University of Minnesota at Duluth

University of Minnesota at Duluth

In 1895, the Normal School at Duluth was established by the Minnesota Legislator. In 1921, the institution became the Duluth State Teachers College, and in 1947 it became a coordinate campus of the University of Minnesota.In 1948, ground was broken for the first building of the new campus. The old campus, which had housed the Normal School and the teacher's college, continued to serve UMD students for many years. Its centerpiece, the proud Old Main building, was destroyed by a tragic fire in 1992, but the building's arches have been preserved and is now used by the city of Duluth as a park.UMD's campus consists of more than 50 buildings on 244 acres overlooking Lake Superior, all built since 1948.UMD is also home for the Tweed Museum of Art, the Marshall W. Other facilities include the Research and Field Studies Center, Glensheen Historic Estate, the Large Lakes Observatory, and the Natural Resources Research Institute.The UMD is a comprehensive regional university within which undergraduate students can choose from 12 bachelor's degrees in 75 majors. In addition, there is the two-year program at the School of Medicine, and a College of Pharmacy program.UMD provides an alternative to both large research universities and small liberal arts colleges, attracting students looking for a personalized learning experience on a medium-sized campus of a major university.

University of Minnesota at Duluth, Bonga Room, Duluth.

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Titles University of Minnesota at Duluth, Bonga Room, Duluth. (Supplied Title)
Quantity 1 photonegative
Format Content Category: photographs
Format: negative
Colorization: black and white
Measurements 35 millimeters
Subjects Bonga, George
Butts, Cerosetta
Saint Louis County. Duluth. Schools. University of Minnesota--Duluth.
African Americans in Minnesota.
Places Subject: University of Minnesota-Duluth Campus, Duluth, Saint Louis County, Minnesota, United States
Dates Creation: 1975
Content: 1975
Holding Type Photographs
Identifiers 01238-1 (Negative Number)
MS2.9 DU5.2M p2 (Use Copy Locator Number)
01238-1 (Negative Number)

Architecture in the Twin Cities

Located just across the Mississippi River from downtown Minneapolis, the School of Architecture is in the heart of a dynamic metropolitan area of 3.5 million people with an internationally regarded arts and design community. The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul have a long history of supporting innovative architecture, evident in numerous architectural landmarks and public spaces designed by significant international architects, including Steven Holl (designer of our facilities in Rapson Hall), Marcel Breuer, Jean Nouvel, Maya Lin, Eero and Eliel Saarinen, Jacques Herzog/Pierre de Meuron, Frank Gehry, and internationally renowned regional architects including Cass Gilbert, Ralph Rapson, Clarence W. “Cap” Wigington, Elizabeth Scheu “Lisl” Close and Winston Close, and Frank Lloyd Wright.

We are an integral part of one of the largest and most active design communities in the country with more than 250 firms working locally and internationally. Our reciprocity with local practitioners who mentor, teach, and frequently hire our students dates back to Ralph Rapson, who led the architecture department (then part of the Institute of Technology) for 30 years. The Twin Cities is home to a vibrant design culture that produces some of the most ground-breaking, thoughtful, as well as nationally and internationally recognized architecture projects across the country. With a thriving professional network that extends over a wide range of allied design disciplines, the school benefits from its place in an architecture community that values and supports progressive design.

Our faculty have a wealth of experience in both traditional and boundary-pushing architectural practice.


The University of Minnesota Greek system is over 145 years old, has grown steadily with the rapid growth of the University. Its first men's fraternity, Chi Psi, dates to 1874, and its first women's fraternity, Kappa Kappa Gamma, dates to 1880, long before the term 'sorority' was popularized as a term for the women's 'houses'.

Yet these pioneers did not themselves mark the beginnings of fraternal presence at the school. Many of Minnesota's early University presidents and department heads were fraternity men or women from 'back East,' having experienced undergraduate life in the flourishing literary societies and old-line fraternities [3] that in turn were born out of America's earliest institutions of higher learning. These include William Watts Folwell, the University's first president, who was a member of Alpha Delta Phi at Hobart College, Cyrus Northrop, [4] who was both an Alpha Sigma Phi AND a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Yale, [5] Ada Comstock, Dean of Women, and a member of Delta Gamma at Minnesota, president George Vincent who was also a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Yale, and president James Morrill who was also an Alpha Sigma Phi, at Ohio State.

Still, because Minnesota's is one of the oldest fraternity systems in the nation, many of the University's Greek chapters are consequently among the oldest of their respective organizations, and often have single-letter or first-series chapter names or designations. Similarly, the age, prestige, size and breadth of the University of Minnesota have resulted in its hosting many of the nation's honor and professional fraternities for most disciplines. As early as 1925, the Minnesota Gopher yearbook reported the presence of 25 national academic fraternities, 18 national academic sororities, and 33 national professional chapters on campus. Most of these, undergrad or professional, are (or were) residential.

Over 90 years later, as of 2017, Minnesota hosts 37 academic fraternities, 23 academic sororities, 61 honors societies, 31 professional societies, and 4 service- or religious-focused chapters. [6]

Since inception, these organizations have delivered an outsized influence and benefit to the campus: The first indicator of this impact is the fact of hundreds of pages devoted to the myriad of Greek Letter organizations profiled in each issue of the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook during its century-long publication run. [7] These organizations have served as a primary hub of the student experience at the university for their entire existence, for active members, regular guests, and alumni.

The high watermark for Greek Life participation by percentage, indicated by review of senior photos and club membership, was in 1910 through 1920, when approximately 1/4 of undergraduates participated in one or more of the academic or professional societies. [8] The peak number of residential chapters came at approximately 75 in 1930. [9] While membership continued to expand into the 1930s, the membership percentage decreased as the Minnesota campus grew less residential. Through this period, interest in Greek chapter membership was not as strong among commuters, 'night class,' and non-traditional students. The Membership percentage of the overall undergraduate population reached a low point of 3% in the late 1960s. Later, an upturn resulted in a numeric peak that came during the early 1980s: In 1981 the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life reported 3,100 net members, while 3,964 participated in 1984. [9] : 33 In a spike downturn coinciding with the economic recession of that era, participation hit a marked numeric low point in about 2005, but recovering to 1,795 active members in 2011 its population has continued increasing through to the present day. By mid-2014 participation included approximately 2,800 net undergraduate members, as reported in June of that year, reflecting about 8% of the undergraduate population and about 12% of 2013–14's incoming freshmen class. [10] [11] Noteworthy membership gains continue: by 2017, participation had increased to 3,400, or fully 11% of the campus undergraduate population, even prior to adding students in the professional chapters. [1] Fifty-eight campus chapters were residential as of 2017. [12]

For over a century, Minnesota's Greek chapters provided the backbone of campus support for traditions such as Homecoming and Campus Carnival, which events, along with Greek Week, almost immediately sparked a procession of annual competitions between chapters for best decor, musical talent, cheer, theater and dance. Athletic teams, where Greeks were predominant among both varsity and club sports similarly were knit into the campus life of previous decades, offering the University twin fountains of school spirit.

Homecoming Edit

The longest-running collegiate football "trophy game" and rivalry in the United States is Minnesota's enduring series of battles against the University of Michigan, whose Little Brown Jug was first captured by Minnesota in 1903. [13] Building from the excitement of that memorable game, Minnesota's Homecoming tradition, an opportunity for alumni to gather at their Alma Mater, began in 1914 with a game against Wisconsin and a Homecoming Dance. By 1919 Greeks had organized a parade to mark the day, with fraternities, sororities, academic departments, and dorms all vying for the best-decorated float. The Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1922 remarks in a retrospective of the 1919 event that "all University buildings, as well as the fraternities and sororities, were decorated in Minnesota and Michigan colors." [14] This tradition has persisted and grown over 100 years.

Sports Edit

Varsity and Inter-fraternal sports were intertwined in the first half of the 20th Century. Early campus sporting legends were often members of campus fraternities. The most notable example is Sigma Chi's Bronco Nagurski, a standout Football All-American in 1929 who played for Minnesota from 1927 to 1929. He was named to the College Football Hall of Fame in its inaugural year of 1951. Another example is Phi Sigma Kappa's Bert Baston, likewise a standout All-American in both the 1915 and 1916 seasons. Baston later served as the Varsity Gophers' Ends Coach from 1930–41, and again from 1946-50, and was named to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954. [15] Alpha Delta Phi's Bernie Bierman was Head Coach at Minnesota from 1932–50, with a 4-year break for WWII service. He and Baston powered their 1915 team to a national championship as undergrads. As Head Coach, Bierman went on to win five national championships and election to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1955. Bud Grant, long-time coach of the Minnesota Vikings was a three-sport, nine-letter athlete at Minnesota and a member of Phi Delta Theta, later elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Sigma Chi served up another All-American in Herb Joesting, a full back, elected to the 'Hall in 1954 and a contemporary of Nagurski. Thus a single chapter had two of these notable players at the same time. A fourth All-American was Phi Delta Theta's Dick Wildung, 1942 team captain, NFL first-round draftee to the Packers, and yet another inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame, elected in 1957. One chapter boasted three of these outstanding Hall of Fame athletes at the same time: Carl Eller, Vikings legend, was a U of MN standout from 1959–62, Bobby Bell was twice elected All American, playing from 1960–62, and Sandy Stephens, playing from 1959–61, was named an All American quarterback. All three were members of Alpha Phi Alpha. In all, 14 of 19 Gopher players who have been named to the College Football Hall of Fame as of 2019 have been members of campus fraternities. [16]

It was a point of pride for fraternities to feature those "big men on campus" in their recruitment materials, Letterman for their respective athletic teams.

Several sports were popularized through early fraternity support. Whereas football, basketball, and track were named early varsity sports with the more robust funding that name implies, others, like tennis, wrestling and gymnastics were tagged as "minor sports." Hockey fit into a middle ground. The sport was played throughout the region as a club sport in the 1900s and 1910s, with ad-hoc teams named to represent the University on outdoor rinks as early as 1903 and again in 1910. Rivals included the University of Chicago and the University of Wisconsin. Interest steadily grew, along with inklings of future conference play. By 1920 some twenty teams fielded by the fraternities vied in what Gopher editorials deemed the "fierce competition for the league championship." The stars of this fraternity league, including Phi Sigma Kappa's Merle DeForrest, Paul Swanson and Frank Pond, and Delta Tau Delta's Chester Bros were named to a team to represent the University. [17] That year, DeForrest organized a petition drive that resulted in permanent funding by the Regents, awarding the hockey team its long-sought varsity status. Soon after, former captain, Frank Pond was named as Varsity Hockey's third Head Coach (1930–35). Today, the team's Rookie of the Year award is named after Pond. [18] [19] [20]

The first-ever Crew Racing competition was organized on May 13, 1926, by another Phi Sigma Kappa athlete, Owen "Sox" Whiteside '29, who had won a national juniors championship in the Northwest International Regatta the year prior. [21] It appeared obvious to Minnesota Daily [22] and Gopher yearbook writers that proximity to a mild stretch of the Mississippi River made it natural that the University should have a premier Crew team. [23] The first-ever competition at Minnesota was held that year, pitting honors societies the Iron Wedge and the Grey Friars against each other with borrowed 4-man shells in an attempt to jump-start the sport. Several races followed over the next decade, but the downturn of the Great Depression cooled interest and funding, which only returned to its previous level after WWII with the establishment of a men's rowing club team in 1957, and a women's varsity team in 2000.

Athletes continued to wear fraternity letters well into the 1980s until risk-averse coaches began to limit such fraternity participation within the major sports. Greeks still may be found among non-revenue teams, as club sports participants and within intramurals.

Campus Carnival and Greek Week Edit

Where Homecoming was the premier event for the Fall Quarter [24] at the University of Minnesota, Greek Week or the more recent 'Machy Days has provided a focus for Greek competition during the Winter Quarter. Yet it was the venerable Campus Carnival which held sway during the early Spring for over seven decades running. "Carni" grew from a small penny carnival established in 1914 to a massive, blaring fundraiser that rivaled any other campus in dollars raised for children's charities. [25] [26] Gamma Phi Beta sorority was the first sponsor, challenging the other sororities to decorate small booths. Three years later the Women's Athletic Association (WAA) took the lead, presiding over an event in the Women's Gym that was billed as a sort of miniature Mardi Gras a swimmers exhibition had the ladies smeared with phosphorus before diving into the pool, and in 1931 they debuted women's fencing as one of several athletic exhibitions. But it was the competitive 'hawking' of items for sale or challenge games from which evolved the ballyhoo dance lines and show ticket barkers of later years. From this event the WAA earned needed funds for women's sports equipment and operating expenses. Later, beginning in the 1940s, it was managed by professional fraternity Alpha Kappa Psi, and finally, by an independent board of governors. After WWII, outgrowing the Women's Gym, the event took place in the Fieldhouse.

The event continued to grow and evolve. By the 1960s, fraternity and sorority pairings would design a 50' x 150' three-story set built upon scaffolding and decorated with painted flats, upon which a 10-person pick-up band would play, surrounded by a "ballyhoo" of a dozen sorority dancers. The 3-day event earned extensive coverage in the newspapers of the time, all similarly describing the scene: With the blare of a horn marking the time, the bands would play all at once, to entertain a crowd gathered in front. After eight minutes another horn would blast, and the crowd would surge into the bowels of the set to gather on bleachers where they'd watch a 12-minute one-act play. Every half hour, the cycle would repeat. Fieldhouse entrance tickets, show admission fees and concession proceeds would all be donated to charity. In its later years, Carni would grow to generate in excess of $250,000 annually over the three-day bash. Carni finally ended in 1989, on concerns over rapidly increasing insurance rates and its impact on grades.

