May 17, 2013 Day 118 of the Fifth Year - History

May 17, 2013 Day 118 of the Fifth Year - History

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office
Closed Press

11:00AM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House
South Lawn

11:25AM THE PRESIDENT arrives Baltimore, Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland

11:35AM THE PRESIDENT visits an Elementary School
Baltimore, Maryland

1:05PM THE PRESIDENT tours Ellicott Dredges
Ellicott Dredges, Baltimore, Maryland

1:20PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
Ellicott Dredges, Baltimore, Maryland

2:15PM THE PRESIDENT visits a community center
Baltimore, Maryland

3:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs Baltimore, Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland

3:25PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House
South Lawn


BMW 3 Series (E90)

The fifth generation of the BMW 3 Series consists of the BMW E90 (sedan), BMW E91 (wagon, marketed as 'Touring'), BMW E92 (coupe) and BMW E93 (convertible) compact executive cars. The E90/E91/E92/E93 was introduced in December 2004, [7] and produced by BMW until October 2013 and is often collectively referred to as the E90 or E9x.

  • Germany: Leipzig Munich Regensburg
  • South Africa: Rosslyn (BMW SA)
  • China: Shenyang (BBA)
  • Mexico: Toluca (BMW Mexico)
  • Egypt: 6th of October City (BAG) [1]
  • India: Chennai (BMW India) [2]
  • Thailand: Rayong (BMW Thailand) [3]
  • Indonesia: Jakarta (Gaya Motor)
  • Malaysia: Kulim, Kedah (Inokom) [4]Shah Alam (AMIM ) [4][5]
  • Russia: Kaliningrad (Avtotor) [6]
  • Petrol:
  • 1.6–2.0 L N43/N45/N46I4
  • 2.5–3.0 L N52/N53I6
  • 3.0 L N54/N55I6turbo
  • 4.0 L S65 V8
  • Diesel:
  • 2.0 L M47/N47I4
  • 3.0 L M57/N57I6

The E9x saw the introduction of run-flat tyres to the 3 Series range. Models with run-flat tyres are not equipped with a spare tyre. The E92 335i was the first 3 Series model produced with a turbocharged petrol engine. [8] It was also the first 3 Series to include the iDrive operating system, which consists of navigation, infotainment and essential vehicle functions. [9]

The E90/E92/E93 M3 is the only generation of M3 to be powered by a V8 engine. Introduced in 2007, [10] it uses the BMW S65 naturally aspirated V8 engine and was produced in sedan, coupe and convertible body styles.

Following the introduction of the F30/F31 3 Series in February 2012, the E90/E91 sedans and wagons were phased out. However, the E92/E93 coupes and convertibles remained in production through the 2013 model year, [11] after which they were replaced by the F32/F33 4 Series models.


Area 52

Welcome to AREA 52 - the home of creative worship ideas for every week, relating to the Bible readings of the Revised Common Lectionary. You can browse the upcoming weeks, or search ahead for a specific date or Lectionary week, and then click on links to a growing collection of resources - scripts, poems, PowerPoints, prayers, and more. Feel free to use these in services, small groups and personal worship, and to adapt the ideas to suit your context.

AREA 52 is the brainchild of Bob Hartman - bestselling author and much loved storyteller, who just loves to help people engage with the Bible afresh.

Bob's stories and scripts are here alongside resources from other writers and creators, including the usual engageworship.org team. We would also like to thank the financial donors who have made these resources free for all.

If you are not familiar with the Revised Common Lectionary we have written an article on why and how you might make use of it. But whether your follow the Lectionary closely, dip into it for key points of the church year, or are just exploring it for the first time, we hope and pray these resources will be a blessing to you and your church.


Historical Timeline

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2400 BC - 499

2400 BC - Sumerian Records

"The Sumerian word for female prostitute, kar.kid, occurs in the earliest lists of professions dating back to ca. 2400 B.C. Since it appears right after nam.lukur. one can assume its connection with temple service. It is of interest that the term kur-garru, a male prostitute or transvestite entertainer, appears on the same list but together with entertainers. This linkage results from a practice connected with the cult of Ishtar, in which transvestites performed acts using knives. On the same list we find the following female occupations: lady doctor, scribe, barber, cook. Obviously, prostitution, while it is a very old profession, is not the oldest."

Gerda Lerner, PhD "The Origin of Prostitution in Ancient Mesopotamia," Signs, Winter 1986

1780 BC - Hammurabi's Code

The Code of Hammurabi preserved on a stone "stele."
Source: wikipedia.org (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

1075 BC - The Code of Assura

Assyrian law distinguished prostitutes from other women by dress in the Code of Assura. "If the wives of a man, or the daughters of a man go out into the street, their heads are to be veiled. The prostitute is not to be veiled. Maidservants are not to veil themselves. Veiled harlots and maidservants shall have their garments seized and 50 blows inflicted on them and bitumen [asphalt or tar like substance] poured on their heads."

600s BC - Legal Brothels in China

"According to Chinese tradition, commercial brothels were started in the seventh century B.C. by the stateman-philosopher Kuang Chung [b.710-d.645] as a means for increasing the state's income. Though there is some doubt as to whether Kuang Chung actually established the principle of licensing prostitutes, prostitution very early was set apart in special areas of the town."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

594 BC - Legal Brothels in Ancient Greece

Sculpture of Solon.
Source: University of Massachusetts at Boston website

Paul Vallely "A Brief History of Brothels," London Independent, Jan. 21, 2006

400s BC - Hetairai in Ancient Greece

A reclining heitara depicted on a Greek terracotta cup, circa 500 BC.
Source: getty.edu (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

"[He]taira. a 'female companion'. was the term normally used for courtesans in Classical Athens. They were generally more cultivated than citizen women they were trained (usually by older hetairai) to be entertaining and interesting rather than to be thrifty managers of households. Some hetairai functioned as entrenched mistresses or even common-law wives, but others less fortunate were essentially prostitutes."

"Apasia, was a hetaira, one of the highly educated women from eastern Greece who entertained and accompanied men in many of their festivals, often including sex. As the mistress of Perikles, a principal ruler of Athens in the mid-fifth century B.C.E., Aspasia's influence on the Athenian leader was reputedly enormous at various times his policies and speeches were ascribed to her."

Bella Vivante, PhD Women's Roles in Ancient Civilizations: A Reference Guide, 1999

180 BC - Roman Regulations

Roman brothel token, circa First Century AD.
Source: museumoflondon.org.uk, Jan. 5, 2012

"Rent from a brothel was a legitimate source of income. Procuration also, had to be notified before the aedile [government regulators], whose special business it was to see that no Roman matron became a prostitute. [I]n the year 180 B C. Caligula inaugurated a tax upon prostitutes (vectigal ex capturis).

When an applicant registered with the aedile, she gave her correct name, her age, place of birth, and the pseudonym under which she intended practicing her calling. (Plautus, Poen.)

If the girl was young and apparently respectable, the official sought to influence her to change her mind failing in this, he issued her a license (licentia stupri), ascertained the price she intended exacting for her favors, and entered her name in his roll. Once entered there, the name could never be removed, but must remain for all time an insurmountable bar to repentance and respectability. Failure to register was severely punished upon conviction, and this applied not only to the girl but to the pandar [sic] as well. The penalty was scourging, and frequently fine and exile. Notwithstanding this, however, the number of clandestine prostitutes at Rome was probably equal to that of the registered harlots."

W. C. Firebaugh Notes in his translation of The Satyricon, Complete (1922) by Petronius Arbiter

438 AD - Codex Theodosianus

"[T]he Code issues by Christian [Byzantine] Emperor Theodosius [II]. deprived fathers and mothers of their legal right to compel their daughters or slaves to prostitute themselves. The code also took steps to abolish the prostitution tax, thus giving the state less of a financial interest in prostitution."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

500 - 1499

534 - Justinian and Theodora

Justinian the Great.
Source: Utah State University website (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great compiled the existing imperial laws into the Corpus Juris Civilis with 38 entries on prostitution in 534.

Justinian was married to Empress Theodora, an alleged former prostitute, in 525. They created laws that banished procuresses and brothel keepers from the capital, granted freedom to slaves forced into prostitution, and banned sex in public bathhouses.

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

Late 500s - Visigoths Criminalize Prostitution

"A decree of Recared, Catholic king of the Visigoths of Spain (596-601) absolutely prohibited prostitution. Girls and women born of free parents convicted of either practising prostitution, or inducing debauchery, were condemned for the first offence to be flogged (300 strokes) and to be ignominously expelled from the town."

