(Destroyer No. 62: dp. 1,150 (n ), 1. 315'3", b. 29'67"dr. 10'8 1/4" (f.) (aft); s. 29.67 k. (tl.); cpl. 99,a. 4 4", 8 21" tt.; cl. Tucker)
The first Wainwright (Destroyer No. 62) was laid down on 1 September 1914 at Camden, N.J., by the New York Shipbuilding Co.; launched on 12 June 1915; sponsored by Miss Evelyn Wainwright Turpin, and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 12 May 1916, Lt. Fred H. Poteet in command
After fitting out at Philadelphia, the destroyer rounded Cape May on 20 June and headed for Newport, R.I., to load torpedoes before joining Division 8 of the Atlantic Fleet Destroyer Flotilla. Following exercises near Eastport, Maine she remained on the New England coast until mid-September when she headed south for gunnery tests and training off the Virginia capes. Upon the completion of a fortnight's gun drills, the ship then returned to Buzzard's Bay, Mass., on 2 October. Later that month, Wainwright operated out of Newport, practiced torpedo tactics near Vineyard Sound, and visited New York to pick up cargo for the flotilla's tender, Melville (Destroyer Tender No. 2). She returned to Newport on the 18th and, eight days later, resumed torpedo practice near Vineyard Sound for the remainder of the month. She put into Boston on 1 November for extensive repairs in the navy yard.
Refurbished, the destroyer got underway for the Caribbean on 8 January 1917. Steaming via Hampton Roads, she reached Culebra Island, near Puerto Rico on the 14th and conducted war games exercises with the Atlantic Fleet. In the course of those operations, she visited the Dominican Republic as well as Guantanamo Bay and Santiago in Cuba. Later that month Wainwright carried Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission from Santiago to Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Following that assignment, she conducted torpedo exercises, patrols, and power trials near Guantanamo Bay until the beginning of March.
She returned to Boston on the 10th for a short period in the navy yard. On 31 March, she departed Boston for Hampton Roads where she arrived on 2 April.
The following morning, in response to the imminent threat of war with Germany, Wainwright began to ". search for submarines . ." and to patrol Hampton Roads to protect the Fleet and naval bases. Two days later, other warships relieved her on patrol; and she anchored with the Fleet in the mouth of the York River. The next day, 6 April 1917, the United States entered World War I.
By the spring of 1917, the unrestricted submarine warfare campaign—which Germany had launched at the beginning of February—had so succeeded that the entire Allied war effort was endangered. Strong reinforcements to the Allied antisubmarine forces were desperately needed to avert defeat and needed at once. In response to a request from the Royal Navy for the service of American antisubmarine warfare ships in European waters, the United States Navy began sending destroyers eastward across the Atlantic.
Wainwright again briefly patrolled Hampton Roads before heading for the New York Navy Yard on the 14th. From there, the destroyer continued on to Boston where she arrived on 16 April to prepare for overseas duty. Eight days later, the destroyer departed Boston in company with Wadsworth (Destroyer No. 60), Porter (Destroyer No. 59), Davis (Destroyer No. 65), Conyngham (Destroyer No. 58), and McDougal (Destroyer No. 54), bound for the British Isles. This division— ably led by Comdr. Joseph K. Taussig—was the first American naval unit to be sent to Europe. The destroyers reached Queenstown on the southern coast of Ireland on 4 May and, after fueling, began patrolling the southern approaches to Liverpool and other British ports on the coast of the Irish Sea.
Wainwright reported her first scrape with a German submarine on 11 May. She sighted an abandoned lifeboat at about 0800. After investigating the drifting boat for occupants and finding none, she sank the boat with gunfire. At about 0815, a lookout reported that a torpedo had missed the destroyer some 150 yards astern. Wainwright then fired several rounds from her 4-inch guns at what was thought to be a periscope. The supposed submarine disappeared soon thereafter, and despite a thorough investigation of the area, the destroyer could turn up no more evidence of the presence of a U-boat.
The summer of 1917 provided few opportunities for Wainwright to test her sub-killing techniques. On Independence Day, a member of the destroyer's crew spotted a purported periscope and soon thereafter others claimed that a torpedo was reported to have passed the ship, five feet astern. Wainwright depthcharged the last indicated position of the undersea raider but to no avail. On the morning of 20 August, after Rowan (Destroyer No. 64) brought up some oil with one of her depth charges, Wainwright dropped a couple of depth charges as she passed through the faint slick. A few minutes later, she joined other ships in some sporadic gunfire but failed to prove that a submarine was in the area.
The fall, on the other hand, brought Wainwright increased activity. After spending the first two weeks of September in repairs at Birkenhead, near Liverpool she departed the yard at Laird Basin at about 0700 on the 14th to return to Queenstown. Three quarters of an hour into the afternoon watch, she received orders sending her to the scene of a submarine attack against an Allied merchantman some 15 miles south southeast of Helvick Head, Ireland. Wainwright rang up full speed, made off for the reported location, and began a search for the U-boat in conjunction with a British dirigible and other surface units. Near the end of the second dog watch, she sighted the submarine's conning tower and bow about six miles off.
Wainwright charged to the attack, but the submarine submerged almost immediately. Upon reaching the spot where the submarine had been the warship located an oil slick and began dropping depth charges which failed to achieve positive results. Approaching darkness and the necessity of escorting an Admiralty oiler forced Wainwright to break off her attack. After she shephered the oiler to safety, she returned to the area of her attack and patrolled throughout the night, but the submarine had apparently retired from the neighborhood.
Four days later, while searching for a U-boat in the area of Connigbeh the destroyer received word that the Connigbeh Lightship had rescued survivors from a fishing vessel. Wainwright rendezvoused with the craft to interview the four seamen of the smack Our Bairn. They revealed that the U-boat was of the latest type Germany had in action. The destroyer relieved the lighthouse vessel of the four fishermen and continued the search until dusk, when she headed back to Queenstown to land the rescued men.
For a month, she carried on conducting routine patrols—routine only in the sense that they brought no action with the enemy. The inhospitable Atlantic, on the other hand, severely taxed her crew. Action finally came on the morning of 18 October, when Wainwright again received orders to Helvick Head to hunt for an enemy submarine. She arrived at the designated location at about 1115 and searched for more than two hours for clues as to the U-boat's location. Then at 1358, she sighted a submarine's conning tower about 1,500 yards off her starboard bow. The enemy appeared to be maneuvering into position for a torpedo attack but submerged the moment Wainwright charged to the attack. When the destroyer reached the estimated location of the U-boat, she dropped a depth charge and then a buoy to mark the spot. The warship followed that maneuver with a systematic, circular search out to a radius of 20 miles. Having found nothing by 0400 the following day, she gave up and shaped a course for Queenstown.