On a smaller scale, Greek Week offered an opportunity to showcase athletic prowess on the intramural fields while musical and dance talent was celebrated on the stage of Northrop Auditorium, again, by pairings of fraternities and sororities. It was common through the late 1990s for a fraternity and sorority to pair for these events, Homecoming, Greek Week and Carni, and not to join together with multiple houses as is the practice today. About the year 2000, Greek Week ended, but was replaced by an expansion of 'Machy Days, originally an event hosted by Sigma Chi fraternity, adjusted to offer much the same array of events.

The culture of competitive fundraising for charities and participating in hands-on charitable work continues as a deeply held tradition among all the Greek chapters, at Minnesota and nationally. Most have their own national charitable focus, while chapters often participate in more local efforts within their community.

Minnesota's fraternities and sororities built up their housing prospects in three distinct phases, according to the 2003 Minneapolis Historical Commission Study. [9] Before 1900, most early chapters served their membership with rented private homes. Between 1900 and 1917, rentals gave way to properties built for the chapters, resulting in several iconic examples of Beaux-Arts, Georgian and Classical styles. Finally, between 1921 and 1936, Minnesota's fraternity chapters engaged in that same popular building spree which was sweeping across other early private and land grant colleges and universities from New York to California. The result of this last phase was the often stately homes occupied by many Greek chapters today, upgrades from boarding house-style clapboard and stucco homes, to the many Fraternity Row mansions that are visible at Minnesota along University Avenue SE, on 4th and 5th Street SE, and the 10th Avenue "Sorority Row," all in Minneapolis. Similarly, the St. Paul campus is home to several stately chapter buildings, or chapterhouses, along Cleveland Avenue. It is a testament to the alumni of many of these chapters that their buildings survived, as so many were financed by the 1920s financial bubble, having endured weak membership eras during the Great Depression and then the twin turmoils of WWII and 1960s anti-establishment unrest. Past university yearbooks, now digitally available, often picture these buildings, some with addresses and photos or professionally crafted etchings. A final wave of chapter building, usually in the Modernist style, occurred during the period 1950 to 1973. [9] : 17

Greek societies also provide a visible link with the past. Residential Greek chapters have been cited as architectural gems, "projecting a positive image through architecture, and setting an architectural standard for more than a century." [27] Important examples of period architecture include Tudor with half-timber, Georgian and Federal variants of the American Colonial style, Vienna secessionist, English Gothic, Elizabethan or Georgian, and more recently, International Modernist styles. While many of these buildings are significant, enough to warrant the City of Minneapolis declaring the area a Greek Letter Chapter House Historical District in 2003, a few examples should be noted:

Fiji's Mu Sigma Chapter (Vienna secessionist, Arts and Crafts offshoot)

ΓΗΓ's Minnesota Chapter (Richardsonian Revival, elements of Queen Anne)

ΚΚΓ's Chi Chapter (English Tudor, influenced by Arts and Crafts)

  • Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI) was one of the earliest-built Row mansions, exhibiting the Vienna secessionist style, an offshoot of the Arts and Crafts movement. [28]
  • Gamma Eta Gamma (ΓΗΓ) law fraternity is a smaller example of Richardsonian Revival, perhaps with Queen Anne elements.
  • Theta Tau (ΘΤ), an engineering fraternity, is an example of the International Modernist style.
  • Chi Psi (ΧΨ) is an exceptional variant of an English Tudor country house, "built to convey masculine dignity and prestige."
  • Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣΚ) is an Elizabethan-revival Tudor, noted as a "romantic-era masterpiece."
  • Sigma Phi Epsilon (ΣΦΕ), built by B.O. Cutter and restored by Phi Delta Theta fraternity, this "gingerbread" home is a showcase of the Carpenter Gothic revival style. [29]
  • Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ) combines elements of Georgian and Greek revival styles.
  • Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) offers a "dramatic and striking" mix of the English Tudor style, influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement popular at the time of its construction." [27]

These and many other Minnesota chapterhouses exhibit exceptional elements of their architectural styles. The owners, often the same entities that built these homes, have maintained them in spite of age, sometimes hard use, and the financial strain of student organizations that can ebb and flow in popularity. Addresses may be found in the footnotes for these chapters, where they are listed below. Most style descriptions courtesy of the referenced Architecture Minnesota article. [27]

Constrained somewhat by busy University Avenue and 4th Street, expansion of Greek housing has been discussed at several points. The 2003 Zellie study, cited among the references, notes that there had been planned a "Fraternity Court" in the early 1920s. [9] : 28 This stately road was to have been on the site where Williams Arena was later built, to host a number of new buildings between 19th Avenue and Oak Street. This plan conflicted with the University's own development plan for the basketball arena though, and the Fraternity Court was not built, with the exception of the ΑΧΡ house that later was owned by ΧΦ, then leased by ΚΣ, and in fall 2016 bought by ΘΧ. In the 1960s, an early phase plan for a fraternity housing area on the river flats below the Washington Avenue Bridge was discussed. This plan did not materialize beyond the discussion stage. More recently, Community Student Housing Inc. (CSHI), a consortium of several fraternities, has discussed building shared dormitory space and new house fronts on up to four blocks between University and 4th Street. [ citation needed ]

Loss of original or long-term Greek properties Edit

Late 1950s construction of highway 35W resulted in condemnation of multiple fraternity homes bordering what was 9th Avenue SE, many of which were sororities or professional fraternities. [30] In Stadium Village, several stately houses along Washington Avenue SE were lost to commercial development. More recently, restrictive zoning has both helped and harmed chapters, where economics of scale no longer allow viability without remodeling, expansion or additional parking. [31] Some chapters celebrate their buildings' local (or national) historic zone status, [32] [33] which has slowed the pace of demolition, while others see this as a cost burden. [34] Nevertheless, some chapter buildings have been lost to multi-unit development, or have been sold to non-Greek buyers. A few examples of still-existing former Greek properties should be noted. Market forces may allow some of these to become available to Greek ownership again:

  • Delta Delta Delta (ΔΔΔ) sorority built the structure at 316 10th Avenue SE in 1917, owning it until at least 2004. The building is now occupied by Luther House, a Christian service group affiliated with the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod. The adjacent building, 314 10th Avenue SE, was home to ΑΦ, then ΚΑΘ, then ΤΚΕ, before being purchased by ΔΔΔ around 1961.
  • Theta Chi (ΘΧ) fraternity built the structure at 315 16th Avenue SE in 1930, owning it until at least 2000, and which was later purchased by a private party. It was renovated as a coffee house and boarding house and is leased by Kappa Pi Alpha (ΚΠΑ) Christian fraternity.
  • Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ) fraternity built the structure at 1721 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1908 to 1941. The Student Co-op was established during WWII and has been a resident in that property ever since.
  • Tau Kappa Epsilon (ΤΚΕ) fraternity built the structure at 1901 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1925 to 1938. In 1982 it was purchased by the YMCA, who sold it to the University in 2000. [35]
  • Chi Omega (ΧΩ) sorority was a long-term owner of the structure at 315 Tenth Avenue SE, owning it from 1927 until at least 1989. Originally built by Zeta Psi (ΖΨ) fraternity, the structure is now owned by the Maranatha Church. owned 1206 Fifth Street SE from 1915 until at least 1968. It had been occupied and then owned by the Heart of the Earth survival school, associated with the American Indian Movement, since 1980. In 2013 the building was purchased by a private developer for residential housing. [36]
  • Kappa Delta (ΚΔ) sorority owned 1025 6th Street SE for almost 50 years, a property now rented out for general student housing.
  • Alpha Delta Pi (ΑΔΠ) sorority built 1000 5th Street SE in 1952, occupying it until their closure in 1987. The building was sold to the Unification Church (the "Moonies"). This property has reverted to Greek ownership in 2017, with the purchase by Kappa Sigma.
  • Kappa Sigma (ΚΣ) fraternity lived at 1125 5th Street SE for over 75 years, moving in 2002. Their former building is now a daycare.
  • Alpha Xi Delta (ΑΞΔ) sorority owned 1115 5th Street SE for almost 40 years. It later was occupied by Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and was sold to a private owner to become a Bed & breakfast. in 2019 it reverted to Greek control, under Alpha Epsilon Pi (ΑΕΠ).

These are examples. Other significant properties along University Avenue, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Streets SE, and the adjacent avenues were once home to Greek chapters and are now in private hands. A search of this page lists addresses where chapters once existed.

Future housing prospects Edit

The need to improve and expand Greek chapter housing is a priority for fraternities and sororities at Minnesota. [11] : 70 A 2012 University task force report showed that one of the biggest challenges faced by the present Greek System is the occasionally degraded state of chapter buildings. [11] : 78–81 Owned privately by not-for-profit alumni associations, some of these show signs of deferred maintenance. Several recent remodeling and renovation programs have allowed significant improvement to some chapters, including recent full renovations by Chi Psi, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Phi Sigma Kappa, along with completely rebuilt houses for Alpha Gamma Rho, Kappa Sig, and FarmHouse. Lack of housing for fraternity and sororities, a community has now grown to 15% of the student population in 2017 according to the OFSL, remains a hurdle that new groups must overcome. This dearth is only partially remedied by the opening of the new (2013) 17th Avenue Freshman Dorm. This particular project has allowed two ground-level rental suites along University Avenue for chapters new to campus, intended to serve as a long-term incubator. [10]

The Minneapolis City Council approved a number of zoning changes that relaxed restrictions on Greek ownership and renovation of properties near campus in action taken on 28 April 2017. Specific code changes include:

Increases the maximum height of chapter buildings from 2.5 stories to 4. Removes the requirement that a house may not "serve" more than 32 people, due largely to the uncertainty of the definition of 'serve'. Allows on-site services to be used by all members or guests. Allows Greek chapters to acquire properties not previously used as Greek housing. Reduces minimum lot area from 10,000 square feet to 5,000 square feet.

For a more extensive review of Greek Row buildings, past and present, see the University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Designation Study, as prepared for the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission in 2003. [9] [37]

Individual chapters are managed by elected officers. Incorporated alumni groups own the residential chapter buildings where they exist, serving in the role of the property manager. Additional local alumni oversight varies by chapter. National organizations provide organizational and operational guidance, extending to disciplinary action where warranted. In partnership with national organizations, University oversight of the Academic and Social chapters is managed on a day-to-day basis by the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life, a unit of the Office for Student Affairs.

Professional and Honor societies are coordinated at a lower level of administrative involvement by the various academic departments within the University and its several colleges, and of these, some operate merely cooperatively, with no involvement from the University at all.

Since gaining its first chapter in 1874, Minnesota administrators have maintained an open, if not always supportive relationship with its chapters [ citation needed ] . An impulse to exert administrative management on these highly visible registered student organizations has at times been offset by the interest in limiting liability exposure where it could be claimed that the administration was responsible but did not do enough to prevent an unsafe or illegal occurrence. Minnesota's Greek System has, on balance, avoid the frequency of harmful events, as have occurred at other large schools this primarily as the result of self-policing. [10] [38] The original, more active relationship between the Greeks and the Administration had been marginalized somewhat after the turbulent late 1960s and during the lassaiz-faire commuter-student years of 1970–90. This coincided with national scrutiny and bad publicity over hazing events elsewhere in the US. With the return to a more residential campus, both the Minnesota Greek System and its relationship with the University are thriving: An estimated 2,800 Greeks on campus participate in 58 separate undergraduate Academic and Social chapters. [10] In addition, Professional and honor societies, many accepting undergraduates, number more than 80. Because of this and other factors, the University is again improving its relationship with the Greek Community:

In March 2012, President Kaler announced the formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF) and issued a Charge to the GCSTF Steering Committee which emphasized the need to develop a "sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community." [11]

Over the decades, Minnesota's Greek system, like others nationwide, has had its detractors. Most notably in the late 1960s, anti-establishment agitation resulted in decreased interest and participation. This negative environment abated with the end of the Vietnam War. While membership again surged beginning in the late 1970s, the campus population was swelling even faster. While hitting numeric highs, Greeks at Minnesota thus never achieved the pre-Vietnam era participation level as a percentage of the campus. For some, Greeks were "too exclusive." Commuting students may have had little occasion to socialize with them on the largely non-residential campus. Some students chafed at overt culture differences where Prep-era Greek men would wear blazers and ties to Monday meetings. Occasional surveys of detractors would declare a perception that membership was akin to buying friends. [39] For others, it was simply a monetary concern, with a reluctance to include fraternity or sorority dues into a tight college budget. [39] The hugely popular movie, "Animal House" also branded for a generation the image of a lethargic, disruptive and academically inferior "frat boy" on the national consciousness. [40]

Response to criticism Edit

Fixing problems Edit

Greek organizations both nationally and locally sponsor many risk avoidance programs for the real benefits of student safety and well-being, as well as to avoid harmful bad publicity. Hence, these organizations have learned to address criticism quickly: Chapters and national bodies have adopted extensive changes to reduce incidents of hazing and other harmful behaviors. The recent announcement by Sigma Alpha Epsilon to ban "pledging" nationwide is only the latest of such announcements, of revised prospective member programs now adopted by many fraternities. [41] While not limited to fraternities and sororities, harmful activities like underage drinking and hazing are often headlined as local news stories, with fraternity chapters as the most visible examples. [42] In this area too, active and alumni Greek leaders have responded to such negative publicity and the resulting criticism with programs that seek to reduce alcohol abuse and eliminate underage or binge drinking, with risk management training, by self-policing their own chapters, and with more stringent procedures to discipline offenders. All sororities and some fraternity chapters have banned alcohol in their living facilities. National fraternities, through the NIC and sororities through their national and local governing boards require member training each year to combat hazing, underage drinking, sexual assault and other harmful behaviors. [43] Hence, individual chapters are not alone in addressing these problems. Inter-chapter governing boards at Minnesota (listed below by chapter groupings) provide event monitoring services and local risk management training, culminating in the introduction in 2012 of Arkeo, which serves as an inter-Greek cooperative monitoring program to help chapters avoid risk. [44] [45]

