May 16, 2014 Day 117 of the Sixth Year - History

May 16, 2014 Day 117 of the Sixth Year - History

President Barack Obama slides across a counter to pose for photos with staff following lunch at the Dupont Circle Shake Shack in Washington, D.C., May 16, 2014


Economy of India

The economy of India is characterised as a middle income developing market economy. [46] It is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). [47] According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), on a per capita income basis, India ranked 145th by GDP (nominal) and 122th by GDP (PPP). [48] From independence in 1947 until 1991, successive governments promoted protectionist economic policies with extensive state intervention and economic regulation, which is characterised as dirigism, in the form of the License Raj. [49] [50] The end of the Cold War and an acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 led to the adoption of a broad economic liberalisation in India. [51] [52] Since the start of the 21st century, annual average GDP growth has been 6% to 7%, [46] and from 2013 to 2018, India was the world's fastest growing major economy, surpassing China. [53] [54] Historically, India was the largest economy in the world for most of the two millennia from the 1st until the 19th century. [55] [56] [57]

  • $3.05 trillion (nominal 2021 est.) [6]
  • $10.21 trillion (PPP 2021 est.) [6]
  • 1.6% (Q4 20/21e)(National Statistical Office) [7]
  • −7.3% (20/21e) 11.5% (21/22f) (WB) [8]
  • $2,191 (nominal 2021 est.) [6]
  • $7,333 (PPP 2021 est.) [6]
  • Household consumption: 59.1%
  • Government consumption: 11.5%
  • Investment in fixed capital: 28.5%
  • Investment in inventories: 3.9%
  • Exports of goods and services: 19.1%
  • Imports of goods and services: −22%
  • (2017 est.) [12]
  • 5.03% (February 2021 ) [13]
  • 4.9% (2020) [6]
  • 21.9% in poverty (2015/16 est.) [15]
  • 11.1% in extreme poverty (20/21 est.) [8]
  • 46.2% on less than $3.20/day (20/21 est.) [8]
  • 0.645 medium (2019) [17] (131st)
  • 0.475 low IHDI (2019) [18]
  • 500,995,152 (2020) [19]
  • 45.4% employment rate (2018) [20]
  • 5.4% (2020 modeled ILO est) [24]
  • 5.8% (FY 2019) [25]
  • 23.8% youth unemployment (15 to 24-year-olds, 2020 modeled ILO est) [26]
  • United States 16.8%
  • European Union 14.6%
  • United Arab Emirates 9.1%
  • China 5.3%
  • Hong Kong 3.6%
  • Other 50.5% [30]
  • China 14.3%
  • European Union 8.9%
  • United States 7.3%
  • United Arab Emirates 6.3%
  • Saudi Arabia 5.6%
  • Other 57.5% [30]
  • Inward: $51 billion (2019) [31]
  • Outward: $12 billion (2019) [32]
  • 89.6% of GDP (2020) [36][37]
  • ₹ 170 trillion (US$2.4 trillion)
    : [43]
  • BBB−
  • Outlook: Stable
    : [43]
  • Baa3
  • Outlook: Negative
    : [43]
  • BBB−
  • Outlook: Negative
    : [44]
  • BBB(low)
  • Outlook: Positive

The long-term growth perspective of the Indian economy remains positive due to its young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings, and investment rates, increasing globalisation in India and integration into the global economy. [12] The economy slowed in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetisation" in 2016 and the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax in 2017. [12] Nearly 60% of India's GDP is driven by domestic private consumption [58] and continues to remain the world's sixth-largest consumer market. [59] Apart from private consumption, India's GDP is also fueled by government spending, investment, and exports. [60] In 2019, India was the world's ninth-largest importer and the twelfth-largest exporter. [61] India has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995. [62] It ranks 63rd on the Ease of doing business index and 68th on the Global Competitiveness Report. [63] With 500 million workers, the Indian labour force is the world's second-largest as of 2019. India has one of the world's highest number of billionaires and extreme income inequality. [64] [65] Since India has a vast informal economy, barely 2% of Indians pay income taxes. [66] During the 2008 global financial crisis the economy faced a mild slowdown, India undertook stimulus measures (both fiscal and monetary) to boost growth and generate demand in subsequent years economic growth revived. [67] According to the 2017 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2050. [68] According to World Bank, to achieve sustainable economic development India must focus on public sector reform, infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of land and labour regulations, financial inclusion, spur private investment and exports, education, and public health. [69]

