julian Laffy passed away living in Honolulu, Hawaii on the 15th February 2011, aged 59, and is survived by his wife Gabriellene “Squeeky”, son Aidan, brothers Michael & Shane Laffy, and sisters Colleen Allan, Jody MacDonald & Mae Parker.

C-130 Hercules transport aircraft had its 1st flight on the 23rd August 1954.

Lunar Orbiter 1 took the 1st photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon on the 23rd August 1966.

The Norrmalmstorg bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden on the 23rd August 1973, went wrong when it turned into a hostage crisis, and over 5 days the hostages began to sympathise with their captors, leading to the term Stockholm syndrome.

Shifty Shellshock the American singer-songwriter from Crazy Town was born on the 23rd August 1974.

The Gossamer Condor won the Kremer prize on the 23rd August 1977, for human powered flight.

Julian Casablancas the American singer-songwriter from The Strokes was born on the 23rd August 1978.

SkyBlu the American singer and dancer from LMFAO was born Skyler Gordy on the 23rd August 1986. Sky Blu is a singer, rapper, producer, DJ and dancer best known as one half of the musical duo LMFAO with his uncle Redfoo.

Australian pilots’ strike: 1,645 Australian domestic airline pilots resigned on the 23rd August 1989, after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.

Tim Berners-Lee opened the WWW – World Wide Web to new users on the 23rd August 1990.

Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union on the 23rd August 1990.

West Germany & East Germany announced that they would reunite on the 3rd October 1990.

The Galileo spacecraft discovered a moon on the 23rd August 1993, which was later named Dactyl, the 1st known asteroid moon.

Eugene Bullard the only black pilot in World War I, was posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force on the 23rd August 1994.

Jack Dyer the Australian footballer died on the 23rd August 2003 (born 1913).

Natascha Kampusch escaped from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil on the 23rd August 2006, after 8 years of captivity.

Muammar Gaddafi the Libyan leader was overthrown on the 23rd August 2011, after the National Transitional Council forces took control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

Col Campbell the New Zealand television presenter from Gardening Australia died on the 23rd August 2012 (born 1933).

Today in History for August 23rd

video presented by the Associated Press…


Deutsches Bund (1815-1866)

The Deutsches Bund was created by a treaty of 8 June 1815 (Deutsche Bundesakte), which was included in the final act of the Congress of Vienna of the next day. (See the original text in German).

The 36 founding members were:

  • the emperor of Austria,
  • the kings of
    • Prussia,
    • Denmark (as duke of Holstein, until 30 Oct 1864),
    • Bavaria,
    • Saxony,
    • Netherlands (as grand-duke of Luxemburg),
    • Great-Britain and Hannover,
    • Hesse (Darmstadt),
    • Sachsen-Weimar (grand-duke since 6 Apr 1815),
    • Sachsen-Gotha (extinct 1825),
    • Sachsen-Coburg-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen-Hildburghausen after 1826),
    • Sachsen-Hildburgshausen (Sachsen-Altenburg after 1826),
    • Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld (Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha after 1826),
    • Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel,
    • Holstein-Oldenburg,
    • Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
    • Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
    • Anhalt-Dessau (Anhalt-Dessau-Cöthen after 1853),
    • Anhalt-Bernburg (extinct 1853),
    • Anhalt-Cöthen (extinct 1847),
    • Hohenzollern-Hechingen (until 1849),
    • Hohenzollern-Siegmaringen (until 1849),
    • Nassau,
    • Liechtenstein,
    • Schwarzburg-Sondershausen,
    • Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt,
    • Waldeck-Pyrmont,
    • Reuß of senior line,
    • Reuß of junior line (consisting of R-Schleiz, R-Lobenstein-Lobenstein and Lobenstein-Ebersdorff the second became extinct 1824, the third ceded his rights to the first in 1848),
    • Schaumburg-Lippe,
    • Lippe (Detmold),
    • Lübeck,
    • Frankfurt,
    • Bremen,
    • Hamburg.

    Several members disappeared through extinction: Saxe-Gotha was divided on 12 Nov 1826, Anhalt-Cöthen became extinct on 23 Nov 1847, and the princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen ceded their soverignty to Prussia on 7 Dec 1849.

    The count of Bentinck tried unsuccessfully to join as member by virtue of his possession of the lordhip of Kniphausen. A compromise reached on 8 June 1825 in Berlin with Austria, Prussia and Russia led to the count of Bentinck being awarded sovereignty over Kniphausen in the same relation with Oldenburg as it was with the former Empire and Emperor Oldenburg represented Kniphausen within the German Bund. This partially sovereign status disappeared on 1 Aug 1854 when Kniphausen was formally ceded to Oldenburg.