The ensuing six months brought no new encounters with U-boats. She scouted areas where submarines had been reported but neither sighted nor engaged the enemy. On one occasion, she collided with a merchantman, SS Chicago City, and had to enter the drydock at Spencer Jetty that same day, 24 November 1917 for repairs.
While steaming generally south on 29 April 1918 she sighted a sail bearing almost due west whose hull was down below the horizon. By the time the destroyer had swung around to an intercepting course, the sail had disappeared. While the destroyer steamed toward the estimated position of the sail, she searched for evidence of a submarine. After covering 10 miles to westward, she came upon an area marked by a number of small oil slicks. Wainwright chose the most promising of the slicks and dropped four depth charges. She then commenced another fruitless search which ended at midnight when she received orders to return to Queenstown.
Wainwright continued to operate out of Queenstown until June of 1918 when she was reassigned to United States naval forces in France. On the 8th, she reported for duty at Brest, the French port from which she conducted her patrols for the remainder of the war. Those patrols brought no further encounters with the enemy. Only two events of note occurred between June and November 1918. On the night of 19 and 20 October, she sighted what appeared to be a submarine running on the surface. However, upon closer inspection, the object proved to be a derelict carrying the crew of the 77-ton schooner Aida captured by a U-boat and sunk with explosive charges. Wainwright took on the survivors and saw them safely into port. Later, during the evening of 1 November, heavy winds at Brest caused the destroyer to drag anchor: and she struck the breakwater. After Jarvis (Destroyer No. 38) had failed to pull her loose, the tug Concord took over and finally managed to refloat the warship at 1920 and towed her into Brest.
Hostilities ended on 11 November 1918, and Wainwright returned home early in 1919 to resume duty with the Atlantic Fleet destroyers. She operated along the east coast and in the Caribbean until 19 May 1922 when she was decommissioned at Philadelphia. The destroyer remained in reserve until the spring of 1926. On 2 April, she was transferred to the Coast Guard, and her name was struck from the Navy list on the same day. She moved to Boston on 22 May and remained there until 27 July when she got underway for the Connecticut coast. She reached New London two days later, and, on the 30th, she was commissioned by the Coast Guard. The warship retained her name while serving with the Coast Guard's "Rum Patrol" to suppress the illegal importation of alcoholic beverages. She served at New London from the summer of 1926 until 1929. On 4 Januarv 1929, she headed south to Charleston, S.C., whence she conducted gunnery practice until 4 February when she returned north to Boston. In January 1930, she headed south again for gunnery practice but this time at St. Petersburg, Fla. During each of the two succeeding years—in January 1931 and late in March 1932—she returned to St. Petersburg for a month of target practice and afterward resumed her duties along the New England Coast.
In May 1933, her permanent duty station was changed to New York, and she reported there at the end of the first week in June. After a summer of normal operations, the warship began target practice at Hampton Roads, VA., on 7 September. That duty however, was interrupted on the 9th by orders to report for duty with the Navy in the area of the Florida Strait during the series of revolts in Cuba which finally resulted in the beginning of Fulgencio Batista's 25-year dictatorship. On 6 November, Wainwright was released from duty with the Navy and was ordered back to New York. She arrived three days later and resumed duties with the Coast Guard until March 1934. On the 14th, she departed the station at Stapleton, New York, and arrived in Philadelphia the following day. She was decommissioned by the Coast Guard on 29 March; and, on 27 April, the Commandant, 4th Naval District, took possession of her for the Navy. Her name was reinstated on the Navy list briefly but was struck once again on 5 July 1934. On 22 August she was sold to Michael Flynn, Inc., of Brooklyn, N.Y., for scrapping.
19 - Queer lives: Wilde, Sackville-West, and Woolf
Readings of modernist queer autobiography have usefully shown that queer life-writings differ from straight autobiographies through coding and masking, a technique that sometimes produces two readers: those in the know, and those with no clue (Gilmore 1991 Loftus 1997 Stimpson 1992 Watson 1992). The focus of this chapter, however, is not to show that modernist queer autobiography is or is not modelled after a heterosexual text, using codes and masks for expression within an expected straight form of a life. Instead, if we turn from the concern of many critics that queer autobiography cannot be expressed, imagined, or read, if we set aside a focus on how queer autobiography differs from straight because of inability to signify – if, instead, we focus on the historical emergence of same-sex representation in autobiography and recognise it as part of a developing Western autobiographical discourse, then the modernist site of autobiography explodes with an awareness of how queer turn-of-the-century (nineteenth to twentieth) autobiography foregrounds a form of textual representation in the genre hitherto unrecognised as such. One might label this evocative formation as meta-autobiography, since this development consists of a self-reflexive critique of ideologies that seemingly require heteronormative and masculine subjectivities and scripts as necessary in the representation of an autobiographical ‘I’ (Jelinek 1986 Heilbrun 1988 Loftus 1997 Watson 1992).
This chapter, then, recognises as historical the mutations of the genre that queer autobiography develops. It explores the critiques of modernist cultures as they are couched in representations of same-sex sexuality. Specifically, the modernist autobiographies I read critique the cultures surrounding phrenology, criminality and censorship, and sex/gender systems. Autobiographies that write same-sex desires into their texts in this period critique cultural contexts by recasting a relation between textual representation and experience. That recasting side-steps a (heteronormative) ideology of truth as factual, instead presenting truth as culturally determined and prejudicial. The signifier–signified representation of the writing and written ‘I’ is newly conceived, while the autobiographies attack societies that require individuals to conform within a recently-codified sex-gender system.
Oscar Wilde uses queer life-writing in the public sphere to comment upon cultural morays. From his novel The Portrait of Dorian Gray through the notorious trials (1895) and to the subsequent autobiography De Profundis , Wilde repositions the ‘I’ and the body as they interface with his public.
WRANGLER Nominated as escort for HM Aircraft Carrier INDEFATIGABLE
July At Sydney awaiting completion of repair to HMS INDEFATIGABLE.
Passage to join BPF off Japan as escort for HMS INDEFATIGABLE with
17th Arrived in Replenishment area off Japan with HMS INDEFATIGABLE
20th Joined Task Force 37 ships during replenishment.
23rd Sailed with screen for Task Force 37 ships to resume operations against targets
in mainland islands of Japan. See above references for details.
