Aurignacian Secrets Revealed in Cutting-Edge Dental Research

Aurignacian Secrets Revealed in Cutting-Edge Dental Research

Who exactly were the Aurignacians who lived in the Levant 40,000 years ago? They first appeared in Europe some 43,000 years ago, bringing a cultural golden period of the Paleolithic with them. Their bone tools, artifacts, jewelry, musical instruments , and cave paintings, show the Aurignacian populations were highly creative, but like many of the world’s best artists they are something of a mystery.

Researchers from Tel Aviv University, the Israel Antiquities Authority, and Ben-Gurion University now report that these culturally sophisticated yet mysterious humans migrated from Europe to the Levant some 40,000 years ago, shedding light on a significant era in the region's history.

For years, researchers believed that modern man's entry into Europe led to the rapid decline of the Neanderthals , either through violent confrontation or wresting control of food sources. But recent genetic studies have shown that Neanderthals did not vanish. Instead, they assimilated into modern human immigrant populations. The new study adds further evidence to substantiate this theory.

  • Did Prehistoric Middle Eastern Culture Visit Europe, Spawn Artistic Culture, and Leave?
  • New Evidence Questions the Time and Place of Neanderthal Extinction
  • Fragments of 40,000 year old female ‘Venus’ carving found

Neanderthal and Human Teeth

Through cutting-edge dental research on six human teeth discovered at Manot Cave in the Western Galilee, Dr. Rachel Sarig of TAU's School of Dental Medicine and Dan David Center Center for Human Evolution and Biohistory Research, Sackler Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with Dr. Omry Barzilai of the Israel Antiquities Authority and colleagues in Austria and the United States, have demonstrated that Aurignacians arrived in modern-day Israel from Europe some 40,000 years ago - and that these Aurignacians comprised Neanderthals and Homo sapiens alike.

A report on the new findings was published in the Journal of Human Evolution on October 11.

View of the cave. (B) Archaeological layers attributed to the Early Upper Paleolithic cultures in the cave. (C) Map of northern Israel showing the location of Manot Cave. ( Sarig et al )

"Unlike bones, teeth are preserved well because they're made of enamel, the substance in the human body most resistant to the effects of time," Dr. Sarig explains. "The structure, shape, and topography or surface bumps of the teeth provided important genetic information. We were able to use the external and internal shape of the teeth found in the cave to associate them with typical hominin groups : Neanderthal and Homo sapiens."

The researchers performed in-depth lab tests using micro-CT scans and 3D analyses on four of the teeth. The results surprised the researchers: Two teeth showed a typical morphology for Homo sapiens; one tooth showed features characteristic of Neanderthals; the last tooth showed a combination of Neanderthal and Homo sapiens features.

  • The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes
  • Archaeologists Piece Together Ancient Ice Age Artwork
  • 26,000-Year-Old Child Footprints Found Alongside Paw Prints Reveal Oldest Evidence of Human-Canine Relationship

Manot Cave right upper third premolar – probably modern human (top) and Lower right second deciduous molar – possibly Neanderthal (bottom). ( Sarig et al )

This combination of Neanderthal and modern human features has, to date, been found only in European populations from the early Paleolithic period, suggesting their common origin.

The Important Cultural Contributions of Aurignacian People

"Following the migration of European populations into this region, a new culture existed in the Levant for a short time, approximately 2,000-3,000 years. It then disappeared for no apparent reason," adds Dr. Sarig. "Now we know something about their makeup."

"Until now, we hadn't found any human remains with valid dating from this period in Israel," adds Prof. Israel Hershkovitz, head of the Dan David Center, "so the group remains a mystery. This groundbreaking study contributes to the story of the population responsible for some of the world's most important cultural contributions."