    In 1839, as a result of the secession of Belgium and part of Luxemburg from the Netherlands, part of the Dutch province of Limburg was declared to be held by the king of Netherlands as grand-duke of Luxemburg, with reversion rights to the agnates of the house of Nassau as for Luxemburg (treaty of London, 19 Apr 1839, art. 3: "[. ] there shall be assigned to HM the king of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, a territorial indemnity in the Province of Limburg" art. 4: ". HM shall possess, either to be held by him in his character of Grand Duke of Luxemburg, or for the purpose of being united to Holland, those territories [etc]" which represent the modern Dutch province of Limburg, less Maastricht art. 5: "HM the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, shall come to an Agreement with the Germanic Confederation, and with the Agnates of the House of Nassau, as to the applications of the stipulations contained in articles 3 and 4 [. ]" see Hertslet, vol. 2, p. 983 the Confederation ratified the treaty on 5 Sep 1839 and the agnates of the house of Nassau signed a convention on 27 June 1839 ibid., p. 1001).

    After the "War of the Duchies" Denmark lost Holstein and Schleswig (30 Oct 1864) and effectively ceased to be a member.

    The Confederation survived until it was torn apart by the conflict between Prussia and Austria. On 14 June 1866, the Prussian government declared the Confederation to be dissolved and declared war on Austria. The ensuing war resulted in a rapid and crushing victory for Prussia. Austria was defeated and signed the peace of Prague (23 Aug 1866) recognizing the end of the Confederation. The king of Prussia annexed Hanover, Electoral Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt (bill submitted to the Prussian Landtag on 16 Aug 1866, ratified by same on 20 Sep 1866). Later, it formally annexed Holstein and Schleswig, Hesse-Homburg (whose landgraves had become extinct in male line on 24 Mar 1866), and portions of Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt (24 Dec 1866). Limburg returned to its former status as integral part of the Netherlands (treaty of London, 11 May 1867).


    August 23 in history


    30 BC – After the successful invasion of Egypt, Octavian executes Marcus Antonius Antyllus, eldest son of Mark Antony, and Caesarion, the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt and only child of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra.

    20 BC – Ludi Volcanalici are held within the temple precinct of Vulcan, and used by Augustus to mark the treaty with Parthia and the return of the legionary standards that had been lost at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.

    79 – Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

    406 – Gothic king Radagaisus is executed after he is defeated by Roman general Stilicho and 12,000 "barbarians" are incorporated into the Roman army or sold as slaves.

    476: In Rome, Odoacer, chieftain of the Germanic tribes (Herulic - Scirian foederati), is proclaimed rex Italiae ("King of Italy") by his troops, relegating the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, to a villa near Naples thus ending the Western Empire.

    634 – Abu Bakr dies at Medina and is succeeded by Umar I who becomes the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

    1244 – Siege of Jerusalem: The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrenders to Khwarezmian Empire.

    1268 – Battle of Tagliacozzo: The army of Charles of Anjou defeats the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen marking the fall of the Hohenstaufen family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, and leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy.

    1305 – Sir William Wallace is executed for high treason at Smithfield in London.

    1328 – Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.

    1382 – Siege of Moscow: The Golden Horde led by khan Tokhtamysh lays siege to the capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

    1514 – The Battle of Chaldiran ends with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty.

    1521 – Christian II of Denmark is deposed as king of Sweden and Gustav Vasa is elected regent.

    1541 – French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada.

    1572 – French Wars of Religion Mob violence against Huguenots in Paris results in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

    1592 – Japanese invasions of Korea: The Yeongwon Castle is besieged by the Japanese Fourth Division led by Itō Suketaka.

    1595 – Long Turkish War: Wallachian prince Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Călugăreni and achieves a tactical victory.

    1600 – Battle of Gifu Castle: The eastern forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu defeat the western Japanese clans loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, leading to the destruction of Gifu Castle and serving as a prelude to the Battle of Sekigahara.

    1614 – Fettmilch Uprising: Jews are expelled from Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, following the plundering of the Judengasse.

    1614 – The University of Groningen is established in the Dutch Republic.

    1628 – George Villiers, the first Duke of Buckingham, is assassinated by John Felton.

    1650 – Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards.

    1655 – Battle of Sobota: The Swedish Empire led by Charles X Gustav defeats the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

    1765 – Beginning of Burmese–Siamese War.