3rd Deployed with Task Force 37 screen during joint RN/US Navy air attacks
on North Honshu and Hokkaido
12th Transferred with HM Battleship KING GEORGE V, HM Aircraft Carrier IMPLACABLE,
HM Cruisers GAMBIA (RNZN) and NEWFOUNDLAND, HM Destroyers TROUBRIDGE,
TERMAGANT, TENACIOUS, TEAZER, BARFLEUR. NIZAM (RAN), WRANGLER, and
NAPIER (RAN) with HM Battleship DUKE OF YORK and HMS WHELP to continue service
in US 3rd Fleet as Token Force of BPF ships and designated Task Unit 38.5 within US Task
20th Transferred to revised Task Group identity within US Task Force 38.
23rd Transferred with all ships of Token Force, except HMS DUKE OF YORK, HMS WAGER and
HMS WHELP to reformed Task Group 37 for entry into Japanese waters.
27th Entered Sagami Wan to await clearance of anchorage and berths for the formal surrender and
support of the subsequent occupation operations.
2nd Present at formal surrender of Japanese Empire in Tokyo Bay.
HMS WAKEFUL (ii) remained in Japanese waters to assist in the repatriation of allied nationals before taking passage to Sydney. The ship returned to UK with the Flotilla arriving in December 1945. She remained in service as a Boys Training ship until converted for use as an Anti-Submarine Frigate at Greenock. On completion in 1953 the ship joined the 5th Frigate Squadron in which she served until 1957 when converted for use as a Radar Training Ship. During 1959 she joined the Portsmouth Local Squadron and later the 2nd Frigate Squadron before carrying out trials on Satellite Communications Equipment in 1969. Placed on the Disposal List in 1970 this ship was sold to TW Ward on 10th July 1971 and arrived in tow at Inverkeithing for demolition on 5th July that year.
Whipple was laid down on 12 June and launched 6 November 1919 from William Cramp & Sons sponsored by Mrs. Gladys V. Mulvey, great-great-great granddaughter of Abraham Whipple and commissioned on 23 April 1920, Lieutenant Richard F. Bernard in command.
1920 to World War II Edit
Following shakedown training out of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Whipple returned to Philadelphia for post-shakedown availability. The destroyer sailed for the Near East on 29 May 1920 and arrived at Constantinople (renamed Istanbul in 1923), Turkey, on 13 June. For the next eight months, she operated in the region of the Black Sea and eastern Mediterranean, under the overall command of Admiral Mark L. Bristol, Commander, U.S. Naval Detachment in Near Eastern Waters. At this time, the entire Near East was in turmoil due to changes caused by, and in the wake of, World War I.
Whipple delivered mail to the destroyer Chandler at Samsun, Turkey, on 16 June and landed British American Tobacco company representatives whom the destroyer had transported from Constantinople. She next visited Sevastopol, in the Russian Crimea, and Constanţa, Romania. Unexpectedly ordered to Batum, Georgia, Whipple departed Samsun on 6 July and made 30 knots (56 km/h 35 mph) to reach her destination the next day. There, she attended the peaceful transfer of the city to Georgia's control from British troops, which had been stationed there since the end of World War I. [ clarification needed ]
Whipple then shifted south for a brief cruise along the Levantine coast during which she visited Beirut and Damascus, Syria and Port Said, Egypt, before she returned to Constantinople on 18 August. While she was making this cruise, the sweeping Navy-wide designation of hull numbers took place and Whipple was classified as DD-217 on 17 July 1920. The destroyer next resumed her previous routine on the Black Sea route, carrying mail between ports (including dispatches for consulates and the like), and observing conditions prevailing at the ports visited in Romania, Russia, and Asiatic Turkey.
While underway on 19 October, Whipple sighted distress signals from Greek steamer Thetis and proceeded to the stricken vessel's assistance, as she lay aground off Constanţa. After 10 hours, the destroyer succeeded in freeing Thetis from her predicament and earned a commendation from her division commander. The citation lauded Lieutenant Commander Bernard's display of initiative and his excellent handling of the ship in shoal waters with a heavy sea running. "The whole affair," the citation concluded, ". reflected great credit on the Whipple and the United States Naval Service."
In the meantime, while Whipple conducted her patrols, the situation in the Russian Civil War was changing. Whipple convoyed the disabled American steamer SS Haddon into Constantinople and later fueled at Constanţa where she learned that Russian Bolshevik troops were approaching the Crimea. Baron General Pyotr Wrangel, commanding the White Russian forces in the area, pulled his force back to Sevastopol in a rear-guard action, from where the Whites evacuated to sea in a wide variety of craft to escape the oncoming Bolshevik forces.
Whipple arrived at Sevastopol on the morning of 14 November and reported to Vice Admiral Newton A. McCully for orders. Hundreds of boats were present in the harbor, often crammed to the gunwales with evacuating White Russians. In addition to Whipple, cruiser St. Louis and two destroyers, Overton and Humphreys, stood by to evacuate selected individuals bearing passes from Admiral McCully.
During the entire time Whipple remained at Sevastopol, her main battery was trained out and manned. Armed boat crews carried evacuees out to the ship while her landing force stood in readiness. As her last boatload pushed off from shore, Bolshevik troops reached the main square and began firing on the fleeing White Russians Whipple had completed the mission just in time.
Whipple then towed a barge loaded with wounded White Russian troops out of range of the Bolshevik guns and then turned the tow over to Humphreys. As Whipple passed Overton, McCully, on the latter's bridge, called out by megaphone "well done, Whipple." The last American vessel out of Sevastopol, the destroyer headed for Constantinople with her passengers, both topside and below decks. Each carried very few belongings, had no food, and possessed very little money. Many were sick or wounded.
After disembarking the refugees at Constantinople, Whipple resumed her station ship and mail carrying duties with the Near Eastern Naval Detachment and continued the task through the end of 1920 and into the spring of 1921. On 2 May 1921, the destroyer, along with her division mates, sailed for the Far East, transiting the Suez Canal and called at Bombay, India Colombo, Ceylon Batavia, Java Singapore, Straits Settlements and Saigon, French Indochina. She arrived at her new home port, Cavite, Philippine Islands, near Manila, on 29 June. For the next four years, the destroyer served in the Asiatic Fleet, "showing the flag" and standing ready to protect American lives and property in strife-torn China. She operated out of Cavite in the winter months, conducting tactical exercises in the Philippines until heading north to North China ports in the spring for summer operations out of Tsingtao.
