John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles served as secretary of state in the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration. His policies were firmly anti-communist and he was instrumental in the formation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which was designed to prevent communism from coming to power in any more countries in that region.Dulles was born on February 25, 1888, in Washington, D.C. His father was a Presbyterian minister, and Dulles developed strong religious beliefs that remained with him throughout his life. During the 1920s and 1930s, Dulles attended numerous international churchmen’s conferences.His family background included a grandfather, John Watson Dulles, who served as secretary of state under Benjamin Harrison. His uncle, Robert Lansing, was secretary of state for the Woodrow Wilson administration. His older brother, Allen Welsh Dulles, was the CIA head under Eisenhower. Dulles' first taste of diplomacy came in 1907, when his grandfather brought him along to the Hague Peace Conference.Dulles attended Princeton, the Sorbonne, and George Washington universities. He obtained a law degree from GWU and then entered the New York law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell, Wall Street’s most powerful law firm. He specialized in international law and later became its senior partner.Bad eyesight prevented his entering combat during World War I, but he served in the Army Intelligence Service instead. Following the armistice, he was legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference.Dulles developed a close relationship with Thomas Dewey and was Dewey's foreign policy advisor during the latter's presidential campaign of 1948. Vandenberg at the United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco, where he helped draft its charter preamble.In 1949, Governor Dewey appointed Dulles to fill the U.S. Dulles served in the Senate, but lost the special election held in November of the same year.Although a strong proponent of international cooperation, Dulles became disillusioned with the Soviet Union after experiencing firsthand their intransigence during international meetings. Gradually, Dulles became a critic of Harry S. Truman and his policy of containing communism. In Dulles' view, the United States should have been actively promoting liberation. He got his chance to put theory into practice when newly elected President Eisenhower selected him to be secretary of state, in 1953.It was Dulles' policy that the United States should curb Soviet expansion with the threat of massive atomic retaliation. His critics blamed Dulles for hurting relations with communist countries, thereby deepening the Cold War's effects. Dulles recognized the dangers of brinksmanship,* but argued that it was still safer than appeasement.In an article for Life Magazine, Dulles wrote about brinksmanship, “The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art." In actual practice, he was unable to roll back any of the gains that the communists had made during the Truman years, and he found no way to support uprisings in East Germany in 1953 or Hungary in 1956.The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which Dulles helped to organize, was formed in 1954. The treaty, signed in Manila by the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, France, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines, obliged all its signatories to help defend against aggression in the Pacific region.Dulles promoted the idea strongly and believed it would be a bulwark against further communist expansion. Unfortunately, the agreement proved to be ineffective when the United States alone had to defend attacks by the Viet Minh against three non-communist states, in 1963.Dulles initiated the policy of strong support for Ngo Dinh Diem's regime in South Vietnam. That backfired, because the Soviet Union filled the void and gained a strategic foothold in the region.Dulles's humanitarian contributions included:

  • co-founder and former chairman of the Federal Council of Churches,
  • board chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
  • a former trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, and
  • a founding member of the Council of Foreign Relations.
  • He also was the namesake for the Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia. His son, Avery Robert Dulles, was the first American priest to be promoted directly to cardinal.Dulles developed cancer, which lead to his resignation in April 1959. He died in Bethesda, Maryland, just outside of Washington D.C., on May 24, 1959. His interment took place at Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia. Shortly before his death, he was awarded the Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian honor.


    *The practice of maneuvering a dangerous situation to the limits of tolerance in order to secure the greatest advantage, especially by managing a diplomatic crisis.


    John Foster Dulles was born in February 1888 in Washington, D.C., to Elizabeth Foster and the Reverend Allen Macy Dulles, a Presbyterian minister. His family had a rich history of involvement in international diplomacy and the ministry. One grandfather, John Watson Foster (1836–1917), was secretary of state for President Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901 served 1889–93). His other grandfather, John Welsh Dulles, was a prominent missionary. He also had an uncle, Robert Lansing (1864–1928), who was secretary of state for President Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924 served 1913–21). A brother, Allen Dulles (1893–1969), would become director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1953 to 1961. A sister, Eleanor Dulles (1895–1996), would serve in the U.S. State Department as an expert on Central Europe.