Response to perceptions Edit

As to the financial cost of participation, fraternity leaders note that the vast majority of Greek students work their way through school. [45] In fact, the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life claims that the average cost burden for fraternity chapter membership adds 3% to a student budget, and may indeed be less costly on a net basis when factoring reduced summer rents and lower live-in costs versus dorms and private apartments. Finally, the Minnesota campus is markedly more residential than thirty years ago. Development of over a dozen large for-profit private dorms and many upgraded apartments has increased the average quality and quantity of near-campus housing and has increased their average expense. The result has been that fraternities and sororities, previously perceived as among the more expensive housing options now range from "in line with" or even lower than the average cost of dorms or apartments. [46] [47]

Addressing the claim of exclusivity in recruitment materials, Greek leaders will accept that label as another way of saying they promote high standards. All fraternities are by definition self-selective. But, they clarify, so are all friendships. Further, they state, "U" students all have passed a bar of exclusivity by getting into the increasingly selective University itself. With an array of student groups numbering in the thousands, and a multitude of Greek chapter personalities, fraternity and sorority proponents are confident that all students who wish to join a Greek society can find one where they can flourish. [45] The matter of religious and race exclusivity appears to have passed several generations ago: While some chapters are historically black, Hispanic, or Asian-oriented, there is no race exclusivity or other discrimination exclusivity in any of Minnesota's chapters. All are integrated and have been for some time. Minnesota was the second Big Ten school (after Wisconsin) to see its fraternities and sororities drop all bias clauses (race, color, or creed) from their bylaws and policies. Older chapters have been integrated since the 1950s and 1960s [9] and the multi-cultural Greek chapters since their founding in more recent years. [48]

Benefits to student and campus Edit

Greek society participation was strongly correlated with a more positive student experience in a study conducted by the Student Organization Development Center in 1987. [49] In 2017, the 60 current chapters of the Inter-fraternity Council, Pan-Hellenic Council, Multicultural Greek Council, and National Panhellenic Council provided 30,000 hours of volunteering in the surrounding community. The organizations also provide fundraising for various organizations in 2017 groups raised $200,000 for various causes. [1]

Community Standards Housing Inc. was incorporated by several chapters to improve Greek Housing. While CSHI's proposed Greek Village development for the 1700 block of University Avenue was not adopted in 2011, in March 2012, University President Kaler followed up on his promise at that time with the formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF), with the Charge to the group that "emphasized the need to develop a sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community." He stated, "[The Greeks] get better grades, graduate sooner, and give more money to the University." [ citation needed ] Under his direction, the UM Foundation has been collecting data on Greek participation for all students, a data point that had been only sporadically kept prior to 2012. [11]

For brevity, the sections below make extensive use of Greek letters, one of the first items in a new member's instruction program. Most fraternities use two or three Greek letters to signify their symbolic or secret names a few use non-Greek words. [50] The main listing for each fraternity or sorority shows their full name at least once, with references and Wikilinks as available.

Fraternities constituting the Interfraternity Council (IFC) Edit

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are men's organizations at the University of Minnesota, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the campus IFC. While most IFC chapters are based in Minneapolis, several call St. Paul their home. After a period of level membership, for various reasons, fraternity membership is increasing rapidly. Average chapter size is 50, and several chapters exceed 100 men.

Fraternity buildings are generally owned by chapter alumni organizations. Some chapters are non-residential, while a few rent or lease space.

As part of IFC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. When a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current recognized IFC members.
(NIC) indicates members of the North American Interfraternity Conference.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.
(FFC) indicates members of the Fraternity Forward Coalition.

Active academic and social fraternity chapters at Minnesota

  • ΧΨ - Chi Psi, 1874 (NIC) [9][51][52][53][54][pic1]
  • ΦΔΘ - Phi Delta Theta, 1881–1994, 2010 [55][56][57]
  • ΔΤΔ - Delta Tau Delta, 1883 (NIC) [58][54]
  • ΦΚΨ - Phi Kappa Psi, 1888 (NIC) [59][53][54][pic1]
  • ΣΧ - Sigma Chi, 1888 (NIC) [60][61][54]
  • ΒΘΠ - Beta Theta Pi, 1889 (NIC) [62][63][54]
  • ΔΚΕ - Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1889 (NIC) [64][65][54]
  • ΦΓΔ - Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI), 1890 (NIC) [28][66][67][54]
  • ΑΔΦ - Alpha Delta Phi, 1892–1996, 2000 (NIC) [68][69][70][53][54]
  • ΔΧ - Delta Chi, 1892 (NIC) [71][54][72]
  • ΖΨ - Zeta Psi, 1899–1982, 1987–2007, 2016 (NIC) [73][74]
  • ΚΣ - Kappa Sigma, 1901 [57][75][54][pic1]
  • ΣΑΕ - Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 1902 (NIC) [76][54][77]
  • ΑΤΩ - Alpha Tau Omega, 1902 (NIC and FFC) [78][79][54][80]
  • ΣΝ - Sigma Nu, 1904 (NIC) [81][54]
  • ΦΣΚ - Phi Sigma Kappa, 1910 (NIC) [82][83][84][54][pic1]
  • ΑΦΑ - Alpha Phi Alpha, 1912 (NPHC & NIC) [85][86]
  • ΣΑΜ - Sigma Alpha Mu, 1915 (NIC) [87][88]
  • ΑΣΦ - Alpha Sigma Phi Colony, 1916–35, 2013 (FFC) [89][80]
  • ΣΦΕ - Sigma Phi Epsilon, 1916–41, 1949–58, 1978 [90][57][91][pic1]
  • ΑΓΡ - Alpha Gamma Rho, 1917 (NIC & PFA) [92][93]
  • ΤΚΕ - Tau Kappa Epsilon, 1917–40, 1948–63, 1979–87, 2014 [57][94][pic1]
  • ΠΚΑ - Pi Kappa Alpha, 1922–36, 1986–2000, 2006 (NIC) [95] , 1922 (NIC) [96]
  • ΘΧ - Theta Chi, 1924–2000, 2013 (FFC) [97][54][80][pic1]
  • FH - FarmHouse, 1931 (NIC) [98][99]
  • ΑΕΠ - Alpha Epsilon Pi, 1949–73, 2004 (FFC) [100][101][102][88][80][77]
  • ΒΧΘ - Beta Chi Theta, 2006 (NAPA & NIC) South Asian interest [103][104]
  • ΣΠ - Sigma Pi, 2008 (NIC) [105]
  • ΔΣΦ - Delta Sigma Phi, 1967–71, 1985–86, 2019 (colonies only) (NIC) [106][107]

Chapters whose names changed

ΑΚΦ - Alpha Kappa Phi, 1915–16 (local), became ΦΚΣ [120] ΑΘΨ - Alpha Theta Psi, 1915-16 (local), became ΑΣΦ [11] [119] ΗΣΡ - Eta Sigma Rho, 1916-1917 (local), became ΤΚΕ [110] Mandarin Club, 1919-1923 (local), became ΜΔΦ (see ΛΧΑ) [121] ΧΔΞ - Chi Delta Xi, 1921–28 (local), became ΧΦ [122] ΧΣΤ - Chi Sigma Tau, 1921-22 (local), became Triangle [123] Phi Club, 1921–23, Jewish, became ΦΕΠ (see ΖΒΤ) [102] : 369 [124] [88] ΑΧΑ - Alpha Chi Alpha, 1921-22 (local), became ΠΚΑ [125] Sphinx, 1922–25 (local), became ΛΧΑ [126] ΜΔΦ - Mu Delta Phi, 1923-1925 (local), became ΘΚΝ (see ΛΧΑ) [121] ΦΕΠ - Phi Epsilon Pi, 1923–70, Jewish, became ΖΒΤ [127] [128] [88] ΘΚΝ - Theta Kappa Nu, 1925–33, dormant (see ΛΧΑ) [129] [121] ΒΣΕ - Beta Sigma Epsilon, 1924–28 (local), Jewish, became ΤΔΦ [130] [88] [131] ΦΒΔ - Phi Beta Delta, 1925–33, Jewish, dormant (see ΠΛΦ) [132] [133] [88] ΦΚ - Phi Kappa, 1947–59, became ΦΚΘ [134]

Dormant fraternity chapters

ΔΥ - Delta Upsilon, 1890–1986, 1991-2018 (NIC), dormant [135] [136] ΨΥ - Psi Upsilon, 1891–1993 (NIC), dormant [137] [53] [54] [pic1]

ΘΔΧ - Theta Delta Chi, 1892–1984 (NIC), dormant [68] [53] [138] ΘΝΕ - Theta Nu Epsilon, 1893–1900?, -1934 (later NIC), dormant [68] : VIII-26 [139] [140] Acacia, 1904–1978, 1983–93 (NIC), dormant [141] [142] [143] [pic1] ΦΚΣ - Phi Kappa Sigma, 1916–43, 2013-2020 (NIC), dormant [144] [54] ΘΞ - Theta Xi, 1920–65 (NIC), dormant [11] [68] [145] ΧΣΦ - Chi Sigma Phi, 1924–28 (local), dormant [146] [147] ΛΧΑ - Lambda Chi Alpha, 1925–38, 1947–59 (NIC), dormant [68] [148] ΠΛΦ - Pi Lambda Phi, 1925–33 (NIC), Jewish, dormant [132] [88] ΤΔΦ - Tau Delta Phi, 1928–52 (NIC), Jewish, dormant [102] [149] [88] ΧΦ - Chi Phi, 1928–43, 1946–94 (NIC), dormant [150] [151] ΦΚΘ - Phi Kappa Theta, 1947–61 (NIC), dormant [68] [152] ΖΒΤ - Zeta Beta Tau, 1949–53 (NIC), (1914–70 as ΞΨΘ or ΦΕΠ), dormant [102] [153] [88] ΒΣΨ - Beta Sigma Psi, 1963–83 (NIC), Lutheran Church, dormant [68] [154] ΩΝΑ - Omega Nu Alpha, 2000–13 (local), dormant [155]

Sororities constituting the Panhellenic council (PHC) Edit

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the PHC. For convenience, the term "sorority" is used throughout, though some of these organizations are "women's Fraternities," and were so named prior to the popularization of the term, sorority. The terms are synonymous, After a period of level membership representing about 3% of campus women, for various reasons, sorority membership is increasing rapidly. Chapter size in almost all cases now exceeds 120 women.

Interest and recruitment is strong enough that, in 2013, the University of Minnesota was opened to PHC expansion for the first time in 30 years, and the resulting two colonization efforts (welcoming Chi Omega and Phi Mu) occurred in 2013 and 2016, respectively.

Sorority properties are generally owned by a chapter's alumni club, though some chapters do not have housing, and others rent or lease space. As part of PHC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. If a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current PHC members and for expansion support.
(NPC) indicates members of the National Panhellenic Conference.

Active academic and social sorority chapters

  • ΚΚΓ - Kappa Kappa Gamma, 1880 (NPC) [156][157][pic1]
  • ΔΓ - Delta Gamma, 1882 (NPC) [158]
  • ΚΑΘ - Kappa Alpha Theta, 1889 (NPC) [159][160]
  • ΑΦ - Alpha Phi, 1890 (NPC) [161]
  • ΠΒΦ - Pi Beta Phi, 1890-1897, 1905 (NPC) [68] : VII-514 [162][163]
  • ΓΦΒ - Gamma Phi Beta, 1902 (NPC) [164][165]
  • ΑΓΔ - Alpha Gamma Delta, 1908 (NPC) [166][167]
  • ΑΟΠ - Alpha Omicron Pi, 1912 (NPC) [168][169][170]
  • ΑΧΩ - Alpha Chi Omega, 1921 (NPC) [171][172]
  • ΧΩ - Chi Omega, 1921–89, 2013 (NPC) [173][pic1]
  • ΦΜ - Phi Mu, 1925–35, 1946–70, 2016 (NPC) [174]
  • Clovia (Beta of Clovia), 1939 4-H origin [175][176][177]
  • ΛΔΦ - Lambda Delta Phi, 1961 regional [178][179]
  • ΑΣΚ - Alpha Sigma Kappa, 1989, technical studies [180][181]
  • ΣΑΕΠ - Sigma Alpha Epsilon Pi, 2003–08, 2018, Jewish culture [182][183][184][77][88]
  • ΦΒΧ - Phi Beta Chi, 2011, Christian values [185]

Chapters whose names changed

1904-1906 (local), became ΠΒΦ [187] [188] ΛΒ - Lambda Beta, 1905-1907 (local), became ΑΞΔ [187] ΣΒ - Sigma Beta, 1910-18 (local), became ΚΔ [189] ΠΘΠ - Pi Theta Pi, 1910-12 (local), became ΑΟΠ [190] [170] Areme, 1915-1917 (local), became Achoth (see ΔΖ) [110] Scroll and Key, 1916–28 (local), became ΣΔΤ [191] Achoth, 1917–22, Masonic-sponsored sorority, became ΦΩΠ (see ΔΖ) [192] [193] ΦΩΠ - Phi Omega Pi 1917–42, became ΔΖ [192] [194] ΔΦ - Delta Phi, 1920-1921 (local), became ΧΩ [110] ΔΘΕ - Delta Theta Epsilon, 1920-1921 (local), became ΣΚ [110] ΑΡ - Alpha Rho, 1920–24 (local), became ΖΤΑ [195] [196] ΑΛ - Alpha Lambda, 1920-1921 (local), became ΑΧΩ [110] ΣΚ - Sigma Kappa, 1921–61 (NPC), became ΒΤΛ (local) [197] [198] ΖΑ - Zeta Alpha, 1923–27 (local), became ΒΦΑ (see ΔΖ) [199] ΒΦΑ - Beta Phi Alpha, 1927–40, dormant, (see ΔΖ) [200] ΦΔΣ - Phi Delta Sigma, 1927–1930 (local), became ΑΔΘ (see ΦΜ) [201] ΑΔΘ - Alpha Delta Theta, 1930–34, became ΦΜ [202] [203]