Warfare between local warlords around Shanghai in late 1924 and early 1925 resulted in Whipple's being called upon to serve as a transport. On 15 January 1925, the Marine Detachment from Sacramento went ashore to protect American property, while about the same time, an expeditionary force of Marines, led by Captain James P. Schwerin, USMC, embarked in Whipple, Borie, and Barker. The three destroyers landed the Marines on 22 January, relieving the 28-man detachment from the gunboat at that time.
On 18 May 1925, Whipple and her division sailed for the United States, via Guam, Midway, and Pearl Harbor, and arrived at San Diego on 17 June. Five days later, the ship got underway for the United States East Coast and she arrived at Norfolk on 17 July. She next operated off the U.S. East Coast from Maine to Florida and cruised to Guantanamo Bay for maneuvers with the Fleet. During this time, Whipple put ashore a landing force in Nicaragua to protect American lives and property threatened by the banditry and unrest. On four separate instances, in late 1926 and early 1927, a landing party from the destroyer served on shore, earning the ship the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal.
Whipple departed Norfolk on 26 May 1927 to begin a cruise with her division to northern European ports. She then steamed south for a brief tour in the Mediterranean before departing Gibraltar on 29 January 1928 and heading for Cuba. She conducted operations in the Caribbean out of Guantanamo Bay, until 26 March when she set course for the United States West Coast. She operated in the Pacific out of the Destroyer Base at San Diego, California, until 1 August 1929. Whipple departed the U.S. West Coast, bound for the Asiatic Station and her second tour with the Asiatic Fleet.
Whipple spent the next decade with the Asiatic Fleet, watching the rising ascendancy of Japan over China and the Far East. She resumed the routine common to ships of her type with the Fleet: winter exercises in the Philippine Islands and summer maneuvers out of Tsingtao, China, with cruises to Chinese coastal ports in the interim. On 8 February 1932 she collided with the British steamer Rosalie Moller in the Yangtze at Shanghai, China, and suffered severe damage. 
While on exercises in Subic Bay during the spring of 1936, Whipple and the destroyer Smith Thompson collided on 14 April. The latter suffered such serious damage in the accident that she had to be scrapped. As a consequence, Whipple, whose own bow had been bent around until it faced sternward, received Smith Thompson′s undamaged bow and soon reentered active service.
Meanwhile, tension between China and Japan continued to worsen, particularly in North China. These long-simmering antagonisms erupted in open fighting near Peking on 7 July 1937, which soon became an all-out war in the vicinity. Two weeks later, a small squadron of Asiatic Fleet units, including Whipple, sailed from Chefoo on 24 July. The destroyer, in company with Alden, Barker, and Paul Jones, rendezvoused with Augusta on the 25th, en route to the coast of Siberia. The five ships arrived at Vladivostok, USSR, on the 28th.
The visit, the first by American men-of-war since the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1933, lasted until 1 August when the five ships headed back to China. Within the next fortnight, while the Fleet continued its routine, hostilities broke out between Chinese and Japanese forces at Shanghai, and the Second Sino-Japanese War entered a new phase.
The Fleet continued its mission of observing the conflict, standing ready to evacuate Americans from Chinese ports should the occasion arise. By mid-1938, when the war had moved inland and up the Yangtze, the Fleet resumed its former routine. Whipple and her division mates, in company with Black Hawk, visited Bangkok, Siam, in June 1938.
The Japanese captured most of the major coastal cities and ports and those along the lower Yangtze, and opportunities for trouble multiplied for the western nations still trying to maintain their interests in China. In the spring of 1939, one such occasion came at Amoy, China, where a Chinese gunman shot a Japanese citizen. The Japanese responded by landing Special Naval Landing Force personnel near the International Settlement of Koolangsu. The British and Americans did likewise, landing bluejackets from Marblehead and the British light cruiser Birmingham. By September 1939, Whipple was serving as station ship at Amoy, her landing force ashore and Captain John T. G. Stapler, Commander, South China Patrol, embarked on board.
At 2355 on 3 September 1939, Whipple ' s deck log noted that France had declared war on Germany, two days after German troops invaded Poland. World War II had begun in Europe, substantially altering the balance of power in the Orient as Britain pulled out much of her China Station fleet to bolster the Home and Mediterranean Fleets. Whipple operated on neutrality patrol off the Philippines into 1941, as Admiral Thomas C. Hart prepared the small Asiatic Fleet for war.
World War II Edit
On 25 November 1941, two days in advance of the "war warning" which predicted that hostile Japanese action in the Pacific was imminent, Admiral Hart dispatched Destroyer Division (DesDiv) 57 (Whipple, USS Alden, USS John D. Edwards and USS Edsall) with the destroyer tender USS Black Hawk, to Balikpapan, Borneo, to disperse the surface ships of his fleet from their vulnerable position in Manila Bay.
Originally slated to join a British force based around the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Repulse, Whipple ' s mission was aborted when Japanese land-based torpedo planes and high-level bombers sank both of these capital ships in the South China Sea off Kuantan, Malaya, on 10 December. Whipple arrived at Singapore on 11 December and departed on 14 December, bound for the Netherlands East Indies.
Fighting a desperate rearguard action in the face of a swift-moving and well-organized enemy, the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDA) force faced formidable obstacles as they withdrew to the "Malay Barrier". During this time, Whipple conducted escort and patrol duties into February 1942. On 12 February, the destroyer got underway from Prigi Bay, Java, in a dense fog. As she headed for Tjilatjap, on the south coast of Java, she was struck a glancing blow by the Royal Netherlands Navy light cruiser De Ruyter. As the Dutch ship emerged from the murk, Whipple alertly swung left to avoid a collision, a move that averted more serious damage. Drydocked at Tjilatjap on 13 February, Whipple ascertained the damage to be minor and rejoined the fleet for active service.
At 1640 on 26 February, Whipple and sister ship Edsall departed Tjilatjap to rendezvous with the seaplane tender Langley off the south coast of Java. Making contact with her at 0629 on 27 February, the destroyers took up screening positions to escort the vulnerable ship and its vital cargo of 32 P-40 fighters and U.S. Army Air Force (USAAF) personnel to Tjilatjap. At 1150, lookouts spotted nine Japanese high-level bombers approaching from the east. Four minutes later, a stick of bombs splashed around Langley, which was clearly the focus of Japanese attention. During a second attack shortly after noon, the three warships put up brisk antiaircraft fire.
Langley ' s evasive maneuvers were not sufficient to prevent the Japanese hitting her with several bombs at 1212, setting the former aircraft carrier on fire and causing flooding.
Whipple broke off firing at 1224 as the attackers veered away in a northeasterly direction. She and Edsall approached Langley to assist, and shortly thereafter, four Japanese fighter planes dove on them, but were driven off with one plane damaged by antiaircraft fire.
