Hausaland

Hausaland

Hausaland, sometimes referred to as the Hausa Kingdoms, was a group of small independent city-states in northern central Africa between the Niger River and Lake Chad which flourished from the 15th to 18th century CE. The origins of the Hausa are not known, but one hypothesis suggests they were a group of indigenous peoples joined by a common language - Hausa - while another theory explains their presence as a consequence of a migration of peoples from the southern Sahara Desert. The cities prospered thanks to local and interregional trade in such commodities as salt, precious metals, leather goods, and slaves. Islam was adopted by many of the rulers and elite of the city-states in the 14th and 15th century CE but was also one of the reasons for their loss of independence when the Muslim Fulani leader Usman dan Fodio (r. 1803-1815 CE) launched a holy war and conquered the region in the early 19th century CE.

Geography & Origins

The name Hausaland derives from the Hausa term Kasar hausa, meaning the 'country of the Hausa language', although the area also included other peoples such as the Tuareg, Fulbe, and Zabarma. The term 'Hausa' was in use only from the 16th century CE as the people called themselves according to which specific city-state or kingdom they belonged to.

Hausaland was located in the Sahel region between the Niger River and Lake Chad in north-central Africa in what is today northern Nigeria. The Sahel is the semi-arid strip of land running across Africa between the Sahara Desert in the north and the Savannah grassland to the south. Hausland, specifically, stretched from the Air mountains (north) to the Jos plateau (south) and from Borno (east) to the Niger Valley (west). This region saw the development of towns by the Hausa-speaking people from 1000 to 1300 CE.

Hausaland became Famous (and still is today) for its finely worked leather goods such as water bags, saddles, harnesses, & sacks.

The exact origins of the Hausa cities are not known, but theories include a migration of peoples from the southern Sahara who, abandoning their own lands following the increased desiccation of that area, established new settlements in what would become known as Hausaland. An alternative theory suggests that the Hausa people originally lived on the western shore of Lake Chad and when the lake shrank (as a consequence of the same climatic changes that affected the Sahara) they occupied this new and fertile land and then eventually spread to the immediate north and west. There is as yet, unfortunately, no archaeological evidence to support either of these two theories. As a consequence, there is a third hypothesis, which is that the Hausa had not migrated from anywhere but were indigenous to the region. Support for this theory lies in the fact that there is no tradition of migration in Hausa oral history.

There is, though, a foundation legend, known as the Bayajida or Daura legend, although this probably dates to the 16th century CE and reflects the increased influence of Islam in the region at that time. According to this tradition, Bayajida, a prince from Baghdad, arrived at the court of the ruler of the Kingdom of Kanem (or the Bornu Empire as it became by the 16th century CE). Receiving an unfavourable reception, Bayajida headed eastwards until he came upon the city of Daura. There, the queen and her kingdom were being terrorized by a great snake. Bayajida stepped in and killed the troublesome serpent and promptly married the queen. Together they had a son called Bawogari who then went on to have six sons of his own, each of which became the king of a Hausa city-state. Meanwhile, Bayajida had another son, this time with one of his concubines. This illegitimate son, called Karbogari, had seven sons, and these went on to rule seven other Hausa cities. This story neatly explains how the various cities were established but not, of course, just where Daura and its queen came from.

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Key Cities & Government

Wherever they had sprung from, by the early 15th century CE many small Hausa chiefdoms had come together to create several walled cities which controlled their respective surrounding countryside. Traditionally, there were seven city-states (the hausa bakwai), but there were, in fact, many more. The most important were (the traditional seven are marked with an asterisk):

  • Biram*
  • Daura (the ritual mother city of the group)*
  • Garun Gobas
  • Gobir*
  • Gwari
  • Jukun (aka Kwararafa)
  • Kano*
  • Kebbi
  • Katsina*
  • Nupe
  • Rano*
  • Yawuri
  • Yoruba
  • Zamfara
  • Zaria (aka Zazzau)*

Each city had its own king or ruler, the sarkin kasa, who was advised by a chief councillor or vizier, the galadima, and a small council of elders - typically consisting of nine members who also determined the next ruler in line. Various officials were appointed by the king to, for example, collect taxes and customs duties, lead the city's cavalry units or infantry, maintain security on roadways, and look after certain crops. The city ruled over various smaller chiefdoms or villages in its immediate vicinity, each ruled by a chief or sarkin gari. The third tier of this political pyramid was the family clan or gida, many of which made up an individual village.

Hausa cities specialised in the manufacture or trade of certain goods, for example, dyes - especially indigo - at Katsina & Daura.

Rural Hausa populations were farmers who worked the land which belonged to the community as a whole. Over time, as the city-states became more centralised, this system was corrupted by the kings giving out parcels of land as rewards to certain individuals. Hausa agriculture also became heavily reliant on slaves, too. Meanwhile, the society within the main city of each kingdom was cosmopolitan, although dominated by the Hausa. There were slaves, craftworkers, merchants, religious officials, scholars, eunuchs and aristocrats (masu sarauta) related to or favoured by the king.

Trade

The Hausa states traded gold, ivory, salt, iron, tin, weapons, horses, dyed cotton cloth, kola nuts, glassware, metalware, ostrich feathers, and hides. There was trade with the coastal region of West Africa, Oyo in the Bight of Benin, and the Songhai Empire (c. 1460 -1591 CE) to the east. Slaves were an important source of revenue for all the cities but Zaria, in particular, specialised in acquiring slaves via raids to the south.

Cities specialised in the manufacture or trade of certain goods, for example, dyes - especially indigo - at Katsina and Daura or silver jewellery at Kebbi and Zamfara. Hausaland became famous (and still is today) for its finely worked leather goods such as water bags, saddles, harnesses, and sacks to transport goods for the region's trade caravans. Various crafts were organised into guilds which ensured standards were maintained and prices were kept fair. Hausa agriculture, boosted by such techniques as crop rotation and the use of fertilizers, produced crops which included millet, sorghum, rice, maize, peanuts, beans, henna, tobacco, and onions. In addition, fishing and hunting were carried out and goats raised (important for ritual sacrifices) and donkeys bred (the principal form of transport). Each city had its own markets where both men and women sold their wares, and many cities also had international trade markets where merchants sold in bulk. Goods were exchanged in kind although salt, cloth, and slaves were often used as a standardised form of commodity-currency.

Architecture

Traditional Hausa houses are made from dried mud bricks which are pear-shaped and laid in rows using mortar and with the pointed end facing upwards. The walls are then faced with plaster and given either painted or incised decoration. Houses were further decorated with sculpted additions, again using mud, creating three-dimensional geometric designs such as interlaced patterns and spirals. A secure roofing is achieved by creating a mud vault which is strengthened by a frame of split palms and palm fronds, an architectural feature particular to Hausaland. Each house is enclosed in its own high wall which may have additional buildings set into it. The chief cities were protected by massive fortification walls - an indication of the frequent siege warfare that went on in Hausaland throughout its history.

Conversion to Islam

Unlike much of Sub-Saharan Africa, the area occupied by Hausaland was largely untouched by Islam until the 14th century CE. Finally, though, a form of Islam was adopted and adapted following contact with Muslim merchants, missionaries, and scholars, who came from the east, the Niger River bend area. Islam was typically blended with traditional animist rituals and so took on its own distinct character in the region. Not having any commercial incentive to gain favour with foreign merchants like the Hausa rulers and elite, rural populations proved as difficult as in other parts of Africa to fully convert to the new religion, despite (or perhaps because of) sometimes brutal methods such as the destruction of shrines and the burning of ancient sacred groves. Despite this resistance from some chiefs and much of the rural populace, Islam did eventually take a strong hold in the region. Mosques were built in the cities and one of the oldest surviving remnants of these early structures is the dried mud Gobarau minaret of the mosque at Katsina, which dates to the early 15th century CE.