Tamae Mizuta Marie Mulvey-Roberts Perspectives on the History of British Feminism: The Rights of Married Women, 1994

1158 - Holy Roman Army Punishes Prostitution

Portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
Source: blessed-gerard.org (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

In 1158, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa punished prostitutes traveling with the army. When caught in the act, the prostitute was ordered to have her nose cut off in an attempt to make her less attractive. A soldier caught in the act sometimes had a finger cut off or an eye removed."

Robert M. Hardaway, JD No Price Too High: Victimless Crimes and the Ninth Amendment, 2003

1161 - England Regulates Prostitution

Henry II allowed the regulation of London's Bankside "stew-houses" [brothels] which included rules that prohibited forced prostitution, allowed for weekly searches by constables or bailiffs, and mandated closing on holidays. Prostitutes were not allowed to live at the brothels or be married and were discouraged from taking short shifts.

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1200s - Castile Regulates Prostitution

Alfonso IX['s]. ([Castilian] ruler 1188-1230). regulations about prostitution are among the earliest in Europe. In a section of code. he concentrated on those who profited from prostitutes. Those involved in selling prostitutes were to be exiled from the kingdom lanlords who rented rooms to prostitutes were to have their houses impounded and also pay a fine brothelkeepers had to free the women found in their brothels. and find them husbands or else suffer the possibility of execution husbands who prostituted their wives were to be executed and pimps were to be flogged for a first offense, and if they persisted were to be sent to the galleys as convicts. Women who supported pimps were to be publicly whipped and have the clothes they wore destroyed."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

Dec. 1254 - France Abolishes Prostitution

Portrait of King Louis IX of France.
Source: Wikimedia Commons (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

In Dec. 1254 St. Louis [King Louis IX of France] ordered the expulsion of all 'women of evil life' from his kingdom and the confiscation of their belongings and even their clothing. In 1256 he repeated the order to expel women 'free with their bodies and other common harlots', but he adds that it would be desirable to drive them out of respectable streets, to keep them as far away as possible from religious establishments, and when feasible, to force them to lodge outside the city walls. In 1269, on the eve of his departure for his second crusade, he sent the regents a letter reminding them of the decree of 1254 and urging them to enforce it strictly so that this evil could be extirpated root and branch."

1350 - Municipal Brothels

"It was between 1350 and 1450 that the cities institutionalized prostitution, setting up a prostibulum publicum [municipal brothel] when the city did not already have one. The Castelletto in Venice opened its doors in 1360. Florence took a similar decision in 1403 Siena in 1421."

"When the Great Council of Venice ratified a decree in 1358 that declared prostitution 'absolutely indispensable to the world,' this was a definite sign of the times."

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

1469 - Castile Increases Pimping Punishment

"[I]n 1469 a special ordinance of Henry IV, King of Castila, was launched against the men engaged in it, who acting as procurers, associated themselves with the women and were called ruffians: when any such were found, they were for the first offense to receive 100 lashes for the second they were to be banished for life for the third they were to be hung."

Tamae Mizuta Marie Mulvey-Roberts Perspectives on the History of British Feminism: The Rights of Married Women, 1994

1490s - Syphilis

Beginning in the 1490s the Great Pox (syphilis) ravaged Europe for nearly a century. "The recognition of the veneral nature of infection, and the fear of disease, combined with the moral fervor of the various sixteenth-century Reformers, resulted in a reaction against prostitution."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

1500 - 1799

1500s - Elite Renaissance Courtesans in Italy

"An aristocratic and courtly environment with limited access to aristocratic and courtly women… engendered a higher caliber of prostitute -- a woman who was not only young and beautiful, but who could grace with wit and charm a dinner or an evening otherwise dominated by male clerics. [T]he courtesan flourished as an elite form of prostitute quickly copied by an increasingly aristocratic upper class throughout Italy.

The ideal was that unlike the common whore, who was available to all, the universal victim at the bottom of the hierarchy of prostitution, the 'honest courtesan' was an exacting mistress. who judged honestly her suitors, accepting only the best."

Guido Ruggiero, PhD Binding Passions: Tales of Magic, Marriage, and Power at the End of the Renaissance, 1993

Apr. 13, 1546 - England Ends Regulation

Portrait of Henry VIII by Hans Holbein.
Source: Lake Superior State University website (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

Henry VIII's royal proclamation ended England's "toleration" for prostitutes who he called "dissolute and miserable persons."

Henry Ansgar Kelly, PhD "Bishop, Prioress, and Bawd in the Stews of Southwark," Speculum, Apr. 2000

1560 - France Abolishes Brothels

"An ordinance of Charles IX., dated 1560, prohibited the opening or keeping of any brothel or house of reception for prostitutes in Paris. In 1588 an ordinance of Henry III. reaffirmed the ordinance of 1560, and alleged that the magistrates of the city had connived at the establishment of brothels. Ordinances of the provost followed in the same strain, and all prostitutes were required to leave Paris within twenty-four hours."

1586 - Punishment Increases in Severity

". [I]n 1586, Pope Sixtus V declared that the death penalty would be imposed on prostitution and 'sins against nature.' Sixtus V intended his command to be followed all over the Catholic world. There were some death sentences, but not many. For their part, the Lutherans continued to shave off both hair and ears the Calvinists branded, and burdened with large stones carried around the city, and employed the stocks in public places."

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

1617 - Japan Creates Red-Light Districts

The entrance to the Yoshiwara pleasure district.
Indiana University website (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

The red-light district Yoshiwara [Good Luck Meadow] was "established in 1617 on the edge of the city [Edo now known as Tokyo] to gather all legal brothels in an out-of-the-way spot, the Yoshiwara was relocated in 1656 following Edo's rapid expansion.

It burned down a year later in the Meireki Fire and was rebuilt in 1659, this time out past Asakusa. Officially renamed Shin (New) Yoshiwara, it was now permitted to carry on night time operations, which were prohibited in the old quarter."

Gerald Figal, PhD "A Night at the Yoshiwara," figal-sensei.org (accessed May 25, 2007)

1699 - Regulation of Prostitution in Colonial America

"Prostitution was not an offense in either English or American common law, and, prior to World War I, although being a prostitute was not an offense, prostitution was generally regulated as a specific sort of vagrancy. When prostitutes were punished as sexual deviants, it was under laws against adultery or fornication or for being 'common nightwalkers'--women who strolled the streets at night for immoral purposes.

From very early times, for example, nightwalking was an offense in Massachusetts. The law against nightwalking in that state, which testifies to the presence of prostitutes, was enacted in the colonial assembly of 1699 and reenacted by the state legislature in 1787. It was not until 1917 in Massachusetts, however, that a prostitute could be punished for prostitution."

Eleanor M. Miller, PhD Kim Romenesko, MA and Lisa Wondolkowski "The United States," Prostitution: An International Handbook on Trends, Problems, and Policies, 1993

1751 - Chastity Commission in Vienna

"Portrait of Queen Maria Theresa" by Martin van Meytens, 1750s.
Source: brooklynmuseum.org (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

1760s - 1780s - Prostitution Flourishes in Colonial New York

"Colonial New York was preeminently a seaport, and prostitution flourished in the streets and taverns close to the docks. New York, remarked John Watt in the 1760s, was 'the worst School for Youth of any of his Majesty's Dominions, Ignorance, Vanity, Dress, and Dissipation, being the reigning Characteristics of their insipid Lives.' For much of the eighteenth century, 'courtesans' promenaded along the Battery after nightfall. On the eve of the Revolution, over 500 'ladies of pleasure [kept] lodgings contiguous within the consecrated liberties of St. Paul's [Chapel].' A few blocks north, at the entrance to King's College (later Columbia University), Robert M'Robert claimed that dozens of prostitutes provided 'a temptation to the youth that have occasion to pass so often that way.'"

Timothy J. Gilfoyle, PhD "The Urban Geography of Commercial Sex: Prostitution in New York City, 1790-1860," The Other Americans: Sexual Variance in the National Past, 1996

Nov. 6, 1778 - France's Lenoir Ordinance

Prostitutes did not legally exist in France after 1560 but were unofficially licensed by police. For example the Lenoir ordinance "purported to renew the 1560 Act. " stated "[p]rostitutes - femmes de débauche - were forbidden to exist. If, however, they insisted on existing, they were forbidden to walk in public places or display themselves at windows in such a way as to attract custom and, if they insisted on doing these forbidden things, they must do them only in certain parts of the city."

