The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes

The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes

One of the ancient technologies that is often overlooked is the creation of musical instruments. The purpose, development and in some cases the techniques used to develop music remains a mystery. Pythagoras was one of the first people to do a scientific study on the tones that seem to occur naturally in the world. And yet the use of the five tones of the pentatonic scale predates Pythagoras by millennia.

High in the mountains around southwestern Germany, in an area known as Swabia, bone flutes were found in 2008 that have scientists rethinking when human creativity first showed up in history. Many of the bone flutes found around the world are made from the bones of birds. It may be that the hollow bones of birds is much easier to turn into a flute, or it could be that early cultures believed that the bones of the bird would impart some of the bird’s song into the flute, or perhaps a bit of both of these ideas is true. But something that is remarkable, is many of the bone flutes found throughout the world are tuned to the pentatonic scale. Many claim that these flutes are between 40,000 and 60,000 years old.

Aurignacian flute made from an animal bone, Geissenklösterle (Swabia). (CC BY-SA 2.5 )

Five, the Number of Man

In ancient times, the number five was considered the “number of man.” Some say this is because we have five fingers and five toes. Some say that it is because we have a head, two hands and two feet. And when the man is in the position of the “Vitruvian Man,” that Leonardo da Vinci drew, we see this pentagram-ic stance making up the five pointed symbol that is still associated with the occult today.

The wearing of a pentagram as jewelry may have originated with Pythagoras, and the Pythagoreans who would wear a pentacle with the Greek word for “health” “ugieia” written somewhere on the pendant. But the Pythagoreans were not the first to use the five pointed star as a symbol, as the Babylonians had been using it for centuries before Pythagoras came along.

  • Study dismisses remarkable Neanderthal flute as the work of hyenas
  • 9,000 year-old-flutes found in China
  • The Origin of Music

‘Vitruvian Man’ (c. 1492) by Leonardo da Vinci. ( Luc Viatour /www.Lucnix.be)

Music of the Spheres

The Babylonians associated the Pentagram with the five observable planets. Pythagoras took this concept of the five planets in our solar system and integrated the five naturally forming tones of the pentatonic scale into his theory of the “Music of the Spheres,” or as it is also known “Musica Universalis,” or the “Universal Music.”

This is a theory of how intervals relate numerically, and this in turn leads one to discover proportion, symmetry and all sorts of other interesting connections, as a result of the harmony that makes up the universe itself. This theory was basically abandoned by the end of the Renaissance, but continues to intrigue both occultists and theologians to this day.

Harmony of the world, 1806.

Pentatonic Scales

The Pentatonic scale we now know predates Pythagoras, the Babylonians and virtually every other culture all the way back to these early bird bone flutes that have been discovered in various parts of the world. It seems to be innate to our sense of hearing that we pick up on these specific tones and are drawn to them. As a music teacher, I am constantly amazing people who previously had no musical experience, by showing them they can play music, if they use the “magic” pentatonic scale. It never ceases to impress new students who walk away with the tools needed to figure out, literally, thousands of tunes that are based off of these scales.

Engraving from Renaissance Italy (Gafurius's Practica musice, 1496) showing Apollo, the Muses, the planetary spheres and musical ratios.

So what is the pentatonic scale? There are actually five Pentatonic Scales. The easiest way to find the pentatonic scale is to find a piano, and begin playing the black notes.

If you were to start at middle C in the center of the piano, and play each of the black notes that follow, you would play in order: D♭-E♭-G♭-A♭-B♭. If you wanted to start at a different note each time you played the scale, you would play five different scales. First by starting with D♭, then the second time through starting off on E♭, then G♭, then A♭, and then finally using the scale that starts with B♭: B♭-D♭-E♭- G♭-A♭.

If you wanted to play these in the key of C you would get the following scales:

Minor Pentatonic – A, C, D, E, G

Major Pentatonic – C, D, E, G, A

Suspended Pentatonic (a.k.a. the Egyptian Pentatonic) – D, E, G, A, C

The Blues Minor Pentatonic (a.k.a. the Man Gong pentatonic) – E, G, A, C, D

The Blues Major Pentatonic (a.k.a. the Ritusen pentatonic) – G, A, C, D, E

Modern Day Instrument

In conclusion, the bone flutes of the ancient cave dwellers in the Swabian Mountains stumbled upon a tuning system that has persisted down to this day, and still delights people from all backgrounds who love music. If you would like to hear a sample of how this flute sounds, you can hear one of the original members of the initial excavation team discuss both the mammoth ivory and the bird bone flutes that were discovered there.