Regional Rivalries & Decline

Relations with the neighbouring Songhai Empire were not always peaceful, as when - at least according to the historian Leo Africanus (c. 1494 - c. 1554 CE) - the Songhai king Askia Muhammad (r. 1494-1528 CE), managed to subdue the cities of Katsina, Kano, and Gobir, making them, albeit briefly, tributary states. It may be that this invasion was carried out by other smaller neighbouring states as the Songhai records and those from Timbuktu for the period are remarkably silent on the matter. Meanwhile, Hausa states made frequent raids to the south in the Benue Valley against various peoples including the Bauchi, Gongola, Jukun, and Yawuri.

The Fulani, nomadic cattle-herders from Senegal who migrated across Africa to Lake Chad in the mid-16th century CE, settled in Hausaland and brought with them another surge in interest in the Islamic religion and learning. In the last quarter of the 18th century CE, the Fulani abandoned their peaceful evangelism and launched a religious war in the region. In this, the Fulani were aided by the sometimes long-standing rivalries between Hausa cities, the internal disputes between the elites in several city-states, and a generally disaffected populace who had grown ever poorer while the Hausa trading aristocracy had grown richer. Thus, from 1804 CE, the Fulani leader Usman dan Fodio conquered all of the Hausa city-states, converting them to Islam. Usman dan Fodio, who was himself from the Hausa city-state of Gobir, then went on to expand his empire and establish his capital at Sokoto in 1817 CE which gave its name to the new state.


Hausa

Beautiful indigo dyed cloth is still produced in the Kano state of northern Nigeria.

History

Origin myths among the Hausa claim that their founder, Bayajidda, came from the east in an effort to escape his father. He eventually came to Gaya, where he employed some blacksmiths to fashion a knife for him. With his knife he proceeded to Daura where he freed the people from the oppresive nature of a sacred snake who guarded their well and prevented them from getting water six days out of the week. The queen of Daura gave herself in marriage to Bayajidda to show her appreciation. The two gave birth to seven healthy sons, each of whom ruled the seven city states that make up Hausaland. The rise of the Hausa states occurred between 500 and 700 A.D., but it was not until 1200 that they really began to control the region. The history of the area is intricately tied to Islam and the Fulani who wrested political power from the Hausa in the early 1800s through a series of holy wars.

Economy

Since the beginning of Hausa history, the seven states of Hausaland divided up production and labor activities in accordance with their location and natural resources. Kano and Rano were known as the "Chiefs of Indigo." Cotton grew readily in the great plains of these states, and they became the primary producers of cloth, weaving and dying it before sending it off in caravans to the other states within Hausaland and to extensive regions beyond. Biram was the original seat of government, while Zaria supplied labor and was known as the "Chief of Slaves." Katsina and Daura were the "Chiefs of the Market," as their geographical location accorded them direct acccess to the caravans coming across the desert from the north. Gobir, located in the west, was the "Chief of War" and was mainly responsible for protecting the empire from the invasive Kingdoms of Ghana and Songhai.

Political Systems

Leadership in the early Hausa states was based on ancestry. Those who could trace their relations back to Bayajidda were considered royal. With the introduction of Islam, many Hausa rulers adopted this new religion while at the same time honoring traditional ways. This position allowed the elite to benefit from the advantages of both systems. The Fulani took over political power in the region in the early 1800s. Their rule lasted for about a century until the British colonized the region in the early part of the 20th century.

Religion

There was an Islamic presence in Hausaland as early as the 11th century. According to tradition, Islam was brought to Hausa territory by Muhommad Al-Maghili, an Islamic cleric, teacher, and missionary, who came from Bornu toward the end of the 15th century. Early Islamization proceeded peacefully, mainly at the hands of prophets, pilgrims, and merchants. In the early days the number of individuals who accepted Islam was small, and among those who did, it was usually practiced along with traditional Hausa religious beliefs. In many cases, the ruling elite were the first to convert to Islam. It was not until the early 1800s that the Fulani began to put pressure on the Hausa to undergo large scale conversion. Through a series of jihads (holy wars) the northern part of what is today Nigeria was unified in the name of Islam under the auspices of the Fulani empire.


History of the Hausa

Mole-Dagbon tribe: History, food, dance, languages, facts

Myths about the origin of the Hausa state that the founder of this ethnic group was Bayajidda. He founded the Hausa States, the first of which, Rano and Gobir, emerged around 1000 (in the 11th century). Bayajidda came from Baghdad, settled in Borno and later moved to Hausaland.

At the time, Hausaland consisted of independent political states situated between Lake Chad and River Niger. Despite being a political establishment, Hausaland did not have a central authority. However, they spoke a common language and practised the same laws and customs.

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The Oldest Kingdom in Nigeria

When considering which kingdom or empire is the oldest in Nigeria, one must take a critical look at the history of all the kingdoms in the country. Here is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria, after deducing from the dates each empire in the country came into existence.

Benin Kingdom

The kingdom of Benin is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. Their dated history which could be traced thousands of years ago made them earn this mark as the most ancient empire in the country.

Far back in the 900s, the Kingdom of Benin began when the Edo people settled in the rainforests of West Africa, which is the present day Edo state. These people were had a sudden rise, as before 1400s they created a wealthy kingdom with a powerful ruler. The Obas were the supreme ruler in the Edo kingdom. They were highly honored and they lived in beautiful palaces decorated with shining brass.

These rulers, the Obas spearheaded the affairs of the kingdom and won more land which eventually made them rise to an empire. The kingdoms in the empire was called Igodomigodo. It was ruled by a series of kings, known as Ogisos (‘rulers of the sky’), which were subject to the Obas. Still on, history has it that around the 1100s, there were struggles for power and the Ogisos lost control of their kingdom.

This resulted to the Edo people seeking for help from their neighbour, the King of Ife. In response to it, the king sent his son Prince Oranmiyan to restore peace to the Benin kingdom. The king of Ife eventually chose his son Eweka to be the first Oba of Benin. Eweka was the first in a long line of Obas, who reached the peak of their power in the 1500s. After his reign, other Obas took over in succession, of which till now the kingdom still have a recognisable Oba as their ruler.

At its came in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Benin or Edo kingdom encompassed parts of southeastern Yorubaland, and the western parts of the present Delta State. But at present, due to regional divisions, the trace of the old Benin kingdom is significant in Edo state of Nigeria. Nonetheless, let’s now peek at other old kingdoms and empires in Nigeria which followed the Bini group.


Development of Fulani tribe

By the time of 18th century, Fulani settlements were situated all over the Benue River valley. They were spreaded among such regions as Garoua and Rey Bouba, Faro River, Mambilla Plateau and Gurin, Chamba, Chenoa, Turua and Bundang.

Fulani people who have Arabic and North African roots adopted Islam earlier then Fulani of other regions. New religion accelerated the process of transition to a settled way of life.

Fula empire has become the dominating kingdom of West Africa in the times of 1500s. Over the time the empire developed into many emirates with the center in Senegal River Valley.

The history of Igbo language

It should be said that Fulani and Hausa people influenced each other’s cultures for a long time. There is even a term Hausa–Fulani people. In the time of Fulani War (1804), these tribes were intertwined within Nigeria. This is the time of beginning the history of Fulani tribe in Nigeria. Today Hausa and Fulani account about 29% of Nigeria's population.

Fulani people have the caste system that is typical for West African region. They have four major castes, but the caste system is not so elaborate in such areas as northern Nigeria, Cameroon or Eastern Niger.

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The tribe retained its culture and traditions to this day. Despite the interaction with many other tribes, Fulani has distinct features that distinguish them from the rest of the ethnic groups. They have their own language, that is called Pulaar. They have their own attire, houses, food and behavior traditions.

All you should know about Hausa tribe

The origin of Fulani tribe according to Genomic studies: A study by Cruciani et al. In 2002 showed that 90% of Fulani people from Burkina Faso have the haplotype that is common in West Africa. A minority of Fulani people have the West Eurasian haplogroups.

Such a result brings more clarity to the issue of the origin of the tribe, but researchers continue to study this topic.