“Löwenmensch figurine, found in the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave of Germany's Swabian Alb and dated at 40,000 years old, is associated with the Aurignacian culture and is the oldest known anthropomorphic animal figurine in the world.” ( Dagmar Hollmann/ CC BY SA 4.0 )


  • Restorers are working on 86 preserved plaster casts of Romanswho died when Mt Vesuvius erupted in 79AD
  • Each of the victims have been entombed in ash and now plaster for more than 1,900 years
  • Experts have spent the summer scanning these bodies using CT scanners at the Pompeii Archaeological Site
  • They have now released the first results of these scans to show what lies beneath the plaster of the victims

Published: 17:28 BST, 29 September 2015 | Updated: 18:06 BST, 1 February 2016

After being entombed in ash for more than 1,900 years, the victims of the devastating eruption in Pompeii are being brought to life using modern-day imaging technology.

Archaeologists have spent the past year carefully restoring and scanning the preserved bodies of 86 Romans who died when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79AD.

Now, the restorers have released the first results of these scans to show what lies under the plaster and casings of these people frozen in time.

Archaeologists have spent the past year carefully restoring and scanning the preserved bodies of 86 Romans who died when Mount Vesuvius erupted near Pompeii in 79AD. They have now released the first results of these scans to show what lies beneath the plaster and casings of the people frozen in time (scans of a victim believed to have been four years old when he died is shown)

Perhaps the most surprising discovery was the excellent conditions of the Roman's teeth. Researchers say it suggests they must have had a low sugar, high fibre diet and may even had eaten better than we did.

Among the victims to be scanned was a boy, believed to be around four years old, found frozen in terror.

He was discovered alongside an adult male and female, presumed to be his parents, as well as a younger child who appeared to be asleep on his mother's lap.

The little boy's clothing is visible in the plaster cast but now scans have revealed his tiny skeleton beneath these clothes.


2. Prehistory: A History

For most of human history, our beliefs about our origins drew upon oral traditions or the evidence found in ancient texts. One 17th-century scholar calculated, on the basis of biblical genealogies, that the creation happened in 4004 B.C. subsequent refinements settled on the date of Oct. 23. Sir Isaac Newton criticized the ancient Egyptians for the “vanity” of their own calendrical reckoning, which placed the beginning of their monarchy before the existence of the world. As the pre-eminent British archaeologist Colin Renfrew once put it, “For an educated man in the 17th or even the 18th century, any suggestion that the human past extended back further than 6,000 years was a vain and foolish speculation.”

It wasn’t long before a series of scientific interventions pried open human prehistory to methodical study. Two great advances of 1859 helped cement the view that 4004 B.C. was not, in fact, the starting point of all human activity. The first was the argument, made by a geologist and an antiquarian, that animal remains found alongside stone tools in Britain and France proved the antiquity of the human race. The second was the publication of Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species,” which was incompatible with both the specifics of biblical creationism and the more general proposition that the world was only a few thousand years old. It was all of a sudden widely plausible that stuff in the ground had been there for an unimaginably long time.

Before anyone could even begin to tell an ordered story about what might have happened, however, there needed to be a way to differentiate what happened sooner from what happened later. In the early 20th century, geologists and archaeologists began to draw upon contemporary observations of regular sedimentary deposits to project elementary prehistorical “clocks” backward in time. The end of the last ice age, for example, was set at about 10,000 years ago. Archaeologists then realized that they could cross-reference these geological clocks with the earliest written documents, ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian records that reached back 4,000 or 5,000 years. If geological time could be roughly calibrated everywhere, and if even a smattering of places had left behind calendars, recorded history could be tied to sedimentary chronology and true dates derived from the ground.

This was heralded as a magnificent advance. The trouble, as it turned out, was that an emphasis on written records from Egypt and the Middle East prompted scholars to take for granted the cultural superiority of those early civilizations and to make major assumptions on that basis — Stonehenge, for example, simply had to have followed the majesty of the Great Pyramids.