The bone flute discussed in the video is made from the radius bone of a vulture. The mouth piece functions more like blowing across a bottle, which gives it a sound very similar to blowing across a bottle. As you can see in the video, popular songs that many people will recognize are easily played on pentatonic tuned instruments.

  • The Music of the Maya: Mysterious whistles Confound Experts
  • 4,500-Year-Old Burial Suggests Norte Chico People of Peru Practiced Gender Equality
  • Plato and his Hidden Music Code

Bone flutes are not the only types of instruments that display this unique and mysterious pentatonic relationship between tones, however, there are many other instruments that I hope to share with you in future articles.

Featured image: Two bone flutes. Source: ( CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 )

By Willy Minnix


History of the Native American Flute

I will confine this history to the flute we now call the Native American flute. There are several other types of flutes and whistles that were used by native American peoples but they are not related in design to the Native American flute.

The written accounts of early explores and colonizers often mention that the native peoples played ‘flutes’. These accounts do not, however, include pictures or descriptions of these instruments. So, it is probable that there were many different types of flutes in use. This is confirmed by archeological evidence.

The specific type of musical instrument we are concerned with is called a ‘two chambered duct flute’. This type of flute is now commonly referred to as the Native American flute, Love flute or Courting flute. The two-chambered duct flute has a slow air chamber at the head end of the flute into which air is blown. Then, there is a duct, channel or flue which conducts air from this chamber to the splitting edge where part of the air is directed down into the sound chamber or bore of the flute. A solid area separates the two chambers. This design – as far as I can determine - is unique geographically to what we English-speaking people call the North American region of the planet.


The Flute of Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh, the great king of Uruk, embarks on a quest for fame and glory. He travels to the Forest of Cedar with, Enkidu, a mortal created by the gods to be Gilgamesh's friend and counterpart. The two heroes conquer the ogre Humbaba and the fiery bull of the goddess Ishtar. For this latter deed, the gods give Enkidu a vision of Hell and condemn him to death. Gilgamesh holds a lavish funeral for Enkidu, and the process comes to yearn for a greater quest than fame and glory: immortality.

Gilgamesh wanders to &ldquobeyond the edge of the world&rdquo in search of the survivor of the great flood, who holds the secret of eternal life. There he finds the immportal Uta-napishti, who tells the story of the Great Flood. To the dismay of Gilgamesh, he also explains how the destinies of the immortal gods and mortality of mankind cannot be changed.

The Epic of Gilgamesh is known to us from cuneiform tablets scribed in Ancient Mesopotamia. The written record is fragmentary and has been pieced together over the last 160 years from tablets from various sources, locations, and timeframes between 1700 BCE and 600 BCE. A number of missing passages have recently been found, including a description of the funeral of Enkidu.

As Gilgamesh prays to the gods of the Netherworld he names the gifts he is burying with Enkidu for his journey in the afterlife. Here is my version of the new text, based on the translation from [George-AR 1999] (also [George-AR 2003] and [George-AR 2003a], pages 67&ndash68), from Book VIII of the Epic, lines 144&ndash149:

He displayed to the Sun God a flask of lapis lazuli
for Ereshkigal, the queen of the Netherworld:
"May Ereshkigal, the queen of the teeming Netherworld, accept this,
may she welcome my friend and walk by his side!"

He displayed to the Sun God a flute of carnelian
for Dumuzi, the shepherd beloved of Ishtar:
"May Dumuzi, the shepherd beloved of Ishtar, accept this,
may he welcome my friend and walk by his side!"

History of the Text

This newly found section of text comes from the latest and most complete version of the Epic, known in antiquity as &ldquoHe who saw the deep&rdquo (Akkadian: Sha naqba imuru ), and now known as The Standard Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic . This version comes from the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (668 - 627 BCE). However, the history of the poem stretches much further back in history. Most Assyriologists believe that the final form of the poem was written by a scholar (and professional exorcist) named Sîn-liqe-unninnī in about 1200 BCE.

