395 CE - 408 CE
408 CE - 450 CE
450 CE - 457 CE
457 CE - 474 CE
491 CE - 518 CE
518 CE - 527 CE
527 CE - 565 CE
565 CE - 578 CE
578 CE - 582 CE
582 CE - 602 CE
602 CE - 610 CE
610 CE - 641 CE
668 CE - 685 CE
685 CE - 695 CE
695 CE - 698 CE
698 CE - 705 CE
705 CE - 711 CE
711 CE - 713 CE
713 CE - 716 CE
716 CE - 717 CE
717 CE - 741 CE
741 CE - 775 CE
775 CE - 780 CE
780 CE - 790 CE
780 CE - 797 CE
797 CE - 802 CE
802 CE - 811 CE
811 CE - 813 CE
813 CE - 820 CE
820 CE - 829 CE
829 CE - 842 CE
842 CE - 867 CE
867 CE - 886 CE
912 CE - 913 CE
920 CE - 944 CE
945 CE - 959 CE
959 CE - 963 CE
963 CE - 969 CE
969 CE - 976 CE
1025 CE - 1028 CE
1028 CE - 1034 CE
1028 CE - 1050 CE
Reign of Byzantine Empress Zoe (including spells alongside three husbands, a nephew and sister).
1034 CE - 1041 CE
1041 CE - 1042 CE
1042 CE - 1055 CE
Apr 1042 CE - Jun 1042 CE
Reign of Byzantine empresses Zoe and Theodora.
1055 CE - 1056 CE
1056 CE - 1057 CE
1057 CE - 1059 CE
1059 CE - 1067 CE
1067 CE - 1071 CE
1 Jan 1068 CE
Romanos IV Diogenes marries the widowed Empress Eudokia and becomes Byzantine emperor.
1071 CE - 1078 CE
1078 CE - 1081 CE
Apr 1081 CE - Aug 1118 CE
1118 CE - 1143 CE
1143 CE - 1180 CE
1180 CE - 1183 CE
1183 CE - 1185 CE
1185 CE - 1195 CE
1195 CE - 1203 CE
1203 CE - 1204 CE
Joint reign of Byzantine emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV.
1259 CE - 1282 CE
1282 CE - 1328 CE
1293 CE - 1320 CE
1328 CE - 1341 CE
1341 CE - 1376 CE
1341 CE - 1354 CE
1376 CE - 1379 CE
1379 CE - 1391 CE
1391 CE - 1425 CE
1425 CE - 1448 CE
1449 CE - 1453 CE
A Millennium of Glory: The Rise and Fall of the Byzantine Empire
Late antiquity was one of the most dramatic periods in our history – a turbulent time in which nations and peoples rose and fell, vying for power and territory in a merciless fight for prominence. Great migrations shook the known world, centuries-old traditions became obsolete, and strange new religions came into play – the world was changing.
And out of this change, this violent shifting of powers, a single realm managed to thrive and rise to the top. A mighty force that would survive great changes and dominate the European scene for more than a millennium – the Byzantine Empire.
Constantine the Great
Born Flavius Valerius Constantinus and later known as Constantine the Great, Constantine I was the first Christian Roman Emporer.
Many historians charge him with transforming the Roman Empire into a Christian state that is an accomplishment that would have an impact for centuries leading up to modern-day.
Constantine the Great’s most prominent action in history is the formation of “New Rome” in the then-Greek state of Byzantium. He later renamed the city Constantinople, which is now what we know as modern-day Istanbul. It was Constantine’s Christian beliefs that ultimately paved the way for the growth of the empire.
He also solidified the Christian culture that would be present in the Roman Empire and the Western world for centuries to come.
Early Emperors Visual Timeline
Perhaps a bit old-fashioned, this timeline shows the decades of the first century A.D. with the emperors and their dates of rule along the line for each decade. Also see 2nd Century Order of the Emperors timeline, 3rd Century, and 4th century. For the fifth century, see Roman Emperors After Theodosius.
Byzantine Emperor Timeline - History
Emperors of Byzantine (976 .. 1453)
|Ruler||Relationship to Predecessor||To |
|967||Basil II and Constantine VIII||1025|
|1028||Zoë and Romanus III Argyrus||1034|
|1034||Zoë and Michael IV||1041|
|1041||Zoë and Michael V||1042|
|1042||Zoë and Constantine IX||1050|
|1056||Michael VI Stratioticus||1057|
|1057||Isaac I Comnenus||1059|
|1057||Constantine X Ducas||1067|
|1067||Eudoxia with Michael VII, Andronicus and Constantine||1068|
|1068||Romanus IV Diogenes||1071|
|1071||Michael VII Ducas (Restored)||1078|
|1078||Nicephorus III Botaniates Ducas||1081|
|1081||Alexius I Comnenus||1118|
|1118||John II Comnenus||1143|
|1143||Manuel I Comnenus||1180|
|1180||Alexius II Comnenus||1183|
|1183||Andronicus I Comnenus||1185|
|1185||Isaac II Angelus||1195|
|1195||Alexius III Angelus||1203|
|1203||Alexius IV and Isaac II Angelus||1204|
|1204||Alexius V Ducas||1204|
Kings 936 - 1319
Basil II and Constantine VIII
The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204 and a Latin Kingdom was established lasting until 1261, when Michael VIII succeeded in reunifying the Empire.