In 1949, the invention of radiocarbon dating, by the American physical chemist Willard F. Libby, turned the whole field upside down. By giving cosmically certain dates rather than cross-referenced estimations, radiocarbon dating undermined virtually all of archaeology’s basic premises. (Stonehenge could not have been patterned after the Great Pyramids if it was built at the same time as Giza.) There was stubborn resistance to the new lab results. These dates, pronounced one vaunted Edinburgh archaeologist with a now-notorious sniff, are “archaeologically unacceptable.” By the early 1960s, they could no longer be ignored, and a new generation of archaeologists gutted the discipline and rebuilt it with very different assumptions — ones that did not rely on the idea that a few peoples of first-rate culture and pedigree had been responsible for humanity’s major steps forward.

If prehistorians had learned one hard lesson from chemists, their colleagues in biology departments were slowly laying the groundwork for another. In 1967, the molecular biologist Allan Wilson at the University of California, Berkeley, along with one of his students, Vincent Sarich, demonstrated that evolutionary relationships between species could be determined not only from fossils but also, via a quantitative analysis of blood proteins, from living specimens. Humans and apes, Wilson found, diverged only five million years ago — far more recently than previously believed.

Within the decade, researchers trained in the discipline of population genetics would get in on the historical act. Every contemporary genome is a mosaic of individual tiles passed along from thousands of ancestors each of us thus contains not only our “own” ancestry but those of multitudes. With each new generation, random mutations, like misspellings, are introduced into a population some of these will disappear over time, but others will increase in frequency until they are common enough to become a statistically significant part of a population’s genetic signature. If two populations have been distinct for a long time — that is, if people from one don’t tend to mate with people from the other — they will share fewer of these mutations if they encountered each other and were fruitful, their mutation frequencies will overlap. These insights could be made relevant to prehistorians insofar as they could demonstrate that modern human populations were forged in the mixture of ancient ones. It was still mostly impossible, though, to conclude anything about when these groups might have mixed, or where, or how.

The answers to those questions required not just contemporary genetic data but actual prehistoric DNA. The idea that it might be preserved in old specimens has been around since 1984, when Wilson announced that his lab had extracted DNA from the salted skin of a quagga, an extinct equine species with the head of a zebra and the haunches of a donkey. The further possibilities suggested by ancient DNA were awarded a special place in the public imagination by the 1993 release of Steven Spielberg’s “Jurassic Park.” But even as the journal Nature capitalized on the premiere with a paper that sequenced the DNA of an amber-trapped weevil — a study rendered dubious after widespread speculation that the sample had been contaminated with the researchers’ own DNA — observers wondered whether the sequencing of ancient genomes was just a neat trick or research of actual value.

Over the past few years, a growing cohort of scientists has at last produced a fantastic answer. Ancient DNA, they believe, not only allows us to cut through what scholars once wrote off as “wrapped in a thick fog” of “heathendom.” It promises nothing less than what the Harvard geneticist David Reich has called “the genome revolution in the study of the human past.”


Several studies have examined the association between aortic sclerosis and the development of cardiac events. The presence of aortic sclerosis is associated with increased risk of heart attack, stroke, dying from a heart attack, or just dying from all causes. This is not a cause for alarm and in fact not surprising when you look at the risk factors for aortic sclerosis. These are the many of the same risk factors associated with other forms of cardiovascular disease. The actual risk of developing these events is still relatively small. It just that those with aortic sclerosis have a higher risk of these events than those without. The implication of this is that those patients with aortic sclerosis should pay attention to controlling typical cardiac risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, diet and lifestyle.

Aortic sclerosis itself does not typically require surveillance and most patients don’t need to be scheduled for a follow-up study. In some cases of very thickened valves, or those nearing a diagnosis of aortic stenosis, the interpreting cardiologist may suggest a repeat study at some point particularly if the murmur worsens or symptoms develop.


The Entrance Chamber and Chamber of the Bear Wallows - Salle d'entrée et Salle des Bauges

Chamber of the Bear Wallows

The floor of the Chamber of the Bear Wallows is scattered with numerous bones of cave bears, and bears traces of their occupation such as the bear wallows they scraped out of the clay of the floor, and long trails of young and adult paw prints.