Hausa – Understanding The People, Tribe & Language

The Hausa tribe is one of the three prominent ethnic groups in Nigeria. It is also one of the largest tribes in West Africa. Hausas are unique in various aspects of their culture. They have several practices that are exclusively found among them. Apart from the stereotyped characteristics of the Hausas virtually known to all, there are several other important and interesting facts you must know about them. Read on…

Their History and Location

The Hausa people are found in various parts of West Africa. The Hausa tribe is a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and Sudanian areas of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger, with significant numbers also living in parts of Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Chad, Togo, Ghana, and Sudan. The greatest population of the Hausas are found in North-western Nigeria, an area commonly known as the “Hausaland”, followed by the ones residing in the adjoining southern Niger. Most of the towns and cities in Northern Nigeria are predominantly occupied by the Hausa People, since the Stone Age to the present age. These cities and towns include Kano city, Kastina, Abuja, Bauchi, Birnin Kebbi, Lafia, Makurdi, Sokoto, Suleja, Yola Zaria, Furhia, etc.

People and Culture

The Hausa people have unique cultural practices, most of which have stood the test of time. Their cultural practices have been sustained over time as a result of the strong native systems of government they have, unlike their counterparts who had to submit easily to the rulership of the colonial masters. Their religion, mode of dressing, food, marriage and language are all peculiar.

Religion

Most of the Hausas practice the Islamic religion. This worship was brought down to them by traders from North Africa, Mali, Borno, and Guinea. In the course of trading, almost all of them embraced this religion and since then, they have been holding tenaciously to it. Followers of Islam are known as Moslems or Muslims and their practices are based on the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, as recorded in their Holy Book, the Qur’an. They hold their worship sessions in the mosque and have the practice of praying five times a day. They believe in the existence of the Almighty, Supreme God, whom they call Allah. The remaining minority practice traditional religion, known as Maguzawa, usually belonging to some local cults.

However, the traditional Hausa way of life and Islamic social values have been intermixed for such a long time that many of the basic tenets of Hausa society are Islamic. In Islam, it is important to note that there is strict adherence to the custom of separating men from women in almost all situations.

Language

The Hausa language has more first-language speakers than any other language in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has an estimated 35 million first-language speakers and 20 million second-language speakers. The main Hausa-speaking area is northern Nigeria and Niger. Hausa is also widely spoken in northern Cameroon, Chad, Sudan and the Ivory Coast among Fulani, Tuareg, Kanuri, Gur, Shuwa, Arab and other Afro-Asiatic speaking groups. Hausa is written in Arabic characters, and about one-fourth of Hausa words come from Arabic. Many Hausas can read and write Arabic. Many can also speak either French or English. Most Hausa speakers, regardless of ethnic-affiliation, are Muslims Hausa often serves as a Lingua franca among Muslims in non-Hausa areas.

The Hausa tribe is very rich when it comes to food. The most common food include grains such as millet, rice, maize or sorghum which are grounded into flour for food popularly known as “Tuwo” which can be eaten with soup called Taushe, Kaka, Dagedage etc. Ground beans cakes called Kosai or wheat flour fried and eaten with sugar called Fankasau can be eaten as breakfast porridge and sugar called Koko.

Kilishi – Dry Meat from Hausa Tribe

Another interesting thing about food in the Hausa tribe is that there is an abundance of meat, especially beef, since they do a lot of cattle rearing. They have popular grilled beef delicacies such as Suya, Kilishi, etc. Cow milk known as Nunu taken with Fura is also one of their frequent and treasured meals. They also have plenty of root vegetables such as onions, carrots, etc.

Dressing

The Hausa people are known for their elaborate dressing. They have a very restricted dressing code which is majorly due to their religious beliefs. The men wear large flowing gowns known as ‘Babban riga’ and a robe-like dress with designs called ‘Jalabia’ or ‘Juanni’. The men may or may not wear caps known as ‘Fula’. The women are identified by their wrappers called ‘Abaya’, blouses, head ties, shawls and hijabs. They also wear Hausa weaves as their common hairstyles. Hausa women also use jewellery, ornaments and paintings a great deal. The Lalli or henna paintings and drawings are also an indispensable part of their make up.

The Hausa tribe are also known for prominent tribal marks which they draw mainly on the face and sometimes on other parts of the body. The genesis of the Hausa tribal marks was for identification. At some point in history, every clan/village had their own distinct tribal marks that made it easy for either of them to identify their kith and kin in the event of invasion, war, getting lost, or captured for slavery. But later, the capitalist among them started ripping them off by being creative and making unnecessary tattoos on their bodies, especially the women.

Marriage

The Hausa traditional marriage is mostly based on Islamic rites, and not as time-consuming or expensive as the Igbo and Yoruba traditional marriage ceremonies. Early marriage and polygamy is very normal and common with the Hausa culture.

However, the process leading up to the marriage is slightly similar to what obtains in the other regions in Nigeria. When a man sees the woman he wants to marry, he has to, first of all, seek permission from her parents. The family of the bride-to-be will then conduct an investigation on the background of the man to determine his religious beliefs, ethics, moral and family customs, as well as every important detail concerning his upbringing. The groom-to-be if approved by the woman’s family, is allowed to see her briefly but any form of physical contact, romance or courting before marriage is highly discouraged. Once the woman accepts the marriage offer, the man sends his parents or guardians as well as elderly relatives to formally ask for her hand in marriage. In this visit, the man makes his intentions known openly while the would-be bride’s parents gives their consent, an act known as Gaisuwa.

Hausa Tribe Marriage

Marriage is marked by bride-price, given by the groom’s family to the bride, and a dowry for the bride provided by her family. And after the Gaisuwa, the dowry bidding begins. They usually try to keep it as low as possible since they believe that a lower dowry attracts more blessings. The payment of dowry is known as Sadaki, after which the Sarana follows, that is, the act of fixing the wedding date. Then the wedding, called Fatihah comes, followed by the reception, known as Walima. These two events are organized depending on the decision of the two families involved.


History of Hausa-Fulani

Predominantly Hausa-speaking communities are scattered throughout West Africa and on the traditional Hajj route north and east traversing the Sahara, with an especially large population in and around the town of Agadez. Other Hausa have also moved to large coastal cities in the region such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Accra, Abidjan, Banjul and Cotonou as well as to parts of North Africa such as Libya over the course of the last 5,000 years. The Hausa, traditionally live in small villages as well as in precolonial towns and cities where they grow crops, raise livestock including cattle as well as engage in trade, both local and long distance across Africa. They speak the Hausa language, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Chadic group. The Hausa aristocracy had historically developed an equestrian based culture. Still a status symbol of the traditional nobility in Hausa society, the horse still features in the Eid day celebrations, known as Ranar Sallah (in English: the Day of the Prayer). Daura city is the cultural center of the Hausa people. The town predates all the other major Hausa towns in tradition and culture.

Daura, in northern Nigeria, is the oldest city of Hausaland. The Hausa of Gobir, also in northern Nigeria, speak the oldest surviving classical vernacular of the language. [36] Historically, Katsina was the centre of Hausa Islamic scholarship but was later replaced by Sokoto stemming from the 19th century Usman Dan Fodio Islamic reform. [37]

The Hausa are culturally and historically closest to other Sahelian ethnic groups, primarily the Fula the Zarma and Songhai (in Tillabery, Tahoua and Dosso in Niger) the Kanuri and Shuwa Arabs (in Chad, Sudan and northeastern Nigeria) the Tuareg (in Agadez, Maradi and Zinder) the Gur and Gonja (in northeastern Ghana, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and upper Benin) Gwari (in central Nigeria) and the Mandinka, Bambara, Dioula and Soninke (in Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Ivory Coast and Guinea).