    1775 – American Revolutionary War: King George III delivers his Proclamation of Rebellion to the Court of St James's stating that the American colonies have proceeded to a state of open and avowed rebellion.

    1784 – Western North Carolina (now eastern Tennessee) declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin it is not accepted into the United States, and only lasts for four years.

    1799 – Napoleon I of France leaves Egypt for France en route to seizing power.

    1813 – At the Battle of Großbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.

    1839 – The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.

    1858 – The Round Oak rail accident occurs in Brierley Hill in the Black Country, England. It is 'Arguably the worst disaster ever to occur on British railways'.

    1864 – The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico except Galveston, Texas.

    1866 – Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.

    1873 – Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London opens.

    1896 – Officially recognised date of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the start of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila (actual date and location is disputed).

    1898 – The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, departs from London.

    1902: Nearly six years after publishing her best-known book "The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book," Fannie Farmer left the the school and opened Miss Farmer's School of Cookery - aimed not at professional cooks but at training housewives.

    1904 – The automobile tire chain is patented.

    1914 – World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.

    1914 – World War I: Battle of Mons: The British Army begins withdrawal.

    1921 – British airship R-38 experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only four survive.

    1923 – Captain Lowell Smith and Lieutenant John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

    1020s - Payroll Office (Sacco and
    Vanzetti Crime Scene) 5 Pearl
    Street, Braintree, Massachusetts
    from whatwasthere.com
    1927: Italian-born anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are executed in Boston for the murders of two men during a 1920 robbery.

    1929 – Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65󈞰 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

    1938 – English cricketer Len Hutton sets a world record for the highest individual Test innings of 364, during a Test match against Australia.

    1939 – World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations.

    1942 – World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.

    1943 – World War II: Kharkov is liberated as a result of the Battle of Kursk.

    1944 – World War II: Marseille is liberated by the Allies.

    1944 – World War II: King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of Marshal Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.

    1944 – Freckleton Air Disaster: A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.

    1945 – Soviet–Japanese War: The USSR State Defense Committee issues Decree no. 9898cc "About Receiving, Accommodation, and Labor Utilization of the Japanese Army Prisoners of War".

    1946 – Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Länder (states) of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein.

    1948 – World Council of Churches is formed.

    1954 – First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

    1958 – Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis begins with the People's Liberation Army's bombardment of Quemoy.

    1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

    1970 – Organized by Mexican American labor union leader César Chávez, the Salad Bowl strike, the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history, begins.

    1973 – A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turns into a hostage crisis over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathise with their captors, leading to the term "Stockholm syndrome".

    1977 – The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.

    1982 – Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.

    1985 – Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.

    1987 – The American male basketball team lost the gold medal to Brazilian team at the Pan American Games in Indianapolis. The final score was 120� and triggered changes in this sport basis in USA, resulting in the "Dream Team".

    1989 – Singing Revolution: Two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius–Tallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).

    1989 – One thousand six hundred forty-five Australian domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.

    1990 – Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western "guests" (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.

    1990 – Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

    1990 – West Germany and East Germany announce that they will reunite on October 3.

    1991 – Tim Berners-Lee opens the WWW, World Wide Web to new users.

    1993 – The Galileo spacecraft discovers a moon, later named Dactyl, around 243 Ida, the first known asteroid moon.

    1994 – Eugene Bullard, the only black pilot in World War I, is posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.

    1996 – Osama bin Laden issues message entitled 'A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.'

    2000 – Gulf Air Flight 072 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

    2006 – Natascha Kampusch, who had been abducted at the age of ten, escapes from her captor Wolfgang Přiklopil, after eight years of captivity.

    2007 – The skeletal remains of Russia's last royal family members Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and his sister Grand Duchess Anastasia are discovered near Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    2010 – Manila hostage crisis, in which eight hostages were killed.

    2011 – A magnitude 5.8 (class: moderate) earthquake occurs in Virginia. Damage occurs to monuments and structures in Washington D.C. and the resulted damage is estimated at $200 million–$300 million USD.

    2011 – Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the Libyan Civil War.

    2013 – A riot at the Palmasola prison complex in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, kills 31 people.

    Éogan of Ardstraw
    Philip Benitius
    Rose of Lima
    Tydfil

    Apodosis (Afterfeast) of the Dormition.