ΓΣΦ - Gamma Sigma Phi, 1936–1938 (local), became ΑΕΦ [204] ΣΦΗ Sigma Phi Eta, 1937-1939 (local), became Clovia [110] ΝΣΠ - Nu Sigma Pi, 1959–1961 (local), became ΛΔΦ [205] Triangle Little Sisters, 1983-1989 (local), became ΑΣΚ [110] ΚΛΕ - Kappa Lambda Epsilon, 2016-2018 (local), Jewish, became ΣΑΕΠ [206] [207] [184] [88]

Dormant sorority chapters

ΔΔΔ - Delta Delta Delta, 1894–2004 (NPC), dormant [208] [pic1] ΑΞΔ - Alpha Xi Delta, 1907–60, 1983–87 (NPC), dormant [209] [210] [pic1] ΚΔ - Kappa Delta, 1918–72 (NPC), dormant [211] [pic1] ΑΔΠ - Alpha Delta Pi, 1923–87 (NPC), dormant [212] [pic1] ΔΖ - Delta Zeta, 1923–65 (NPC), dormant [213] [192] [214] ΖΤΑ - Zeta Tau Alpha, 1924–59 (NPC), dormant [215] ΓΟΒ - Gamma Omicron Beta, 1928–89 (regional), St. Paul sorority, dormant [216] ΒΙΑ - Beta Iota Alpha, 1928-19xx (local), dormant [110] ΔΦΕ - Delta Phi Epsilon, 1929–32 (NPC), Jewish, dormant [102] [217] [88] ΣΔΤ - Sigma Delta Tau, 1929–94 (NPC), dormant [218] ΑΕΦ - Alpha Epsilon Phi, 1938–78, 2009-17 (NPC), dormant [102] [219] [220] [88] ΒΤΛ - Beta Tau Lambda, 1961–64 (local, had been ΣΚ), dormant [198]

Multicultural (MGC) and national Panhellenic councils (NPHC) Edit

Originally ethnic or language-affiliated, these organizations are now fully integrated – as are Minnesota's general Greek letter organizations. Their historical affiliation may be reviewed by reading their local or national histories. Some of the men's groups also participate in IFC events, and the women's groups in PHC events.

MGC and NPHC chapters are non-residential. The inter-Greek councils often cooperate on programs and policies, as do individual chapters from among the several Greek councils.

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are either men's or women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the larger Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) and for some, in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC). See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current MGC and NPHC chapters.
(NALFO) indicates members of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations
(NAPA) indicates members of the National APIDA Panhellenic Association
(NPHC) indicates members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council
(NPC) indicates members of the National Panhellenic Conference.

  • ΑΦΑ - Alpha Phi Alpha, 1912 (NPHC & NIC) [221]
  • ΩΨΦ - Omega Psi Phi, 1921 (NPHC) [222]
  • ΚΑΨ - Kappa Alpha Psi, 1924-1967+, 1978 (NPHC, NIC) [223][224]
  • ΦΒΣ - Phi Beta Sigma, 1985–89, 2008 (NPHC & NIC) [225]
  • ΔΛΦ - Delta Lambda Phi, 1987, (MGC), gay, bi and progressive men [226][227]
  • ΣΛΒ - Sigma Lambda Beta, 1999 (MGC & NIC) Latino interest [228]
  • ΒΧΘ - Beta Chi Theta, 2006 (NAPA & NIC) South Asian interest [103][104]
  • ΠΔΨ - Pi Delta Psi, 2011 (NAPA) Asian-American interest [229]
  • ΛΦΕ - Lambda Phi Epsilon, 2020 (NAPA & NIC) colony, Asian interest [230]
  • ΑΚΑ - Alpha Kappa Alpha, 1922-59+, 1979 (NPHC) [68][232][233]
  • ΔΣΘ - Delta Sigma Theta, 1975 (NPHC & NPC) [234][235]
  • ΖΦΒ - Zeta Phi Beta, 1997 (NPHC) [236]
  • ΣΛΓ - Sigma Lambda Gamma, 2000 (formerly NALFO), Latina and multicultural [238]
  • ΔΦΩ - Delta Phi Omega, 2011 (NAPA), colony, South Asian interest [239]
  • ΑΦΓ - Alpha Phi Gamma, 2014 (NAPA), Asian interest [240][241]
  • ΣΨΖ - Sigma Psi Zeta, 2014 (NAPA), Asian interest [242][243]

Honorific, professional and service organizations have a similarly long history of activity on the University of Minnesota campus. These are coordinated through academic departments, not the OFSL. [1] They use similar naming conventions for chapter and national organizational hierarchy, and Greek Letters as identification. Some of these are populated by graduate students, a few exclusively so. As a rule, the honor and professional societies focus on specific academic, professional, or service missions. Historically too there has been significant crossover and cooperation between types some professional societies have revised themselves into non-residential honor groups. In contrast, several professional organizations have gone the other direction to a conference among the academic and social chapters. [244] But most remain oriented toward senior students (including 3rd and 4th year students) and graduate students. Social/academic fraternity or sorority membership is not a requirement for these groups. Individuals who meet a group's criteria may join or be "tapped," or asked to join, as may non-Greek students. Multiple affiliations may be allowable as membership is frequently not exclusive to one group - see individual societies for details. Activity varies some of the professional and service groups are residential, while the honors societies may meet only quarterly or annually, if at all. The cut-off line where any campus organization falls within these headings or without is by long-established convention those formed prior to 1990 are listed under the subheadings used by various volumes of the Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, which for more than a century has been the data source of record for such organizations. Newer groups have been placed in categories similar to Baird's. The latest version of Baird's, 1991, was published before the national development of some of the societies here, and therefore, position and inclusion is, in some cases, assumptive. [68]

Honor and recognition societies Edit

Honor societies recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers, usually within a specific academic discipline. Because of the age, size and research focus of the University of Minnesota, it hosts a wide variety of these organizations. Members commonly include the society on their résumé/CV, which may serve to bolster grad school acceptance, publishing merit, and professional opportunities.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership, these are co-ed, non-residential, achievement-based organizations which self-select members based on published criteria.

Many honor societies invite students to become members based on scholastic rank (the top x% of a class) and/or grade point, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are required for membership (such as completion of a particular ceremony or training program). These societies recognize past achievement. Pledging is not required, and new candidates may be immediately inducted into membership after meeting predetermined academic criteria and paying a one-time membership fee. Some require graduate enrollment. Because of their purpose of recognition, most honor societies will have much higher academic achievement requirements for membership than professional societies. It is also common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation only while others allow unsolicited applications. Finally, membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e., a member of such an organization cannot join other honor societies representing the same field. Governance requires a faculty sponsor and each society remains faculty-guided, usually with alumni input.
(ACHS) indicates members of the Association of College Honor Societies.

Active honor and recognition societies

  • ΦΔΦ - Phi Delta Phi, 1891, legal honors [245]
  • ΦΒΚ - Phi Beta Kappa, 1892, academic honors [68][246]
  • ΣΞ - Sigma Xi, 1896, graduate science and engineering honors [68]
  • Mortar Board, 1903–19 as local, 1919 (ACHS), scholarship, leadership and public service honors [247][248][249]
  • Iron Wedge, 1911-197x, 1985 (local), Greek interfraternalism, merit and leadership, Seniors, now secret [250]
  • ΑΩΑ - Alpha Omega Alpha, 1908, graduate medical honors [68]
  • ΦΥΟ - Phi Upsilon Omicron, 1909 (ACHS), family and consumer sciences honors [251]
  • ΤΒΠ - Tau Beta Pi, 1910 (ACHS), engineering honors [248][252]
  • ΦΛΥ - Phi Lambda Upsilon, 1910 (ACHS), chemistry honors [68][253]
  • Order of the Coif, 1915, law school graduates honors [68]
  • ΓΣΔ - Gamma Sigma Delta, 1916, agriculture honors [68][254][255]
  • ΤΣΔ - Tau Sigma Delta, 1917 (ACHS), architecture and allied arts honors [248][256][257]
  • ΠΛΘ - Pi Lambda Theta, 1917 (ACHS), women's education honors [258]
  • ΔΦΔ - Delta Phi Delta, 1919, art honors [259][260]
  • ΗΚΝ - Eta Kappa Nu, 1920, IEEE affiliation, electrical engineering, computer engineering honors. [68][261]
  • ΞΣΠ - Xi Sigma Pi, 1920, forestry honors [68][262]
  • ΒΓΣ - Beta Gamma Sigma, 1921 (ACHS), business academic honors [248][263]
  • ΠΤΣ - Pi Tau Sigma, 1922 (ACHS), mechanical engineering honors [264]
  • Block and Bridle, 1923, animal livestock honors [265]
  • ΣΓΕ - Sigma Gamma Epsilon, 1922, earth sciences honors [266]
  • ΧΕ - Chi Epsilon, 1923 (ACHS), civil engineering honors [248][267]
  • ΙΣΠ - Iota Sigma Pi, 1923, women's, chemistry and related sciences honors [68][268][269]
  • Phalanx, 1925 (earlier?)-1950+, military, cadets honors, dormant [270]
  • Plumb Bob, 1926 (local), technical studies honors [271]
  • ΕΣΠ - Epsilon Sigma Phi, 1927, extension student honors [272]
  • ΟΚΥ - Omicron Kappa Upsilon, 1929, dentistry honors [273]
  • ΡΧ - Rho Chi, 1930 (ACHS), pharmacy honors [68][274][275]
  • ΣΕΣ - Sigma Epsilon Sigma, 1930, freshman women, scholarship honors [276]
  • ΠΣΗ - Pi Sigma Eta 1930, mortuary science honors [277]
  • ΒΑΨ - Beta Alpha Psi, 1931, accounting, finance and information systems honors [68][278]
  • ΣΘΤ - Sigma Theta Tau, 1934 (ACHS), nursing honors [248][279]
  • ΩΧΕ - Omega Chi Epsilon, 1934 (ACHS), chemical engineering honors [280]
  • ΨΧ - Psi Chi, 1936 (ACHS), psychology honors [248][281][282]
  • ΦΑΘ - Phi Alpha Theta, 1937 (ACHS), history honors [248][283]
  • ΚΤΑ - Kappa Tau Alpha, 1948 (ACHS), journalism, mass communication honors [248][284]
  • AAS - Arnold Air Society, pre-1949, Air Force cadet honors [68]
  • ΠΔΦ - Pi Delta Phi, 1950 (ACHS), French honors [68][285][286]
  • ΤΒΣ - Tau Beta Sigma, 1952 (NIMC), [287] co-ed band honors [2][288]
  • ΦΖ - Phi Zeta, 1952, graduate veterinary medicine honors [68][289]
  • ΣΓΤ - Sigma Gamma Tau, 1953 (ACHS), aerospace honors [68][290]
  • Silver Wings, 1954, National defense oriented service organization [68][291]
  • ΑΚΔ - Alpha Kappa Delta, 1956 (ACHS), sociology honors [248][292]
  • ΠΚΛ - Pi Kappa Lambda, 1958 (ACHS), music honors [248][293]
  • ΣΦΑ - Sigma Phi Alpha, 1958, dental hygiene honors [294]
  • Evans Scholars, 1958, (residential) golf caddies honors [295]
  • ΑΕ - Alpha Epsilon, 1960 (ACHS), agricultural, food, and biological engineering honors [248]
  • ΠΑΞ - Pi Alpha Xi, 1968, horticulture honors [296][297]
  • ΡΛ - Rho Lambda, 1974, women's Greek leadership honors [298]
  • ΦΚΦ - Phi Kappa Phi, 1974, honors, all disciplines [299]
  • ΟΔΕ - Omicron Delta Epsilon, 1977 (ACHS), economics honors [248]
  • Order of Omega, 1979, Greek society leadership honors [68][300][301]
  • ΣΠΣ - Sigma Pi Sigma, 1979 (ACHS), physics honors [248]
  • ΣΛΑ - Sigma Lambda Alpha, 1979 (ACHS), landscape architecture honors [248][302]
  • ΦΤΣ - Phi Tau Sigma, 1981, food science and technology honors [303]
  • Golden Key, 1982, high achievement in academics, leadership & service [68][304]
  • ΔΩ - Delta Omega, 1985, public health honors [305]
  • ΑΕΔ - Alpha Epsilon Delta, 1993 (ACHS), pre-med honors [306][307]
  • ΦΛΣ - Phi Lambda Sigma, 1993, pharmacy leadership society [308]
  • ΚΚΨ - Kappa Kappa Psi, 1994 (NIMC), [287] band and performance honors [309][310]
  • ΗΣΦ - Eta Sigma Phi, 1995, classics honors [311]
  • Collegiate Scholars - Nat'l Society of Collegiate Scholars (NSCS), 1999 (ACHS), high achievement [248][312]
  • ΠΑΑ - Pi Alpha Alpha, 2010, public administration honors [313]
  • ΤΣ - Tau Sigma, 2014, honoring transfer students for academic achievement and involvement [314][315]
  • ΣΑΛ - Sigma Alpha Lambda, 20xx, leadership and service honors [316]
  • ΣΛΧ - Sigma Lambda Chi, 2017, construction management honors [317][318]
  • ΦΒΔ - Phi Beta Delta, 1990?, international scholars honors [319]
  • National fraternity key societies - There are many of these, often provided to members of national academic and social fraternities and sororities. They provide a subtle way of noting fraternity membership on a résumé, and tying it to academic achievement.