    Dulles enjoyed a privileged upbringing in Watertown, New York, and entered Princeton University in 1904. His father had always encouraged him to become a minister. However, in 1907, young Dulles traveled with his grandfather John Foster to the Second International Peace Conference in Europe. At the meeting, they served as advisors to the Chinese government. It was a impressionable experience for the nineteen-year-old Dulles, giving him a firsthand taste of international diplomacy. He would eventually choose a career in diplomacy, not ministry.

    After graduating at the top of his 1908 Princeton class, Dulles entered George Washington University in Washington, D.C., to study law. While at George Washington, he freely mingled with the city's inner circle of influential people. He left George Washington before receiving a degree and passed the bar exam in 1911. Dulles joined the New York law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell, beginning as a clerk, then working his way up to senior partner by age thirty-eight. Dulles specialized in international law, advising foreign clients and American companies that had foreign holdings. He was respected for his very sharp mind, but at times he oversimplified issues, sometimes to the frustration of others. On June 26, 1912, Dulles married Janet Pomeroy Avery. They had three children.


    Ideological Origins of a Cold Warrior: John Foster Dulles and his Grandfather

    To experts on the history of U.S. foreign policy, the Dulles brothers’ service during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s presidency marks an important watershed in the evolution of American interventionism. In the context of brewing conflict with the Soviet Union, Eisenhower’s administration aimed to protect developing countries of the “Third World” from being converted to Communism. However, as recovery efforts following World War II mobilized international diplomatic efforts to broker world peace, U.S. officials were reluctant to deploy troops abroad. John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower’s secretary of state during this time. His brother, Allen Dulles, served as director of the recently founded Central Intelligence Agency. Together, the Dulles brothers used this agency to eliminate perceived communist threats in the Third World through covert operations, establishing a powerful precedent for “regime change” as foreign policy strategy.

    What fewer scholars and policy enthusiasts know is that the Dulles brothers were products of an elite political family with a strong internationalist tradition. John Foster Dulles’ personal papers, stored at his alma mater Princeton University, exhibit how the eldest brother’s upbringing and family network, consisting of diplomats, missionaries, and international lawyers, influenced his developing world view. This is particularly the case with his maternal grandfather, John W. Foster, a prominent patriarchal presence during Dulles’ childhood. Ideological continuity between Foster and his oldest grandson is evident in their comparable career paths, their methods of preparing subsequent male generations, and their published texts and speeches which analyze the role of U.S. foreign policy in international affairs.

    John W. Foster, Secretary of State under President Benjamin Harrison (via Wikipedia)

    Dulles’ personal papers suggest that he modeled his career after that of his grandfather. Foster had also served as secretary of state, at the end of President Benjamin Harrison’s administration. He inhabited this role during the fall of the Hawaiian monarchy in January 1893, an event that led to U.S. annexation of the archipelago. Foster then left political office to pioneer U.S. corporate legal practices and distinguish himself as an international diplomat. Notably, he mediated negotiations at the close of the First Sino-Japanese War and drafted the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed on April 17, 1895. Dulles’ career subsequently followed a similar path. He also became an international corporate lawyer, partially through his grandfather’s connections, at the elite law firm Sullivan and Cromwell LLC. As partner at this firm, Dulles represented powerful U.S. corporations with vested interests abroad, such as the United Fruit Company. Dulles simultaneously cultivated a long-term career in international diplomacy, serving as secretary to the Economic Reparations Committee at the Treaty of Versailles and later as delegate to the San Francisco Conference which established the United Nations.

    Continuity is also evident in the two figures’ strategies for patriarchal mentorship. While Dulles was still a child, he spent his summers at his grandfather’s house on Henderson Harbor in upstate New York. Very early most mornings, Foster took his grandsons fishing. On these excursions, the Dulles brothers learned how to catch their own lunch and cook over an open fire. They ate as they listened to their grandfather’s stories of his experiences abroad, often in the company of distinguished guests such as William Howard Taft, Andrew Carnegie, or Bernard Baruch. These trips taught the boys that self-reliance was a masculine virtue while, at the same time, integrating them into a network of white male elites. Dulles later applied similar methods to raising his sons, taking them on month-long sailing voyages up the Canadian coastline, where they learned to navigate by starlight and catch their own food. For both Foster and Dulles, traveling by water was a fruitful exercise in battling uncontrollable elements, which they believed benefitted male members of subsequent generations.