Photo: © Valérie Feruglio
Text and source: http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/owpt06bis.htm


This section would have been mostly in semi-darkness at the time the art was created. It seems to have been purposely left without significant art, even though there are many suitable surfaces. These two chambers taken as a whole act as an antechamber to the art galleries further into the cave.

The Entrance Chamber is now sealed off from the outside by a rock fall, and the floor is covered with scree. It contains no art.

The 50 metre wide Chamber of the Bear Wallows which adjoins the Entrance Chamber has, by contrast, a perfectly flat floor, attributed to an ancient lake which at times completely filled this chamber.

The ceiling has been sculpted by water into smoothed pockets and pendants, but it is flat in one section where the roof has given way and fallen to the floor in large blocks.

The flat floor has hollows, or wallows, dug into the clay by cave bears, and some of the blocks on the floor are polished by their passage, as they used smell and touch to negotiate in the very dimly lit space. Text above: Clottes (2003)

Bear Wallow, or Bauge, in the Chamber of Bear Wallows (or Bear Hollows in some translations).

Photo: © MCC, CNP Périgueux
Source: Bon (2011b)


Blocks on the floor in front of the Panel of Positive Hands at the end of the Salle des Bauges, the Chamber of the Bear Wallows.


Recreation of a cave bear.

Photo: Don Hitchcock, 2008
Source: Display at Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac


The location of bear wallows, scratches and marks left by cave bears in Chauvet.


Cave Bear skeleton in the Vienna Natural History Museum.

Note the ridge down the top centre of the skull which is there to attach the large muscles of the jaws and the neck. It was a powerful animal, and could eat both animal and vegetable materials, though it was apparently mostly vegetarian.

Photo: Don Hitchock 2008
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia
Source: apparently original, Vienna Natural History Museum

The skeleton on display at the Vienna Natural History museum included a baby cavebear as well as a juvenile.

The cave bear had a very broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, making it similar in skeletal structure to the brown bear. Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern day bears. The average weight for males was 400-500 kilograms (880-1102 pounds), while females weighed 225–250 kg (496-551 lbs).[4] Of cave bear skeletons in museums, 90% are male due to a misconception that the female skeletons were merely "dwarfs". Cave bears grew larger during glaciations and smaller during interglacials, probably to adjust heat loss rate.

Photo: Don Hitchock 2008
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia
Source: apparently original, Vienna Natural History Museum

Cave bears of the last ice age lacked the usual 2-3 premolars present in other bears to compensate, the last molar is very elongated, with supplementary cusps. The humerus of the cave bear was similar in size to that of the polar bear, as were the femora of females. The femora of male cave bears, however, bore more similarities in size to those of kodiak bears.

Photo: Don Hitchock 2008
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia
Source: apparently original, Vienna Natural History Museum

There is some evidence that the cave bear only used caves for hibernation and was not inclined to use other locations, such as thickets, for this purpose, in contrast to the more versatile Brown Bear. This specialised hibernation behavior would have caused a high winter mortality rate for Cave Bears that failed to find available caves.

Therefore, as human populations slowly increased, the Cave Bear faced a shrinking pool of suitable caves, and slowly faded away to extinction, as both Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans sought out caves as living quarters, depriving the cave bear of vital habitat. This hypothesis is being researched at this time.

Photo: Don Hitchock 2008
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia
Source: apparently original, Vienna Natural History Museum

Cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) probably gave birth to cubs during hibernation, in winter, in caves. Bear cubs lactated their mothers during their first and second winters, but were fed solid food together with lactation during their first summer.

Photo: Don Hitchock 2008
Text: Adapted from Liden et al. (1985)
Source: apparently original, Vienna Natural History Museum

At the very end of the Chamber of the Bear Hollows, or Chamber of the Bear Wallows, we can see this Rhinoceros head turned toward the right. It seems that the outline was intentionally left unfinished, as in the photo on the left.