Sections of three earlier versions of the epic poem from about 1700 BCE are similar to each other and similar to the Standard Version, but not identical. The 1700 BCE tablets were know as &ldquoSurpassing all other kings&rdquo (Akkadian: Shutur eli sharri ). One version from that era, a single section from the Quest for Immortality chapter of the epic, was assembled by joining fragments in museums in London and Berlin. It cotains a famous scene of an old goddess who dispenses wise advice from her &ldquotavern at the end of the world&rdquo.

The Epic itself appears to be an expansion of the collection of five Poems of Gilgamesh , written in Sumerian and probably composed for Shulgi, second king of the Ur III Dynasty (2094&ndash2047 BCE). We have one of the poems, Gilgamesh and the Netherworld , because it was translated into Akkadian and added to the last tablet of one of the version from the Standard Version ([George-AR 1999] ).

The first texts were excavated by Austen Henry Layard and Hormuzd Rassam at Nineveh in 1850 and 1853, and presented a huge tasks for the new field of Assyriology - coming to understand new languages and deciphering hundreds of thousands of tablets housed in museums around the world. Much of the early work was considered arcane research until George Smith, after having discovered the portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh dealing with the Great Flood, gave a public lecture. He drew parallels between the legend from ancient Iraq and the Biblical story of Noah, and received worldwide press coverage. It became clear that the legend of the Flood goes back to at least 1750 BCE and contained source material for the Book of Genesis.

For more background information, see the SOAS web site on the Epic of Gilgamesh. For parallels between the Epic and the Bible, see [Heidel 1963].

However, the Epic of Gilgamesh is not a static text. Researchers continue to find new fragments of text for the Epic as well as the five Sumerian poems that mark the distant past of the 4000-year history of the story. At present, we have about 65% of the text, including some lines that are damaged and only partially readable ([George-AR 1999] ).


Bone Flute Is Oldest Instrument, Study Says

A vulture-bone flute discovered in a European cave is likely the world's oldest recognizable musical instrument and pushes back humanity's musical roots, a new study says.

Found with fragments of mammoth-ivory flutes, the 40,000-year-old artifact also adds to evidence that music may have given the first European modern humans a strategic advantage over Neanderthals, researchers say.

The bone-flute pieces were found in 2008 at Hohle Fels, a Stone Age cave in southern Germany, according to the study, led by archaeologist Nicholas Conard of the University of Tübingen in Germany.

With five finger holes and a V-shaped mouthpiece, the almost complete bird-bone flute—made from the naturally hollow wing bone of a griffon vulture—is just 0.3 inch (8 millimeters) wide and was originally about 13 inches (34 centimeters) long.

Flute fragments found earlier at the nearby site of Geissenklösterle have been dated to around 35,000 years ago.

The newfound flutes, though, "date to the very period of settlement in the region by modern humans . about 40,000 years ago," Conard said.

The mammoth-ivory flutes would have been especially challenging to make, the team said.

Using only stone tools, the flute maker would have had to split a section of curved ivory along its natural grain. The two halves would then have been hollowed out, carved, and fitted together with an airtight seal.


2 Answers 2

I don't know much about old English and Irish music, and nothing at all about the others, but till someone knowledgeable shows up . . .

The Celts had a great many instruments, including the terrifying carnyx and various other horns, all of which could produce notes from the harmonic series. If an expert player had been able to reach the higher partials of the series, s/he might have been able to play at least part of a scale. That scale would have included the deliciously out-of-tune notes you can hear in the Prologue and Epilogue of Britten's Serenade for Tenor, Horn and Strings.

There are claims that the crwth, which is depicted in the ninth century Bible of Charles the Bald, may have been a staple of Welsh musicians a thousand years earlier. But the few survivors had lost their strings when they were unearthed, and even if they hadn't they would have lost their tunings of course. The same is true of the Iron Age lyre (c.300 BC) found on the Isle of Skye, and the clarsach.

Even the many bone and wood whistles, pipes and pan pipes that have been found are so badly decayed that their tunings are imprecise.

There was always singing of course. The Old English epic poem Beowulf (written down around the year 1000 AD but describing events in Scandinavia in the 6th century) was possibly sung. If it was sung there is evidence it was sung to only a handful of notes, or rather, a small number of melodic formulae. [It's interesting then to speculate on whether these melodic formulae owe anything to the nomoi (melodic formulae) developed in the seventh century BC by Terpander of Lesbos, which were used to accompany recitations of the Homeric epics.]