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1800 - 1913

1802 - Bureau des Moeurs of Paris

"Au Salon de la rue des Moulins" by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1894.
Source: wikipaintings.org (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

Kristin Luker, PhD "Sex, Social Hygiene, and the State: The Double-Edged Sword of Social Reform," Theory and Society, Oct. 1998

1810 - Netherlands Begins Regulation

Napoleon introduced a system of regulation to the Netherlands in 1810. It ended in 1813 when the French withdrew. Slowly the system came back and the Local Government Act of 1851 again institituted regulation to prevent the spread of disease.

Johannes C. J. Boutellier "Prostitution, Criminal Law and Morality in the Netherlands," Crime, Law and Social Change, May 1991

July 29, 1864 - Britain's Contagious Diseases Act

"The 1864 [Contagious Diseases] Act was followed in 1866 by a second Act which made the system permanent, and a third Act in 1869 which extended the system although still confining it to towns of military and navy use."

This legislation allowed the police to arrest prostitutes in ports and army towns and bring them in to have compulsory checks for venereal disease. If the women tested positive they were hospitalized until cured. It was claimed many of the women arrested were not prostitutes resulting in forced medical examinations and hospitalizations. The law was repealed Mar. 26, 1886.

Trevor Fisher, MA, MEd Prostitution and the Victorians, 1997

July 5, 1870 - St. Louis Regulates

The city of St. Louis, Missouri passed the Social Evil Ordinance empowering the Board of Health to regulate prostitution. The Board of Health required registration and medical examination of all known prostitutes as well as the licensing of brothels. The medical examiners were paid by fees collected from the 'social evilists' (prostitutes) and madams. The ordinance was nullified by the Missouri state legislature in 1874.

Duane Sneddeker "Regulating Vice: Prostitution and the St. Louis Social Evil Ordinance, 1870–1874,” Gateway Heritage, Fall 1990

Mar. 3, 1875 - US Forbids Prostitution Immigration

US Congress passed the Page Act of 1875 that outlawed the importation of women into the United States for the purposes of prostitution.

Aug. 14, 1885 - Britain Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885

William T. Stead.
Source: chicagonow.com

Trevor Fisher, MA, MEd Prostitution and the Victorians, 1997

1897 - New Orleans' Storyville

Photo of a Storyville prostitute by E. J. Bellocq, 1912.
huffingtonpost.com

Alecia P. Long, PhD The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920, 2004

1900 - Japan Centralizes Regulation

"Regulation of the prostitutes themselves became the province of the central government in 1900, when the Home Ministry issued the Rules Regulating Licensed Prostitutes. That same year, the Administrative Enforcement Law (Gyosei shikkoho) gave police extensive powers to arrest unlicensed prostitutes and order them to undergo medical examinations."

Sheldon Garon, PhD "The World's Oldest Debate? Prostitution and the State in Imperial Japan, 1900-1945," The American Historical Review, Apr. 1993

1902 - New York's Committee of 15

In the fall of 1900 the Committee of 15 was formed to examine how New York City should treat prostitution. Its 1902 report The Social Evil opposed regulation and included recommendations such as improvements to housing, health care, and increasing women's wages.

Feb. 12, 1905 - American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis Forms

The American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis was formed by Dr. Price A. Morrow to combat veneral diseases and prostitution. The organization thought "[m]unicipalities can better devote their energies to teaching and warning against her than in regulating her in business. Education is cheaper and more effective."

George P. Dale, MD "Moral Prophylaxis: Prostitutes and Prostitution," The American Journal of Nursing, Oct. 1911

Apr. 5, 1909 - Keller v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Keller v. United States ruled that deporting a resident alien who become a prostitute after entering the US violates the Tenth Amendment.

June 25, 1910 - Mann Act

James Robert Mann.
Source: pbs.org

The Mann Act or White-Slave Traffic Act became law on June 25, 1910. Named after Rep. James Robert Mann (R-IL) it created federal law against "prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose." It dealt with forced prostitution, harboring immigrant prostitutes, and the transportation across state lines. "As of April 1912 the white slave investigations overshadowed the entire balance of the Bureau's [the future Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)] work."

The Mann Act came at a time when the prostitution debate and the white-slave trade were high-profile issues. "In the twenty years between 1890 and 1909, thirty-six entries [in Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature] appear under the heading 'prostitution.' Forty-one entries appear in the ten years, between 1915 and 1924. But for the mere five years between 1910 and 1914, 'prostitution' carries no less than 156 entries."

1911 - Netherlands Bans Brothels

"In 1911 a new public morality act was enacted in the Netherlands. Article 250bis of the penal code states that it is forbidden to give opportunity for prostitution [brothel keeping]."

Johannes C. J. Boutellier "Prostitution, Criminal Law and Morality in the Netherlands," Crime, Law and Social Change, May 1991

1911 - Chicago Vice Report

"[I]t must be remembered that the most serious evils of this traffic in virtue are not physical but moral, and that the most effective means of counteracting them must ever be in the elevation of the moral sentiment of the community to a sense of individual responsibility for upright conduct in behalf of decency and virtue."

Feb. 24, 1911 - Hoke v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Hoke v. United States held that regulating prostitution was strictly the province of the states but that Congress could regulate interstate travel for purposes of prostitution or immoral purposes.

1913 - Bureau of Social Hygiene Forms

Bureau of Social Hygiene poster.
Source: zazzle.com/vintageartprinters (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

The Bureau of Social Hygiene was incorporated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in 1913 as a result of his service on a special grand jury to investigate white slavery in New York City in 1910. The purpose of the Bureau was "the study, amelioration, and prevention of those social conditions, crimes, and diseases which adversely affect the well-being of society, with special reference to prostitution and the evils associated therewith."

"Within a few years, the Bureau of Social Hygiene commissioned and supported two important investigations: George Jackson Kneeland's Commercialized Prostitution in New York City (1913) and Abraham Flexner's researches into European methods of dealing with prostitution, Prostitution in Europe (1914). . [T]he bureau sponsored research on aspects of prostitution such as police systems, the need for women police, legal statutes, and court reform and produced a series of psychological studies of delinquent women."

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

1913 - American Social Hygiene Association Forms

"[I]n 1913. the American Vigilance Association, (which had by then incorporated the American Purity Alliance as well as all of its scattered affiliates) joined with the Federation [American Federation for Sex Hygiene formerly American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis] to form the American Social Hygiene Association as the formal unification of the purity strand and the physicians' strand was accomplished."

Kristin Luker, PhD "Sex, Social Hygiene, and the State: The Double-Edged Sword of Social Reform," Theory and Society, Oct. 1998

1914 - 1945

Apr. 17, 1917 - Commission on Training Camp Activities

"The Commission on Training Camp Activities (CTCA) was created by the federal government to deal with the sexual and moral aspects of the training camps. Investigators from the Legal Education Division of the CTCA surveyed prostitution in cities near the cantonments and were able (as the earlier vice commissions were not) to bring federal pressure to bear in eliminating the most visible aspects of prostitution: red-light districts and street solicitation."

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

July 9, 1918 - US Chamberlain-Kahn Act

Federal Art Project poster circa 1936-1941.
Source: Library of Congress website (accessed Sep. 3, 2013)

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

1919 - Russia Re-educates Prostitutes

"In 1919 a Committee for the Suppression of Prostitution was inaugurated at the Public Health Office in Moscow. Its operations were conducted not against the girls - seen as unwilling victims of the czarist regime - but against the capitalist-created institution itself since the causes could be diagnosed as purely economic, the remedy lay in economic solutions. So the girls were sent away to labour colonies to be trained as nurses or re-educated in other trades."

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1927 - Germany Decriminalizes Prostitution

Before 1927 prostitution was generally illegal but cities were allowed to regulate things such as STD testing, where prostitutes could live, and where prostitutes could travel. "The. [Law for Combating Venereal Diseases] decriminalized prostitution in general, abolished the morals police, and outlawed regulated brothels. These were major achievements from the perspective of prostitutes' rights. However, to secure passage of the reform, Social Democrats and liberals were forced to make important concessions to the moral Right, who opposed a consistent decriminalization of prostitution. Clause 16/4 of the anti-VD law. made street soliciting illegal in areas adjacent to churches and schools as well as in towns with a population smaller than 15,000."