Langley was so severely damaged that her captain gave the order to abandon ship at 1325, and Whipple came alongside to rescue survivors, using two of the destroyer's life rafts, a cargo net slung over the side, and a number of lines trailed over the side. Whipple picked up 308 men from Langley's crew and passengers while Edsall picked up 177 survivors. At 1358, the rescue completed, Whipple stood off to scuttle Langley, opening fire at 1429 with her 4-inch main battery. After nine rounds of 4-inch and two torpedoes, Langley settled lower and lower but refused stubbornly to sink. Soon, orders arrived directing Whipple and Edsall to clear the area prior to any more bombing attacks.
Both destroyers departed the area and subsequently rendezvoused with the oiler Pecos off Christmas Island to transfer the Langley survivors to the oiler. At 1020 on 27 February, three Japanese twin-engined bombers attacked Christmas Island. One singled out Whipple and dropped a stick of bombs which missed the rapidly dodging destroyer. The three ships headed south to get out of Japanese land-based aircraft range and completed transferring the survivors to On 28 February, Whipple began transferring Langley crew members to Pecos, completing the task by 0800 on 1 March. While one destroyer transferred personnel, the other circled and maintained an antisubmarine screen. When the transfer was completed, the two destroyers parted company with the oiler. Changing course in anticipation of orders to retire from Java, Whipple prepared to send a message relative to these orders when the destroyer's chief radioman heard a cell for help over the radio from Pecos, then under attack by Japanese bombers near Christmas Island.
Whipple sped to the scene to render assistance if possible. Throughout the afternoon, as the destroyer closed the oiler, all hands on board prepared knotted lines and cargo nets for use in picking up survivors. Whipple went to general quarters at 1922 when she sighted several small lights off both bows.
Whipple slowly closed and began picking up survivors of Pecos. After interrupting the proceedings to conduct an unsuccessful attack on a submarine thought to be nearby, she returned to the task and continued the search until she had received 231 men from the oiler. Whipple soon cleared the area, believing that a Japanese aircraft carrier was close. Within a few days, Java fell to the Japanese who were gradually consolidating their expanding "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere." Whipple joined what remained of the Asiatic Fleet in Australian waters.
Subsequently sailing to Melbourne, Australia, and arriving on 23 March, Whipple operated with Australian and New Zealand Navy warships on convoy escort duties along the Great Barrier Reef until 2 May. She departed Sydney on that day, bound for the New Hebrides Islands, American Samoa and Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 6 June. Together with sister ship Alden, Whipple departed Pearl Harbor on 8 June for San Francisco, escorting an eastward-bound convoy to the U.S. West Coast, arriving on the 18th.
During a yard availability at Mare Island, the destroyer's topside weight was cut down as 20-millimeter antiaircraft guns replaced two banks of her torpedo tubes. Thus modified for convoy escort work, Whipple put to sea to commence the first of seven round-trip convoy escort missions from the U.S. West Coast to Hawaii which lasted into the spring of 1943.
Standing out of San Francisco Bay on 11 May 1943, Whipple sailed for the Caribbean with a convoy routed through the Panama Canal for Santa Anna Bay, Curaçao, Netherlands West Indies. After the cargo ships loaded a petroleum cargo, the convoy pushed on for Cuba and arrived at Guantanamo Bay on 29 May. From Guantanamo, the destroyer escorted a convoy to Trinidad but returned to the Cuban base on 19 June before heading north to the New York Navy Yard for voyage repairs.
Later departing New York on 10 July, Whipple escorted a group of ships which rendezvoused with a convoy bound for Casablanca, French Morocco, and Gibraltar. Returning to Charleston, South Carolina, on 27 August, the destroyer put to sea on 7 September as a unit in a slow tow convoy bound via the Caribbean to Recife, Brazil. Whipple headed north soon thereafter, guarding a convoy to Trinidad, and then up the eastern seaboard to Charleston, making port on 19 November.
After another convoy escort run from Norfolk to Guantanamo Bay and the Panama Canal Zone, Whipple joined three other destroyers in completing the offensive antisubmarine task group based around the escort carrier Guadalcanal. Departing Norfolk on 5 January 1944, the group went to sea to hunt German U-boats active in the Atlantic.
On 16 January, aircraft from Guadalcanal sighted three U-boats on the surface, fueling, some 300 miles off Flores. Carrier-based Avengers attacked the group and sank U-544 in the ensuing attack. After replenishing at Casablanca, the group returned to the high seas and searched convoy lanes for signs of German submarines until arriving at Norfolk on 16 February. Detached from the antisubmarine group soon thereafter, Whipple underwent voyage repairs at the Boston Navy Yard. On 13 March, the destroyer departed the U.S. East Coast in company with USS Convoy, bound for the Mediterranean.
In the early morning darkness of 1 April, German planes - Dornier Do 217s and Junkers Ju 88s - came in low and fast to attack the convoy. Keeping up a heavy fire with her 20-millimeter batteries, Whipple sent up a substantial part of the heavy barrage which drove off the 30 German planes and saved the convoy from substantial damage. Arriving at Bizerte, Tunisia, on 3 April, the destroyer subsequently returned to Norfolk on 30 April.
For the remainder of 1944 and into the spring of 1945, Whipple performed convoy escort duties off the U.S. East Coast, across the Atlantic to Casablanca, and occasionally into the Caribbean. She was commanded by Captain Richard N. Reeves (USNR).
Post-World War II Edit
Arriving at New London, Connecticut, on 6 June 1945, Whipple was redesignated an auxiliary, AG-117. After acting as a target ship for submarines off New London, the erstwhile destroyer entered the New York Navy Yard on 9 July for conversion to a high-speed target vessel.
On 5 August, Whipple departed New York for duty in the Pacific. Transiting the Panama Canal, the target ship proceeded via San Diego to Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 30 August. She subsequently served as a target vessel for submarines of the Pacific training command until 21 September.
The Village Tour
Main Street Bridge The bridge places one at the very heart of Middlebury, its traffic jams, its history, its life forces. Here come together two of the major elements which assured success to Painter's unprepossessing rocky, tangled one hundred acres. First is the creek, longest waterway in the state of Vermont and a major transportation route through the virgin forests at the time of the settlement of Addison County. To the northwest of the bridge are Middlebury Falls, a dramatic source of water power for cutting the wood and milling the grain of the frontier society. Here at the northern brink of the falls and safely away from its ice floes and floods, Painter built a sawmill in 1787 and a gristmill by 1788. At the southern brink Daniel Foot had claimed one hundred acres in Cornwall in 1786 and done the same. Two rival centers began to grow on Foot's and Painter's properties.