All of these various ethnic groups among and around the Hausa live in the vast and open lands of the Sahel, Saharan and Sudanian regions, and as a result of the geography and the criss crossing network of traditional African trade routes, have had their cultures heavily influenced by their Hausa neighbours, as noted by T.L. Hodgkin “The great advantage of Kano is that commerce and manufactures go hand in hand, and that almost every family has a share in it. There is something grand about this industry, which spreads to the north as far as Murzuk, Ghat and even Tripoli, to the West, not only to Timbuctu, but in some degree even as far as the shores of the Atlantic, the very inhabitants of Arguin dressing in the cloth woven and dyed in Kano to the east, all over Borno, …and to the south…it invades the whole of Adamawa and is only limited by the pagans who wear no clothing. In clear testimony to T. L Hodgkin’s claim, the people of Agadez and Saharan areas of central Niger, the Tuareg and the Hausa groups are indistinguishable from each other in their traditional clothing both wear the tagelmust and indigo Babban Riga/Gandora. But the two groups differ in language, lifestyle and preferred beasts of burden (the Tuareg use camels, while Hausa ride horses)

Other Hausa have mixed with ethnic groups southwards such as the Yoruba of old Oyo [citation needed] , Nupe andIgbirra in the northern fringes of the forest belt and in similar fashion to their Sahelian neighbors have heavily influenced the cultures of these groups. Islamic Shari’a law is loosely the law of the land in Hausa areas, well understood by any Islamic scholar or teacher, known in Hausa as a m’allam, mallan or malam (see Maulana). This pluralist attitude toward ethnic-identity and cultural affiliation has enabled the Hausa to inhabit one of the largest geographic regions of non-Bantu ethnic groups in Africa

The Nok culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1000 BCE and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 AD in the region of West Africa. It is believed to be the product of an ancestral nation that branched to create the Hausa, the people of Gwandara language, Biram, Kanuri, Nupe peoples, the Kwatarkwashi Culture of Tsafe or Chafe in present-day Zamfara State located to the North west of Nok is thought to be the same as or an earlier ancestor of the Nok.

Nok’s social system is thought to have been highly advanced. The Nok culture is considered to be the earliest sub-Saharan producer of life-sized Terracotta.

The refinement of this culture is attested to by the image of a Nok dignitary at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. The dignitary is portrayed wearing a “crooked baton” [42][43] The dignitary is also portrayed sitting with flared nostrils, and an open mouth suggesting performance. Other images show figures on horseback, indicating that the Nok culture possessed the horse.

Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok culture in Africa at least by 550 BC and possibly earlier. Christopher Ehret has suggested that iron smelting was independently discovered in the region prior to 1000 BC In the 7th century, the Dalla Hill in Kano was the site of a Hausa community that migrated from Gaya and engaged in iron-working The Hausa Bakwai kingdoms were established around the 7th to 11th centuries. Of these, the Kingdom of Daura was the first, according to the Bayajidda Legend.

The Hausa Kingdoms were independent political entities in what is now Northern Nigeria. The Hausa city states emerged as southern terminals of the Trans-Saharan caravan trade. Like other cities such as Gao and Timbuktu in the Mali Empire, these city states became centres of long-distance trade. Hausa merchants in each of these cities collected trade items from domestic areas such as leather, dyed cloth, horse gear, metal locks and Kola nuts from the rain forest region to the south through trade or slave raiding, processed (and taxed) them and then sent them north to cities along the Mediterranean. [49] By the 12th century AD the Hausa were becoming one of Africa’s major trading powers, competing with Kanem-Bornu and the Mali Empire The primary exports were leather, gold, cloth, salt, kola nuts, slaves, animal hides, and henna. Certainly trade influenced religion. By the 14th century, Islam was becoming widespread in Hausaland as Wangara scholars as well as scholars and traders from Mali and the Maghreb brought the religion with them. [51]

By the early 15th century the Hausa were using a modified Arabic script known as ajami to record their own language the Hausa compiled several written histories, the most popular being the Kano Chronicle. Many medieval Hausa manuscripts similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently some of them even describe constellations and calendars. [52]

The Gobarau Minaret was built in the 15th century in Katsina. It is a 50-foot edifice located in the centre of the city of Katsina, the capital of Katsina State. The Gobarau minaret, a symbol of the state, is an early example of Islamic architecture in a city that prides itself as an important Islamic learning centre. The minaret is believed to be one of West Africa’s first multi-storey buildings and was once the tallest building in Katsina. The mosque’s origin is attributed to the efforts of the influential Islamic scholar Sheikh Muhammad al-Maghili and Sultan Muhammadu Korau of Katsina. Al-Maghili was from the town of Tlemcen in present-day Algeria and taught for a while in Katsina, which had become a centre of learning at this time, when he visited the town in the late 15th century during the reign of Muhammadu Korau. He and Korau discussed the idea of building a mosque to serve as a centre for spiritual and intellectual activities. The Gobarau mosque was designed and built to reflect the Timbuktu-style of architecture. It became an important centre for learning, attracting scholars and students from far and wide, and later served as a kind of university.

Muhammad Rumfa was the Sultan of the Sultanate of Kano, located in modern-day Kano State, Northern Nigeria. He reigned from 1463 until 1499. Among Rumfa’s accomplishments were extending the city walls, building a large palace, the Gidan Rumfa, promoting slaves to governmental positions and establishing the great Kurmi Market, which is still in use today. Kurmi Market is among the oldest and largest local markets in Africa. It used to serve as an international market where North African goods were exchanged for domestic goods through trans-Saharan trade . Muhammad Rumfa was also responsible for much of the Islamisation of Kano, as he urged prominent residents to convert.

Sallah procession in northern Nigeria

The legendary Queen Amina (or Aminatu) is believed to have ruled Zazzau between the 15th century and the 16th century for a period of 34 years. Amina was 16 years old when her mother, Bakwa Turunku became queen and she was given the traditional title of Magajiya, an honorific borne by the daughters of monarchs. She honed her military skills and became famous for her bravery and military exploits, as she is celebrated in song as “Amina, daughter of Nikatau, a woman as capable as a man.”Amina is credited as the architectural overseer who created the strong earthen walls that surround her city, which were the prototype for the fortifications used in all Hausa states. She subsequently built many of these fortifications, which became known as ganuwar Amina or Amina’s walls, around various conquered cities. The objectives of her conquests were twofold: extension of her nation beyond its primary borders and reducing the conquered cities to a vassal status. Sultan Muhammad Bello of Sokoto stated that, “She made war upon these countries and overcame them entirely so that the people of Katsina paid tribute to her and the men of Kano and… also made war on cities of Bauchi till her kingdom reached to the sea in the south and the west.” Likewise, she led her armies as far as Kwararafa and Nupe and, according to the Kano Chronicle, “The Sarkin Nupe sent her (i.e. the princess) 40 eunuchs and 10,000 kola nuts.

From 1804–1808, the Fulani, another Islamic African ethnic group that spanned West Africa and have settled in Hausaland since the early 1500s, with support of already oppressed Hausa peasants revolted against oppressive cattle tax and religious persecution under the new king of Gobir, whose predecessor and father had tolerated Muslim evangelists and even favoured the leading Muslim cleric of the day, Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio whose life the new king had sought end. Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio fled Gobir and from his sanctuary declared Jihad on its king and all Habe dynasty kings for their alleged greed, paganism, injustices against the peasant class, use of heavy taxation and violation of the standards of Sharia law. The Fulani and Hausa cultural similarities as a Sahelian people however allowed for significant integration between the two groups. Since the early 20th century, these peoples are often classified as “Hausa-Fulani” within Nigeria rather than as individuated groups. In fact a large number of Fulani living in Hausa regions cannot speak Fulfulde at all and speak Hausa as their first language. Many Fulani in the region do not distinguish themselves from the Hausa, as they have long intermarried, they share the Islamic religion and more than half of all Nigerian Fulani have integrated into Hausa culture.

British General Frederick Lugard used rivalries between many of the emirs in the south and the central Sokoto administration to prevent any defence as he worked toward the capital. As the British approached the city of Sokoto, the new Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organised a quick defence of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces. The British forces won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra.

The Hausa Northern (eternal) Knot or ‘Dagin Arewa’, a traditional symbolic indicator of Hausa identity

On 13 March 1903 at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British Rule. The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new Caliph. Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organised Northern Nigeria Protectorate. In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. The area of the Sokoto Caliphate was divided among the control of the British, French, and Germans under the terms of their Berlin Conference.

The British established the Northern Nigeria Protectorate to govern the region, which included most of the Sokoto empire and its most important emirates Under Lugard, the various emirs were provided significant local autonomy, thus retaining much of the political organisation of the Sokoto Caliphate. The Sokoto area was treated as just another emirate within the Nigerian Protectorate. Because it was never connected with the railway network, it became economically and politically marginal.