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1932 - Japan's "Comfort Women"

Former "comfort women" from Korea, Kim Sun-ok and Lee Su-dan, on the site of the former "comfort station" in Shimenzi, China in which they worked.
Source: nytimes.com, Mar. 27, 2013

Tessa Morris-Suzuki, PhD "Japan’s ‘Comfort Women’," Japan Focus, Mar. 8, 2007

May 1933 - Nazis Recriminalize Prostitution

Flag of Nazi Germany.
Source: Wikimedia Commons (accessed Sep. 4, 2013)

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1939 - Nazis Regulate Prostitution

The Nazis began regulating brothels in the fall of 1934. "By 1939 at the latest, Nazi prostitution policies diverged in important ways from previous systems of regulationism. Conventionally, state-regulated prostitution aimed to protect 'respectable' society against moral 'pollution' by prostitutes. The Nazis also strove to eradicate street soliciting and to confine prostitutes to tightly supervised brothels. For the first time, a German government made the establishment of supervised brothels compulsory for all cities and issued standardized regulations for the operation of 'public houses.' What was new about the Nazi system. was the attempt to use the state. to create a certain form of human sexuality. Nazi brothels aimed to maintain the physical fitness and morale of 'Aryan' men. At the same time, the persecution of prostitutes intensified greatly. Previously, prostitutes who violated police orders were punished with fines or short prison and workhouse sentences. In the Third Reich, such violations frequently led to streetwalkers' internment in a concentration camp."

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1941-1944 - "Entertainers" in Honolulu, HI

"Between 1941 and 1944, about 250 prostitutes were registered as ‘entertainers’ with the Honolulu Police Department. Each paid $1 a year for her license and was expected to report her earnings and pay taxes on them. Approximately fifteen houses of prostitution operated in Honolulu. Prostitution was illegal in Hawaii as it was on the mainland. In Hawaii, the May Act [signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1941 to prohibit prostitution aimed at servicement] had been assiduously avoided, although enforcement provisions specifically applied to American territories as well as states. The military and many people in Hawaii approved of them [brothels] because, in the face of what they saw as unstoppable urges and acts, the houses seemed to keep venereal rates relatively low. The brothel district, in one form or another, had existed for decades to serve the huge deployment of marines, sailors, and soldiers. and also to service the disproportionately male population of plantation workers who made Hawaii’s prewar economy go. On September 21, 1944, Governor Stainback. ordered the regulated brothels shut down."

Beth L. Bailey, PhD David Farber, PhD The First Strange Place: The Alchemy of Race and Sex in World War II Hawaii, 1994

May 14, 1944 - Mortensen v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Mortensen v. United States ruled that prostitutes could travel across state lines without violating the Mann Act if the "sole purpose of the journey from beginning to end was to provide innocent recreation" without prostituting.

1946 - 1999

Feb. 1946 - Japan Ends Indentured Servitude

General Douglas MacArthur.
Source: biography.com (accessed Sep. 4, 2013)

TIME Magazine "Yoshiwara Democratized," Feb. 4, 1946

Apr. 13, 1946 - France Bans Brothels

France closed its brothels and prohibited solicitation, but the act of prostitution stayed legal.

Alain Corbin Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France After 1850, 1990

May 24, 1956 - Japan Passes Anti-Prostitution Law

Japan’s Law No. 118, the 1956 Anti-Prostitution Law was enacted May 24, 1956 and put in force Apr. 1, 1958. "With that law, the 300-year history of Tokyo's Yoshiwara brothel quarters came to an end -- as did approximately 500 areas utilized for similar purposes around the country."

Mainichi Daily News "The Day Japan's Red Lights Flickered Out," Feb. 25, 2006

1959 - Britain Legalizes Prostitution

Based on the recommendation of the Wolfenden Report, Britain decriminalized prostitution but banned solicitation and other related activities with the Street Offense Act of 1959.

TIME Magazine "Off the Streets," Aug. 31, 1959

1971 - Nevada Regulates Prostitution

A Nevada brothel.
Source: nbcnews.com, Nov. 19, 2012

Richard Symanski, PhD "Prostitution in Nevada," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Sept. 1974

1973 - COYOTE Forms

COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics), the first prostitute's rights group in the United States, is formed in San Francisco by Margo St. James in 1973. Similar groups form across the country form such as FLOP (Friends and Lovers of Prostitutes), HIRE (Hooking Is Real Employment), and PUMA (Prostitute Union of Massachusetts Association).

Valerie Jenness, PhD "From Sex as Sin to Sex as Work: COYOTE and the Reorganization of Prostitution as a Social Problem," Social Problems, Aug. 1990

June 5, 1981 - First Mention of AIDS

On June 5, 1981 the the first mention of what would later be named AIDS appears in medical literature in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

1985 - World Whore Congress

[T]he International Committee for Prositutes' Rights held its first congress in Amsterdam in 1985." This was the first international meeting of prostitute's rights groups.

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

Jan. 1, 1999 - The Swedish Approach

Swedish government anti-prostitution poster.
Source: womensmediacenter.com, Aug. 28, 2012

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "How Sweden Tackles Prostitution," Feb. 8, 2007

Mar. 17, 1999 - Denmark Decriminalizes Prostitution

"Prostitution in Denmark was decriminalised in 1999 [on Mar. 17], but certain related activities remain illegal. Both buying and selling sexual services are legal, but activities such as operating brothels and pimping are illegal, as is prostitution by non-residents. Sex workers are not entitled to the protection of employment laws or unemployment benefits, but they are still required to register for and pay tax, although they do not have to declare prostitution as being their occupation. Part of the rationale behind decriminalisation was that making it legal to sell sex would also make it easier to police."

Britain Home Office "Prostitution: Third Report of Session 2016-2017," parliament.uk, July 1, 2016

2000-present

Oct. 1, 2000 - Netherlands Legalizes Brothels

Amsterdam's "red light district," the Netherlands.
Source: cnn.com, July 17, 2013

2002 - Germany Reforms Law

The 2002 German Prostitution Reform Law declared prostitution was no longer immoral, that pimping is legal if enforced with formal contracts, it increased access to state health insurance and pension schemes, and allowed prostitutes to sue their clients for non-payment.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "German Prostitutes Get New Rights," Dec. 12, 2001

June 25, 2003 - New Zealand Decriminalizes

On June 25, 2003, by a vote of 60-59, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Prostitution Reform Act of 2003 that decriminalized prostitution and created a system of regulations for brothels.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "NZ Votes To Legalise Prostitution," June 25, 2003

July 2004 - Britain Considers Policy Change

Britain's Home Office produced the report Paying The Price examining the various legal strategies towards prostitution as the government considers possible policy changes.

Britain Home Office "Paying the Price," July 2004

Nov. 2, 2004 - US Communities Vote For and Against Legal Prostitution

On Nov. 2, 2004, the city of Berkeley, California voted 63.51% against decriminalizing prostitution. The same day Churchill County, Nevada voted 62.78% to keep brothels legal even though no brothels existed in the county at the time.

2007 - Hawaii Considers Decriminalization

"A bill to legalize some prostitution in the islands has the backing of at least 14 state lawmakers and many women's rights advocates. Supporters say they mainly want to start debate of the sensitive topic and explore alternatives to decades of selling sex on Honolulu streets. House Bill 982 (and companion Senate Bill 706) might not pass this year. It appears unlikely the bill will get a hearing this session. The decriminalization bill would permit sexual favors done in private, and it would designate areas where prostitution is allowed." [The bill did not receive a hearing.]

Mark Niesse "Prostitution Bill Gains Support," Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Feb. 13, 2007

Nov. 4, 2008 - San Francisco, CA Votes Against Decriminalizing Prostitution

On Nov. 4, 2008, the city and county of San Francisco, CA voted 57.56% to 42.44% against a ballot measure that would decriminalize prostitution by stopping the enforcement of laws related to prostitution and sex workers.

Jan. 1, 2009 - Norway Bans the Purchase of Sex

"A new law has come into force [on Jan. 1, 2009] in Norway making the purchase of sex illegal. Norwegian citizens caught paying for prostitutes at home or abroad could face a hefty fine or a six-month prison sentence, authorities say. The prison sentence could be extended to three years in cases of child prostitution. The tough new measures go further than similar ones introduced by other Nordic countries such as Sweden [on Jan. 1, 1999] and Finland. Norwegian police have been authorised to use wire-tapping devices to gather evidence. Prostitutes will be offered access to free education and health treatment for those with alcohol or drugs problems."

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "New Norway Law Bans Buying of Sex," www.news.bbc.co.uk, Jan. 1, 2009

June 24, 2009 - Taiwan Legalizes Prostitution

Niko, a 47 year-old prostitute inside a Taipei brothel.
Source: reuters.com, June 24, 2009

"Taiwan began a process of legalizing prostitution Wednesday [June 24, 2009] making the island the latest place in the world to decriminalize the world's oldest profession.