|Ruler||Relationship to Predecessor||To |
|1204||Baldwin I, Count of Flanders||1205|
|1205||Henry of Flanders||1216|
|1216||Yolande of Flanders||1219|
|1219||Robert of Courtenay||1228|
|1228||Baldwin II and Jean de Brienne (Regent)||1237|
After the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204 the old Byzantine Empire fragmented. Under the leadership of Theodore I Lascaris the Empire of Nicaean continued in parallel with the Latin control until Constantinople was recaptured in 1261.
|Ruler||Relationship to Predecessor||To |
|1204||Theodore I Lascaris||1222|
|1222||John II Vatatzes||1254|
|1254||Theodore II Lascaris||1258|
|1258||John IV Vatatzes||1261|
|1259||Michael VIII Palaeologus||1282|
Restored Byzantine Empire
Under the leadership of Michael Palaeologus Constantinople was recaptured from the Latin army who had been in control since 1204.
Download this lesson as Microsoft Word file or as an Adobe Acrobat file.
Listen as Mr. Dowling reads this lesson.
Mr. Donn has an excellent website that includes a section on the Middle Ages.
The Rise and Fall of the Carolingian Empire
After this battle, the Carolingian family came into power. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Moors in this battle.
Charlemane is born
Conquest of the Lombard Kingdom
The Lombard Kingdom was in Italy and was very large. So its defeat meant a huge expansion for the Carolingian Empire.
Conquest of the Saxons
The Saxons were people that lived in Europe and the British Isles. During this conquest, Charlemagne sought to convert the Saxons.
Advance of christian powers in Spain
The Carolingians won the Spanish March from the Saracens, which helped them gain the ability to make more advancements then and in the future.
Charlemagne writes Admonitio Generalis
This is one of his most famous works. Another one of his most famous works is Epistola de Litteris Colendis and they have both survived to the present day.
Charlegmane is crowned emperor
Charlemagne was crowned on Christmas day by Pope Leo the lll. This in a way helped to revive the Western Roman Empire
Frankish Empire is ruled by the Carolingian Dynasty
The Frankish Empire was a large kingdom that consisted of small sub-kingdoms.
Carolingian Civil War
This war mostly consisted of fighting between Louis the Pious (a son of Charlemagne) and Charles the Bald and his three sons Lothar, Pepin, and Louis the German.
Peace is restored
During the war, there was a large amount of fighting between the family. Louis the Pious had been stripped of his title. However, when the peace was restored between the family, he gained his title back.
Louis the Pious dies
Oaths of Strasbourg
Louis the German and Charles the Bald made an alliance. This divided the empire between the two of them.
As citizens of the greatest city on Earth, the people of Constantinople were never afraid to express themselves, often through violence. In the most famous example, fans of the Blue and Green chariot racing teams united to riot against Justinian I.
The emperor was prepared to flee, but the day was saved by his wife, Theodora, who proclaimed that she would rather die an empress than live as a commoner. The rebels were subsequently massacred.
Not all riots destabilized the empire. One particularly bloody civil war was effectively ended by a prison riot. Megaduke Alexios Apokaukos was inspecting his new jail when the political prisoners ran amok and murdered him, crippling his faction.
The assertive tendencies of Constantinople&rsquos citizenry survived the Ottoman conquest, and many a sultan cowered inside the Topkapi Palace while an enraged mob tore his vizier to pieces.
Finding treasure in trash
Elusa was already partly excavated, but the new investigation was the first to explore the site's long-ignored trash heaps, lead study author Guy Bar-Oz, a professor of archaeology at the University of Haifa in Israel, told Live Science in an email.
Unlike the architecture of an ancient city, which could be repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt, landfills steadily accumulated over time, creating continuous records of human activity. Clues found in preserved garbage dumps could thereby reveal if a city was thriving or in trouble.
"For me, it was clear that the true gold mine of data about daily life and what urban existence in the past really looked like was in the garbage," Bar-Oz said.
In the dump sites, the scientists found a variety of objects: ceramic pot sherds, seeds, olive pits, charcoal from burned wood and even evidence of discarded "gourmet foods" imported from the Red Sea and the Nile, the study authors reported.
The scientists carbon-dated organic material such as seeds and charcoal in layers of trash mounds located near the city. They found that trash had built up in that location over a period of about 150 years and that the accumulation terminated in the middle of the sixth century. This suggested there was a failure of infrastructure, which happens when a city is about to collapse, the researchers noted.
Based on the new evidence, researchers concluded that Elusa's decline began at least a century before Islamic rule wrested control of the region from the Romans. In fact, Elusa was struggling during a period that was relatively peaceful and stable it was during this time that the Roman Emperor Justinian was expanding the empire's boundaries across Europe, Africa and Asia, Bar-Oz said.
With the empire enjoying "a period of glorious success," it would seem logical to expect that its outposts would be financially secure, Bar-Oz said. Yet the data the researchers collected suggested the opposite.