But, the Sultan of Sokoto continued to be regarded as an important Muslim spiritual and religious position the lineage connection to dan Fodio has continued to be recognized One of the most significant Sultans was Siddiq Abubakar III, who held the position for 50 years from 1938–1988. He was known as a stabilising force in Nigerian politics, particularly in 1966 after the assassination of Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of Northern Nigeria

Following the construction of the Nigerian railway system, which extended from Lagos in 1896 to Ibadan in 1900 and Kano in 1911, the Hausa of northern Nigeria became major producers of groundnuts. They surprised the British, who had expected the Hausa to turn to cotton production. However, the Hausa had sufficient agricultural expertise to realise cotton required more labour and the European prices offered for groundnuts were more attractive than those for cotton. “Within two years the peasant farmers of Hausaland were producing so many tonnes of groundnuts that the railway was unable to cope with the traffic. As a result, the European merchants in Kano had to stockpile sacks of groundnuts in the streets.” (Shillington 338).

The Boko script was imposed on the Hausa by the British and French colonial forces and made the official Hausa alphabet in 1930. Boko is a Latin alphabet used to write the Hausa language. The first boko was devised by Europeans in the early 19th century, and developed in the early 20th century by the British (mostly) and French colonial authorities. Since the 1950s boko has been the main alphabet for Hausa. Arabic script (ajami) is now only used in Islamic schools and for Islamic literature. Today millions of Hausa-speaking people, who can read and write in Ajami only, are considered illiterates by the Nigerian government. Despite this, Hausa Ajami is present on Naira banknotes. In 2014, in a very controversial move, Ajami was removed from the new 100 Naira banknote.


Towards a Less Orthodox History of Hausaland*

The historiography of Hausaland has laboured under a strong tradition of orthodoxy which recent secondary works have inherited from the more-or-less primary oral-cum-written sources. General cultural evidence (linguistic, ethnographic and archaeological) has been regarded as subsidiary, so that its potential for reconceptualization and for critical reevaluation of the conventional sources and orthodox interpretations has been missed. Instead, antiquarian approaches have been encouraged. Thus the view has persisted that Hausa as a cultural and linguistic entity has an antiquity running to several millennia, and also that it originated in the Sahara or around Aïr, whence it was pushed southward by desiccation or by Tuareg nomads. Contrarily, the clear message of linguistic geography and of Hausa's place within the Chadic family is that Hausa. expanded from east to west across the savanna belt of northern Nigeria. And the relative homogeneity of the language and culture within this vast zone indicates that the spread is quite recent (within the present millennium, say). It would have involved some assimilation, of previously settled peoples of the northern Nigerian plains, most of whom wouldl have spoken languages of the ‘Plateau’ division of Greenberg's Benue–Congo subfamily, of Niger-Congo.

This Hausaization, as it proceeded from its old bases in eastern Hausaland, would have been both a cultural and an ecological process, through which woodland would have been converted into more open and continuous savanna to support grain-cultivation and a denser peasant population. This process would have reached western Hausaland (Zamfara and Kebbi) around the middle of this millennium. Cattle – and Fulani herdsmen – would in time have played an important role in this cultural ecology (and in restricting the tsetse zones).

The old theory of a northern origin for the Hausa is bound up with the problem of Gobir in north-western Hausaland. Gobir's claim to be one of the original seven kingdoms (Hausa bakwai ) is probably a late invention. Moreover, the common assumption that Gobirawa Hausa migrated from Aïr seems to derive from a misinterpretation of the written sources.

Finally the bakwai legends are reconsidered. Despite the scepticism of some modern critics, the legends appear to reflect, albeit in idealized form, a real historical development. They represent a foundation charter for the Hausa as a multi-state ethnicity, and enshrine the vague memory of how Hausaland and ‘Hausaness’ began from a series of small centres and hill-bases on its eastern side. Thus the interesting argument of Abdullahi Smith, that the Hausa people emerged long before state systems arose among them, is disputed. Rather, these should be seen as two facets of a single process during the present millennium.


Kanun bayannai

A farko-farkon karni na 1900, a sa'adda kabilar Hausa ke yunkurin kawar da mulkin Aringizo na Fulani, sai Turawan Mulkin Mallaka na Birtaniya suka mamaye arewancin Nijeriya, da kuma kafa manufofin mulkin bayan gida, a bisa karkashen mulkin Birtaniya,'yan mulkin mallaka sai suka marawa Fulani baya na cigaba da manufofin Aringizon siyasarsu, har yanzu dai mulkin gamin gambiza tsakanin Hausawa da Fulani shi ne yayi kane-kane a arewacin Nijeriya. Kodayake, Hausawa na farko-farko maharba ne, amma da zuwan Addinin Musulunci da kuma karbarsa da hannu bibbiyu ya sanya labari ya sha bambam. Daura Kasace wacce a kasani mai dadewa da tarihi a kasar Hausawa.A ƙabilun Fulani majiɓinta hausawa akwai Sulluɓawa, Mallawa Yolawa, Danejawa, Dambazawa da Modibawa. bahaushe yakan ce “ Bahaushe mai ban haushi. Kaso mutum ka rasa abinda zaka bashi”. [6] Miles a cikin littafin shi ya kawo ma'aunan da Hausawa suke la'akari da shi a hankalce wajen gane cikakken bahaushe, suna duba wadannan abubuwan kamar haka

  • Addini
  • Garin Haihuwa
  • Ancestral
  • Jama’a
  • Ƙasa
  • Ƙabila
  • Birni Ko Gari
  • Launin Fata . [7]

Bayajidda Gyara

Bayajidda: Sunanshi Abu Yazidu. ya auri sarauniyar Daurama na wannan lokacin, sun haifi yara biyu. yaronsu mai suna Bawo ya Haifa Bakwai na Halas, sune Daurawa, Kanawa, Gobirawa, Ranawa, Zazzagawa, Katsinawa da kuma Birmawa, sannan kuma ya haifa yaran Banza guda Bakwai sune. [8]

Hausa sun cakuɗe da wasu yare, ta yanda suke da ƙabilu kamar su:

Hausa: musulunci yana da matuƙar muhimmanci ds tasiri a wajen Hausa, ta yanda hakan Hausawa suke kallon duk wanda bahaushe ne amma ba musulmi ba kamar ba bahaushe bane. [11] [9]

Fatauci, Ci rani da almajiranci Gyara

Hausawa sun shahara a fannin kasuwanci da safarar haaja zuwa wurare masu nisa. Kuma sunyi shahara ne wajen kutsa kai zuwa wasu ƙasashe, domin yaɗa addini ko neman aiki. Kusan ma ace afirka tsawonta da faɗinta babu inda basu buga ba. Tun ƙarni na goma sha ɗaya (11) hausawa ke hulɗa da ƙasashen larabawa. Suna ƙetara hamadar rairayi ta sahara, suna zuwa Maghrib (watau maroko da Aljeriya da Tunis) da lubayya ko Turabulus (watau Libiya). Kuma suna ƙetara chadi zuwa Sudan da Masar da Ƙasar Makka (Saudi Arabiya). Suna kai musu fatu, da ƙiraga da bayi, su kuma suna sayo tufafi da makamai. Wajen kudu da yamma kuwa, hausawa suna kutsa kai cikin ƙasar yarbawa, da Gwanja, da Dogomba, da AShanti a Ghana, a nan babban abin safarar su shine Goro da Gishiri. Su kuma sukan kai musu kanwa. [12]

Bauta da Baranci a wurin bahaushe ba munanan abubuwa bane, musamman abinda ya shafi koyan sana’a, bawa yana fansar kansa ne ta hanyar sana’a kuma mai koyan sana’a yana yin barance ne a gidan mai koya masa ne. Irin wannan almajirancin ana kiransa bauta. Duk mai wata sana’a. Ko dan kasuwa, ko malami, yana alfaharin ace ga wasu sun koya a wurinsa har su n ƙasaita, kuma sun fishi. [13]