    Eleanor Roosevelt, Adlai Stevenson, and John Foster Dulles at the United Nations in New York City (via National Archives and Records Administration)


    John Foster Dulles - History

    Paula O’Donnell
    University of Texas at Austin

    Cross-posted from Not Even Past

    To experts on the history of U.S. foreign policy, the Dulles brothers’ service during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s presidency marks an important watershed in the evolution of American interventionism. In the context of brewing conflict with the Soviet Union, Eisenhower’s administration aimed to protect developing countries of the “Third World” from being converted to Communism. However, as recovery efforts following World War II mobilized international diplomatic efforts to broker world peace, U.S. officials were reluctant to deploy troops abroad. John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower’s secretary of state during this time. His brother, Allen Dulles, served as director of the recently founded Central Intelligence Agency. Together, the Dulles brothers used this agency to eliminate perceived communist threats in the Third World through covert operations, establishing a powerful precedent for “regime change” as foreign policy strategy.

    What fewer scholars and policy enthusiasts know is that the Dulles brothers were products of an elite political family with a strong internationalist tradition. John Foster Dulles’ personal papers, stored at his alma mater Princeton University, exhibit how the eldest brother’s upbringing and family network, consisting of diplomats, missionaries, and international lawyers, influenced his developing world view. This is particularly the case with his maternal grandfather, John W. Foster, a prominent patriarchal presence during Dulles’ childhood. Ideological continuity between Foster and his oldest grandson is evident in their comparable career paths, their methods of preparing subsequent male generations, and their published texts and speeches which analyze the role of U.S. foreign policy in international affairs.

    Dulles’ personal papers suggest that he modeled his career after that of his grandfather. Foster had also served as secretary of state, at the end of President Benjamin Harrison’s administration. He inhabited this role during the fall of the Hawaiian monarchy in January 1893, an event that led to U.S. annexation of the archipelago. Foster then left political office to pioneer U.S. corporate legal practices and distinguish himself as an international diplomat. Notably, he mediated negotiations at the close of the First Sino-Japanese War and drafted the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed on April 17, 1895. Dulles’ career subsequently followed a similar path. He also became an international corporate lawyer, partially through his grandfather’s connections, at the elite law firm Sullivan and Cromwell LLC. As partner at this firm, Dulles represented powerful U.S. corporations with vested interests abroad, such as the United Fruit Company. Dulles simultaneously cultivated a long-term career in international diplomacy, serving as secretary to the Economic Reparations Committee at the Treaty of Versailles and later as delegate to the San Francisco Conference which established the United Nations.

    Continuity is also evident in the two figures’ strategies for patriarchal mentorship. While Dulles was still a child, he spent his summers at his grandfather’s house on Henderson Harbor in upstate New York. Very early most mornings, Foster took his grandsons fishing. On these excursions, the Dulles brothers learned how to catch their own lunch and cook over an open fire. They ate as they listened to their grandfather’s stories of his experiences abroad, often in the company of distinguished guests such as William Howard Taft, Andrew Carnegie, or Bernard Baruch. These trips taught the boys that self-reliance was a masculine virtue while, at the same time, integrating them into a network of white male elites. Dulles later applied similar methods to raising his sons, taking them on month-long sailing voyages up the Canadian coastline, where they learned to navigate by starlight and catch their own food. For both Foster and Dulles, traveling by water was a fruitful exercise in battling uncontrollable elements, which they believed benefitted male members of subsequent generations.


    Birth of John Foster Dulles

    John Foster Dulles was born on February 25, 1888 in Washington, D.C.

    The oldest of five children, Dulles attended school in Watertown, New York before entering Princeton University. There he served on the debate team before graduating in 1908. Dulles went on to attend George Washington University Law School.