At first the only connection between the two sides was a short distance upstream (around the bend and near the present railroad bridge), where a ford and, briefly, Hop Johnson's ferry joined Middlebury and Cornwall. Here was the germ of the second major force in Middlebury's success—roads. The early trails in the area had focused on the falls and the ford. In 1787 they received a new focus. Foot, whose major landholdings were in Middlebury anyhow, built a bridge above the falls to link the towns and to enhance his potential mill business, successfully petitioning the legislature the next year for state compensation of his costs. It was a wooden bridge with log piers and abutments and a clear span of seventy feet. One approached it down muddy banks and crossed the springy, open-sided structure only twelve feet above the rushing water. Some must still have preferred the ford.
ABOVE Battell Bridge under construction, ca. 1892. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection
BELOW View of the newly completed Battell Bridge, ca. 1893. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, Averill Collection
The present bridge, built in 1892 – 93, is the last of a long series of rebuildings after floods and fires. When the wooden structure was destroyed by the fire of 1891, the town determined to rebuild it in fireproof materials. However, only after lengthy debate, numerous town meetings, canceled contracts, and the offer of a substantial subsidy by Col. Joseph Battell, could the town decide to rebuild in stone rather than iron. Having bought a voice in the proceedings and desiring a structure suited to the beauty and importance of Middlebury, Mr. Battell proposed that the new construction be modeled on the Ponte Sant' Angelo in Rome, built across the Tiber River about 130 A.D. as access to the tomb of the Emperor Hadrian. The tomb later having been adapted for use as the papal fortress and renamed Castel Sant' Angelo, in the seventeenth century the great sculptor Bernini and his shop had embellished the bridge with a suitable flock of Baroque marble angels to make it the most elegant crossing place in Rome. The Middlebury bridge was spared the angels but received its model's great stone arches, in the process necessitating the raising of the road level of the bridge, and thus also of Main Street, by some ten feet.
In building the first bridge, Foot contributed to the ultimate failure of his dream to establish the town center on his family's Foote Street acreage. The bridge acted on regional roads as a magnet does on iron filings, serving as the focus for a radial network spreading outward from the falls across the town and county. With power and communication the falls were a natural place for the development of commerce and a population center. Two centers at first, the lands of the two rival squires, one on the Cornwall and one on the Middlebury bank of the creek, supported two growing communities that were so inextricably linked by the bridge and the falls that in 1796 the Cornwall side was annexed, and Middlebury began a politically unified development. The village and its surrounding region grew quickly, indeed too quickly for Foot. Already in 1793 a resident reported some sixty-two buildings, mostly log, at the falls (or Painter's Mills, as the village was informally known). By 1801 it was altogether too civilized, and the seventy-seven-year-old Foot determined to start over in a new wilderness. Dividing his land among his twelve children and leaving the town leadership to his rival, Painter, he set out for Canton, New York, where he died the same year.
(Leaving the bridge, walking northward to Merchants Row and the south side of the Green.)
View of the Green with the Addison House in the background, ca. 1850s. The Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History, Stereoviews
The Green Gamaliel Painter is the third great force determining Middlebury's successful development. Much of the village northeast of the creek was built upon Painter's mill lot, and its early quality and character were due to his efforts and those of the men whom he cannily drew to Middlebury Falls. Painter had become sheriff of Addison County in 1786, and as sheriff it was his prerogative and duty to establish the location of the stocks "in the most public place in each respective town"—the town center. Painter placed Middlebury's stocks and whipping post in the area adjacent to his mills, on what is now the village Green (which he formally deeded to the town in the 1790s). The primeval tangle was slashed down and in later, temperance times the penalty for backsliding was reputedly to dig up a stump on the Green. The location of the stocks has since been marked by a marble post. The Green now caters to pleasure instead of punishment, serving as a site for public events, for shady relaxation, and for listening to concerts and other entertainment. The bandstand, replacing a structure burned in the early 1940s, was erected in 1975 as a gift of the Rotary Club and dedicated to the memory of beloved local author William Hazlett Upson, creator of the Alexander Botts stories in the Saturday Evening Post .
The Painter House (head of Merchants Row at South Pleasant Street) In 1787 Painter hired away Foot's mill foreman, Simeon Dudley, to help construct and look after his own milling operations. Dudley soon built himself a simple, one-story frame dwelling on the crest of the hill above the mills and developing Green, the first house in Painter's village. He did not occupy it for long, however, for having been named a judge, Painter decided to move to town and make the new house his own. He raised the roof to accomodate a low second story and perhaps added the lean-to to the rear and then on Christmas Day 1787 held what was for the region a memorably lavish house-warming. Here the Painters lived until 1802, when work was completed on their grand new mansion, further back on the property, and the Dudley House was moved out of the way to its present location at 7 Seymour Street.
LEFT The original Painter House built by Simeon Dudley, after it was moved to 7 Seymour Street in 1802. Undated. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection
RIGHT The second Painter House, looking east from South Pleasant Street in 1939. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection
The new Painter residence, still presiding over its dominant site, was an index of the rapidly increasing stature not only of its owner but also of his town. The finely proportioned two-story structure, traditionally attributed to joiner Samuel D. Coe (who reputedly was murdered shortly after its completion), had major rooms with handsome fireplaces on each floor surrounding a central hall with, originally, a curving staircase. There was a first-floor ballroom across its eastern side and a rare monitor that formed a partial third floor, surrounded by a rooftop walk. Early accounts and views attest to the fact that it was simple and dignified, embellished only by eaves balustrades and a square-headed Palladian window facing toward Merchants Row. However, it underwent several remodelings. In 1813, responding to the fact that the new Centre Turnpike (Court Street) now entered the town past its back door, Painter formalized that front of the house with a marble facing for the basement and a new fan-lighted door. It is likely at that time as well that the house received its elegant exterior embellishment—pilasters with rope mouldings, wooden string course, and frieze—very likely by the talented house joiner Lavius Fillmore (who also built the Congregational Church across the Green for Painter). The house's susbsequent owner, Rufus Wainwright, had all the windows enlarged and shifted in a remodeling of 1823. Subsequent generations of Wainwrights added the classically detailed doorway in a Greek Revival vocabulary (probably in the 1840s), rebuilt the staircase several times in a straightened format, subdivided the ballroom, and added the wing. In the 1980s the house was given to Middlebury College, which restored it and made it available as a home for such non-profit organizations as the Addison County Chamber of Commerce and the Vermont Folklife Center.