The photo on the right has had a possible completion graphic added.

Photo: © Jean Clottes
Text and source: http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/owpt06ter.htm

This map and table provides an excellent summary of a small sample of the bones to be found on the floors of Chauvet Cave. They were examined for diagenesis, which is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment (or bone in this case) after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification. However it is an important resource since it gives a list of the relative abundance of various species within the cave, either carried there by humans, or from the remains of animals who chose to enter the cave.

This paper assesses the preservation of bones exposed on the floor of Chauvet Cave. These bones are mainly from cave bears. They exhibit very variable macroscopic preservation, from apparently pristine specimens to those that are decomposing or coated with calcite. This site offers a unique opportunity to investigate, on a large scale, bone diagenesis in a karstic context. Despite the highest priority put on the preservation of the cave features, about one hundred bone fragments from most sectors of the cave could be collected for biogeochemical investigation. Carbon and nitrogen elemental content were measured, and X-ray diffraction spectra were established. Only about one quarter of the specimens yielded collagen that retained its biogenic isotopic signatures. Bones exhibiting different stages of preservation were not randomly scattered in the cave. Local environmental conditions seem to have led to different diagenetic pathways. Widely differing states of preservation were seen in bones of similar age. This site provides a good case study of diagenetic process occurring in karstic sites and may be used to better understand diagenesis in less well studied caves.


Open opportunities for your community to see, cite, share, and build on your research. PLOS gives you more control over how and when your work becomes available.

Ready, set, share your preprint. Authors of most PLOS journals can now opt-in at submission to have PLOS post their manuscript as a preprint to bioRxiv.

All PLOS journals offer authors the opportunity to increase the transparency of the evaluation process by publishing their peer review history.


Houston Methodist Hospital Set To Terminate Unvaccinated Employees

Joe Martino 1 minute read

Take a moment and breathe. Place your hand over your chest area, near your heart. Breathe slowly into the area for about a minute, focusing on a sense of ease entering your mind and body. Click here to learn why we suggest this.

Houston Methodist Hospital is set to terminate employees who refuse COVID-19 vaccines. As of June 12th, a district Judge has shot down a lawsuit the employees have filed against the the hospital. The employees, led by Jennifer Bridges, are set to file an appeal and are prepared to take the case all the way to the supreme court.

This case will be important to track as this may set the tone for how private companies will approach the ‘mandating’ of vaccines that governments had suggested would not be policy. If people can be fired for refusing a vaccine, is it fair to say these vaccines are truly not mandatory?

Dive Deeper

Click below to watch a sneak peek of our brand new course!

Our new course is called 'Overcoming Bias & Improving Critical Thinking.' This 5 week course is instructed by Dr. Madhava Setty & Joe Martino

If you have been wanting to build your self awareness, improve your.critical thinking, become more heart centered and be more aware of bias, this is the perfect course!

General


Dry needling, acupuncture and laser

Peter Selvaratnam , Philip Gabel , in Headache, Orofacial Pain and Bruxism , 2009

Guidelines for dry needling

Dry needling can be applied to deactivate active myofascial trigger points in the cervical or craniomandibular muscles when a patient's headache is reproduced by digital pressure or needling. Dry needling can also be applied to latent MTPs which are tender on palpation. These muscles may include the suboccipital muscles, trapezeii, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, masseters, temporalis and occipitofrontalis and are described in Chapter 23 . Similarly, if digital pressure or needling of MTPs eases the headaches, DN may be considered as a treatment option. However, MTPs do not occur in isolation and may exist in response to changes in joint mechanics, neurodynamics, localized muscle dysfunction, neurological problems or sinister pathology. Thus, it is important to assess the cause of the MTP and rule out any sinister pathology prior to considering DN.