    After graduating and passing the bar exam, Dulles worked in a New York City law firm where he focused on international law. Then in 1915, his uncle Robert Lansing, then Secretary of State, asked him to visit Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama to see if they would aid the U.S. in the war against Germany. Dulles helped work out a deal between the nations that served all parties.

    U.S. #1172 FDC – This cancellation includes the phrase “Peace with Justice,” taken from the title of one of Dulles’ writings.

    Also during World War I, Dulles attempted to join the Army, but was denied because of his poor eyesight. However, he was granted a commission as a Major on the War Industries Board. When the war was over, President Woodrow Wilson made Dulles legal counsel to the U.S. delegation at the Versailles Peace Conference. While there, Dulles was a vocal opponent of harsh reparations against Germany. After the conference, he served on the War Reparations committee and the League of Free Nations Association, which supported America’s membership in the League of Nations.

    U.S. #928 was issued for the 1945 U.N. Peace Conference.

    Dulles went on to help create the Dawes Plan, which dealt with the payment of war reparations. However, Germany stopped making some of its payments in 1931 and by 1935, Dulles had to sever all business ties with the nation that had been taken over by the Nazis.

    In the 1940s, Dulles supported Thomas E. Dewey’s bids for the presidency and served as his chief foreign policy advisor. After World War II, he attended the San Francisco Conference and helped to write the preamble to the United Nations Charter. Dulles then served as a delegate to the U.N. General Assembly in 1946, 1947, and 1950.

    U.S. #2022 – Dulles Airport opened in November 1962.

    In January 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower made Dulles Secretary of State. In that position, he spent much of his time building up NATO and was an important figure during the early Cold War era, fighting communism worldwide. Dulles supported the French war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and played a crucial role in the CIA’s overthrow of Iran’s Mossadegh government in 1953.

    The following year, Dulles helped found the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), to prevent the expansion of communism in Southeast Asia. Dulles also helped found the National Council of Churches, the Foreign Policy Association and the Council of Foreign Relations. And he served on the boards of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Rockefeller Foundation. For his accomplishments, Dulles was made Time’s Man of the Year for 1954.

    U.S. #2022 FDC – Silk Cachet pictures Dulles and the airport named in his honor.

    Dulles discovered he had colon cancer in the mid 1950s, but remained Secretary of State until April 1959. He died a little over a month later on May 24. He was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and Washington’s Dulles International Airport was named in his honor.


    John Foster Dulles: The Moral Diplomat

    John Foster Dulles (Joop van Bilsen/Wikimedia Commons)

    M ore people use the name of John Foster Dulles today than ever used it during his six-year tenure as U.S. secretary of state in the Eisen­hower administration — which would be quite an impressive historical marker if it were not for the fact that the “Dulles” so often invoked is the name of an airport that services the D.C. metro area.

    John Foster Dulles himself has not been so generously treated. Although Dulles earned the coveted Time designation “Man of the Year” in 1954, he never managed to achieve the world-shaker status of some other secretaries of state — Thomas Jefferson, …

    This article appears as &ldquoThe Moral Diplomat&rdquo in the May 17, 2021, print edition of National Review .

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    John Foster Dulles - History

    John Foster Dulles on Massive Retaliation

    The Need for Long-Range Policies

    This "long time" factor is of critical importance.

    The Soviet Communists are planning for what they call "an entire historical era," and we should do the same. They seek, through many types of maneuvers, gradually to divide and weaken the free nations by overextending them in efforts which, as Lenin put it, are "beyond their strength, so that they come to practical bankruptcy." Then, said Lenin, "our victory is assured." Then, said Stalin, will be "the moment for the decisive blow."

    In the face of this strategy, measures cannot be judged adequate merely because they ward off an immediate danger. It is essential to do this, but it is also essential to do so without exhausting ourselves.

    When the Eisenhower administration applied this test, we felt that some transformations were needed.

    It is not sound military strategy permanently to commit U.S. land forces to Asia to a degree that leaves us no strategic reserves.

    It is not sound economics, or good foreign policy, to support permanently other countries for in the long run, that creates as much ill will as good will.

    Also, it is not sound to become permanently committed to military expenditures so vast that they lead to "practical bankruptcy."