Painter could hardly had selected a better site for his house. Not oly did it dominate the mills and the Green, but it was also at the head of Love Lane (now South Pleasant Street), the first major entry to the village from the south.
Copyright © 2005 The Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History, Middlebury, Vermont. All rights reserved.
A Walking History of Middlebury was first published by the Middlebury Bicentennial Committee in 1975 and reprinted by the Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History in 1981, 1983, 1987, 1990 and 1994. The Henry Sheldon Museum published the revised edition edited by Greg Pahl in 1997. Designed and edited for the Web by Anne Callahan in 2005, the online edition is hosted by the Middlebury College Library, Middlebury, Vermont. Valid XHTML 1.0 and CSS.
Mahabharat: All episodes of ‘greatest epic in history of mankind’ to air on DD Retro
All episodes of the television epic Mahabharat will be aired on DD Retro, Doordarshan has announced. The series was being re-telecast, along with several other classics such as Ramayan, on DD Bharati during the coronavirus lockdown.
Doordarshan tweeted on Tuesday, “COMING SOON on @RetroDD - #Mahabharat - The greatest epic in the history of mankind.” A video teaser was also attached, and showed pivotal moments from the series, originally telecast in 1988.
COMING SOON on @RetroDD -#Mahabharat - The greatest epic in the history of mankind pic.twitter.com/IYH27aTJD0— Doordarshan National (@DDNational) April 28, 2020
The show, created by BR Chopra, ran for 94 episodes and starred Nitish Bharadwaj as Lord Krishna, Mukesh Khanna as Bhishma, Gajendra Chauhan as Yudhishthir, Praveen Kumar as Bhim, Roopa Ganguly as Draupadi and Puneet Issar as Duryodhan.
In a recent interview to Hindustan Times, Nitish revealed that he was offered several different roles prior to being cast as Krishna. He recalled, “(BR Chopra) was convincing me whole day to do Nakul and Sahdev. I was convincing him throughout the day that I don’t want to do Nakul and Sahdev because I knew Mahabharata story and wanted to do something better.”
Casting director Gufi Paintal auditioned thousands of actors for the show. About how he came across Puneet and Nitish, he told Hindustan Times in an interview, “Puneet had accidentally punched Amitabh Bachchan in Coolie (1983), and was out of work. Nitish was spotted in an ad made by the Chopras.”
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Why Did Charles Darwin Cause Controversy?
Charles Darwin caused controversy because his work on "The Origin of the Species" challenged the beliefs of creationism. Darwin's "The Origin of the Species" brought about skepticism all throughout the scientific world.
Darwin's research downplayed creationism as he believed that pure evil and pure good were simply nonexistent. Since men were no more than evolved monkeys, a God or divine being was not part of the creation process. He also believed that people are merely servants to the environment and their community and were not the superior beings that so many believed them to be. He strongly thought that humans only created cultures and social systems to gain some control over the natural selection process.
Darwin's thoughts on human life challenged people not only in the scientific world but in the church as well. According to Darwin and his theories, God and other divine beings did not exist as people believed. This caused scientists studying the field to reevaluate what they had learned. His works also caused plenty of moral dilemmas. His work on survival of the fittest claims that humans struggle for survival and that the world is sinister in nature. Humans constantly fight for resources, social status and other areas, and whichever human is successful is the most fit for the environment. This angered many religious leaders and scientists as it contradicted many of their beliefs.
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1960: Soviet Union 2-1 Yugoslavia, aet
Metreveli 49, Ponedelnik 113 Galić 43
Parc des Princes, Paris
Soviel Union: Yashin, Chokheli, Maslenkin, Krutikov, Voinov, Netto, Metreveli, Ivanov, Ponedelnik, Bubukin, Meskhi
Yugoslavia: Vidinić, Djurković, Jusufi, Žanetić, Miladinović, Perušić, Šekularac, Jerković, Galić, Matuš, Kostić
The Soviet Union came from behind to beat Yugoslavia in the inaugural final, with Lev Yashin showing his class before Viktor Ponedelnik's extra-time winner.
1964: Spain 2-1 Soviet Union
Pereda 6, Marcelino Martínez 84 Khusainov 8
Estadio Santiago Bernabéu, Madrid
Spain: Iribar, Rivilla, Olivella, Calleja, Zoco, Fusté, Amancio Amaro, Pereda, Marcelino Martínez, Suárez, Lapetra
Soviet Union: Yashin, Shustikov, Schesternev, Mudrik, Voronin, Anichkin, Chislenko, Ivanov, Ponedelnik, Korneev, Khusainov
Spain combined home advantage and spirited teamwork to prevail at the Soviet Union's expense, Marcelino heading in a late winner following an early exchange of goals.
1968: Italy 1-1 Yugoslavia
Domenghini 80 Džajić 39
Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Italy: Zoff, Anastasi, Burgnich, Castano, Domenghini, Facchetti, Ferrini, Guarneri, Juliano, Lodetti, Prati
Yugoslavia : Pantelić, Fazlagić, Damjanović, Paunović, Holcer, Petković, Musemić, Džajić, Pavlović, Aćimović, Trivić
1968 replay: Italy 2-0 Yugoslavia
Riva 12, Anastasi 31
Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Italy: Zoff, Anastasi, Burgnich, De Sisti, Domenghini, Facchetti, Guarneri, Mazzola, Riva, Rosato, Salvadore
Yugoslavia: Pantelić, Fazlagić, Damjanović, Paunović, Holcer, Musemić, Džajić, Pavlović, Aćimović, Trivić, Hošić
Hosts Italy needed a coin toss to reach the final and their luck continued as they edged Yugoslavia in a hastily arranged replay, Angelo Domenghini having got the crucial equaliser in the first game.
1972: West Germany 3-0 Soviet Union
G Müller 27, 58, Wimmer 52
Roi Baudouin, Brussels
West Germany: Maier, Höttges, Breitner, Schwarzenbeck, Beckenbauer, Wimmer, Heynckes, U Hoeness, G Müller, Netzer, Kremers
Soviet Union: Rudakov, Dzodzuashvili, Khurtsilava, Kaplychniy, Istomin, Konkov, Troshkin, Kolotov, Baidachny (66 Kozynkevych), Banishevski (46 Dolmatov), Onyshchenko
The Soviet Union were no match in the final for West Germany's lethal weapon, with Gerd Müller helping himself to two decisive goals.