Dry needling can be applied in patients with an acute or irritable condition when other manual therapy procedures may easily exacerbate the patient's headaches ( Selvaratnam & Knight 1995 ). Needling has been reported to promote analgesia at points distal to the site of stimulation. For instance, if a patient experiences headaches in the temporal region, and they are sensitive to palpation of the temporalis, dry needling can be applied to MTPs in the upper cervical region due to the neural connections of the trigeminocervical nucleus (TCN) ( Zhao et al 2005 ).

Dry needling can be performed in patients with tension headache or cervicogenic headache who have cervical or masseter muscle hypertonicity. Needling is considered to have a local segmental effect by depolarizing large diameter afferents in lamina V of the dorsal horn and thereby inhibiting nociceptive information ( Le Bars et al 1983, NHMRC 1989 ). The segmental effect is postulated to contribute to local analgesia and reduction of muscle hypertonicity. Some experimental evidence supports the analgesic effect of needling anatomical structures which are innervated by the TCN ( Zhao et al 2005 ). Although the exact mechanism is unclear, it is suggested that analgesia could be due to inhibitory effects on the TCN and spinal dorsal horn neuron, central modulation of the spinal dorsal horn neuron, peripheral modulation, or descending inhibitory effects on pain processing ( Zhao et al 2005 ). Thus, DN can be used in headache sufferers, with muscle guarding or MTPs in the cervical or craniomandibular muscles.

Dry needling may be beneficial in patients with long term headaches when other therapeutic modalities or medication have had limited effects. Needling has neurophysiological effects in the acute and chronic stages of a condition ( Selvaratnam & Knight 1995 ). Acupuncture needling releases opiate peptides such as beta-endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins. These neurotransmitters block the transmission of pain information ( He 1987, Ulett et al 1998 ). Enkephalins and dynorphins are considered to block nociceptive transmission between primary afferents and the spinal cord neurons and thereby inhibit the experience of pain being activated in the CNS. The descending modulatory pathways may be regulated by beta-endorphins released from the pituitary gland that in turn might prevent impulses reaching the gland and affect the inhibitory impulses from the brain centers. Nalaxone, reduces the effect of acupuncture analgesia suggesting that needling procedures increase endorphin levels ( Ulett et al 1998 ).

Cross perfusion/infusion experiments also indicate that needling has analgesic effects which could benefit headache sufferers. This effect following acupuncture was demonstrated when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was transferred from a donor rabbit to a recipient rabbit ( Ulett et al 1998 ). It has also been observed that electroacupuncture induces stronger analgesic effects than needling alone. Release of endorphins in the CSF has been measured after electroacupuncture. High frequency (100 Hz) and low frequency (2 Hz) electroacupuncture are reported to selectively activate the release of enkephalins and dynorphins in animal and human experimental studies ( Sluka et al 1998, Ulett et al 1998 ). Nalaxone prevented electroacupuncture-induced analgesia, inferring that endorphins are involved. These studies further support the concept that needling could provide analgesia to headache sufferers.


Houston Methodist Hospital Set To Terminate Unvaccinated Employees

Joe Martino 1 minute read

Take a moment and breathe. Place your hand over your chest area, near your heart. Breathe slowly into the area for about a minute, focusing on a sense of ease entering your mind and body. Click here to learn why we suggest this.

Houston Methodist Hospital is set to terminate employees who refuse COVID-19 vaccines. As of June 12th, a district Judge has shot down a lawsuit the employees have filed against the the hospital. The employees, led by Jennifer Bridges, are set to file an appeal and are prepared to take the case all the way to the supreme court.

This case will be important to track as this may set the tone for how private companies will approach the ‘mandating’ of vaccines that governments had suggested would not be policy. If people can be fired for refusing a vaccine, is it fair to say these vaccines are truly not mandatory?

Dive Deeper

Click below to watch a sneak peek of our brand new course!

Our new course is called 'Overcoming Bias & Improving Critical Thinking.' This 5 week course is instructed by Dr. Madhava Setty & Joe Martino

If you have been wanting to build your self awareness, improve your.critical thinking, become more heart centered and be more aware of bias, this is the perfect course!

General


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Watch the video: Fissurenversiegelung