    Change was imperative to assure the stamina needed for permanent security. But it was equally imperative that change should be accompanied by understanding of our true purposes. Sudden and spectacular change had to be avoided. Otherwise, there might have been a panic among our friends and miscalculated aggression by our enemies. We can, I believe, make a good report in these respects.

    We need allies and collective security. Our purpose is to make these relations more effective, less costly. This can be done by placing more reliance on deterrent power and less dependence on local defensive power.

    This is accepted practice so far as local communities are concerned. We keep locks on our doors, but we do not have an armed guard in every home. We rely principally on a community security system so well equipped to punish any who break in and steal that, in fact, would be aggressors are generally deterred. That is the modern way of getting maximum protection at a bearable cost.

    What the Eisenhower administration seeks is a similar international security system. We want, for ourselves and the other free nations, a maximum deterrent at a bearable cost.

    Local defense will always be important. But there is no local defense which alone will contain the mighty landpower of the Communist world. Local defenses must be reinforced by the further deterrent of massive retaliatory power. A potential aggressor must know that he cannot always prescribe battle conditions that suit him. Otherwise, for example, a potential aggressor, who is glutted with manpower, might be tempted to attack in confidence that resistance would be confined to manpower. He might be tempted to attack in places where his superiority was decisive.

    The way to deter aggression is for the free community to be willing and able to respond vigorously at places and with means of its own choosing.


    John Foster Dulles - History

    John Foster Dulles, 95, a noted Brazilian history scholar and the eldest son of the former secretary of state, died of kidney failure Monday in San Antonio, Texas.

    Dr. Dulles, a professor of Latin American studies at the University of Texas at Austin for 45 years and the author of books on Brazil and Mexico, was preparing for the fall semester until he became ill June 12. His wife of 68 years, Eleanor Ritter Dulles, the daughter of a prominent Philadelphia architect, died four days before her husband.

    "He was a real character," said Tom Staley, director of the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. "We referred to him as 'Cactus Jack,' because he wrote these books about Brazil and Mexico. His students loved him."

    In addition to his father, President Dwight D. Eisenhower's secretary of state, for whom the airport is named, Dulles' great-grandfather and a great-uncle also were secretaries of state. His uncle, Allen Dulles, would become head of the CIA, and his aunt, Eleanor Lansing Dulles, was a State Department official known as the "mother of Berlin" for her role in the city's recovery after World War II.

    Dr. Dulles wrote 12 books and numerous articles on 20th-century Brazilian history, including

    Resisting Brazil's Military Regime

    (2007), the second of a two-volume work on reformer Sobral Pinto.

    Dr. Dulles was an avid tennis player. "He was beating me into his 80s," said his son, John F. Dulles II, who recalled that his intensively competitive father often resorted to a ploy. He always tried to play on the hottest days, on clay courts, and in the middle of a match, he would collapse on the court, lying sprawled on his back for minutes. "After that, you'd have second thoughts about beating an old man," his son said.


    John Foster Dulles - History

    Document Title: "John Foster, Dulles to James C. Hagerty, October 8, 1957, with attached: "Draft Statements on the Soviet Satellite," October 5, 1957.

    Source: John Foster Dulles Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas.

    The Eisenhower Administration had anticipated the imminent launch of the first Soviet satellite, and had given some thought to potential public reaction to such an event. But when the launch occurred on October 4, 1957, the administration was suprised by the amount of public concern. Four days after the event, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles sent White House Press Secretary James Hagerty his suggestions for the text of a press release which would place the Sputnik launch in its proper context and reassure the public. Although Dulles' comments did not result in a press release, they did form the basis for much of the administration's "official" comment about the Soviet achievement as well as the core of President Eisenhower's comments at a press conference on October 9th. This document does not contain the draft statement prepared by Allen Dulles, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and brother of the Secretary of State, which is mentioned in the cover letter.

    Here is a draft which I made. Also I enclose a draft which AWD made for me which now might be considered by the President.

    Draft Statements on the Soviet satellite

    The launching by the Soviet Union of the first earth satellite is an event of considerable technical and scientific importance. However, that importance should not be exaggerated. What has happened involves no basic discovery and the value of a satellite to mankind will for a long time be highly problematical.