    Hieromartyr Pothinus, Bishop of Lyons (ca. 177)
    Hieromartyr Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons (202)
    Hieromartyr Irenaeus, Bishop of Sirmium in Hungary (304)
    Martyrs Severus, Memnon the Centurion, and 38 others, of Thrace (ca. 305)
    Martyr Lupus of Novae (306), slave of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki
    Saints Eutychius (540) and Florentius (547) of Nursia
    Saint Callinicus, Patriarch of Constantinople (705)
    Saint Anthony, Bishop of Sardis (10th century)
    Saint Nicholas the Sicilian, ascetic of Mt. Neotaka in Euboea

    Martyrs Quiriacus, Maximus Archelaus and Companions (c. 235)
    Martyrs Minervius, Eleazar and Companions, in Lyons in France:
    eight children are included in their number (3rd century)
    Saint Tydfil, venerated in Merthyr Tydfil in Wales, where she was slain by the heathen (c. 480)
    Saint Victor of Vita (Victor Vitensis), born in Carthage in North Africa,
    he was either Bishop there or in Utica (c. 535)
    Saint Éogan of Ardstraw (c. 618)
    Saints Flavian (Flavinian, Flavius) of Autun, the twenty-first
    Bishop of Autun in France (7th century)
    Saints Altigianus and Hilarinus, two monks killed by the Saracens
    at Saint-Seine in France (731)
    Martyrs Æbbe the Younger, Abbess of Coldingham Priory, Northumbria, and her companions (870)

    Saint Haralambos of Panagia Kalyviani convent (in the Heraklio Prefecture),
    the newly-revealed (1788)
    New Hieromartyrs Ephraim (Kuznetsov), Bishop of Selenginsk, and John Vostorgov,
    Archpriest, of Moscow, and Martyr Nicholas Varzhansky (1918)
    New Hieromartyrs Paul Gaidai and John Karabanov, Priests (1937)[

    Synaxis of Panagia Proussiotissa (Mother of God of Proussa) in Evrytania, Greece (c. 829�)
    Mykhaylivska Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos
    Repose of Abbot Ioannicius (Moroi) of Sihastria, Romania (1944)

    1979 – Saskia Clark, English sailor
    1979 – Ritchie Neville, English singer and actor (Five)
    1979 – Edgar Sosa, Mexican boxer
    1979 – Zuzana Váleková, Slovak tennis player
    1980 – Diamondog, Angolan rapper and journalist
    1980 – Denny Bautista, Dominican baseball player
    1980: Joanna Froggatt [English actress]
    1980 – Rex Grossman, American football player
    1980 – Nenad Vučković, Serbian handball player
    1981 – Carlos Cuéllar, Spanish footballer
    1981 – Stephan Loboué, Ivorian footballer
    1981 – Ozzy Lusth, Mexican reality show contestant on Survivor: Cook Islands
    1981 – Carmen Luvana, American porn actress
    1982 – YTCracker, American rapper and DJ
    1982 – Natalie Coughlin, American swimmer
    1982 – Scott Palguta, American soccer player
    1982 – Cristian Tudor, Romanian footballer (d. 2012)
    1982 – Trevor Wright, American actor
    1983 – J. C. Bailey, American wrestler (d. 2010)
    1983 – James Collins, Welsh footballer
    1983 – Athena Farrokhzad
    1983 – Ruta Gedmintas, English actress
    1983 – Annie Ilonzeh, American actress
    1983 – Sun Mingming, Chinese basketball player
    1983 – Tony Moll, American football player
    1983 – Bruno Spengler, Canadian race car driver
    1983 – Marianne Steinbrecher, German-Brazilian volleyball player
    1984 – Kristy Bruce, English actress
    1984 – Glen Johnson, English footballer
    1986 – Sky Blu, American rapper and producer (LMFAO)
    1986 – Neil Cicierega, American comedian, actor, singer, and director
    1986 – Kim Feenstra, Dutch model
    1986 – Khosi Mokhesi, Lesotho swimmer
    1986 – Brett Morris, Australian rugby player
    1986 – Vic Wild, American-Russian snowboarder
    1987 – Nikki Gil, Filipino actress and singer
    1988 – Olga Govortsova, Belarusian tennis player
    1988 – Carl Hagelin, Swedish ice hockey player
    1988 – Jeremy Lin, American basketball player
    1988 – Kim Matula, American actress
    1989 – Breanna Conrad, American fashion designer
    1989 – Lianne La Havas, English singer-songwriter
    1989 – Heiko Schwarz, German footballer
    1990 – Wesley Singerman, American voice actor
    1991 – Isabella Tobias, American-Lithuanian ice dancer
    1995 – Vlada Kubassova, Estonian footballer
    1995 – Eliza Pineda, Filipino actress and singer
    1996 – Cesar Flores, Canadian actor
    1996 – David Gore, American actor
    2001 – Zaijian Jaranilla, Filipino actor


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