Wani bahaushe a shekarar 1900

Hotan wani bahaushe a shekarar 1902

Hausawa sanye da kayan al'ada

Hausawa a ƙarni na 16 (1500) Gyara

Hausawa a ƙarni na 19 (1800) Gyara

Hausawa a ƙarni na na 20 (1900) Gyara

Hausawa a ƙarni na na 21 (2000) Gyara

Asalin kasafin Hausa tana yankin Afrika ta yamma, tsakanin hamadar sahara da kuma tekun atalantika, daga kudu da arewa, daga yamma da gabas kuma iyakar kwara. Ƙasar Hausa na iyakan layi na 15N zuwa 18N na arewa. Tana kuma tsakanin layi na (8E) da goma sha biyu (12W) a gabas [14] A bisa bayanin shaihu Mahdi Adamu,ƙasar Hausa ta asali ta faro ne tundaga lalle da Asodu, A can arewa maso gabas da agadas. Daga nan ne Gobirawa suka taso, da kaɗan-kaɗan har suka zo inda suke a yau a Nijeriya. A yanzu kuwa, hausa tana yaɗuwa ne. Tana ƙoƙarin komawa har zuwa gidanta na jiya ƙarshen iyakar ƙasar hausa a kudu kuwa shine, Yawuri, Zariya da inda Bauchi Tayi iyaka da kano. Gurin gabas (watau birom) itace iyakar ƙasar hausa daga gabas. A yamma kuwa bakin ta Filigue. Ƙasar hausa ita ce inda ba a buƙatar naɗa sarkin hausawa watau wannan bayani ya ware duk wasu zango zango, inda ake magana da hausa [15] Daura a ƙarni na 12, masrautar Daura tana sarautar fiye da garuruwa sittin.

Raba Nijar da Najeriya Gyara

Ƴardaji da Yekuwa karo na farko an raba su a dalilin mulkin mallaka na Faransa da turawan Birtaniya, inda yekuwa ta faɗa ɓangaren Nijar a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakan faransa, inda kuma dukkanin Daura, Ɓaure da kuma Zango suka faɗa Najeriya ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakan turawan ingila. [16] Turawa sun zo Ƙasar Hausa sun zo ƙasar hausa ne a ƙarshen ƙarni na 17. [17] A shekarar 1906 zuwa 1908, Kaptin Tilho da kuma Majo O’shee’ sune suka saka turaka 148 a matsayin shaida akan inda Najeriya ta tsaya zuwa inda Nijar ta fara. [18] Turaka 63 suna da tsawon ƙafa 15, wanda aka turke a cikin ƙasa, abisa nisan ƙafa 4-5. [18] A tsakanin turaka na 93 da 94 aka samar da iyakan Nijar da Najeriya, wanda ya raba ƴardaji dake Najeriya da yekuwa dake Nijar. [19]

Harshen Hausa shi ne mafi girma da kuma mafi sanayyar harshe a nahiyar Afirka, harshen hausa ya aro wasu kalmomi daga wasu harsuna musamman Larabci kana kuma harshen na tafiya tare da yanayin mu na zamani bisa al'adar cudeni-in cudeka. Harshen Hausa dai ya zama harshen yau da kullum ga miliyoyin jama'a da ba Hausawa bane a nahiyar Afirka.

sune suka fi kowane ƙabila yawa a Afrika maso yamma. [20]

  • Daurawa,
  • Kanawa,
  • Gobirawa,
  • Ranawa,
  • Zazzagawa,
  • Katsinawa
  • Birmawa. [8]

Zaria: yawancin mutanen dake zaria ba asalin tsatsan hausawa bane a mahanga ta tarihi, yawancinsu mutane ne ƴan asalin ƙabilar fulani, da kuma mutanen da sukayi hijira zuwa zaria. [21]

Country Population
Côte d'Ivoire 1,035,000 [22]
Benin 1,028,000 [23]
Sudan 500,000 [24]
Cameroon 386,000 [25]
Chad 287,000 [26]
Ghana 281,000 [27]
Central African Republic 33,000 [28]
Eritrea 30,000 [29]
Equatorial Guinea 26,000 [30]
Togo 21,000 [31]
Congo 12,000 [32]
Gabon 12,000 [33]
Algeria 11,000 [34]
Gambia 10,000 [35]

Maza Gyara

Mata Gyara

Yawancin Hausawa yan Sunna ne, suna bin mazhabin Malikiyya, wanda shine mazhabin da'aka basu tin a jihadin Usman Dan Fodiyo, Musulunci ya kasan ce a kasar Hausa ti kimanin karni na 11th, wanda akan iya bada tarihin Wali Muhammad dan Masani (d.1667) da kuma Wali Muhammad dan Marna (d. 1655) na jihar Katsina, wanda masu fatauci suke yada addinin zuwa garuruwan Hausawa, amman a karni 11, yawan cin Hausawa na wannan lokacin Maguzawa ne.

A farkon karni na 19th ne aka yi jihadi domin jaddada addinin musulunci a kasar Hausa, inda aka yaka sarkin Gobir mai suna Yunfa, sannan aka kafa daular musulunci ta farko a garin Sokoto a shekarar 1804. [36] Hausa tun taka rawan gani sosai wajen yada musulunci a cikin kasar Hausa, da kuma Afirka ta Yamma, suna kiran sarakunan su da wakilai na Musulunci, amman sarkin Sakkwato shine Sarkin Musulmi. [37] Karatun Alƙur’ani yana da matuƙar muhimmanci a ƙasar haujsa, wanda tunda ada da yanzu sukeyi. [38]

Mafi akasarin hausawa musulmai ne, sabili da haka galibin al’dunsu da suka shafi aure da haifuwa da mutuwa, duka sun ta’allaƙa ne da wannan addini. Sai ɗan abinda ba a rasawa na daga al’adunsu na gargajiya, musamman wajen maguzawa. [39] musulunci yana da matuƙar muhimmanci da tasiri a wajen Hausawa, ta yanda hakan Hausawa suke kallon duk wanda bahaushe ne amma ba musulmi ba kamar ba bahaushe bane. [40] [41] Aikin Hajji Yana ɗaya daga cikin Rukunnan Musulunci guda biyar Hausawa suna zuwa aikin Hajji sosai zuwa makka, musamman ma mutanen Kano, Sokoto, da Katsina, Hausawa su kance Alhaji suna nufin wanda yaje Makkah ya yi Aikin Hajji, Jam’in sa shine Alhazai, mace kuma Hajiya. [42] Hakan ya samo asali ne tin a karni na 19 a kasar Hausa, amman a karni na 21, kalman Alhaji da Hajiya yana daukan ma'anar mutum mai kudi, koda ko bai taba zuwa aikin Hajji ba.

Ginshikokin al'adun Hausawa na da mutukar jarunta, kwarewa da sanayya fiye da sauran al'ummar dake kewayenta. Bugu da kari, akwai cincirindon al'ummar Hausawa a manyan biranen yammacin Afirka da arewacin Afirka da kuma yankunan cinikayyar al'ummar Hausawa da kuma yankunan da Hausawa suka jima suna bi a hanyar ta zuwa aikin Hajji. Akwai kuma rubutattun adabi masu zurfi da kasidodi da kuma rubuce-rubuce a rubutun ajami da aka buga tun kafin zuwan Turawa 'yan mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya. Har ila yau, kuma wani tsarin rubutu a ajami da aka kirkiro tun kafin zuwan Turawa, da ba kasafai ake amfani da shi ba yanzu. [43] [44]

Hausawa mutane ne masu tsananin riƙon al’adunsu na gargajiya, musamman wajan tufafi, da abinci, da al’amuran da suka shafi aure. Ko haifuwa, ko mutuwa, da sha’anin mu’amala tsakanin dangi da abokai da shuwagabanni da sauransu da kuma ala’amuran sana’a ko kasuwanci ko neman ilimi. [39]

Tun daga zuwan turawa har zuwa yau, hausawa suna cikin alummomin da basu saki tufafin su na gargajiya sun ari na baƙi ba. Yawanci adon namiji a hausa baya wuce babban riga, da wando musamman tsala. Da takalmin fata ko ƙafa ciki da hula ƙube ko ɗankwara, ko dara. Idan kuma basarake ne ko malami ko dattijo, yakan sa rawani. Adon yamma kuwa, zane ne, da gytton yafawa, watau gyale da kallabi, da ƴan kunne da dutsan wuya watau sarƙa. [45] Mai Gari: A ƙasar Hausa shugaban ƙauye ko unguwa shi ake kira da Mai-gari. [46]