In six months, authorities will stop punishing Taiwan sex workers after prostitutes successfully campaigned to be given the same protection as their clients, a government spokesman said.

Taiwan outlawed prostitution 11 years ago, but older sections of the capital Taipei still teem with underground sex workers in bars and night clubs on the upper floors of high-rise buildings.

The Collective of Sex Workers and Supporters, a Taipei-based advocacy group, estimates that 600,000 people are involved in sex-related jobs."

Reuters "Pressured by Sex Workers, Taiwan OKs Prostitution," www.reuters.com, June 24, 2009

Dec. 11, 2009 - Male Prostitutes Legalized in Nevada Brothels

"Men may now join the ranks of Nevada’s brothel prostitutes, after a unanimous decision today that added language to health codes so male sex workers could be tested for infectious diseases.

Men were previously barred in Nevada from the oldest profession because codes specified that prostitutes must undergo 'cervical' testing for sexually transmitted diseases, which ruled out men.

Bobbi Davis, owner of the Shady Lady Ranch, a small brothel near Beatty, wanted to add male prostitutes to her stable of sex workers.

And while there have been plans for brothels to hire men in the past, Davis made the first-ever request to have the Nevada State Board of Health add [weekly] urethral exams to the guidelines. That allows male sex workers to be tested for sexually transmitted diseases.

Davis has said the men could start working at her five-bed brothel starting in the New Year. The male prostitutes will decide for themselves whether to accept male or female clients, she said, just as the female prostitutes do now."

Las Vegas Sun "New Era: Health Authorities Open Brothels to Male Prostitutes," lasvegassun.com, Dec. 11, 2009

Sep. 28, 2010 - Canadian Court Declares Ban on Brothels and Soliciting Prostitution Unconstitutional

Dominatrix Terri-Jean Bedford, left, and former prostitute Valerie Scott, two of the women who challenged Canada's prostitution laws in Oct. 2009.
Source: cbc.ca, Sep. 28, 2010

"The Ontario Superior Court struck down key provisions of Canada's prostitution law Tuesday [Sep. 28, 2010], saying it endangers sex trade workers.

The ruling, which is being suspended for 30 days, would effectively decriminalize sex trade in the province and, if upheld on appeal, halt enforcement of anti-prostitution laws across Canada.

The court declared unconstitutional portions of the law banning brothels and soliciting for prostitution.

Three Toronto women launched the legal challenge in October 2009, arguing that prohibiting solicitation endangers prostitutes by forcing them to seek customers on street corners.

They called for the decriminalization of prostitution and for the right to open brothels to provide a safer environment for prostitutes.

Agence France-Presse (AFP) "Court Strikes Down Canada's Prostitution Law," news.google.com, Sep. 28, 2010

Aug. 26, 2013 - Zurich Launches Drive-in "Sex Boxes"

Zurich's drive-in "sex boxes."
Source: bbc.co.uk, Aug. 26, 2013

"Although prostitution is legal in Switzerland, critics say the law actually offers little protection to the women themselves.

Now the city has come up with a solution it believes will protect them: soliciting on the streets will be forbidden, and instead prostitutes and their clients will be expected to use a custom-built compound on an industrial site in the Zurich suburbs.

The facility opens this week inside the gates, which are manned by security guards, there is a 'strip' which men can drive down, and select the woman of their choice.

But since all business must take place inside the compound, there are drive-in 'sex boxes', and here the measures taken to protect the women are very apparent.

On the driver's side, the boxes are very narrow, making it difficult for him to get out of the car. On the passenger side, there is plenty of space, an alarm button and an emergency exit."

"The Zurich sex box experiment follows their largely successful introduction in Germany, where they have been in operation in designated big city areas since 2001. They are reported to have led to a 'considerable drop' in violence against sex workers.

But in Dortmund [Germany], a number of sex boxes installed in 2007, were closed down in 2011 after they fell under the control of eastern European gangs."

Independent (UK) "Switzerland Opens Drive-in ‘Sex Boxes’ in Bid to Reduce Zurich's Street Prostitution," independent.co.uk, Aug. 26, 2013

Dec. 6, 2014 - Canada Bans the Purchase (But Not the Sale) of Sex

"The [Dec. 6, 2014] Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act, or Bill C-36, criminalizes the purchase (but not the sale) of sexual services, and restricts the advertisement of sexual services and communication in public for the purpose of prostitution. The bill replaces legislation, overturned in December 2013 by Canada's Supreme Court, which criminalized acts associated with selling sexual services.

Bill C-36 follows the example of Sweden, Norway and Iceland, where the purchase - but not the sale - of sex was criminalized in legislation passed since the late 1990s."

New York Times "Canada's Flawed Sex Trade," nytimes.com, Jan. 20, 2015

Apr. 6, 2016 - France Bans the Purchase (But Not the Sale) of Sex

"The French parliament has finally approved changes to the country's prostitution laws.

On Wednesday [Apr. 6, 2016] legislators approved a bill against prostitution and sex trafficking that bans buying sex, not selling it. Customers who break the law will face fines and be made to attend awareness classes on the harms of the sex trade.

Supporters of the bill argue that it will help fight trafficking networks. But opponents fear that cracking down will push prostitutes to hide, leaving them even more at the mercy of pimps and violent clients.

[T]he legislation has been inspired by Sweden, which passed a similar measure in 1999."

Sydney Morning Herald "France Overhauls Prostitution Laws, Makes It Illegal to Pay for Services," smh.com.au, Apr. 7, 2016

May 25, 2016 - Amnesty International Releases New Policy on Decriminalization of Prostitution

"On Wednesday night [May 25, 2016], Amnesty International released its long-awaited policy on an incredibly contentious issue, calling on governments around the world to 'decriminalize consensual sex work'.

The recommendation was denounced by groups whose goal is to end prostitution, which they see as a source of sexual inequality and harmful to women. Amnesty drew support from public-health advocates and activists who see decriminalization as the best means of reducing the harms associated with the sex industry, including underage prostitution, trafficking and violence. The debate will surely repeat itself, and it will almost as surely be rife with accusations of betrayal."


Calends, Nones, and Ides

The Roman calendar highlighted a number of days in each month:

  • Calends (Kalendae) were the first days of each month. The name is derived from the Greek word καλειν, to announce, which may initially have been used in the ancient lunar calendar to “announce” the day of the New Moon (or the first sliver of the Waxing Crescent Moon).
  • Ides (Idus) occurred one day before the middle of each month. Depending on the month's length, it fell on the 13th or 15th day. In the lunar calendar, the Ides marked the day of the Full Moon.
  • Nones (Nonae) fell on the 7th day of 31-day months and on the 5th day of 29-day months, marking the day of the First Quarter Moon.

These markers were used to number the days in each month, counting backward from the upcoming Calends, Ides, or Nones. The count always included the day of the marker. For example, the 11th day of Martius would be known as “Five Ides” to the Romans because it is the fifth day before the Ides of Martius, which fell on the 15th day.


Know your numbers

BLOOD PRESSURE CATEGORY SYSTOLIC mm Hg
(upper number)
DIASTOLIC mm Hg
(lower number)
NORMAL LESS THAN 120 and LESS THAN 80
ELEVATED 120 &ndash 129 and LESS THAN 80
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
(HYPERTENSION) STAGE 1
130 &ndash 139 or 80 &ndash 89
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
(HYPERTENSION) STAGE 2
140 OR HIGHER or 90 OR HIGHER
HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS
(consult your doctor immediately)
HIGHER THAN 180 and/or HIGHER THAN 120


Ford shareholders OK new generation of family members for board

Ford Motor Co. shareholders on Thursday approved the appointment of two new Ford family members to the company's board of directors, ushering in a new generation of family involvement for the 118-year-old automaker.

The new directors, approved during a virtual annual shareholder meeting, are Henry Ford III, 40, son of Edsel Ford II, and Alexandra Ford English, 33, daughter of Executive Chairman Bill Ford.

Alexandra Ford English and Henry Ford III are the newest members of Ford Motor Company's board of directors. (Photo: The Detroit News)

Currently director of investor relations, Ford III has been at the automaker since 2006 and previously served on the company's corporate strategy skill team, as the global marketing manager for Ford's performance division, and in other positions in labor relations, purchasing, marketing and sales, and corporate strategy.

Ford English began her career working in fashion merchandising and now serves as a director of Ford corporate strategy. She previously served as the director of markets and operations for Ford's autonomous vehicles division.