"Instead, we are seeing a signal for what was really going on at that time and which has long been nearly invisible to most archaeologists — that the empire was being plagued by climatic disaster and disease," Bar-Oz explained.
The findings were published online today (March 25) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Videssian History [ edit | edit source ]
Videssian Timeline [ edit | edit source ]
Year Zero: Videssos the city and later the empire is established.
Zero+200: Avtokrator Stavrakios rules Videssos and expands it to its greatest size, conquering Agder from the Halogai and sacking Mashiz, the capital of Makuran.
Not long afterwards, Kveldulf the Halogai attempts to convert his fellow Halogai to Phos, but is martyred in the attempt.
Stylianos vs. Maleinos II and the Rise of Rhavas [ edit | edit source ]
Zero+400: Grand Domestikos Stylianos launches a rebellion against Avtokrator Maleinos II, plunging the empire into civil war. Maleinos pulls the garrisons from the towns and cities and Stylianos recalls border guards to help them fight one another. This conflict weakens Videssos so much that the Khamorth nomads of Pardraya manage to enter and invade the north-eastern provinces of Videssos, sacking Skopentzana. Makuran also manages to seize Vaspurakan from Videssos. Prelate Rhavas of Skopentzana turns from Phos to Skotos. Stylianos defeats and kills Maleinos, becoming Avtokrator.
Over time, the nations of Kubrat, Khatrish and Thatagush emerge from the lands the Khamorth invaded.
Not long after this war ended, the Vaspurakaner rebel Andzeratsik (the Videssian style name he took was Kalekas) attempted to seize power in a civil war and lost about 150 years before the Time of Troubles.
The "Time of Troubles" [ edit | edit source ]
Map of Videssos and neighboring nations at the start of the Time of Troubles
Zero+550: Avtokrator Likinios spreads gold among the Khamorth of Pardraya, enticing them to attack Makuran. The ploy succeeds and the Khamorth trap and destroy a great Makuraner Army under Peroz King of Kings, weakening Makuran and allowing a usurper named Smerdis to seize the throne and imprison Sharbaraz, Peroz' son and heir.
Abivard son of Godarz, disgusted at Smerdis, helps free Sharbaraz and launches a rebellion to put Sharbaraz on the throne of Makuran, but they are beaten and driven into Videssos where they implore Likinios for aid. Likinios assists Sharbaraz by sending General Maniakes to help. Sharbaraz beats Smerdis and becomes King of Kings of Makuran.
Likinios is overthrown and killed while forcing his army to stay in Kubrat. Genesios becomes Avtokrator. Makuran invades Videssos, seizing Vaspurakan and the Westlands, prompting Maniakes to rebel and overthrow Genesios, becoming Avtokrator and saving Videssos from Makuran.
The Time of Krispos [ edit | edit source ]
Zero+700: Avtokrator Rhaptes dies and is succeeded by his son Anthimos III under the regency of his uncle Petronas. Krispos rises to prominence in Videssos. Harvas Black-Robe leads an army of Halogai, rampaging across Thatagush and then Kubrat upon the invitation of Petronas so he can invade Makuran. Krispos helps Anthimos remove his uncle. Anthimos attempts to slay Krispos by magic, but fails and kills himself. Krispos becomes Avtokrator and defeats Harvas and conquers Kubrat. He also crushes the Thanasiot rebellion.
During the next five hundred years, minor border changes occur between Agder and Halogaland and between Khatrish and Thatagush. Haloga pirates conquer the Videssian island province of Kalavria, becoming the new nation of Namdalen and the Phos' Wager theology flourishes.
Zero+1100: Avtokrator Khoirosphaktes establishes a fort in Pardraya on the Kouphis River as a gift to a powerful Khamorth khagan. It was abandoned after his death.
Zero+1150: The Arshaum invade western Pardraya, driving the Khamorth over the Shaum (formerly Mylasa) River. Avshar (Rhavas) uses magic to slay Varahran King of Kings of Makuran and allows a Khamorth clan called the Yezda to invade and conquer Makuran and Vaspurakan. Avshar establishes himself as a prince in Yezd (formerly Makuran) and teaches the cult of Skotos to the Yezda who begin raiding and attacking Videssos.
The Time of the Legion [ edit | edit source ]
Map of Videssos and neighboring nations at the Time of the Legion
Zero+1200: Avtokrator Ioannakis III is replaced by Avtokrator Strobilos Sphrantzes who in turn is overthrown by Avtokrator Mavrikios Gavras. The Roman Legion under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus arrives in Videssos. Mavrikios goes to war with Yezd but is defeated and killed by Avshar, allowing Ortaias Sphrantzes to seize the throne. Thorisin Gavras overthrows Ortaias and becomes Avtokrator, beating rebellions by Baanes Onomagoulos and the Great Count Drax. Avshar overthrows Khagan Wulghash of Yezd and launches and all out war to destroy Videssos but is stopped by Patriarch Balsamon, Marcus Scaurus, Viridovix son of Drappes, and Avtokrator Thoirisin. Avshar is defeated forever and the Yezda withdraw to Yezd proper.