1976: Czechoslovakia 2-2 West Germany, aet (Czechoslovakia win 5-3 on pens)
Švehlík 8, Dobiaš 25 D Müller 28, Hölzenbein 89
Stadion FK Crvena zvezda, Belgrade
Czechoslovakia: Viktor, Dobiaš (Veselý 19), Čapkovič, Ondruš, Pivarník, Panenka, Móder, Masný, Nehoda (Biroš 80), Gögh, Švehlík
West Germany: Maier, Vogts, Dietz, Schwarzenbeck, Beckenbauer, Wimmer (Flohe 46), Bonhof, U Hoeness, D Müller, Beer (Bongartz 80), Hölzenbein
Antonín Panenka converted perhaps the most famous spot kick of all time as the Czechs became the first team to win a EURO final shoot-out.
1980: Belgium 1-2 West Germany
Vandereycken 75pen Hrubesch 10, 88
Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Belgium: Pfaff, Gerets, Millecamps, Meeuws, Renquin, Van Moer, Vandereycken, Cools, Mommens, Van Der Elst, Ceulemans
West Germany: Schumacher, Kaltz, Förster, Stielike, Dietz, Schuster, Briegel (Cullmann 55), H Müller, K-H Rummenigge, Hrubesch, K Allofs
Only in the West Germany side because of Klaus Fischer's broken leg, forward Horst Hrubesch ended up stealing the spotlight in Italy.
1984: France 2-0 Spain
Platini 57, Bellone 90
Parc des Princes, Paris
France: France: Bats, Battiston (Amoros 73), Bossis, Le Roux, Domergue, Tigana, Fernández, Platini, Giresse, Lacombe (Genghini 80), Bellone
Spain: Arconada, Urquiaga, Salva (Roberto 85), Gallego, Camacho, Julio Alberto (Sarabia 75), Señor, Víctor Muñoz, Francisco López, Santillana, Carrasco
Michel Platini starred on home turf, scoring the opener in France's final triumph against Spain to take his tally to nine for the tournament.
1988: Soviet Union 0-2 Netherlands
Gullit 32, Van Basten 54
Soviet Union: Dasayev, Khidiyatullin, Demianenko, Rats, Aleinikov, Lytovchenko, Zavarov, Protasov (Pasulko 71), Belanov, Mykhailychenko, Gotsmanov (Baltacha 68)
Netherlands: Van Breukelen, Van Tiggelen, R Koeman, Van Aerle, Vanenburg, Mühren, Gullit, Van Basten, E Koeman, Rijkaard, Wouters
Marco van Basten shook off an injury to inspire the Netherlands to their first major trophy, culminating in his incredible final volley.
1992: Denmark 2-0 Germany
Jensen 18, Vilfort 78
Denmark: Schmeichel, Sivebæk (Christiansen 66), Nielsen, Olsen, Christofte, Jensen, Povlsen, B Laudrup, Piechnik, Larsen, Vilfort
Germany: Illgner, Reuter, Brehme, Kohler, Buchwald, Hässler, Riedle, Helmer, Sammer (Doll 46), Effenberg (Thom 80), Klinsmann
Denmark had just two weeks to prepare after replacing Yugoslavia at the finals, but Richard Møller Nielsen's men pulled off an amazing coup.
1996: Czech Republic 1-2 Germany (golden goal)
Berger 59pen Bierhoff 73 95
Wembley Stadium, London
Czech Republic: Kouba, Suchopárek, Nedvěd, Kadlec, Němec, Poborský (Šmicer 88), Kuka, Bejbl, Berger, Horňák, Rada
Germany: Köpke, Helmer, Sammer, Scholl (Bierhoff 69), Hässler, Kuntz, Babbel, Ziege, Klinsmann, Strunz, Eilts (Bode 46)
Germany upstaged hosts England in a penalty shoot-out before Oliver Bierhoff's golden goal felled the Czech Republic in the final.
2000: France 2-1 Italy (golden goal)
Wiltord 90, Trezeguet 103 Delvecchio 55
Feijenoord Stadium, Rotterdam
France: Barthez, Lizarazu (Pirès 86), Vieira, Blanc, Djorkaeff (Trezeguet 76), Deschamps, Desailly, Zidane, Henry, Thuram, Dugarry (Wiltord 58)
Italy: Toldo, Maldini, Albertini, Cannavaro, Pessotto, Nesta, Di Biagio (Ambrosini 66), Iuliano, Fiore (Del Piero 53), Totti, Delvecchio (Montella 86)
Zinédine Zidane starred throughout for France, but it was David Trezeguet who decided the final against Italy with a golden goal.
2004: Portugal 0-1 Greece
Estádio do Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Lisbon
Portugal: Ricardo, Jorge Andrade, Costinha (Rui Costa 60), Luís Figo, Pauleta (Nuno Gomes 74), Miguel (Ferreira 43), Nuno Valente, Carvalho, Ronaldo, Maniche, Deco
Greece: Nikopolidis, Seitaridis, Dellas, Basinas, Zagorakis, Giannakopoulos (Venetidis 76), Charisteas, Fyssas, Vryzas (Papadopoulos 81), Kapsis, Katsouranis
Otto Rehhagel's unfancied Greece pulled off one of the biggest shocks in tournament history by accounting for hosts Portugal in the final.
2008: Germany 0-1 Spain
Germany: Lehmann, Friedrich, Schweinsteiger, Frings, Klose (Gomez 79), Ballack, Hitzlsperger (Kuranyi 58), Lahm (Jansen 46), Mertesacker, Podolski, Metzelder
Spain: Casillas, Marchena, Puyol, Iniesta, Xavi Hernández, Torres (Güiza 78), Fàbregas (Xabi Alonso 63), Capdevila, Ramos, Senna, Silva (Santi Cazorla 66)
Fernando Torres struck the only goal in the Vienna showpiece as Spain, without a national title in 44 years, finally came good on their promise.
2012: Spain 4-0 Italy
Silva 14, Jordi Alba 41, Torres 84, Juan Mata 88
NSK Olimpiyskyi, Kyiv
Spain: Casillas, Piqué, Iniesta (Juan Mata 87), Xavi Hernández, Fàbregas (Torres 75), Xabi Alonso, Ramos, Busquets, Arbeloa, Jordi Alba, Silva (Pedro Rodríguez 59)
Italy: Buffon, Chiellini (Balzaretti 21), Abate, Marchisio, Balotelli, Cassano (Di Natale 46), Barzagli, De Rossi, Montolivo (Thiago Motta 57), Bonucci, Pirlo
Vicente del Bosque's Spain side retained their title with an emphatic performance in the Ukrainian capital, four different scorers helping them to cruise past Italy.