There may be faint echoes of the bardic tradition and its scales in Welsh and Irish music, though nowadays the tunings will accord with equal temperament.

You ask, 'If nothing is known, what is likely?' We probably had various pentatonic scales, but how they sounded is a matter for conjecture. Remember that a pentatonic scale in, say, Indonesia is a quite different beast - and often a much sweeter, more expressive one - than the one you can play on a piano.

For a bit more on pentatonic scales may I refer you to my answer to a vaguely similar question here? (Why are the 4th and 7th scale degrees removed from the major scale to make the Pentatonic scale?)

Time signatures? No idea. We always walked on two feet, so I daresay two beats were always popular. And because we built Stonehenge we probably went, "PULL - two - three. PULL - two - three", introducing 3/4 to an audience already bored with 2/4! And perhaps we had a form of singing without a strict metre, in the manner of the ancient clarsach music and the more recent pibroch.


Diagram of the history of the Blues

Saw this pic of John Lee Hooker and thought the diagram on the chalkboard behind him might be of interest to some here on this forum.

User Info Menu

Cool ! But that doesn't explain when and how pentatonics were invented

User Info Menu

I'm reading "Bayou Underground", which focuses on music in Louisiana. I'm glad I got to live there for several years. It's a curious blend of cultures----Spanish, Cajun, French, Caribbean, American---and the music reflects disparate influences: gospel, marches, folk, ragtime, jazz, zydeco, funk, rock, country, blues.

User Info Menu

Originally Posted by 339 in june Cool ! But that doesn't explain when and how pentatonics were invented

User Info Menu

'The Pentatonic scale we now know predates Pythagoras, the Babylonians and virtually every other culture all the way back to these early bird bone flutes that have been discovered in various parts of the world.'

User Info Menu

Originally Posted by MarkRhodes

I'm reading "Bayou Underground", which focuses on music in Louisiana. I'm glad I got to live there for several years. It's a curious blend of cultures----Spanish, Cajun, French, Caribbean, American---and the music reflects disparate influences: gospel, marches, folk, ragtime, jazz, zydeco, funk, rock, country, blues.

User Info Menu

"Oh boy - what's that? It's giving me a headache and all I ever wanted to do is boogie. "

User Info Menu

Originally Posted by steve burchfield

You'll love this: Dr. John, Professor Longhair, Earl King, and The Meters.

User Info Menu

What would be more interesting would be a chart with seminal blues musicians, perhaps drawn by Robert Crumb. (Maybe it exists somewhere? Haven’t seen it yet. )

JLH would be right in the middle, right after Robert Johnson, Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith, and alongside Muddy Waters. I Can’t Be Satisfied by Muddy Waters came out in ‘48, the same year as Boogie Chillen. These recordings seem to have had a pivotal effect on “race music” going into the ‘50’s—Chess Records, Howling Wolf and BB King, etc.


The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes

One of the ancient technologies that is often overlooked is the creation of musical instruments. The purpose, development and in some cases the techniques used to develop music remains a mystery. Pythagoras was one of the first people to do a scientific study on the tones that seem to occur naturally in the world. And yet the use of the five tones of the pentatonic scale predates Pythagoras by millennia.

High in the mountains around southwestern Germany, in an area known as Swabia, bone flutes were found in 2008 that have scientists rethinking when human creativity first showed up in history. Many of the bone flutes found around the world are made from the bones of birds. It may be that the hollow bones of birds is much easier to turn into a flute, or it could be that early cultures believed that the bones of the bird would impart some of the bird&rsquos song into the flute, or perhaps a bit of both of these ideas is true. But something that is remarkable, is many of the bone flutes found throughout the world are tuned to the pentatonic scale. Many claim that these flutes are between 40,000 and 60,000 years old.

Aurignacian flute made from an animal bone, Geissenklösterle (Swabia). (CC BY-SA 2.5)


The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes

One of the ancient technologies that is often overlooked is the creation of musical instruments. The purpose, development and in some cases the techniques used to develop music remains a mystery. Pythagoras was one of the first people to do a scientific study on the tones that seem to occur naturally in the world. And yet the use of the five tones of the pentatonic scale predates Pythagoras by millennia.