Chapters whose names changed

Dormant honor and recognition societies

ΔΣ - Delta Sigma Society, 1889-1895?, literary and debate society, dormant [332] ΠΒΝ - Pi Beta Nu, 1888–93+ (local), senior honors, limited to five per class, dormant [333] Scabbard and Blade, 1906–80+ (ACHS), military honors, dormant? [248] [334] ΔΣΡ-ΤΚΑ - Delta Sigma Rho-Tau Kappa Alpha, 1906-1980+, 2012?-2014? forensics honor, dormant [335] [336] ΛΑΨ - Lambda Alpha Psi, 1908–52+ (local), languages honors, dormant [337] ΜΦΔ - Mu Phi Delta, 1908–15+ (local), men's and women's music honors, dormant [338] Grey Friars, 1909–70+, (local) Senior men, of honors and service to the University, dormant [339] Association for Women in Communications, 1911–59+, women's journalism honors, dormant [340] [323] ΦΑΤ - Phi Alpha Tau, 1911-

1915, national public speakers and actors honors, dormant [68] : VII-444 [341] ΣΔΨ - Sigma Delta Psi, 1912-1970+, national athletics recognition society, dormant ? [68] [342] [343] Wing and Bow, pre-1913-1934+ (local?), inter-fraternal agricultural honorary, dormant [344] ΚΡ - Kappa Rho, 1914–34+ (local), women's forensics honors(?), dormant [345] Skin and Bones, 1915–31+ (local), woman's inter-sorority honors, juniors, dormant [346] White Dragon, 1916–68+ (local), Juniors, inter-fraternity honors (originally ΧΨ, ΦΚΨ, ΨΥ, ΔΚΕ, ΑΔΦ, later included others), dormant [347] ΖΚΨ - Zeta Kappa Psi, 1917-19xx, women's forensics honors, dormant [348]

ΔΦΛ - Delta Phi Lambda, 1917–51+ (local), women's, later co-ed creative writing honors, dormant [349] Incus, 1917–34+ (local), medical honorary, dormant [350] Silver Spur, 1918-1959+, leadership honors, dormant [351] ΤΥΚ - Tau Upsilon Kappa, 1919–31+ (local), men's inter-fraternity honors, dormant [352] Mortar and Ball, 1920–48+, advanced military cadets honorary, dormant [353] ΩΗΜ - Omega Eta Mu, pre-1920-19xx (local), dentistry honorary, dormant [354] ΠΑ - Pi Alpha, 1921-1929+, men's art honorary, dormant [355] ΠΕΔ National Collegiate Players or Pi Epsilon Delta, 1922–1970+, theater honors, dormant [68] [356] ΑΠΩ - Alpha Pi Omega, 1922-19xx (local), School of Mines honorary, dormant [357] ΔΣΨ - Delta Sigma Psi, 1922–1924+ (local), scholarship and investigation in Norwegian literature, dormant [358] Torch and Distaff, 1922–1931+ (local), home economics honors, dormant [359] Order of the Hub, 1922-23+ (local), interfraternity honors, dormant [360] ΚΒΦ - Kappa Beta Phi, 1923–1935?, financial honors, dormant [361] ΚΟΝ - Kappa Omicron Nu, 1923–80+, (ACHS), humanities honors, dormant [248] [327] ΑΔΣ - Alpha Delta Sigma (AAF), 1923–68+, advertising honors, dormant [362] ΠΤΠΣ Pi Tau Pi Sigma, 1925-1942+ military, signal corps honors, dormant [363] ΑΣΠ - Alpha Sigma Pi, 1926-1964 (local), senior men's education honors, dormant [364] ΗΣΥ - Eta Sigma Upsilon, 1927–1964 (local), senior women's education honors, dormant [365] Phoenix, 1930–59+ (local), junior men's service and recognition, dormant [366] Orbs, 1935-66+ (local), women's medical technology honors, dormant [367] Commacini Club, 1936-43 (local), architecture honorary, dormant [368] ΒΦΒ - Beta Phi Beta, pre-1943-52+ (local), General College honorary, dormant [369] ΩΡ - Omega Rho, pre-1946-50+ (local), Ceramic Arts honorary, dormant [370] ΣΓΤ - Sigma Gamma Tau, 1943–96, aerospace engineering honors, dormant [330] [371] Chimes, 1948–70, junior women's honors, dormant [372] ΑΜ - Alpha Mu, pre-1951-1955+, grain engineering, dormant [373] ΟΔΚ - Omicron Delta Kappa, 1976–2010, leadership and academic honors, dormant [374] ΓΘΥ - Gamma Theta Upsilon, 1990–2006 (ACHS), geography honors, dormant [248] [375] ΟΣΣ - Omicron Sigma Sigma or Order of the Sword & Shield, 2011?-2017?, homeland security, intel, emergency mgmt & protective security honors, dormant [376]

Professional societies Edit

Professional societies work to build friendship bonds among members, cultivate strengths whereby members may promote their profession, and provide mutual assistance in their shared areas of professional study.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership (if any), these are primarily co-ed organizations, showing an array of professional interests. Some are residential in a co-operative fashion and all offer a moderate amount of social programming. Membership in a professional fraternity may be gained by the result of a pledge process, much like a social fraternity, and members are expected to remain loyal and active in the organization for life. Within their professional field of study, membership is exclusive for example, if one joins a law society they cannot join another law society. However, these societies do initiate members who belong to social or honors fraternities. Professional Societies are known for networking and post-collegiate involvement, and membership is often included with pride on a résumé/CV. Governance varies from faculty-managed to purely student run.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.

Active professional societies

  • ΝΣΝ - Nu Sigma Nu, 1891, medical (residential) [377]
  • ΔΣΔ - Delta Sigma Delta, 1892, dentistry, medicine pharmacy (residential) [378]
  • ΨΩ - Psi Omega, 1896–1903, 1918, dentistry (residential) [379]
  • ΦΡΣ - Phi Rho Sigma, 1904 (PFA), medical (residential) [380]
  • ΑΧΣ - Alpha Chi Sigma, 1904 (PFA), chemistry (residential) [381][382]
  • ΦΔΧ - Phi Delta Chi, 1904 (PFA), co-ed pharmaceutical (residential) [383][384]
  • ΘΤ - Theta Tau, 1904 (PFA), engineering (residential) [385][386][pic1]
  • ΔΘΦ - Delta Theta Phi, 1905 (PFA), law [387][388]
  • Forestry Club, 1908, forestry [389]
  • ΦΔΚ - Phi Delta Kappa, 1910, education [390]
  • ΑΡΧ - Alpha Rho Chi, 1916–91, 2014 (PFA), architecture [391][392]
  • Society of Professional Journalists, 1916, journalism [68][393]
  • ΚΕ - Kappa Epsilon, 1920 (PFA), pharmaceutical [394][395]
  • ΦΧ - Phi Chi, 1920-1974, 1981, medical (residential) [396][397][384]
  • ΑΚΨ - Alpha Kappa Psi, 1921 (PFA), business (residential) [398][399]
  • ΚΨ - Kappa Psi, 1922 (PFA), pharmaceutical [400]
  • ΦΑΔ - Phi Alpha Delta, 1922 (PFA), pre-law [401]
  • ΚΗΚ - Kappa Eta Kappa, 1923 (PFA), co-ed electrical engineering, computer engineering or computer science (residential) [402][403]
  • ΦΔΕ - Phi Delta Epsilon, 1923 (PFA), Medical. [404][405][88]
  • ΔΣΠ - Delta Sigma Pi, 1924 (PFA), business [406][407][408]
  • ΓΗΓ - Gamma Eta Gamma, 1924, law (residential) [68][409][410][pic1]
  • ΣΑΙ - Sigma Alpha Iota, 1926 (PFA), women's, music [411]
  • Pershing Rifles, 1930 (PFA), military cadets [412]
  • ΣΔΕ - Sigma Delta Epsilon or GWIS, 1945, graduate women in science [413]
  • ΔΠΕ - Delta Pi Epsilon, 1951, business education, now part of NBEA. [414]
  • ΑΨ - Alpha Psi, 1956, veterinary medicine, (residential) [415][416]
  • ΚΑΜ - Kappa Alpha Mu, 1957, photojournalism, dormant? [417]
  • ΔΘΣ - Delta Theta Sigma, 1958, agriculture (residential) [418][419]
  • ΠΣΕ - Pi Sigma Epsilon, 1962 (PFA), sales and marketing [420]
  • ΑΤΑ - Alpha Tau Alpha, 1963, agricultural education [421]
  • ΦΣΠ - Phi Sigma Pi, 2011 (PFA), leadership and scholarship [422]

Chapters whose names changed

Dormant professional societies

ΠΣ - Pi Sigma, 1894–1910?, (local), engineering, dormant [440] ΑΚΚ - Alpha Kappa Kappa, 1898–1980+, medicine, national disbanded [68] [423] [196] ΘΕ - Theta Epsilon, 1900-1928+ (local), women's literary, dormant [441] ΑΕΙ - Alpha Epsilon Iota, 1901–82, women's medical, dormant [442] [443] ΦΒΠ - Phi Beta Pi, 1904–70+, medicine, dormant [429]

ΑΖ - Alpha Zeta, 1905–73, agricultural, dormant [444] ΞΨΦ - Xi Psi Phi, 1905–99, dentistry, dormant [445] ΣΡ - Sigma Rho, 1910-1943+, mining, dormant [446] ΑΚΣ - Alpha Kappa Sigma, 1911-1921+ (local), men's engineering, dormant [447] ΖΚ - Zeta Kappa, 1914-19xx (local), men's dental, dormant [448] CYMA, 1915-19xx, men's architecture, dormant [449] ΓΑ - Gamma Alpha, 1915-1952+, interdisciplinary graduate students, dormant [450] Cabletow, 1916-1924+, Masonic dental, dormant [451] ΥΑ - Upsilon Alpha, 1918-1925+, graduate women's dental, dormant [452] ΤΒΦ - Tau Beta Phi, 1920-1922+ (local), Jewish, men's dentistry, dormant [453] [88] ΣΒΓ - Sigma Beta Gamma, 1920-25+ (local), women's business, dormant [454] ΣΑΣ - Sigma Alpha Sigma, 1920–87? (local), Jewish, engineering, dormant [455] [88] ΒΔΦ - Beta Delta Phi, 1921-19xx (local), Jewish, men's dentistry, dormant [456] [88] ΠΔΝ - Pi Delta Nu, 1922–56, women's chemistry, dormant [457] ΑΓΓ - Alpha Gamma Gamma, 1922-19xx (local), women's, dental nurses, dormant [458] ΑΚΓ - Alpha Kappa Gamma, 1922–68+, women's, dental nurses, dormant [459] ΑΩ - Alpha Omega, 1922-1968+ (PFA), Jewish, dentistry, dormant [460] [88] ΑΚΕ - Alpha Kappa Epsilon, 1923-19xx (local), women's, chemistry, dormant [461] ΚΒΠ - Kappa Beta Pi, 1923-1958, women's law, dormant [462] ΑΒΦ - Alpha Beta Phi, 1923–1958 (local?), Jewish, men's pharmacy, dormant [463] [88] ΑΔΖ - Alpha Delta Zeta, 1923-19xx (local), men's agricultural, dormant [464] ΦΜΑ Sinfonia - Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, 1924–75 (NIMC), [287] music focus, dormant [465] ΦΒΓ - Phi Beta Gamma, 1925, law, dormant? [68] [466] ΑΔΤ - Alpha Delta Tau, 1926-1944+ (local), women's medical, dormant [467]

Scarab, 1926-19xx, architecture, dormant [468] ΤΦΔ - Tau Phi Delta (Treehouse), 1926–40+, forestry, dormant [469] [470] ΖΑΨ - Zeta Alpha Psi, before 1928-19xx (local), women's forensic, dormant [471] Trowel, 1926-1929+, men's dentistry, dormant [472] ΑΤΔ - Alpha Tau Delta, 1927–80+ (PFA), nursing, dormant [473] [113] ΜΦΕ - Mu Phi Epsilon, 1927–45 (PFA), music, dormant [474] ΦΒ - Phi Beta, 1929-1980+ (PFA), creative and performing arts, dormant [475] [476] ΦΕΚ - Phi Epsilon Kappa, 1930–68+, physical education, health, sports management, dormant [477] ΖΦΗ - Zeta Phi Eta, 1933–69 (PFA), communication arts and sciences, dormant [478] ΜΒΧ - Mu Beta Chi, 1933-67 Jewish, men's business, dormant [479] [480] [88] ΛΕΞ - Lambda Epsilon Xi, pre-1938-52+, Jewish men's law, dormant [481] [88] ΦΔ - Phi Delta, 1938–80+, women's business, dormant [482] Anchor & Chain, 1940–80+ (local), men's Naval ROTC midshipmen, dormant? [483] ΑΕΡ - Alpha Epsilon Rho, 1943-1970+, electronic media and broadcast, dormant? [484] ΣΠΩ - Sigma Pi Omega, 1940-1957+ (local), Jewish women's interprofessional, dormant [485] [88] ΑΔΘ - Alpha Delta Theta, 1944–75+, women's, medical technician and general sciences, dormant? [486] ΦΧΗ - Phi Chi Eta, pre-1951-1955+ (local?), ROTC Quartermaster honors, dormant [487] ΑΜΣ - Alpha Mu Sigma, 1952–75+ (local), men's applied mortuary science, dormant [488] [489] ΜΙΕ - Mu Iota Epsilon, before 1955-79+ (local), post-grad Industrial Education, dormant? [490] ΣΑΗ - Sigma Alpha Eta, 1957–68+, co-ed speech and hearing pathologies, dormant [491] ΑΑΘ - Alpha Alpha Theta, pre-1959-19xx?, women's medical terminology, dormant" [492]

Service societies Edit

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, if any, these are/were non-residential organizations designed to provide campus and community service. These organizations are self-governed.