Auran Hausawa Gyara

Aure ya rabu kashi-kashi. Akwai auren soyayya, da auren dole/tilas da auren zumunta, da auren sadaka, da auren ɗiban wuta, da auren dangana-sanda, da auren gayya, da auren ɗiban haushi ko ɗiban takaici, da ɗiban tsiwa ko kece raini, da kashin ƙwarnafi, da sauran ire-irensu. [47] Aure: Asalin al’adar hausawa a aure sune kwana Bakwai ne a shagali, kwana ukun farko za ayi ne a gidan Amarya. Sauran kwanakin kuma a gidan ango. [48] [49]

shi aure na soyayya aure ne wanda saurayi ke ganin budurwa yace yana santa da aure,itakuma sai ta amince masa, iyayenta ma su yarda da maganar, kana sai azo ayi niyyar daurin aure [47]

A nan saurayi ya kan ga yariya ne yace yana sonta da aure, amma ita bata amince masa ba. Iyayenta kuma su zaratar da hukunci, watau ko suna so, ko suna ƙi. Har ma akan bada yarinya ga wanda yake sa’an mahaifinta ne. Ko kuma sa’an kakanta, alhali kuma bata so, tana da wanda takw so, kuma akan nemawa saurayi budurwa ba tare da yana so ba, saboda wata alaƙa ko yarjejeniya da yake tsakanin iyayensu. [47]

Wannan aure ne wanda ake nema wa yaro ko yarinya daga cikin dagin uwa ko dangi na uba ba tare da an shawarci yaron ko yarinyar ba. Irin wannan auren, ana yinsa don ƙara danƙon zumunta tsakanin ƴan uwa. [47]

Shi auren sadaka aure ne da ake bayar da yarinya ga wani, saboda neman tubarriki, kamar irin sadakar da ake ba malamai, almajiransu, musamman idaan yarinya ta girma bata samu mashinshini da wuri ba. Ana yin auren sadaka don gudun kada ta jawo wa iyayenta abin kunya wani lokaci kuma idan mutum bai sami haihuwa da wuri ba, yakanyi alƙawarin cewa, zai bada ita sadaka in ya samu, yakan ba wani, yace in ya sami Ana yin auren sadaka don gudun kada ta jawo wa iyayenta abin kunya wani lokaci kuma idan mutum bai sami haihuwa da wuri ba, yakanyi alƙawarin cewa, zai bada ita sadaka in ya samu, yakan ba wani, yace in ya sami ƴa’ har ta rayu zai sadaka da ita. [47]

Wannan auren yana kasancewa bayan miji ya saki mace saki uku, alhali kuwa matan tana son mijinta, shima yana son ta, dole sai ta auri wani mutum, kafin ta samu damar komawa zuwa ga mijinta na farko. To, auren nan da tayi, da ƙudurin cewa zata dawo wurin mijinta na da, wannan shine auren ɗiban wuta ko kashe wuta. [47]

: Mutum ya kan auri matar dake zaune a gidan kanta. Sai ya zamana baza ta iya tasowa tazo gidansa ba, saboda waɗansu dalilai. Hakazalika shima ba zai iya zuwa gidanta ya zauna ba. Sai dai ya riƙa zuwa cen gidanta yana kwana. Irin wannan aure, dalilin da yasa ake kiransa dangana-sanda, saboda mai gida yana dangana sandarsa a bakin ƙofar ɗakinta ne, sannan ya shiga ya kwana. [50]

Idan matar mutum ta fita, alhali kuwa yana sonta, ya dai sake ta ne don ta addabe shi, to sai yayi sauri yayi wani aure kafi ya sake ta, ko kafin ta gama idda. Ba don komai zai yi wannan auren ba sai don kawai ya fanshe haushinsa, ko kuma don kada matar ta rigashi yin wani aure. [50]

: ana kuma kiransa auren ɗiban takaici, ko auren tsiwa, ko na kece raini da kashin ƙwarnafi. Idan matar mutum ta dame shi da fitina, yakan takanas ya auri wata mace mai kyau ko dukiya ko asali ko addini, fiye da wacce take gidansa, ko wacce ya saki, ana yin wannan auren do kawai fanshe haushi ko ɗebe takaici ko don a gusar da wulaƙanci da raini da kuma tsiwa na ba gaira ba dalili. [50]

Mu'amala Gyara

Hakazalika wajen mu’amala da iyaye ko dangi ko abokai, ko shuwagabanni ko maƙwapta ko wanin wadannan. Galibinsu na musulunci ne haka kuma sha’anonuwan sana’a da harkar kasuwanci da kuma neman ilimi, duk a jikin musulunci suka rataya. [51] karamci da girmama baƙo yana ɗaya daga cikin al’ada da addinin Hausawa, kuma shine alfaharin Hausawa girmama baƙo. [52] Bahaushe ya kanyi Karin magana yace “ Baƙon ka Annabinka”. ma'ana ka girmama shi matukar girmamawa.

Ranar Sallah Gyara

Neman aure Gyara

Matakan neman aure sune kyautar da yaro ko iyayensa sukan kai gidansu yarinyar da yaro yake so ya nema. Sabili da haka yakan ba diyar wani abu taɓawa. Ko mkuma ya kai kyautar wurin iyayenta, ko wasu waɗanda suke da dangantaka da ita, yadda zata gane cewa ana sonta. Ko kuma akwai wani abu mai muhimmanci gidansu, kamar kayan na gani ina so bayan waɗannan ake ƙunshewa a ba wata tsohuwa ko wani mutum, ya kai daga nan kuma sai a bashi dama ya ruƙa zuwa yana magana da yarinyan a gidansu, ko gidan wani ɗan uwanta makusanci, inda ba a yadda za ayi wata munaƙisha ko wani abu na ashhsa ba. A nan ne yake zuwa shi ko kuma tare da abokansa su zauna su tattauna tare da yarinyar. [53]

Sadaki Gyara

kuɗi ne wanda mace take ayyanawa a bisa ƙa’idar aure. Kuɗin da ake iya bayarwa a matsyin sadaki, ya tashi tun daga zumbar goma, watau sule da taro ko kwabo goma sha biyar, har zuwa abinda ya ninninka wannan. A wannan kuɗin yau lissafi ya kama daga kwabo goma sha biyu da rabi. [54]

Waliyyay Gyara

waliyyan aure sune dangi na ma’auran nan biyu, akasari iyaye ne ko WALIYYAN AURE: waliyyan aure sune dangi na ma’auran nan biyu, akasari iyaye ne ko ƴa’ƴa ko ƙanne, waɗanda suke wakiltar sashen yaro da sashen yarinya wajen ɗaurin aure. Baz a ɗaura aure ba sai da su. [54]

Shaidu Gyara

Ba a daurin aure a sakaye. Dole sai mutane sun shaida. To, mutanen da suke halartar wajen ɗaurin aure, sune shaidu. Lokacin da za ayi fatiha an faɗa a kunnensu sun saurara ko sunji sun shaida cewa, an bada wance ga wane. [54]

Goro da Kudin daurin Aure Gyara

Goro da kuɗi, waɗanda ake rabawa a wajen ɗaurin auren ana baiwa dukkan waɗnda suka halarta ɗaurin auren ne. Ana bayar da kuɗin zaure, da kuɗin liman, da kuɗin tauba, sai da kakanni. Kuma ana fitar da kuɗin maroƙa da na ƙattan gari. Ana raba kuɗin ne yayin da aka taru za a shafa fatiha. Akan aikawa kan aikawa ƴanuwa da masoya, da kuma abokan arziƙi za a ɗaura auren wane da wance a gidan wane. Saboda haka ana gayyatarsu ran kaza a watan kaza da lokaci kaza. [55]