High in the mountains around southwestern Germany, in an area known as Swabia, bone flutes were found in 2008 that have scientists rethinking when human creativity first showed up in history. Many of the bone flutes found around the world are made from the bones of birds. It may be that the hollow bones of birds is much easier to turn into a flute, or it could be that early cultures believed that the bones of the bird would impart some of the bird&rsquos song into the flute, or perhaps a bit of both of these ideas is true. But something that is remarkable, is many of the bone flutes found throughout the world are tuned to the pentatonic scale. Many claim that these flutes are between 40,000 and 60,000 years old.

Aurignacian flute made from an animal bone, Geissenklösterle (Swabia). (CC BY-SA 2.5)


The myth of pentatonic tuning and why are there so many different fingerings?

Modern woodwinds, such as a recorder or penny whistle, are tuned to contemporary musical scales and this is reflected in their varied hole sizes and spacings. In comparision, if you look at the historic plains flutes, you find the holes in a single flute are roughly the same size and have a rather uniform spacing. It can be argued that this uniformity is visually more aesthetic than holes of apparent random spacing and sizes that occur in modern tuned instruments. Additionally, researchers of historic flutes have been unable to find flutes with consistent tunings which would allow them to be played together in harmony. These historic instruments appear not to be tuned in the modern sense. Although with our modern trained ear, we occasional find historic flutes that approximate a portion of a modern scale. Sometimes we resort to cross fingering to get them to fix our preconceived notions of what is proper.

One cannot ignore that ergonomics plays an important part in the placement of finger holes and length of the flute. On some of the longer flutes, there is an ancient innovation of widely spacing the left hand from the right hand. This obviously increases the range of notes that are possible, while still being comfortable to play.

We get to the modern makers, who feel the market pressures of selling to the general public and musicians. Now everywhere you look, you find concert tuned flute. Also for various reasons, minor pentatonic flutes are quite popular. Because of this, there is a modern myth that Native American flutes have always been pentatonic.

There are those who elaborate this myth by saying Native American flutes minor pentatonic, or a combination of mode 1 & 4 pentatonic. There are other makers that argue there 6-hole flutes are not pentatonic, because their primary scale includes an additional note that is perfectly in tune. Whether it&rsquos pentatonic mode plus a note, or Dorian mode minus a note, or the six note Raga Mahohari mode, such labels are attempts to contemporize the Native American Flute.

Even the term mode 1 or mode 4 flute annoy some Ethnomusicologist. The contemporary use of this term comes from outside of academia and differs from its historic use. So the use of the term 'mode 1 pentatonic' is considered academically ill advised. But within the flute community, it is still a popular label.

This is not to say the tuned flutes are bad. Flute duets are a popular activity at any flute circle gathering. It is wonderful to play carefully tuned instruments together. It is easier for some to play conventional songs on tuned flutes and easier for others to recognize those songs. This is not to say one can&rsquot play recognizable songs on un-tuned flutes.

So flutes that are promoted as concert tuned, pentatonic, diatonic, or chromatic are modern tuned instruments. And this poses an engineering problem for the flute craftsman. The spacing of the notes in contemporary musical scales is not uniform. Some notes are spaced widely apart while others are spaced closely. For instance, if you take a 5/16 drill bit and drill holes in the right places to just play the notes of the minor pentatonic scale without cross fingering, you end up with a hole spacing sort of like this:

I believe Michael Graham Allen was the first to introduce such a five-hole NAF that is now much imitated.

There are some limited possibilities to moving the holes so they are more uniformly spaced, if you allow the holes to have different diameter, or undercut the holes. But the gap between the bottom 3 holes and the top 2 holes is just too big, unless you wanted your holes to look like a recorder. So one trick that evolved is to put an extra hole, in the gap found in five hole flutes.

Of the 6-hole flutes, this configuration is probably easiest to teach the public how to play the minor pentatonic (mode 1) scale, i.e., "Just keep the 4th hole from the bottom covered." One could say this was the beginning of modern cross fingering. Another fingering evolved from the idea of &ldquoJust keep the 3rd hole from the bottom covered&rdquo, mode 4 pentatonic. Flute makers quickly figured they could build flutes they played both scales, if they tuned the 4th hole correctly.