In 2020, India's ten largest trading partners were the United States, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, and Malaysia. [70] In 2019–20, the foreign direct investment (FDI) in India was $74.4 billion with the service sector, computer, and telecom industry remains leading sectors for FDI inflows. [71] India has free trade agreements with several nations, including ASEAN, SAFTA, Mercosur, South Korea, Japan, and several others which are in effect or under negotiating stage. [72] [73] The service sector makes up 50% of GDP and remains the fastest growing sector, while the industrial sector and the agricultural sector employs a majority of the labor force. [74] The Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange are some of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization. [75] India is the world's sixth-largest manufacturer, representing 3% of global manufacturing output, and employs over 57 million people. [76] [77] Nearly 66% of India's population is rural, [78] and contributes about 50% of India's GDP. [79] It has the world's fourth-largest foreign-exchange reserves worth $585 billion. [45] India has a high public debt with 89% of GDP, while its fiscal deficit stood at 9.5% of GDP. [36] [38] India's government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth, [12] simultaneously the NBFC sector has been engulfed in a liquidity crisis. [80] India faces moderate unemployment, rising income inequality, and a drop in aggregate demand. [81] [82] India's gross domestic savings rate stood at 30.1% of GDP in FY 2019. [83] In recent years, independent economists and financial institutions have accused the government of fudging various economic data, especially GDP growth. [84] [85]

India is the world's largest manufacturer of generic drugs, and its pharmaceutical sector fulfills over 50% of the global demand for vaccines. [86] The Indian IT industry is a major exporter of IT services with $191 billion in revenue and employs over four million people. [87] India’s chemical industry is extremely diversified and estimated at $178 billion. [88] The tourism industry contributes about 9.2% of India's GDP and employs over 42 million. [89] India ranks second globally in food and agricultural production, while agricultural exports were $35.09 billion. [79] [90] The construction and real estate sector ranks third among the 14 major sectors in terms of direct, indirect, and induced effects in all sectors of the economy. [91] The Indian textiles industry is estimated at $100 billion and contributes 13% of industrial output and 2.3% of India's GDP while employs over 45 million people directly. [92] India's telecommunication industry is the world's second largest by the number of mobile phone, smartphone, and internet users. It is the world's 25th-largest oil producer and the third-largest oil consumer. [93] The Indian automobile industry is the world's fifth-largest by production. [94] [95] It has $1.17 trillion worth of retail market which contributes over 10% of India's GDP and has one of the world's fastest growing e-commerce markets. [96] India has the world's fourth-largest natural resources, with the mining sector contributing 11% of the country's industrial GDP and 2.5% of total GDP. [97] It is also the world's second-largest coal producer, the second-largest cement producer, the second-largest steel producer, and the third-largest electricity producer. [98] [99]


May 16, 2014 Day 117 of the Sixth Year - History

An Illustrated History of Computers
Part 1

The first computers were people! That is, electronic computers (and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. "Computer" was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Imagine you had a job where hour after hour, day after day, you were to do nothing but compute multiplications. Boredom would quickly set in, leading to carelessness, leading to mistakes. And even on your best days you wouldn't be producing answers very fast. Therefore, inventors have been searching for hundreds of years for a way to mechanize (that is, find a mechanism that can perform) this task.

This picture shows what were known as "counting tables" [photo courtesy IBM]
A typical computer operation back when computers were people.