Active service societies

Dormant service societies

Primarily active during the 1940s and 1950s, these groups were formed in response to student interest in Greek life for those who required a closer association with peers of the same faith tradition. Some were local organizations, some national. Some were residential, and all were co-ed unless noted. Note that some religious-themed and residential fraternities and sororities are listed under the Academic and Social groups by their choice. Many other religious-oriented groups on campus are NOT designed to resemble fraternities, and are not listed here. Groups are listed by date of local founding.

Active religious service societies

  • Hillel Society, 1940, Jewish (co-ed) [517][518]
  • ΚΠΑ - Kappa Pi Alpha, 2003, Christian (co-ed and residential) [519][520]

Dormant religious service societies

Menorah Society, 1903-1931+, Jewish Service, merged with Hillel Society [9] : A-3,4 [521] Newman Club, 1903–1968+, Catholic co-ed service, dormant [522] ΚΦ - Kappa Phi, 1919–1980+, Methodist and Episcopal women's service, dormant [523] [524] Wesley Foundation, 1920-1968+, Methodist co-ed service, dormant [525] Northrop Club, 1920-1944+ (local), Congregational women's service, dormant [526] ΚΚΛ - Kappa Kappa Lambda, 1921–1968+ (local), Lutheran (

ELCA) women's service, dormant [527] ΧΚΑ - Chi Kappa Alpha, 1925-1928, Presbyterian, dormant [528] ΦΧΔ - Phi Chi Delta, 1926-1952+ (local?), Presbyterian and Congregational women's service, dormant [529] ΦΤΘ - Phi Tau Theta, 1926-1951 (became ΣΘΕ), Men's Methodist service, dormant [530] Folwell Club, 1929-19xx (local), Co-ed Episcopal service, dormant [531] ΓΔ - Gamma Delta, 1935–1969, Lutheran (Missouri Synod) service today, see University Lutheran Chapel and Luther House [532] Kadimah Society, 1937-1943+ (local), Zionist society, dormant [533] [534] Canterbury Club, 1941-1959+, (local?), Episcopal co-ed service, dormant [535] ΔΚΦ - Delta Kappa Phi, 1942–1966+ (local), Lutheran (

The 2019–20 University of Minnesota Student Group search page included over 1,100 unique organizations. Major groupings include Greek-affiliation societies as listed on this page, which are further subdivided into academic/social, honors, professional societies, service groups, or recognition groups.

For active groups, stable chapter website links have been referenced when available. Alternatively, either a national website or the group's University of Minnesota portal has been noted, which, in turn, may provide contact information and/or a link to a current organization website as reported annually at the time of the group's registration. Student groups are required to register each year, making the University of Minnesota portal page a convenient place to find up-to-date contact information.

Where an address is noted these are from (A) Minnesota Gopher yearbooks dated 1888–1967, (B) chapter websites, (C) national organization websites, (D) The Conservancy website, showing annual Student Organization Directories, or (E) the Zellie Fraternity Row study for the City of Minneapolis Historical Preservation Commission, cited below.


The flagship Twin Cities campus is the largest in the system, with a total enrollment of 50,943 students (undergraduate, graduate, professional, and non-degree included) Crookston had 2,810 Duluth had 11,040 Morris had 1,554 and Rochester had 533, bringing the system-wide total to 66,880 for fall semester 2018. [3]

The colors of the university, which are used system-wide, are maroon and gold.

Twin Cities Edit

The University of Minnesota Twin Cities (UMTC) is the largest with locations in Minneapolis and neighboring Saint Paul (actually, the suburb of Falcon Heights). The locations are connected via a dedicated bus transitway. The buildings on each campus are connected by a series of tunnels and above-ground skyways called The Gopher Way. The campus had 51,848 students enrolled for fall 2017, making it the sixth largest public university in the United States. [4]

The Minneapolis portion is the largest and has a number of colleges dedicated to a variety of subjects. The Twin Cities campus located in Minneapolis can be further subdivided into the East Bank (main portion) and West Bank, as the Mississippi River flows through it. Students become well-acquainted with the double-decker Washington Avenue Bridge that connects the two sections. There are a number of distinguished graduate and professional schools on the Minneapolis campus, notably the University of Minnesota Law School, Medical School, Carlson School of Management, School of Public Health, and Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. In addition, Minneapolis houses many research facilities such as The Cancer Center.

The Twin Cities campus located in St Paul is home to the University of Minnesota College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Minnesota College of Design, and University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences programs, the University of Minnesota School of Social Work, the College of Veterinary Medicine, and a variety of additional programs and student services. The Bell Museum of Natural History is also located on the campus in St. Paul.

The mascot for the Twin Cities campus is Goldy the Gopher, and the sports teams are called the Minnesota Golden Gophers. They participate in the NCAA's Division I-A and in the Big Ten Conference. Its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association and men's program competes in the Big Ten.

Among the graduates from this campus are two former U.S. Vice Presidents, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, former NAACP president Roy Wilkins, British Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, several Nobel prize winners, several athletes such as Ric Flair, Kevin McHale, Dave Winfield, Patty Berg, Brock Lesnar, Curt Hennig, Shelton Benjamin, Bobby Jackson of the NBA, and composer Yanni. Folksinger Bob Dylan famously attended the University and was a part of its thriving "West Bank" music scene, but did not graduate. A wide variety of medical and technological innovations have taken place there as well. For instance, the Internet Gopher protocol was created at the Twin Cities campus. A predecessor of sorts to the World Wide Web, it was named after the school mascot.

Campus media includes the Minnesota Daily newspaper, The Wake Student Magazine, and 770 Radio K (KUOM), an AM radio station that is probably the oldest in the state.

Crookston Edit

The University of Minnesota Crookston (UMC) joined the university system in 1966. At that time it was known as the University of Minnesota Technical Institute at Crookston. Since 1993 the Crookston campus has offered bachelor's degrees, and it has grown to be a more comprehensive regional college campus. It is known for its focus on experiential learning and technology [ citation needed ] , and through fees each student is provided a laptop computer as part of their experience. The campus mascot is Regal the Eagle, and the athletics teams are known as the Golden Eagles.

Duluth Edit

The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) became part of the system in 1947, though the campus has a history stretching back to 1895 when it was formed as the Normal School at Duluth. UMD integrates liberal education, research, creative activity, and public engagement [ citation needed ] and prepares students to thrive [ citation needed ] as lifelong learners [ citation needed ] and globally engaged citizens. [ citation needed ]

Its men's hockey program competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference and its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. UMD baseball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's cross country, football, men's and women's track and field, soccer, softball, tennis, and volleyball are Division II teams. Their teams are nicknamed Bulldogs. and their mascot is Champ.

Among the graduates from UMD are former Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota Yvonne Prettner Solon, current Duluth mayor Emily Larson, and former Duluth mayor Don Ness. Brian Kobilka received the 2012 Nobel Prize in chemistry. UMD has produced numerous professional hockey players including John Harrington and Mark Pavelich from the 1980 Miracle on Ice Olympic hockey team, and NHL Hall of Famer Brett Hull.

Campus media includes The Bark newspaper and the KUMD-FM radio station.

Morris Edit

The University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) joined the system in 1960. UMN Morris is a public liberal arts college where students work closely with faculty and mentors to shape an education that prepares them for challenging graduate programs, productive careers, and deep civic engagement. [ citation needed ]

UMN Morris provides opportunities for students to grow intellectually [ citation needed ] , engage in community [ citation needed ] , experience environmental stewardship [ citation needed ] , and celebrate diversity [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] . The campus offers 34 majors, 35 minors, and 13 licensure areas, along with the option to create one's own major. With a student-to-faculty ratio of 13:1, students are able to engage in undergraduate research and internships with faculty members. One in five students also participates in NCAA Division III Intercollegiate Athletics as a Cougar athlete.

With tuition a quarter of Minnesota’s most expensive private school and 96% of incoming students receiving financial aid, UMN Morris students graduate with the lowest student loan debt in the University of Minnesota system.

Rochester Edit

The University of Minnesota Rochester (UMR) is the public undergraduate health sciences university that challenges and assists students to make a lifelong commitment to the comprehensive improvement of health care through research and hands-on clinical practice. [ citation needed ] UMR is the newest campus of the University of Minnesota system, having been formally established in December 2006 (although the University of Minnesota has offered classes in Rochester as a satellite site since as early as 1966). UMR has no NCAA athletic teams, but it does have a mascot, the Rochester Raptor.

UMR, located in University Square in downtown Rochester, is neighbor to world-renowned Mayo Clinic and attracts highly motivated and academically prepared students [ citation needed ] who seek a rigorous education and exceptional professional preparation. [ citation needed ] In UMR's dynamic [ citation needed ] academic community, students:

  • Engage in small, highly interactive classes. [citation needed]
  • Connect with accomplished [citation needed] professors who are invested in their students’ success. [citation needed]
  • Apply what they learn in a variety of experiences outside the classroom.
  • And expand their understanding and perspectives. [citation needed]

As a result, UMR graduates are prepared to take on the grand health care challenges of the 21st century. [ citation needed ]

  • B.S. in Health Professions (BSHP) [5] is an educational collaboration with Mayo Clinic School of Health Sciences offering tracks in Echocardiography, Respiratory Care, Radiography and Sonography
  • B.S. in Health Sciences (BSHS) [5] prepares students for health care careers, graduate education and professional degrees. The Nursing Guarantee program and 3+2 Physician Assistant Master's Degree program fall under this degree.
  • Masters and Ph.D. in Biomedical Informatics and Computational Biology [5]
  • Partnership programs offered: Masters of Business Administration, Bachelor of Nursing, and Masters of Occupational Therapy. [5]

Waseca Edit

The Waseca campus opened in 1971 and closed in 1992. Their mascot was "Ramus" the ram. [6] During its operation, it maintained a college cable-FM radio station with the call letters KUMW. Campus buildings became part of a low-security federal prison for women (see Federal Correctional Institution, Waseca). The University still operates an agricultural outreach program in the city. [6]

Presidents of the U of M
Number Name Dates
1st William Watts Folwell 1869–1884
2nd Cyrus Northrop 1884–1911
3rd George Vincent 1911–1917
4th Marion Burton 1917–1920
5th Lotus Coffman 1920–1938
6th Guy Stanton Ford 1938–1941
7th Walter Coffey 1941–1945
8th James Morrill 1945–1960
9th O. Meredith Wilson 1960–1967
10th Malcolm Moos 1967–1974
E. W. Ziebarth 1974–1974 (interim)
11th C. Peter Magrath 1974–1984
12th Kenneth H. Keller 1984–1985 (interim)
Richard J. Sauer 1988–1989 (interim)
13th Nils Hasselmo 1989–1997
14th Mark G. Yudof 1997–2002
15th Robert H. Bruininks 2002–2011
16th Eric W. Kaler 2011–2019
17th Joan Gabel assumed office July 1, 2019

The University of Minnesota was founded in Minneapolis in 1851 as a college preparatory school, seven years prior to Minnesota's statehood. As such, the University of Minnesota enjoys much autonomy from other operations of the state government. The school was closed during the American Civil War, but reopened in 1867. Minneapolis businessman John Sargent Pillsbury is known today as the "Father of the University", and aided the campus through financial troubles as a regent, state senator, and governor. The Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act also helped provide funding for the University of Minnesota.

In 1869 the school reorganized and became an institution of higher education. William Watts Folwell served as the University of Minnesota's first president. An official residence known as Eastcliff has been used by six university presidents since 1958. The 20-room house, originally built by lumber baron Edward Brooks, Sr., was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.

During the traditional autumn through spring year, classes are not held on Thanksgiving Day or the Friday after, and the school traditionally has an extended break covering Christmas and New Year's Day. Classes don't resume in January until the day after Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. A week-long spring break occurs after the eighth week of the spring term, which sometimes coincides with Easter.

The University of Minnesota system has one of the largest endowments among public universities in the country. As of 2007, the University of Minnesota maintained an endowment of $2.8 billion. [7] Also, as a public university, the system received an estimated $641 million from the State of Minnesota. [8] The system's total budget for FY 2006 was $2.36 billion. [9]

There are several other research and outreach centers across the state operated by the University of Minnesota - Twin Cities or by the university system. As of September 2004, these areas plus the campuses are spread across 28,300 acres (44 miles² or 115 km²). Other areas owned by the state and university bring this up to a total of 57,200 acres (89 miles² or 231 km²)

Aggarwal named interim dean at University of Minnesota Duluth business school

The University of Minnesota Duluth's Labovitz School of Business and Economics has a new interim dean.

Praveen Aggarwal, the former associate dean of the business school, stepped into the role formerly filled by Amy Hietapelto, who stepped into the role of interim executive vice chancellor for academic affairs.

Aggarwal has been at UMD since 1998, according to a news release from the university. He served as the associate dean for nine years and was the head of the management studies and marketing departments for seven years. Before his career in academics, he worked as senior executive in the food industry.

“LSBE has made momentous strides under Dean Hietapelto’s leadership," Aggarwal said in the release. "I look forward to serving the school in this new role and welcome Dr. David as we work together in sustaining the school’s momentum.”

Jannifer G. David, an associate professor of human resource management, will intermittently fill Aggarwal's former spot of associate dean.

“I look forward to working with Dr. Aggarwal to continue LSBE’s focus on providing exemplary education and heightening our efforts to build a more diverse and inclusive environment for students, faculty, and staff," David said.

She has been with the school for 20 years and served as the chair of the management studies department for nearly six years.

Partner profile: University of Minnesota Duluth

In honor of our 50th Anniversary, we're catching up with each of our original partner libraries. We've asked staff members from each library to reflect on their shared history with Minitex and update us on how their institutions have grown and changed over the years. This week, we're checking in with Matt Rosendahl, Library Director at the University of Minnesota Duluth.

What drew you to working in libraries? What makes this work unique and meaningful to you?