Other makers had different experiences when it came to tuning minor pentatonic. Sometimes they had slightly different objectives when creating tuned instruments. Practically all use the same fingering for the first 5 pentatonic notes:

open one hole at a time from the bottom

The big difference is their choice for the next note, the octave note:

Butch Hall Classic Alternative (Gm),
Watershed, and others.

Many makers and Butch Hall
(recent flutes, older Cm and F#m kit).

Butch Hall Classic
(Older Am,Gm drone,F#m,Fm,Em,Dm).

Sometimes an alternative fingering.

Many makers kept with the simplicity of the 5-hole fingering "Just keep the 4th hole (from the bottom) covered", or sometimes they would count from the other end and say "just keep the 3rd hole (from the top) covered", or those who are applying their western traditions may simplify away the counting and say "this is a courting flute, keep your ring finger down." Others tried to stay closer to the uniformly space and sized holes of the past flutes. Some choose a spacing that allowed access to a more chromatic scale through cross fingering. Some makers just imitated the flutes they first learned. Others innovate or repeat the evolution of the recorder with tapered bores, fingers with a pair of holes for easier half holing into the major scale, thumb holes for upper octave and keys over the hard to reach holes.

This led me to the summarizing the flute makers into 3 categories: the traditional, the modern, and the easy. The traditionals try to respect the uniform spacing and size of holes, although some notes may only be approximate. The easies try to make flutes that are easy to play, although this may sacrifice the range of notes possible. The moderns try to support and extended scale that is much closer tuned to the modern ear. Some have found this requires a different fingering from "the easy" flutes. All three have their place. Many flute makers struggle to find their place between these three extremes.

So far I've just discussed the minor key flutes. There are a number of flute makers that make major key flutes. For whatever reason, they are not as popular in the NAF community. Maybe if people like such a scale, they gravitate to the recorder or Irish whistle. But there are performers such as Mary Youngblood and John Rainer, Jr. that play diatonic or major key NAFs. The flute makers of such flutes have the same issues about hole size, spacing, and fingering. Unfortunately to get a really well tuned diatonic NAF, the configuration of holes starts to look like a European recorder. Some makers are content to approximate the scale so the flute has more uniformly spaced and sized holes. Sometimes they add a thumb hole to add one more note to their flute, so they don't have to cross finger. (FYI: Some ancient bone whistles from Mesoamerica had thumb holes.) Some makers are even talk about putting keys on their flutes. To many that sounds very unconventional, but as a flute maker at the Taos Pueblo once told me, &ldquoAren&rsquot we in the new millennium.&rdquo

There are some who take a nearly religious stance on tuning, spacing, thumb holes, keys, the warble and such. The history of the NAF is long. The plains flute that we all love appears to be a recent invention, maybe 180 years ago. When one go back to the earlier NAFs, one can see many innovations or revolutions in their design. I can say I'm glad for those innovations, because they appear to have eventually led to the plains flute. But I wouldn&rsquot want to see it evolve into the ultimately optimized silver flute. We know where that path leads.

As a flute maker, I do ponder the arguments of how far do we innovate the NAF before it is no longer the NAF. Sometimes you stand on the shoulders of those who came before you, and other times you need to know when to jump off their shoulders and explore a new path. So maybe this is just what it means to be part of a living craft.

--- 2009.12.20 - Elaborated the description of "easy" fingering.
--- 2009.12.20 - Revised the terminology with Butch Hall flutes.
--- 2006.01.30 - Elaborated on the use of Mode 1 & 4. Fixed a minor typo.
--- 2004.01.30 - Fixed some minor error.
--- 2003.01.03 - Revised with new dates on the plains flute.
--- 2002.11.27 - Original essay.


The Future of the Flute

The present-day concert flute has come a long way from the hollow bones and bamboo stalks of our ancestors. The history of the flute has seen it move from making simple and somewhat limited melodies to creating quite complex and far-ranging music. It is capable of great range, both in pitch and expression, and requires a certain amount of training and finesse to play it well. Will there be more changes in the construction of the flute? No one can know, but you can be sure that flute makers will always be on the lookout for better quality of sound and intonation, making the flute’s future as a beloved instrument a secure one.


Watch the video: B Flat Chinese Pentatonic Minor