The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation. A skilled abacus operator can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a person equipped with a hand calculator (multiplication and division are slower). The abacus is often wrongly attributed to China. In fact, the oldest surviving abacus was used in 300 B.C. by the Babylonians. The abacus is still in use today, principally in the far east. A modern abacus consists of rings that slide over rods, but the older one pictured below dates from the time when pebbles were used for counting (the word "calculus" comes from the Latin word for pebble).

A very old abacus
A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands.

In 1617 an eccentric (some say mad) Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms , which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand, which was originally obtained from a printed table. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones .

An original set of Napier's Bones [photo courtesy IBM]
A more modern set of Napier's Bones

Napier's invention led directly to the slide rule , first built in England in 1632 and still in use in the 1960's by the NASA engineers of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs which landed men on the moon.

A slide rule

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made drawings of gear-driven calculating machines but apparently never built any.

A Leonardo da Vinci drawing showing gears arranged for computing

The first gear-driven calculating machine to actually be built was probably the calculating clock , so named by its inventor, the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in 1623. This device got little publicity because Schickard died soon afterward in the bubonic plague.

Schickard's Calculating Clock

In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Pascal built 50 of this gear-driven one-function calculator (it could only add) but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate (at that time it was not possible to fabricate gears with the required precision). Up until the present age when car dashboards went digital, the odometer portion of a car's speedometer used the very same mechanism as the Pascaline to increment the next wheel after each full revolution of the prior wheel. Pascal was a child prodigy. At the age of 12, he was discovered doing his version of Euclid's thirty-second proposition on the kitchen floor. Pascal went on to invent probability theory, the hydraulic press, and the syringe. Shown below is an 8 digit version of the Pascaline, and two views of a 6 digit version:


Discussion

In 2014, 28.7% of older adults in the United States reported an estimated 29.0 million falls in the preceding 12 months. Older adult falls can result in death, serious injury, and loss of independence (1,2). This analysis found that an estimated 7 million falls required medical treatment or caused restricted activity for at least 1 day. Women and those in older age groups were at higher risk for falling and being injured in a fall. Reduced muscle strength is a risk factor for falls, and aging and female sex are associated with reduced muscle mass (1,2). Women have been found to be more likely to report falls than men (3). Aging also is associated with changes in gait and balance, increased inactivity, more severe chronic conditions, and more prescription medication use, all of which are risk factors for falls (1). Limited research exists on the causes for racial/ethnic differences, but these differences might be related to differences in health and behavior (4,5). Reasons for state differences are unknown however, even in Hawaii, the state with the lowest incidence, 20.8% of older adults reported a fall.

Annual Medicare costs for older adult falls have been estimated at $31.3 billion (6), and the older adult population is expected to increase 55% by 2030.** Applying the number of falls from this analysis to the projected 2030 population would result in an estimated 48.8 million falls and 11.9 million fall injuries, unless effective interventions are implemented nationwide.

The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, BRFSS data are self-reported and subject to recall bias. Second, BRFSS does not include persons in long-term care facilities who are at higher risk for falls (7). Third, the broad definition of fall injury for this analysis might have resulted in a higher estimate of injurious falls compared with other reports. Finally, the response rate (median = 47%) could have resulted in nonresponse bias however, weighting and survey methodology are used to adjust the estimates and reduce the effect of nonresponse bias.

Older adult falls are largely preventable, and health care providers (e.g., physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, pharmacists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists) can play an important part by discussing falls with older adult patients and providing appropriate interventions (8). The American and British Geriatrics Societies (AGS/BGS) Clinical Practice Guideline recommends that health care providers use a multifactorial approach to prevent falls that includes activities such as asking about falls, assessing gait and balance, reviewing medications, and prescribing interventions such as strength and balance exercises, or taking vitamin D. &dagger&dagger This type of approach has been estimated to be capable of reducing falls by 24% (8). Based on the AGS/BGS guidelines, CDC has developed the STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) initiative §§ to provide resources to help health care providers incorporate fall prevention into primary care (3). STEADI stresses three initial steps that can be completed in one patient visit: 1) ask patients if they have fallen in the past year, feel unsteady, or worry about falling 2) review medications and stop, switch, or reduce the dosage of drugs that increase fall risk and 3) recommend daily vitamin D supplementation for improved bone, muscle, and nerve health (with dosage of vitamin D and decision on whether to co-supplement with calcium to be determined based on the patient&rsquos history).