    That the Soviet Union was first in this project is due to the high priority which the Soviet Union gives to scientific training and to the fact that since 1945 the Soviet Union has particularly emphasized developments in the fields of missiles and of outer space. The Germans had made a major advance in this field and the results of their effort were largely taken over by the Russians when they took over the German assets, human and material, at Peenemunde (X>?), the principal German base for research and experiment in the use of outer space. This encouraged the Soviets to concentrate upon developments in this field with a use of [2] resources and effort not possible in time of peace to societies where the people are free to engage in pursuits of their own choosing and where public monies are limited by representatives of the people. Despotic societies which can command the activities and resources of all their people can often produce spectacular accomplishments. These, however, do not prove that freedom is not the best way.

    While the United States has not given the same priority to outer space developments as has the Soviet Union, it has not neglected this field. It already has a capability to utilize outer space for missiles and it is expected to launch an earth satellite during the present geophysical year in accordance with a program which has been under orderly development over the past two years.

    The United States welcomes the peaceful achievement of the Soviet scientists. It hopes that the acclaim which has resulted from [3] their efforts will encourage the Soviet Union to seek development along peaceful lines and seek to enrich the spiritual and material welfare of their people.

    What is happening with reference to outer space makes more than ever important the proposal made by the United States and the other free world members of the Disarmament Subcommittee. I recall my White House statement of August 28 which emphasized the proposal of the Western Powers at London to establish a study group to the end that "outer space shall be used only for peaceful, not military, purposes."


    Who Is John Foster Dulles? John Foster Dulles Life Story

    John Foster DULLES (1888-1959), American diplomat and public official. As secretary of state (1953-1959) during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he insisted that the United States stand firm against the threat of Communist aggression.

    Earlier Career :

    Dulles was born in Washington, D.C., on Feb. 25, 1888, the son of the Rev. Allen Macy Dulles and Edith Foster Dulles. He was a grandson of John Watson Foster, who served as secretary of state under Benjamin Harrison, and a nephew of Robert Lansing, one of Woodrow Wilson’s secretaries of state. As a young man, Dulles was attracted to the ministry, but in 1907 his grandfather took him to the Hague Conference, where Dulles, then only 19, served as secretary to the Chinese delegation. This marked the beginning of a career in international law and diplomacy spanning 52 years.

    Dulles was educated at Princeton (B.A., 1908), the Sorbonne (Paris), and George Washington University (LL.B., 1911). He was admitted to the New York bar in 1911 and joined the law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell in New York City. During World War I he served with the War Trade Board, and in 1919 he was counsel to the United States delegation to the Reparations Commission at Versailles. He then rejoined Sullivan and Cromwell and soon became one of the nation’s leading international lawyers and a financial adviser to several foreign governments.

    He was a United States delegate to the San Francisco Conference in 1945 and to the United Nations General Assembly in 1946, 1947, 1948, and 1950. He also served as special adviser to the secretary of state at the Councils of Foreign Ministers in London (1945), Moscow (1947), and Paris (1949). In July 1949 he was appointed by Gov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York to fill a vacancy in the U.S. Senate, but he lost the seat in a special election in November. In 1951, as a representative of President Harry S Truman, with the rank of ambassador, he was chief negotiator of the peace treaty with Japan.

    Secretary of State :

    On Jan. 21, 1953, Dulles entered the Eisenhower cabinet as secretary of state. He occupied that post until serious illness compelled him to resign on April 15, 1959. He died in Washington on May 24, 1959.

    Dulles’ 60 trips abroad and nearly 500,000 miles (800,000 km) of flying to and from conferences during his six years in office made him the most traveled of all American secretaries of state up to his time. He was also the most controversial. In a magazine article published in 1956, he was quoted as saying that the Eisenhower administration had walked three times to the “brink of war” and that the ability to get to the verge and yet sidestep war was a “necessary art” of diplomacy. These statements at once became issues of intensive debate. He also coined the phrase “massive retaliation” in a reference to the role of atomic weapons as the mainstay of the West’s defense against attack.


    Watch the video: John Foster Scandalo al sole A summer place