Matt Rosendahl: I'm the kind of person who has always loved reading and loved libraries, so that initially drew me in. However, I have continued working in libraries because I am continually impressed by their innovation and adaptability in meeting their communities' needs and in helping people access information, education, and overall life-enriching resources, programs, and services. I have seen the ways that people use libraries to change their lives, and it makes this work very meaningful.

What is one project your library is working on right now that you’re excited about?

MR: I'm excited about the Northeastern Minnesota COVID-19 Community Archive Project. The archives staff in our library quickly developed their first digital collection project right when the pandemic hit, and they've grown it tremendously thanks to an NEH grant and partnerships with faculty, and community members and organizations. It will be a valuable resource for generations of researchers - and it's an important collection of artifacts right now to help understand how the pandemic has affected people differently.

I'm also eager to start our strategic planning process. Like other libraries, we have been seriously impacted in the pandemic by a reduction in staffing. But we've also made some discoveries and improvements in our library services in the past year thanks to the creativity and collaboration in our team. We're able to hire for many of our vacant positions now, and I look forward to our team developing a strong plan for the future that will build upon the lessons in the last year and help us be a strong library for the students, staff, faculty, and community members at University of Minnesota Duluth.

Minitex is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year. How has your library's relationship with Minitex changed over the years? How does the partnership affect the services you offer your patrons?

MR: As a founding partner of Minitex, one thing has definitely changed: we're not using teletype anymore! On a more serious note, one thing has remained constant: Minitex helps us do things better than we can on our own. From trainings, to the Minnesota Digital Library (where we are a top contributor!), to cooperative purchasing, and so much more, our relationship with Minitex and the powerful collaborations it provides have improved, expanded, and enhanced our services.

What makes your library stand out? How do you adapt your services to meet the needs of your particular community?

MR: Many people initially are impressed by this library and its architecture, interior design (including our Chihuly), and adaptable spaces. But our library stands out because of the staff who strive to create opportunities for our campus and build partnerships with stakeholders. This has resulted in campus- and community-wide programming like Reading Without Walls and Shakespeare's First Folio exhibit, and regularly appears in classrooms, the online learning management system, student group meetings, and more.

What activity or place would you recommend a first-time visitor to Duluth check out?

MR: Grab a bite to eat from any of our locally-owned (and exceptional!) restaurants and take it to Park Point to sit on the white sand beach while looking at the lake and watching waves and ore boats. However, if you come in the summer, bring your parka in addition to your swimsuit. The weather changes quickly by the big lake!


Initially, the Gophers team formed without any organized coach. L. J. Cooke took over the team in 1897. Cooke was put on the University payroll on a part-time basis in early 1897 and full-time by the fall this made him one of the earliest professional coaches. [3]

Cooke remained the coach of the Gophers for 28 seasons, and his .649 winning percentage is the second highest in school history. [4] Dave MacMillan, who coached the team from 1927 to 1942 and 1945 to 1948, had the second longest tenure as coach at 18 seasons. John Wooden almost succeeded McMillan as Gophers head coach Wooden claims that a dispute over retaining McMillan as an assistant coach and a delayed phone call led him to accept the job at UCLA instead. [5]

The Gophers have had several NBA coaches grace the sidelines. John Kundla took over as Gophers head coach after the Minneapolis Lakers departed for Los Angeles. George Hanson was assistant coach under both Kundla and Fitch and was head coach for the 1970–71 season. Bill Fitch and Bill Musselman both coached the team for a couple seasons before departing for the NBA and ABA respectively, where each had success and coached for many years. [6]

The program has had a fair degree of stability with their coaching staff. Tubby Smith became the 16th head coach in Gopher basketball history when hired in 2007 this total includes interim coaches Jim Molinari and Jimmy Williams. Five coaches led the team for more than 10 seasons: Cooke, McMillan, O. B. Cowles, Jim Dutcher, and Clem Haskins. [4] On March 25, 2013, Tubby Smith was fired after failing to reach the Sweet Sixteen again. The Gophers hired Richard Pitino on April 3, 2013. He was fired on March 15, 2021 after eight seasons.

The Golden Gophers have had many successful players come through the program throughout its history. In the early years of basketball, when the Gophers had success, they recruited some of the best players in the country. George Tuck was a dominant center, and the first All-America for the Gophers in 1905. [7] Frank Lawler was another early star: he led the Big Ten in scoring in 1911 and was also named to the All-America team, and helped the Gophers to a contested conference title. [8]

In 1950, Lawler was named the greatest player in Gopher basketball history, but the subsequent decades of Gopher basketball have largely forgotten his legacy. [9] Hall of Fame coach John Kundla was also a Gophers star and helped lead the team to its 1937 Big Ten Championship.

With the decline of the stature of the Gophers program, fewer elite players have joined the team. The diminished reputation has not, however, prevented some superior athletes from coming to the Minneapolis campus. Lou Hudson played 13 years in the NBA and had his number retired. Baseball Hall of Famer Dave Winfield played for the Gophers in the early 1970s, and he played at the same time as star post player Jim Brewer. Mychal Thompson was a Gophers star and was the first overall pick in the 1978 NBA Draft. Among Thompson's teammates were former Minnesota Timberwolves, Detroit Pistons and Washington Wizards head coach Flip Saunders, as well as basketball hall of fame forward Kevin McHale. Trent Tucker led the 1982 squad to the Big Ten Championship. Voshon Lenard was a key player for the Gophers in the early 1990s and went on to play more than a decade in the NBA. Willie Burton once scored 53 points in an NBA game with the Philadelphia 76ers. [10] Other former Gophers with long NBA careers include Randy Breuer, Mark Olberding, Archie Clark, Jim Petersen, and Ray Williams. Five players from the 1997 Final Four team played in the NBA: Bobby Jackson, Sam Jacobson, Quincy Lewis, John Thomas, and Trevor Winter. Currently Amir Coffey (LA Clippers)and Daniel Oturu (2020 draft pick), former Gophers, play in the NBA. Jamal Abu-Shamala, a Jordanian-American, plays internationally for the Jordan national basketball team. [11]

Current roster Edit

This roster is current for the 2020–21 men's basketball season. [12]

  • Ed Conroy (The Citadel)
  • Kyle Lindsted (Central Christian College)
  • Jeff Mailhot (Cal Baptist)
  • (C) Team captain
  • (S) Suspended
  • (I) Ineligible
  • (W)Walk-on
    Injured Current redshirt

Retired numbers Edit

Minnesota Golden Gophers retired numbers
No. Player Position Year retired
14 Lou Hudson SG, SF 1966
30 Chuck Mencel PG 2011
32 Trent Tucker SG 2009
34 Willie Burton SF 2020
41 Whitey Skoog G 2009
43 Mychal Thompson PF, C 1978
44 Kevin McHale PF, C 1980
45 Randy Breuer C 2015
52 Jim Brewer PF 1973
53 Dick Garmaker G, SF 2011

Program establishment (1895–1927) Edit

The precise founding of the Gophers men's basketball program at the University of Minnesota is somewhat nebulous. Unlike many other universities with later foundations, the team did not form as a conscious act of the campus administration. The University's student newspaper at the time, the Ariel, reported on basketball throughout 1895 as the sport was introduced to the campus from a rival school, Minnesota A&M in St. Paul, later incorporated into the larger University of Minnesota Twin Cities. [13] In 1896, a team from the school began to participate in a league with the Agriculture school, YMCA teams, and other local associations. The establishment of the Armory on-campus gave the team a new place to play. In February 1897, L. J. Cooke, a director of the Minneapolis YMCA, was hired on a part-time basis to coach the basketball program, and became the full-time coach and director of physical education by the fall of that year. [14] Cooke was one of the first full-time professional coaches in all of college basketball and would remain at the program for 28 seasons.

Cooke began to improve the team significantly and was responsible for shifts in the Gophers' scheduling that foreshadowed other changes to come. The team never played a YMCA team after the 1903–04 season, and beginning in 1900, began to schedule large neighboring universities that would join Minnesota in Big Ten competition. [14] This shift to playing similar competition helped the Gophers to become one of the premier programs in the nation. From the 1899–00 to 1903–04 seasons, the Gophers had a 59–6 record. The 1901–02 squad has been retroactively named the national champions by both the Helms Foundation and the Premo-Porretta Power Poll the Premo-Porretta poll also names the 1902–03 Gophers as national champions. [15] When the Big Ten established basketball in 1905, the Gophers won the first two conference titles. [16]

After 1907, Cooke's dominance of the national basketball scene was greatly reduced. He led the team to two more conference titles (1916–17, 1918–19), and one consensus retroactive national championship for the 1918–19 season, but the team was never the consistent winner that it was in the first decade under Cooke. He retired after the 1923–1924 season. His successor, Harold Taylor, was Cooke's assistant coach in his final season and had previously a successful high school coach however, he had little success with the Gophers and was fired after never finishing higher than sixth in the conference in three forgettable seasons. [17]

Dave MacMillan and beyond (1927–1959) Edit

Following the firing of Harold Taylor as coach, the program underwent a national search for a successor. Many of the candidates for the job were high-profile coaches of other conference foes. [18] The team opted, however, to hire Dave MacMillan, who had been coaching the University of Idaho for the previous seven seasons and had previously played for the Original Celtics during the 1910s. [19] MacMillan would dominate the program for the next 30 years, coaching the team from 1927 to 1942 and again from 1945 to 1948.

MacMillan's teams in 1928 began to play in the University of Minnesota Field House, a new on-campus arena. Basketball had been off-campus for several seasons when the team moved downtown. MacMillan's teams had middling success. His 1930–31 and 1931–32 teams competed near the top of the Big Ten, but his teams dropped off again until 1936. John Kundla joined the team for the 1936–1937 season and helped the team to the Big Ten Championship, which was ended up being its last until 1972. MacMillan's squad also competed in a tournament in 1936 to represent the United States in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin the team advanced several rounds before being ousted by DePaul. [20] Many Gophers players in this era were recruited from Minneapolis public high schools, and in some seasons this even constituted a majority of the roster. [21] McMillan resigned in 1942, but returned in 1945 after three poor seasons for the Gophers in the interim. When he resigned for the second time in 1948, he was replaced by O. B. Cowles.

Cowles was known for playing slower tempo basketball like was most common in the 1920s and 1930s and was known as a defensive-minded coach, especially early in his career. [22] His squads were led by two-time All-American Jim McIntyre and three-time NBA Champion Whitey Skoog for the early years of his career and Big Ten MVP Chuck Mencel for the middle ones. Another notable Gophers star from the era was Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Bud Grant. [23] Cowles had a .612 winning percentage at the school. The Gophers were unable to win a Big Ten title, however, despite a solid nucleus in Cowles's early seasons. The team finished fourth or better in the conference seven times in Cowles's 11 seasons as Gopher head coach.

Kundla and Fitch (1959–1971) Edit

In 1959, John Kundla stayed behind in Minneapolis as the Lakers prepared to leave town and succeeded O. B. Cowles as head coach of the Golden Gophers. Kundla remained head coach until 1968. In 1963, he broke the color barrier in the Minnesota program and recruited three African-American players to come to the school. One of these first three players was Lou Hudson, who played in the NBA and was the first Gopher to have his number retired by the school. [24] The other two players recruited by Kundla, Archie Clark and Don Yates, also were both drafted by NBA teams. That trio helped the Gophers to a third place Big Ten finish in 1963–64 and a second-place finish in 1964–65, but those were the high points for Kundla's collegiate career. Kundla's personal assessment of his Gophers career was that his personal weaknesses in recruiting were marring the team by the end of his tenure. [25]

Kundla was succeeded by Bowling Green head coach Bill Fitch. Fitch remained with the Gophers for two seasons before being hired by the Cleveland Cavaliers as their first head coach in 1970 to make the leap to the NBA, where he later won an NBA title as coach of the Boston Celtics. [26] Fitch did recruit Jim Brewer before he left, laying the first seed for the 1972 Big Ten title. [26] George Hanson, a longtime assistant coach at the school, was hired as his replacement, but resigned after only one season. [27]

Musselman and NCAA sanctions (1971–1975) Edit

The Gophers under Athletics Director Marsh Ryman hired Cal Luther away from Murray State to coach the team in 1971, but he changed his mind and turned the team down after accepting the position. [28] Instead, Bill Musselman took over the program. Musselman was a defensive minded coach and designed his team around Brewer, recruiting several junior college players. University of Minnesota baseball star Dave Winfield also joined the team in 1971. [29] The starters on the 1971–72 squad after the Ohio State game became known as the "Iron Five." Musselman's strategy succeeded, and the team took the Big Ten title, the first since 1937. The other Big Ten coaches did not approve of Musselman's recruiting posture as they all had gathered and agreed not to recruit Ron Behagen into the Big Ten because he was known as a troublemaker. Musselman had not been named Head Coach of Minnesota at that time and therefore was unaware of the internal agreement and therefore recruited what he thought were the best players available.

In 1973, former player Greg Olson accused Musselman of having attempted to strike him in a practice. [30] It was also revealed that Olson had sold complimentary season tickets to a booster named Harvey Mackay, which prompted NCAA investigations. [30] Musselman's coaching style also brought about significant transfers away from the Minnesota program to other schools. [30] [31] In 1975, Musselman resigned and was named the head coach of the San Diego Sails of the ABA. After his resignation, Musselman admitted to giving money to players for rent and transportation. [31] These charges, coupled with the earlier ticket selling scandal and other transgressions regarding payments and aid revolving around Harvey Mackay, resulted in a list from the NCAA of more than 100 rule violations in Musselman's four seasons at the school. [31] The extent of the consequences would not be known until early in Jim Dutcher's eleven season tenure as Gophers head coach.

The Jim Dutcher era (1975-1986) Edit

Dutcher took over the Gophers program in 1975 following the departure of Bill Musselman. The highlight of his time at Minnesota was 1982, a season in which he led the Gophers to the Big Ten Championship — to date, the last "official" conference title for the Gophers — and a Sweet 16 appearance. He was named the Big Ten Coach of the Year in 1982.