She joined the AV team in 2017 and became a founding member of the division in 2018. She also represents Ford on the board of electric vehicle maker Rivian Automotive LLC, in which Ford has an equity interest.

The two younger Fords — the fifth generation of Ford family members represented in the boardroom, and great-great-grandchildren of founder Henry Ford — replace Edsel Ford II, who had reached the board's mandatory retirement age after serving for 33 years, and retired Eli Lilly CEO John Lechleiter.

"Few companies have had family involvement for 118 years and our vales, our long-term view and steadfastness throughout the years demonstrates our family's commitment to safeguarding the company's future," said Bill Ford. "This is one of the most transformative moments in our company's history. We welcome Alexandra and Henry's fresh perspectives."

With these elections, Ford's 14-member board now includes four women and two people who identify as members of minority groups.

Meanwhile, shareholders defeated a long-standing proposal that would give each share equal voting power. Under the current two-tiered stock structure, Ford family members have outsize voting power. The proposal was voted down with nearly 64% against it.

In other business, shareholders quizzed executives about Ford's stock price, long a point of concern, and plans to reinstate the dividend after it was suspended in the early days of the coronavirus crisis.

Ford's stock opened Thursday at $11.36 per share and closed at $11.55. A year ago, the stock stood at less than $5 per share.

"I think we agree that we're not happy with the performance of the stock, but I do believe that this last year has shown a very different attitude toward our company and it's been reflected in the stock," said Bill Ford. "We've more than doubled since last year's annual meeting, and we've outperformed the S&P this year. So we're on a bit of a roll." Still, he said, "We have more to do."

On reinstating the dividend, Bill Ford said it would happen "as soon as possible," though he noted the company continues to battle a global shortage of semiconductor chips.

“You have our words that it’s very, very high on our to-do list, but we want to make sure when we do it that it’s the right time," he said.

Shareholders also heard from Jim Farley about the plan for the business he implemented upon stepping up as CEO in October. He said the company is undergoing a transformation of its business model: "What we're doing is moving from a traditional buy-sell OEM business model, where Ford Motor Company largely delegates the customer relationship to others, to a new ethos where the sale is just the start of a lifelong, always-on relationship."

Farley has articulated a vision for the company under which the relationship with the customer changes from a one-time transaction to a continual one in which customers pay for data-driven services and features, delivered via regular over-the-air software updates.

Farley also laid out the automaker's strategy on electric vehicles, which is to electrify Ford's most popular and iconic models, including the forthcoming electric F-150 Lightning, which will be unveiled next week the day after President Joe Biden plans to visit the Dearborn plant where the truck will be built.

Farley also answered questions about Ford's plans to launch a self-driving vehicle service in 2022. "As we get closer to standing up this business, we’ll provide a lot more details on our go-to-market strategy, but the good thing is, Ford’s investment in Argo is really paying off," he said of the autonomous driving technology company in which Ford has a stake.

There were queries, too, about Ford's environmental goals, and how the automaker is navigating the semiconductor shortage.

Ford has set a goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. Bill Ford said the company will accelerate that timeline if possible, but "we don't want to commit to something until we know how we can do it."

Last month, executives said they expect the company this year to take about a $2.5 billion earnings hit and to lose about 1.1 million units of planned vehicle production due to the semiconductor issue.

Farley said the crisis has prompted the automaker to rethink some of its supply chain strategies.

“The things that we’re looking at to change longer-term, not only are we redesigning a lot of our components to work with chips that are more accessible," he said, "but we think we need to look at buffer stocks, actual direct contracts with some of the foundries, and we think that’s going to be a really critical approach to our supply chain as we get more electronic components.”


U.S. House

2019-2020

Foxx was assigned to the following committees: [Source]

2017-2018

At the beginning of the 115th Congress, Foxx was assigned to the following committees: ΐ]

2015-2016

Foxx served on the following committees: Α]

2013-2014

Foxx served on the following committees: Β]

    • Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education
    • Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training Chairman
    • Subcommittee on the Legislative and Budget Process

    2011-2012

    Foxx served on the following committees: Γ]

      • Subcommittee on Legislative and Budget Process Δ]
      • Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education
      • Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training (Chairwoman) Ε]

      Key votes

      Ballotpedia monitors legislation that receives a vote and highlights the ones that we consider to be key to understanding where elected officials stand on the issues. To read more about how we identify key votes, click here.

      Key votes: 116th Congress, 2019-2020

      Key votes: Previous sessions of Congress

      Key votes: 115th Congress, 2017-2018

      Voted Yea on: Agriculture and Nutrition Act of 2018 (Conference report) (HR 2)

       Bill Passed (369-47) on December 12, 2018 Proposed providing funding for commodity support, conservation, trade and international food aid, nutrition assistance, farm credit, rural development, research and extension activities, forestry, horticulture, and crop insurance through fiscal year 2023. Η]

      Voted Yea on: Agriculture and Nutrition Act of 2018 (HR 2 (second vote))

       Bill Passed (213-211) on June 21, 2018 Proposed providing funding for commodity support, conservation, trade and international food aid, nutrition assistance, farm credit, rural development, research and extension activities, forestry, horticulture, and crop insurance. It also proposed modifying the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously known as the food stamp program. ⎖]

      Voted Yea on: Securing America’s Future Act of 2018 (HR 4760)

       Bill Failed (193-231) on June 21, 2018 Proposed funding a border wall, limiting legal immigration, a mandatory worker verification program, allowing DACA recipients to apply for legal status, and preventing separation of families at the border. ⎗]

      Voted Yea on: Agriculture and Nutrition Act of 2018 (HR 2)

       Bill Passed (369-47) on December 12, 2018 Reauthorizes through FY2023 and modifies some Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. ⎘]

      Voted Yea on: Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act (HR 36)

       Bill Passed (237-189) on October 3, 2017 Proposed amending the federal criminal code to make it a crime for any person to perform or attempt to perform an abortion if the probable post-fertilization age of the fetus was 20 weeks or more. The bill provided exceptions for an abortion: (1) that was necessary to save the life of the pregnant woman, or (2) when the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest. ⎙]

      Voted Yea on: Kate's Law (HR 3004)

       Bill Passed (257-167) on June 29, 2017 Proposed increasing criminal penalties for individuals in the country illegally who were convicted of certain crimes, deported, and then re-entered the U.S. illegally. ⎚]

      Voted Yea on: No Sanctuary for Criminals Act (HR 3003)

       Bill Passed (228-195) on June 29, 2017 Proposed withholding federal funds from states and localities that chose not to follow federal immigration laws. ⎛]

      Voted Yea on: American Health Care Act of 2017 (HR 1628)

       Bill passed (217-213) on May 4, 2017 Proposed modifying the budgetary and fiscal provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as Obamacare. ⎜]

      Voted Yea on: Department of Defense and Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Act, 2019 (Conference report) (HR 6157)

       Bill Passed (361-61) on September 26, 2018 Proposed authorizing FY2019 appropriations and policies for the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services (HHS), Labor, and Education. ⎝]

      Voted Nay on: Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act, 2019 (Conference report) (HR 5895)

       Bill Passed (377-20) on September 13, 2018 Proposed authorizing FY2019 appropriations and policies for the Department of Energy, water resources, the legislative branch, military construction, and the Department of Veterans Affairs, among other programs. ⎞]

      Voted Yea on: Department of Defense and Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Act, 2019 (HR 6157)

       Bill Passed (359-49) on June 28, 2018 Proposed authorizing FY2019 appropriations and policies for the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services (HHS), Labor, and Education. ⎟]

      Voted Nay on: Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2019 (HR 5895)

       Bill Passed (235-179) on June 8, 2018 Proposed authorizing FY2019 appropriations and policies for the Department of Energy, water resources, the legislative branch, military construction, and the Department of Veterans Affairs, among other programs. ⎠]

      Voted Yea on: Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S 2155)

       Bill Passed (258-159) on May 22, 2018 Proposed exempting some banks from the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ⎡]

      Voted Nay on: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 1625)

       Bill Passed (256-167) on March 22, 2018 Proposed providing appropriations for fiscal year 2018, and for other purposes. ⎢]

      Voted Nay on: The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (HR 1892)

       Bill Passed (240-186) on February 9, 2018 Proposed providing appropriations through March 23, 2018. ⎣]

      Voted Yea on: Further Extension Of Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 1892)

       Bill Passed (245-182) on February 6, 2018 Proposed providing appropriations through March 23, 2018. ⎤]

      Voted Yea on: Making further continuing appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018, and for other purposes. (HR 195)