Health care providers should discuss fall prevention with their patients because approximately half of older adults who fall do not discuss it with their health care provider, often because they fear this will lead to a loss of independence (9). Health care providers cite limited time and cost as barriers to incorporating preventive services, such as those proposed by STEADI, into their clinical practice (10). However, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) now provides incentives for health care providers to conduct fall prevention activities through payment and delivery reforms (e.g., Welcome to Medicare Visit, Medicare Annual Wellness Visit, and the Medicare Shared Savings Accountable Care Organization Program). ¶¶ CMS also links health care provider incentives to fall prevention quality measures through the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) in the Merit-Based Incentive Program. PQRS includes two quality measures for falls: Falls Risk Assessment and Falls Plan of Care.*** Mechanisms such as payment and delivery reforms and quality reporting measures are opportunities to make fall prevention a routine part of clinical practice and reduce the barriers to providing services that can prevent falls among older adults.


Edexcel GCSE History past exam papers (9-1).You can download the papers and marking schemes by clicking on the links below.

June 2018 - Edexcel GCSE History Past Papers (9-1) (HI0)

Paper 1: Thematic study and historic environment (HI0)

Option 10: Crime and punishment in Britain, c1000 – Present and Whitechapel c1870- c1900: Crime, policing and the inner city.
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Option 11: Medicine in Britain c1250 – present and the British sector of the Western front, 1914 -1918: Injuries, treatment and the trenches.
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Option 12: Warfare and the British society c1250 – present and London and the second World War, 1939 -1945.
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Paper 2: Period Study and British depth study (HI0)

Option 20: Spain and the ‘New world’ c1490 – c1555 and Medieval depth options.
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Option 21: Spain and the ‘New world’ c1490 – c1555 and Tudor depth options.
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Option 22: British America, 1713 – 83: empire and revolution and Medieval depth options.
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Option 23: British America, 1713 – 83: empire and revolution and Tudor depth options.
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Option 26: Superpower relations and Cold War, 1941- 91 and Medieval depth options.
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Option 27: Superpower relations and Cold War, 1941- 91 and Tudor depth options.
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Option 28: Conflict in the Middle East, 1945 – 95 and Medieval depth options.
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Option 29: Conflict in the Middle East, 1945 – 95 and Tudor depth options.
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Paper 3: Modern depth study (HI0)

History A: Edexcel GCSE History Past Papers June 2017 (5HA)

History A (The Making of the Modern World)

Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3A War and transformation of British Society c1903-1928 (5HA03/3A)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3B War and transformation of British Society c1931-1951 (5HA03/3B)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3C The transformation of British Society c1951-1979 (5HA03/3C)
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History B: Edexcel GCSE Past Papers June 2017 (5HB)

History B (Schools History Project)

Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1A: Medicine and public health in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1A)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1B: Crime and Punishment in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1B)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1C: The changing nature of warfare in Britain, C50AD to the prsent day (5HB01/1C)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2A: The transformation of British Society c1815-1851 (5HB02/2A)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2B: The American West c1845- 1890 (5HB02/2B)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2C: Germany c1918- c1945 (5HB02/2C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3A: The transformation of Surgery c1845-c1918 (5HB03/3A)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3B: Protest, law and order in the twentieth century (5HB03/3B)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3C: The impact of war on Britain c1903- c1954 (5HB03/3C)
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History A: Edexcel GCSE History Past Papers June 2016

History A (The Making of the Modern World)

Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3A War and transformation of British Society c1903-1928 (5HA03/3A)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3B War and transformation of British Society c1931-1951 (5HA03/3B)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3C The transformation of British Society c1951-1979 (5HA03/3C)
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History B: Edexcel GCSE Past Papers June 2016

History B (Schools History Project)

Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1A: Medicine and public health in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1A)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1B: Crime and Punishment in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1B)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1C: The changing nature of warfare in Britain, C50AD to the prsent day (5HB01/1C)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2A: The transformation of British Society c1815-1851 (5HB02/2A)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2B: The American West c1845- 1890 (5HB02/2B)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2C: Germany c1918- c1945 (5HB02/2C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3A: The transformation of Surgery c1845-c1918 (5HB03/3A)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3B: Protest, law and order in the twentieth century (5HB03/3B)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3C: The impact of war on Britain c1903- c1954 (5HB03/3C)
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History A (The Making of the Modern World)

Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3A War and transformation of British Society c1903-1928 (5HA03/3A)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3B War and transformation of British Society c1931-1951 (5HA03/3B)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3C The transformation of British Society c1951-1979 (5HA03/3C)
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History B (Schools History Project)

Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1A: Medicine and public health in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1A)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1B: Crime and Punishment in Britain, C50AD to the present day (5HB01/1B)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1C: The changing nature of warfare in Britain, C50AD to the prsent day (5HB01/1C)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2A: The transformation of British Society c1815-1851 (5HB02/2A)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2B: The American West c1845- 1890 (5HB02/2B)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2C: Germany c1918- c1945 (5HB02/2C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3A: The transformation of Surgery c1845-c1918 (5HB03/3A)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3B: Protest, law and order in the twentieth century (5HB03/3B)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3C: The impact of war on Britain c1903- c1954 (5HB03/3C)
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History A (The Making of the Modern World)

Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3A War and transformation of British Society c1903-1928 (5HA03/3A)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3B War and transformation of British Society c1931-1951 (5HA03/3B)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3C A Divided Union? The USA 1945-1970 (5HA03/3C)
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History B (Schools History Project)

Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1A: Medicine and Treatment (5HB01/1A)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1B: Crime and Punishment (5HB01/1B)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1C: The changing nature of warfare (5HB01/1C)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2A: The transformation of British Society c1815-1851 (5HB02/2A)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2B: The American West c1840- 1895 (5HB02/2B)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2C: Life in Germany c1919- c1945 (5HB02/2C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3A: The transformation of Surgery c1845-c1918 (5HB03/3A)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3B: Protest, law and order in the twentieth century (5HB03/3B)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3C: The impact of war on Britain c1914- c1950 (5HB03/3C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3D: The work of the historian (5HB03/3D)
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History A (The Making of the Modern World)

Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3A War and transformation of British Society c1903-1928 (5HA03/3A)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3B War and transformation of British Society c1931-1951 (5HA03/3B)
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Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry: Option 3C A Divided Union? The USA 1945-1970 (5HA03/3C)
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History B (Schools History Project)

Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1A: Medicine and Treatment (5HB01/1A)
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Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1B: Crime and Punishment (5HB01/1B)
Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Unit 1: Schools History Project Development Study Option1C: The changing nature of warfare (5HB01/1C)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2A: The transformation of British Society c1815-1851 (5HB02/2A)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2B: The American West c1840- 1895 (5HB02/2B)
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Unit 2: Schools History Project Depth Study Option2C: Life in Germany c1919- c1945 (5HB02/2C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3A: The transformation of Surgery c1845-c1918 (5HB03/3A)
Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3B: Protest, law and order in the twentieth century (5HB03/3B)
Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3C: The impact of war on Britain c1914- c1950 (5HB03/3C)
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Unit 3: Schools History Project Source Enquiry Option 3D: The work of the historian (5HB03/3D)
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United Advances Innovation Through Corporate Venture Capital Fund

CHICAGO, June 10, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- United Airlines launched a new, corporate venture fund today – United Airlines Ventures – that will allow the airline to continue investing in emerging companies that have the potential to influence the future of travel. The new fund will concentrate on sustainability concepts that will complement United's goal of net zero emissions by 2050 - without relying on traditional carbon offsets - as well as revolutionary aerospace developments and innovative technologies that are expected to create value for customers and United's operation.