Lefe Gyara

Tufafi ne kayan shafe-shafe, da takalma, da sauran kayayyakin adon mata, sun ɗan kunne, da sarƙar wuya, da tsakin lefe, a haɗa a sa a cikin lefe, ko fantimoti. Ko kwalla ko akwati, a ba wasu mata sukai gidansu yarimya. Wani lokacin kuma akan tara lefe da yawa na masu so daban daban a ajiya har sa’ar da aka tabbatar da wanda aka ajiye har sa’ar da aka tabbatar da wanda aka ga ya dace ya aureta sa’annan a mayarwa sauran nasu, a basu hakuri da zarar yaji an tabbatar masa sai ya aika da neman sa ranan biki. [56]

Zaman lalle Gyara

Amarya takan yi ƴan kwanaki biyu ko fiye da haka tana cikin lalle, ana kaita gida-gida ana yi mata gargaɗi, a ja kunnenta kuma a riƙa koya mata waɗansu abubuwa na addini da yadda ake zamantakewan rayuwa. Kuma ƴanuwa suna yi mata hidima don ganin damarsu da kuma son ransu, kafin ta koma zuwa gidansu ko gidan wani. [57]

Jere Gyara

Wasu daga cikin makusantan amarya, sune zasu ɗauki ɗawainiyar gyara ɗakin amarya, suyi jere, da kafin gado, da ƙawace ɗaki, da yin wasu al’adu kamar kafi (Tsari) ko kuma addu’o’i na gargajiya, saboda fatan samun zaman lafiya da kuma kare kai. A rannan ne akan ja kunnen amarya da barin wasu munanan ɗabi’u da yin kyawawansu da dai nisantar aikata abinda zai kawo rashin jituwa a tsakaninsu [58]

Budan kai Gyara

Wani ɗan bulaguro ne wanda amarya take yi zuwa gidansu, bayan kwana hudu, ko biyu, ko kuma ma mako ɗaya, saboda azo ayi mata jeren ɗaki, takanyi wannan ƴar ƙaura don a sami damar yi mata wasu ƴan gyare-gyare, kamar su kitso, da aski da shirye shiryen zama da mijinta. [59]

Aure Gyara

Aure na da alaƙa ce ta haliccin zaman tare tskanin namiji da kuma mace. Ana yinsa ne saboda abinda aka haifa ya samu asali, da mutunci da kiwon iyaye. Kuma shine maganin zina da “ƴaƴa marasa iyaye”. Aure muhimmin abu ne ga al’umma. Sabili da haka akwai hanyoyi ayyanannu na tabbatar dashi. [60] [61]

Sayen baki Gyara

Bayan ƴanmata sun watse, sai abokan ango su zo don a sayi bakin amarya, sabida baza ta yi musu magana ba sai an biya. Kuma a nan ne samari sukanyi ta wasa ƙwaƙwalwa da sauran magana kala-kala. Sayen baki yakan kasance da daddare ne, a inda ake sakewa ana darawa da kuma nishaɗi. [62]

Tarewa Gyara

Daga nan kuma sai shirya tarewarta a gidan miji. A ranar tarewa, sai ƴanuwan miji mata su zo gidansu amarya suna neman a basu matarsu, har su bada wani kuɗi na sayen amaryar, sannan a naɗa wata yarinya amaryar boko, bayan tsofaffi mata sun kai amarya ta gaskiya gidan mijinta. Sai a sa wata yarinya ta zama kamar itace amarya. Har a kaita gidan miji ana ta waƙe-waƙe na addini ko na batsa, saboda gudun wata makida ko makirci ko maƙarƙashiya wanda yakan faru daga wasu. [62]

Haihuwa Gyara

Daga zarar iyaye su tabbatar da samuwan ciki, sukan fara shirye-shirye saboda zuwan jaririn, uba yakan fara siyan itatuwa da tukunya domin wankan jariri da mahaifiyarsa. Yawancin lokuta akan samu tsohuwar mace wacce aka fi sani da Unguwar Zoma wacce take kula da lafiyar jariri da mahaifiyarsa, ta hanyar gyaran cibiyan jaririn da kuma tabattar da cewa mahaifiyar tayi wanka da ruwan zafi na aƙalla kwana bakwai kamar yadda al'ada ya tanadar. [63] Sinadaran yin wanka sun ƙunshi:

Bayan kwanaki kamar uku da haihuwa, uban jaririn yakan siyo nama "yawanci kan shanu kokuma kan rago" wanda ake yiwa mahaifiyar yaro farfesu dashi sannan a rabawa sauran ƴanuwa da maƙwapta. Sannan akan yi kunu yawanci kunun kanwa wanda mahaifiyar yaron zata rika sha domin samun isasshen nono da zata baiwa yaro.A lokacin da jaririn ya kai watanni bakwai, ana fara bashi abinci mai ruwa ruwa da nono har ya kai shekara 2 zuwa 2 ½. [63]

Suna Gyara

Ɗan da aka haifa Namiji ko Mace, ana raɗa masa suna ne bayan kwanaki bakwai da haihuwa a bisa al’ada. A wannan lokacin uban jaririn zai sayo rago da goro wanda za a rabawa baƙi da aka gayyata wajen taron raɗin sunan. [54] A ranar raɗin sunan akan gyara gida, ayi shara, a tsaftace gida sosai, ayi shimfiɗu a ƙofar gidan saboda baƙi masu zuwa taron sunan. Gabanin a soma walima, akan kira malami na unguwa ya yanka ragon da aka siyo domin raɗin sunan ayi kiran sallah cikin kunnen yaron tare da sanar dashi sunansa bayan kiran sallan. [54]

Wasu daga cikin sunayen da ake baiwa yaro a ƙasar hausa:

s/n Maza Mata
Isa Aisha
Musa Khadija
Yusuf Amina

Kaciya Gyara

Akan yi kachiya ga yara maza a bisa al'ada lokacin da suka kai shekaru 8-9 da haihuwa. Kuma akan bari sai lokacin hunturu saboda ƙananun ciwo da zasu iya yin lahani ga kachiyar sunyi ƙaranci a wannan lokacin. Yawanci iyaye sukan bar alamarin kaciyar a matsayin sirri ga yaran saboda gudun kar yaran su samu firgici gabanin lokacin da za'ayi musu kaciyan. [64]

Dangantaka a kasar hausa ya kunshi en uwa daga dangin guda biyu wata uwa da uba. Wasu daga cikin

  • Kaka
  • Uba
  • Uwa
  • Baba
  • Kawu
  • Goggo
  • Inna
  • Ɗan uwa
  • Ƴar uwa
  • Wa
  • Ƙane
  • Ya [65]
  • Ƙanwa
  • Jika – Jikanya
  • Tattaɓa kunne
  • Ɗan uba – ƴar uba
  • Agola
  • Uwar Gida, Amarya, Ango
  • Mowa (matar da miji yafi so)
  • Bora (matar da miji bai so sosai
  • Suruki – suruka
  • Ƴaya
  • Iya [66]

Asali garin Katsina sune cibiyar addinini musulunci a kasar Hausa, amman zuwa Shehu Usman Dan Fodio yasa vibiyar karatun addinini Musulunci ya tashi daga Katsina ya koma Daular Sokoto, a karkashin jagorancin Shehu Usman Dan Fodio da mukarraban sa. [67] Hausawa suna kiran al’adansu da al’adan gargajiya, wacce sukeyi duk shekara, ko a talabijin ko Bidiyo, ko kuma aikace cikin al’amuran yau da kullum. [68] Na daga cikin rubutun hausawa, suna yin rubutu ne asali da “ajami”, rubutu ne da haruffan larabci amman a luggar hausa, kuma suna rubutawa ne a fallen takarda. [5]

Rubutun Ajami na Hausawa a Najeriya a farkon karni na 20th, daga Suratul Hud.


Hausa are well known for their craftsmanship. There are leather tanners and leather-workers, weavers, carvers and sculptors, ironworkers and blacksmiths, silver workers, potters, dyers, tailors, and embroiderers. Their wares are sold in markets throughout west Africa.

Poverty is widespread among the Hausa. Poverty results in poor nutrition and diet, illness and inadequate health care, and lack of educational opportunities. Most of the region where the Hausa live is prone to drought. Hausa people suffer during harsh weather. Some Hausa have been unable to earn a living in rural areas, and have moved to the cities in search of work.


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