       Bill Passed (266-150) on January 22, 2018 Proposed providing further continuing appropriations through February 8, 2018. ⎥]

      Voted Yea on: Making further continuing appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018, and for other purposes. (HR 195)

       Bill Passed (230-197) on January 18, 2018 Proposed providing further continuing appropriations through February 16, 2018. ⎦]

      Did not vote on: Further Additional Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 1370)

       Bill Passed (231-188) on December 21, 2017 Proposed providing further continuing appropriations through January 19, 2018. ⎧]

      Voted Yea on: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (HR 1)

       Bill Passed (227-203) on December 19, 2017 Proposed providing for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018. ⎨]

      Voted Nay on: Making further continuing appropriations for fiscal year 2018, and for other purposes (HJ Res 123)

       Bill Passed (235-193) on December 7, 2017 Proposed funding the government until December 22, 2017. ⎩]

      Voted Yea on: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (HR 1)

       Bill Passed (227-205) on November 16, 2017 Proposed amending the Internal Revenue Code to reduce tax rates and modify policies, credits, and deductions for individuals and businesses. ⎪]

      Voted Yea on: Establishing the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2018 and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2019 through 2027. (H Con Res 71)

       Bill Passed (216-212) on October 26, 2017 Proposed establishing the congressional budget for the federal government for FY2018 and setting forth budgetary levels for FY2019-FY2027. (This bill proposed adopting the Senate's budget resolution.) ⎫]

      Voted Yea on: Establishing the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2018 and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2019 through 2027. (H Con Res 71)

       Bill Passed (219-206) on October 5, 2017 Proposed establishing the congressional budget for the federal government for FY2018 and setting forth budgetary levels for FY2019-FY2027. ⎬]

      Voted Nay on: Make America Secure and Prosperous Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 3354)

       Bill Passed (211-198) on September 14, 2017 Proposed providing FY2018 appropriations for the federal government. It combined 12 appropriations bills. ⎭]

      Voted Nay on: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2017 (Included amendments to suspend the debt ceiling and fund the government) (HR 601)

       Bill Passed (316-90) on September 8, 2017 Proposed suspending the debt ceiling and funding the government until December 8, 2017, and providing funding for Hurricanes Harvey and Irma relief efforts. ⎮]

      Voted Yea on: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, 2017 (HR 601)

       Bill Passed (419-3) on September 6, 2017 Proposed providing $7.85 billion for disaster relief requirements, including response and recovery efforts from Hurricane Harvey. ⎯]

      Voted Yea on: Financial CHOICE Act of 2017 (HR 10)

       Bill passed (233-186) on June 8, 2017 Proposed amending the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, among other acts. ⎰]

      Voted Nay on: Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2017 (HR 244)

       Bill passed (309-118) on May 3, 2017 Proposed a $1.2 trillion budget to fund the government through the end of the fiscal year on September 30, 2017. ⎱]

      Voted Yea on: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (HR 5515)

       Bill Passed (351-66) on May 24, 2018 Proposed authorizing FY2019 appropriations and policies for Department of Defense (DOD) programs and activities ⎲]

      Voted Yea on: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 695)

       Bill Passed (250-166) on January 30, 2018 Proposed providing appropriations for military functions administered by the Department of Defense and for other purposes, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2018. ⎳]

      Voted Yea on: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018—Conference report (HR 2810)

       Bill Passed (356-70) on November 14, 2017 Proposed authorizing FY2018 appropriations and setting forth policies for Department of Defense (DOD) programs and activities, including military personnel strengths. ⎴]

      Voted Yea on: Make America Secure Appropriations Act, 2018 (HR 3219)

       Bill Passed (235-192) on July 27, 2017 Proposed making appropriations for defense, military construction, Veterans Affairs, the Legislative Branch, energy and water development, and for other purposes for the fiscal year ending on September 30, 2018. ⎵]

      Voted Yea on: Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (HR 3364)

       Bill Passed (419-3) on July 25, 2017 Proposed providing congressional review and measures to counter aggression by the governments of Iran, the Russian Federation, and North Korea, and for other purposes. ⎶]

      Voted Yea on: Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (HR 3180, second vote)

       Bill Passed (380-35) on July 28, 2017 Proposed authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, the Community Management Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System, and for other purposes. ⎷]

      Did not vote on: Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (HR 3180)

       Bill Failed (241-163) on July 24, 2017 Proposed authorizing appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, the Community Management Account, and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System, and for other purposes. ⎸]

      Voted Yea on: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (HR 2810)

       Bill Passed (344-81) on July 14, 2017 Proposed authorizing fiscal year 2018 appropriations and setting forth policies for Department of Defense (DOD) programs and activities, including military personnel strengths. It did not provide budget authority. ⎹]

      Voted Yea on: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2017 (HR 1301)

       Bill passed (371-48) on March 8, 2017 The $577.9 billion fiscal year 2017 defense spending bill proposed $516.1 billion in base budget funding and $61.8 billion for Overseas Contingency Operations/ Global War on Terrorism funding. ⎺]

      114th Congress

      The first session of the 114th Congress enacted into law six out of the 2,616 introduced bills (0.2 percent). Comparatively, the 113th Congress had 1.3 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session. In the second session, the 114th Congress enacted 133 out of 3,159 introduced bills (4.2 percent). Comparatively, the 113th Congress had 7.0 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session. ⎻] ⎼] For more information pertaining to Brooks's voting record in the 114th Congress, please see the below sections. ⎽]

      Economic and fiscal

      Trade Act of 2015

      Trade act procedural motion
      On June 11, 2015, 34 House Republicans voted against a procedural motion to open up debate on a Senate amendment to the Trade Act of 2015, the primary bill associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The White House and GOP leadership supported the motion, as well as the TPP, while most House Democrats opposed it. The rule passed 217 to 202, but Speaker John Boehner (R) openly expressed his disapproval of the House Republicans who voted against it, telling reporters shortly afterwards, "I made it clear to members today I am not happy about it." ⎾] Several of these Republicans lost leadership positions in the weeks following the vote, causing some to see a connection between the demotions and the vote against the procedural motion. ⎿] Brooks was one of 34 Republicans to vote against the procedural motion. ⏀]
      Trade adjustment assistance
      On June 12, 2015, the House rejected the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) measure in HR 1314—the Trade Act of 2015—by a vote of 126-302. Trade adjustment assistance (TAA) is a federal program providing American workers displaced by foreign trade agreements with job training and services. The measure was packaged with trade promotion authority (TPA), also known as fast-track authority. TPA is a legislative procedure that allows Congress to define "U.S. negotiating objectives and spells out a detailed oversight and consultation process for during trade negotiations. Under TPA, Congress retains the authority to review and decide whether any proposed U.S. trade agreement will be implemented," according to the Office of the United States Trade Representative. Brooks was one of 158 Republicans to vote against TAA. ⏁] ⏂]
      Trade promotion authority
      On June 12, 2015, the House passed the trade promotion authority (TPA) measure in HR 1314—the Trade Act of 2015—by a vote of 219-211. TPA gives the president fast-track authority to negotiate trade agreements sent to Congress without the opportunity for amendment or filibuster. Although the House approved TPA, it was a largely symbolic vote given the measure was part of a package trade bill including trade adjustment assistance (TAA), which was rejected earlier the same day. Brooks was one of 54 Republicans to vote against the measure. ⏃] ⏄]
      Trade promotion authority second vote
      After the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) and trade promotion authority (TPA) did not pass the House together on June 12, 2015, representatives voted to authorize TPA alone as an amendment to HR 2146—the Defending Public Safety Employees' Retirement Act—on June 18, 2015. The amendment passed by a vote of 218-208, with all voting members of the House maintaining their original positions on TPA except for Ted Yoho (R-Fla.). Brooks was one of 50 Republicans to vote against the amendment. ⏅] ⏆]
      Trade adjustment assistance second vote
      The House passed HR 1295—the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015—on June 25, 2015, by a vote of 286-138. The Senate packaged trade adjustment assistance (TAA) in this bill after the House rejected the TAA measure in HR 1314—the Trade Act of 2015. Along with trade promotion authority (TPA), which Congress passed as part of HR 2146—the Defending Public Safety Employees' Retirement Act—TAA became law on June 29, 2015. Brooks was one of 132 Republicans to vote against HR 1295. ⏇] ⏈]