"Younger companies today have learned from aviation's rich history and are combining it with more advanced technology and creative thinking to develop new ideas that give us the ability to revolutionize how airlines operate and in turn, the experience customers have when they fly," said United CEO Scott Kirby. "With United Airlines Ventures, we're signaling our confidence in these companies and propelling them forward with our expertise and financial support to demonstrate that our commitment to innovation will strengthen our company and improve our customers' experience more quickly than anyone ever anticipated."

With major agreements announced in just the last six months including agreements to invest in, collaborate with and purchase aircraft from Archer Aviation, United has proven its commitment to work with companies that are developing transformational technologies and services that are designed to revolutionize the customer experience and redefine how airlines operate.

Through United Airlines Ventures, United will continue to forge a new path by accelerating the growth of small- to medium-sized companies with strong potential.

United's current Vice President of Corporate Development and Investor Relations, Michael Leskinen, will assume the role of President of United Airlines Ventures in addition to his current responsibilities.

"United has always been a pioneer within the industry and United Airlines Ventures will help us grow companies that are pushing the envelope to make air travel better for our customers, our employees and our planet," said Leskinen. "We're making more than a financial commitment to companies within this new portfolio we're lending our expertise so that new ideas can really take off."

United continues to be a leader in the adoption of new sustainable aviation technologies and innovations. Last week, the company announced its agreement to purchase 15 of Boom Supersonic 'Overture' aircraft with an option for an additional 35 airliners. Once in service, Overture will not only re-introduce supersonic commercial flight, it is expected to be the first long-haul commercial aircraft to be net zero carbon from day one optimized to run on 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF).

For more information about United Airlines Ventures, please visit https://www.united.com/ventures.

About United

United's shared purpose is "Connecting People. Uniting the World." For more information, visit united.com, follow @United on Twitter and Instagram or connect on Facebook. The common stock of UAL is traded on the Nasdaq under the symbol "UAL."

Safe Harbor Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: Certain statements in this release are forward-looking and thus reflect our current expectations and beliefs with respect to certain current and future events and anticipated financial and operating performance. Such forward-looking statements are and will be subject to many risks and uncertainties relating to our operations and business environment that may cause actual results to differ materially from any future results expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. Words such as "expects," "will," "plans," "anticipates," "indicates," "remains," "believes," "estimates," "forecast," "guidance," "outlook," "goals," "targets" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Additionally, forward-looking statements include statements that do not relate solely to historical facts, such as statements which identify uncertainties or trends, discuss the possible future effects of current known trends or uncertainties, or which indicate that the future effects of known trends or uncertainties cannot be predicted, guaranteed or assured. All forward-looking statements in this release are based upon information available to us on the date of this release. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Our actual results could differ materially from these forward-looking statements due to numerous factors including, without limitation, the risks and uncertainties set forth under Part I, Item 1A., "Risk Factors," of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as updated by our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, as well as other risks and uncertainties set forth from time to time in the reports we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

For further information: United Airlines Worldwide Media Relations, +1-872-825-8640, [email protected]


Help students become who they’ll be tomorrow

You're here because you see something—the need to provide support and resources for our local schools so that all students feel a sense of belonging. Learn how City Year creates environments where students—and you—can thrive.

This is what change looks like

You see students with the strength and desire to offer so much to the world but without proper access to the learning environments they need to thrive. So, you work with a diverse team made up of people of different backgrounds, identities, and perspectives. Together you get stronger, learn from each other and build each other up.

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Today, we saw something that we don't often see in America: accountability when Black life is taken at the hands.