      Defense spending authorization

      On May 15, 2015, the House passed HR 1735—the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016—by a vote of 269-151. The bill "authorizes FY2016 appropriations and sets forth policies for Department of Defense (DOD) programs and activities, including military personnel strengths. It does not provide budget authority, which is provided in subsequent appropriations legislation." Brooks voted with 227 other Republicans and 41 Democrats to approve the bill. ⏉] The Senate passed the bill on June 18, 2015, by a vote of 71-25. President Barack Obama vetoed the bill on October 22, 2015. ⏊]

      On November 5, 2015, the House passed S 1356—the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016—by a vote of 370-58. The second version of the $607 billion national defense bill included $5 billion in cuts to match what was approved in the budget and language preventing the closure of the Guantanamo Bay military prison. ⏋] ⏌] Brooks voted with 234 other Republicans and 135 Democrats to approve the bill. ⏍] On November 10, 2015, the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 91-3, and President Barack Obama signed it into law on November 25, 2015. ⏎]

      2016 Budget proposal

      On April 30, 2015, the House voted to approve SConRes11, a congressional budget proposal for fiscal year 2016, by a vote of 226-197. The non-binding resolution was designed to create 12 appropriations bills to fund the government. All 183 Democrats who voted, voted against the resolution. Brooks voted with 225 other Republicans to approve the bill. ⏏] ⏐] ⏑]

      2015 budget

      On October 28, 2015, the House passed HR 1314—the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015—by a vote of 266-167. The bill increased military and domestic spending levels and suspended the debt ceiling until March 2017. ⏒] Brooks voted with 166 Republicans against the bill. ⏓] It passed the Senate on October 30, 2015. ⏔] President Barack Obama signed it into law on November 2, 2015.

      Foreign Affairs

      Iran nuclear deal

      On May 14, 2015, the House approved HR 1191—the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015—by a vote of 400-25. The bill required President Barack Obama to submit the details of the nuclear deal with Iran for congressional review. Congress had 60 days to review the deal and vote to approve, disapprove, or take no action on the deal. During the review period, sanctions on Iran could not be lifted. Brooks voted with 222 other Republican representatives to approve the bill. ⏕] ⏖]

      Approval of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
      On September 11, 2015, the House rejected HR 3461—To approve the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, signed at Vienna on July 14, 2015, relating to the nuclear program of Iran—by a vote of 162-269. The legislation proposed approving the nuclear agreement with Iran. Brooks voted with 243 Republicans and 25 Democrats against the bill. ⏗] ⏘]

      Suspension of Iran sanctions relief
      On September 11, 2015, the House approved HR 3460—To suspend until January 21, 2017, the authority of the President to waive, suspend, reduce, provide relief from, or otherwise limit the application of sanctions pursuant to an agreement related to the nuclear program of Iran—by a vote of 247-186. HR 3460 prohibited "the President, prior to January 21, 2017, from: limiting the application of specified sanctions on Iran or refraining from applying any such sanctions or removing a foreign person (including entities) listed in Attachments 3 or 4 to Annex II of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPA) from the list of designated nationals and blocked persons maintained by the Office of Foreign Asset Control of the Department of the Treasury." Brooks voted with 244 Republicans and two Democrats for the bill. ⏙] ⏚]

      Presidential non-compliance of section 2
      On September 10, 2015, the House passed H Res 411—Finding that the President has not complied with section 2 of the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015—by a vote of 245-186. Section 2 of the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 required the president to submit all materials related to the nuclear agreement for congressional review. House Republicans introduced the resolution because two agreements between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Iran were not submitted to Congress. Brooks voted with 244 Republicans for the resolution. ⏛] ⏜]

      Export-Import Bank

      On October 27, 2015, the House passed HR 597—the Export-Import Bank Reform and Reauthorization Act of 2015—by a vote of 313-118. The bill proposed reauthorizing the Export-Import Bank and allowing it to resume offering assistance in the form of loans and insurance to foreign companies that wanted to buy U.S. goods. ⏝] Brooks voted with 126 Republicans and 186 Democrats in favor of the bill. ⏞]

      Domestic

      USA FREEDOM Act of 2015

      On May 13, 2015, the House passed HR 2048—the Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ensuring Effective Discipline Over Monitoring Act of 2015 or the USA FREEDOM Act of 2015—by a vote of 338-88. The legislation revised HR 3199—the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005—by ending the bulk collection of metadata under Sec. 215 of the act, requiring increased reporting from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, and requiring the use of "a specific selection term as the basis for national security letters that request information from wire or electronic communication service providers, financial institutions, or consumer reporting agencies." Brooks voted with 46 Republicans and 41 Democrats against the legislation. It became law on June 2, 2015. ⏟] ⏠]

      Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act

      On May 13, 2015, the House passed HR 36—the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act—by a vote of 242-184. The bill proposed prohibiting abortions from being performed after a fetus was determined to be 20 weeks or older. The bill proposed exceptions in cases of rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. Brooks voted with 237 Republicans in favor of the bill. ⏡] ⏢]

      Cyber security

      On April 23, 2015, the House passed HR 1731—the National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015—by a vote of 355-63. The bill proposed creating an information sharing program that would allow federal agencies and private entities to share information about cyber threats. It also proposed including liability protections for companies. ⏣] Brooks voted with 219 Republicans and 135 Democrats to approve the bill. ⏤]

      On April 22, 2015, the House passed HR 1560—the Protecting Cyber Networks Act—by a vote of 307-116. ⏥] The bill proposed procedures that would allow federal agencies and private entities to share information about cyber threats. Brooks voted with 201 Republicans and 105 Democrats in favor of the bill. ⏦]

      Immigration

      On November 19, 2015, the House passed HR 4038—the American SAFE Act of 2015—by a vote of 289-137. ⏧] The bill proposed instituting additional screening processes for refugees from Iraq and Syria who applied for admission to the U.S. Brooks voted with 241 Republicans and 47 Democrats in favor of the bill. ⏨]

      113th Congress

      The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 224 out of the 3215 introduced bills (7 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session. ⏩] For more information pertaining to Brooks's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections. ⏪]

      National security

      Brooks voted for HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote. ⏫]

      DHS Appropriations

      Brooks voted for HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines. ⏬]

      CISPA (2013)

      Brooks voted for HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill permitted federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party. ⏭]

      Economy

      Farm bill

      On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill. ⏮] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop. ⏯] 𖏜] It also cut the food stamp program an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states. 𖏜] Brooks voted with 161 other Republican representatives in favor of the bill.

      2014 Budget

      On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014. 𖏝] 𖏞] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill. 𖏞] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations. 𖏟] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Brooks joined with the 63 other Republicans and 3 Democrats who voted against the bill. 𖏝] 𖏞]

      Government shutdown

      On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201. 𖏠] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference. 𖏡] Brooks voted to approve the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate. 𖏢]

      The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies. 𖏣] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Brooks voted against HR 2775. 𖏤]

      Federal Pay Adjustment Act

      Brooks voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill called for stopping a 0.5 percent pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect. The raises were projected to cost $11 billion over 10 years. 𖏥]

      Immigration

      Morton Memos Prohibition

      Brooks voted for House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain individuals residing in the United States without legal status. 𖏦] The vote largely followed party lines. 𖏧]

      Healthcare

      Healthcare Reform Rules

      Brooks voted for House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines. 𖏨]

      Social issues

      Abortion

      Brooks voted for HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization. 𖏩]

      Government affairs

      HR 676

      On July 30, 2014, the U.S. House approved a resolution 225 to 201 to sue President Barack Obama for exceeding his constitutional authority. Five Republicans—Thomas Massie of Kentucky, Paul Broun of Georgia, Scott Garrett of New Jersey, Walter Jones of North Carolina and Steve Stockman of Texas—voted with Democrats against the lawsuit. 𖏪] Brooks joined the other 224 Republicans in favor of the lawsuit. All Democrats voted against the resolution. 𖏫] 𖏬]

      Previous congressional sessions

      Fiscal Cliff

      Brooks voted against the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 151 Republicans that voted against the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013. 𖏭]


      Man, 20, shot in downtown

      Location: In the area of 300 block of W. Ninth St., Wilmington, DE 19801

      Incident summary:

      A 20-year-old man was critically wounded after being shot Sunday night in downtown Wilmington.

      Other than to say the shooting occurred about 9:15 p.m. in the 300 block of W. Ninth St., Wilmington Police have not said where on the block the incident occurred.

      Officers, however, had a store cordoned off Sunday at the corner of Ninth and West streets. The store's door was wide open and medical equipment was seen being taken into the business.


      Watch the video: The Mother of All Talkshows with George Galloway - Episode 118