Today, we mourn the loss of eight lives at the hands of another emboldened gunman. As we've seen throughout history, much.

Official City Year recruiters and AmeriCorps will never contact you with a non @cityyear.org or non cns.gov email address and.

Alum Claire Dempsey shares her experience of taking a gap year before college to do City Year.

He motivates me. He's the best person I ever met in the world. I have no other people like him. that's always on me, pushing me."

Manny Sixth grader in Providence, RI talking about City Year AmeriCorps member Justin Roias.

More than 32,000 City Year alums are taking the skills learned during their year of service into their communities and the workforce. Learn how your experience as a City Year AmeriCorps member will help you thrive in any field.


Meltdown & Spectre

At the start of 2018, Google researchers revealed CPU hardware vulnerabilities called Meltdown and Spectre had affected almost all computers on the market.

Meltdown primarily affects Intel processors, while Spectre affects Intel, AMD and ARM processors. Daniel Gruss, one of the researchers that discovered the flaw at Graz University of Technology described Meltdown as "one of the worst CPU bugs ever found".

Although these are both primarily hardware vulnerabilities, they communicate with the operating system to access locations in its memory space.

Meltdown, Google explains, "breaks the most fundamental isolation between user applications and the operating system. This allows a program to access the memory, and also the secrets, of other programs and the operating system."

Spectre meanwhile "breaks the isolation between different applications" – "it allows an attacker to trick error-free programs, which follow best practices, into leaking their secrets.


Marie Antoinette was sent to the guillotine on October 16, 1793. Several months before, in January 1793, the radical new republic placed King Louis XVI on trial, convicted him of treason and condemned him to death. On January 21, 1793, he was dragged to the guillotine and executed.

By October, a month into the infamous and bloody Reign of Terror that claimed tens of thousands of French lives, Marie Antoinette was put on trial for treason and theft, as well as a false and disturbing charge of sexual abuse against her own son. After the two-day trial, an all-male jury found Marie Antoinette guilty on all charges.

On the night before her execution, she had written her last letter to her sister-in-law, Elisabeth. "I am calm," the queen wrote, "as people are whose conscience is clear." Then, in the moments before her execution, when the priest who was present told her to have courage, Marie Antoinette responded, "Courage? The moment when my ills are going to end is not the moment when courage is going to fail me."


RecruitingNation Class Rankings

    • RK
    • Team
    • Commits
      • 1
      • Alabama
      • +1
      • 2
      • Ohio State
      • -1
      • 3
      • Tennessee
      • 4
      • Clemson
      • 5
      • Florida
      • +3
      • 6
      • LSU
      • 7
      • North Carolina
      • -2
      • 8
      • Oregon
      • -1
      • 9
      • Miami
      • +1
      • 10
      • USC
      • -1
      • 11
      • Notre Dame
      • +4
      • 12
      • Georgia
      • 13
      • Texas
      • 14
      • Michigan
      • -3
      • 15
      • Oklahoma
      • -1
      • 16
      • Texas A&M
      • 17
      • Auburn
      • +1
      • 18
      • Maryland
      • -1
      • 19
      • Florida State
      • +1
      • 20
      • Wisconsin
      • -1
        • 21
        • California
        • +2
        • 22
        • Iowa
        • -1
        • 23
        • Washington
        • -1
        • 24
        • Penn State
        • 25
        • Arizona State
        • 26
        • Arkansas
        • 27
        • Minnesota
        • 28
        • Missouri
        • 29
        • Baylor
        • 30
        • Louisville
        • 31
        • NC State
        • 32
        • Virginia
        • 33
        • Pittsburgh
        • 34
        • Georgia Tech
        • 35
        • Mississippi State
        • 36
        • Oklahoma State
        • 37
        • West Virginia
        • 38
        • Boston College
        • 39
        • Nebraska
        • 40
        • Rutgers

        Watch the video: October 2021 Holiday List, October 2021 Public Holidays, Bank Holidays, October 2021 Important Days