Prominent players coached by Dutcher at Minnesota included Ray Williams, who later played for the New York Knicks Mychal Thompson, who played for the Portland Trail Blazers and Los Angeles Lakers Kevin McHale, who played for the Boston Celtics Trent Tucker, who played for the New York Knicks and Chicago Bulls Randy Breuer, who played for the Milwaukee Bucks, Minnesota Timberwolves, Atlanta Hawks and Sacramento Kings Flip Saunders, who became an NBA coach for the Minnesota Timberwolves, Detroit Pistons, and Washington Wizards Osborne Lockhart, who played for the Harlem Globetrotters Jim Petersen, who played for the Houston Rockets Darrell Mitchell, who was named first-team All-Big Ten, and Tommy Davis, also a first-team All-Big Ten player.

On January 25, 1986, three Gopher players were arrested on rape charges in Madison, Wisconsin. A Madison woman claimed the players raped her at their team hotel hours after the Gophers played the Wisconsin Badgers. After the arrests, U of M officials canceled the Gophers' next scheduled game, against Northwestern, citing the arrests and a series of less serious incidents prior to the arrests. Not agreeing with the University's decision to forfeit the game, Dutcher resigned as head coach, Jimmy Williams served as the interim coach the rest of the season. All three players were ultimately acquitted of all charges.

Success, and scandal, under Haskins (1986–1999) Edit

Clem Haskins was hired as the Gopher basketball coach in 1986, expected to clean up and rebuild the Gopher program which had been torn apart by the Madison sexual assault allegations (of which the players were later acquitted) during the final year of coach Jim Dutcher. [32] Though wins did not come easily in the first couple years of Haskins regime, by the 1988–89 season he had the Gophers in the 1989 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament as a #11 seed, and directed a Cinderella run into the Sweet 16. In the 1989–90 season Haskins led the Gophers on another cinderella run in the 1990 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. This time as a No. 6 seed, the Gophers went all the way to the Elite Eight, and came within a basket of reaching their first ever Final Four. Though Haskins led the Gophers to post-season success in his first three seasons, the 1990 Elite Eight appearance would be the last time under Haskins the Gophers would "officially" appear in the NCAA tournament, due to their future tournament results being vacated as a result of NCAA violations. [33]

Prominent players coached by Haskins at Minnesota included Minnesota native Sam Jacobson, who went on to play for the Los Angeles Lakers, Golden State Warriors, and hometown Minnesota Timberwolves, Sharp-shooter Voshon Lenard, who spent 5 seasons with the Miami Heat and won the 2004 Three-Point Contest, Quincy Lewis, who was a 3rd Team All American and played for the Utah Jazz and Minnesota Timberwolves, and Bobby Jackson who under Haskins was a Consensus All American and Big Ten Player Of The Year, before going on to play 12 seasons in the NBA, most prominently for the Sacramento Kings, where he won the 2003 Sixth Man of the Year Award, and now serves as an assistant coach. Big men John Thomas, Joel Przybilla, and Trevor Winter (the latter two both Minnesota natives), also flourished under Haskins and went on to have careers in the NBA.

Academic fraud scandal Edit

On March 10, 1999, the day before the #7 seed Gophers were to open the NCAA tournament against #10 Gonzaga, the St. Paul Pioneer Press ran a story detailing allegations of massive academic fraud in the men's basketball program. [34] Former basketball office manager Jan Gangelhoff had gone to the newspaper claiming she had written over 400 papers for at least 20 Gopher men's basketball players over a period of several years, ending in 1998. When the Gophers played Gonzaga on March 11, the University suspended players Antoine Broxsie, Kevin Clark, Jason Stanford, and Miles Tarver since they allegedly had papers written for them by Ganglehoff in previous seasons. [35] With their roster depleted, the Gophers lost to Gonzaga, the season came to an end, and an internal investigation at the University began.

By June 1999 and in the midst of their investigation, the university had negotiated a buyout of the remainder of Haskins' contract, worth $1.5 million over three years. It also withdrew from postseason consideration in the 1999–2000 season and docked itself 11 scholarships over four years. [36] In the summer of 2000, Haskins came forward and admitted that he had paid Gangelhoff $3,000 for her services this revelation came to light after Haskins turned his financial records over to the NCAA. [37] In addition, more details were emerging in which Haskins was also accused of mail fraud in an incident regarding a recruit's transcript, giving players cash, dismissing sexual harassment concerns against his players, as well as his staff trying to persuade professors to give his players inflated grades they had not earned. [38] [39] [40]

Stripped banners and records [40]
Season Banner/Record
1993–94 NCAA Tournament 2nd round
1994–95 NCAA Tournament 1st round
1995–96 NIT 2nd round
1996–97 NCAA Final Four
1996–97 Big Ten MVP Bobby Jackson
1996–97 Big Ten Defensive POY: Bobby Jackson
1997–98 NIT Champions
1998–99 NCAA Tournament 1st round

After the details of Haskins' ever-growing involvement became more clear, the University initiated legal action to recover the buyout money. [41] [42] A judge ultimately ruled that Haskins must return just over half of the original $1.5 million buyout. [43]

During this time an NCAA investigation was also underway. Ultimately, it revealed that Minnesota was guilty of massive violations under Haskins' watch. The NCAA stripped the Gophers of all postseason awards, titles, personal records, and statistics dating back to the 1993–94 season citing a "lack of institutional control." Haskins was also slapped with a seven-year "show-cause" order, which effectively banned him from coaching at any level in the NCAA until 2007. Besides lying about the $3,000 payment, he had also told several of his players to lie to the NCAA. [44] Later, the Big Ten forced the Gophers to vacate their 1997 conference title, as well as all regular season games dating to 1993–94. As a result, Minnesota's official record from 1993–94 to 1998–99 is 0–0. If not for the vacated games, Haskins would be the second-winningest coach in school history.

In addition, the NCAA docked the Gophers an additional five scholarships over the following three seasons, and also imposed recruiting limitations and department-wide probation lasting four years. [45]

In addition to Haskins, Athletic Director Mark Dienhart, Vice President for Athletics, Student Development McKinley Boston, Associate Athletics Director Jeff Schemmel and academic counselor Alonzo Newby also resigned. [46] The University also agreed to return 90% (approximately $350,000) of the profits earned by the basketball program during their appearances in the NCAA tournament, including the 1997 Final Four run. [41]

The Monson era (1999–2006) Edit

Following Haskins' departure, the University hired Gonzaga's Dan Monson to be their next head coach, who coincidentally had just beaten the Gophers in the NCAA Tournament the previous March. [47] Monson was the coach for part of eight seasons. However, during his tenure the scholarship reductions took their full effect, making it difficult for him to recruit on the same level as the rest of the Big Ten. His Gopher teams only made the NCAA tournament once, in 2004–05. [48] Monson almost left the Minnesota program for the University of Washington following the 2001–02 season, but was thought of highly by the athletics department under Tom Moe and was persuaded to stay despite limited success. [49] These trends did not reverse after he remained at the program.

During his final full season the Gophers were 5–11 in Big Ten play, and after a 2–5 start to open the 2006–07 season, Monson and Athletics Director Joel Maturi announced Monson's resignation on November 30, 2006. [50] Despite Monson's inability to field a consistent winner, he was lauded by University officials for bringing integrity and cleanliness back to the program. [51] Assistant coach Jim Molinari was named head coach on an interim basis and, after a 3–13 Big Ten record to finish the season, was not retained as head coach. Maturi began an extensive search for a new permanent head coach at season's end.

The Tubby Smith era (2007–2013) Edit

On March 23, 2007, Maturi made a move that surprised many when he hired Tubby Smith after he resigned from the University of Kentucky to be the next head Gopher basketball coach. [52] Smith's name recognition and winning reputation gave the program a new optimism, something it badly needed to counter its dwindling fan interest. [53]

Smith's coaching had an immediate impact on the previously unsuccessful Gophers squad. The team went from 8–22 in 2006–07 to 20–13 in 2007–08. Smith also led the Golden Gophers to the Big Ten Tournament semi-finals after defeating 2nd seeded Indiana. Coach Smith also signed a top 25 recruiting class, the best in years for the program. [54] [55] Smith returned Minnesota to the NCAA tournament for the first time since 2005 in the 2008–09 season. Smith's team struggled throughout the 2009–10 season with off-court issues, but advanced to the championship game in the Big Ten Tournament for the first time in school history (losing to regular season co-champion Ohio State) and made the NCAA tournament for the second consecutive season. [56]

On March 25, 2013, Smith was relieved of his coaching duties at Minnesota. [57]

The Richard Pitino era (2013–2021) Edit

On April 3, 2013, Richard Pitino, son of Louisville coach Rick Pitino, verbally agreed to coach the Golden Gophers. On April 3, after missing out on the NCAA tournament, the Gophers responded by winning the 2014 NIT championship trophy by defeating SMU. As a result, Pitino claimed his first championship with the team. [58] Following the success of an NIT championship, the Gophers hoped to qualify for the NCAA tournament the following year. However, the team struggled and finished with only six wins in the conference and did not qualify for any major tournament. The 2016 season was a disaster for the Gophers as they only managed to win two conference games. The lone bright spot came during a late season upset against ranked Maryland to give the Gophers their first conference win on the season. [59] Despite the lack of success on the court, the Gophers were able to get Amir Coffey, a highly ranked player from Hopkins to commit to the men's basketball program. [60] Coffey, along with other recruits Eric Curry and Michael Hurt, [61] were able to help lift the Gophers to a 23-8 regular season record in the 2016–2017 season, and a birth to the 2017 NCAA Tournament, where they attained a 5 seed [62] and lost to 12-seed Middle Tennessee State to finish with a 24–10 record. [63] Expectations were high coming into the 2017–2018 season, as they only lost one rotational player, Akeem Springs, from the year before. This was evident as Minnesota received its highest preseason ranking in the AP poll since 1993, coming in at 15th. [64] Before the season, things started to unravel for Pitino's team. Sophomore Eric Curry tore his ACL and MCL in late August, forcing him to miss the entirety of the 2017–2018 season. [65] During the beginning of the season, sexual assault allegations came out against senior center Reggie Lynch, which resulted in Lynch's suspension and eventual expulsion from the University of Minnesota. [66] Later in the season, sophomore Amir Coffey suffered a shoulder injury and ended up missing the last 12 games of the season. [67] The Gophers ended the season 15–17, with a 4–14 record in conference play and a first round loss to Rutgers in the 2018 Big Ten Tournament. [68] The 2018–2019 season went much better for the Gophers. They finished with a record of 22–13, although they only went 9–11 in conference play. Still, after strong wins over No. 20 Wisconsin, and No. 11 Purdue twice, the Gophers finished 4th in the 2019 Big Ten Tournament and returned to post-season play as a 10 seed in the East Region of the 2019 NCAA Tournament. [69] In the tournament, the Gophers beat the 7 seed Louisville Cardinals in the first round 86–76. [70] In the Round of 32, the Gophers lost to the Michigan State Spartans 70–50, [71] who would end up the champions of the East Region.

Awards Edit

Big Ten Coach of the Year [72]

Henry Iba Award (National Coach of the Year)

Big Ten Defensive Player of the Year [72]

Big Ten Freshman of the Year [72]

Consensus All-Americans [72]

Post-season Edit

The Gophers enjoyed fairly regular post season appearances under former coach Clem Haskins, making the post season in 10 of his 13 seasons as coach (6 NCAA tournament, 4 NIT), including all of his last 8 seasons. The team advanced to one Final 4, one Elite 8, one Sweet 16, one second round appearance, and suffered two first round losses. However, after the academic fraud scandal in 1999, the last 6 years of post season records were wiped out. So officially, the Gophers made 2 NCAA Tournament and 2 NIT appearances in the 13 years Haskins was coach. They advanced to the Elite 8 in 1990, the Sweet 16 in 1989, and were NIT champions in 1993.

The Gophers saw some moderate success in the early 1980s, appearing in the 1980, 1981, and 1983 NITs and the 1982 NCAA Tournament, where they advanced to the Sweet 16. [75]

Multiple problems plagued the Gophers during the 1976–1977 season, Jim Dutcher's 2nd as head coach. Heading into the season the team knew they would not be eligible for the post season because of sanctions from the Bill Musselman era. Even so, this turned out to be one of the best teams in Gopher history, with the team finishing at 24–3. But if not being post-season eligible was not punishment enough, it was later found out that Mychal Thompson had sold two complimentary tickets to Gopher home games. [76] When it was discovered, the profits were donated to University of Minnesota scholarship funds. [76] The school and several prominent supporters, including Senator Wendell Anderson attempted to back Thompson and the team. [77] Nevertheless, when the NCAA discovered Thompson's act, Minnesota's record for the season was forfeited and the accomplishments of that season are considered unofficial and not included in NCAA records. [77]

NCAA tournament results Edit

The Golden Gophers have appeared in the NCAA Tournament 14 times. Their combined record is 15–13. However, their tournament appearances from 1972, 1994, 1995 & 1997 have been vacated making their official record 9–10.

Year Seed Round Opponent Results
1972 * Sweet Sixteen
Regional 3rd Place Game
Florida State
L 56–70
W 77–72
1982 #2 Second Round
Sweet Sixteen
#10 Chattanooga
#3 Louisville
W 62–61
L 61–67
1989 #11 First Round
Second Round
Sweet Sixteen
#6 Kansas State
#14 Siena
#2 Duke
W 86–75
W 80–67
L 70–87
1990 #6 First Round
Second Round
Sweet Sixteen
Elite Eight
#11 UTEP
#14 Northern Iowa
#2 Syracuse
#4 Georgia Tech
W 64–61 OT
W 81–78
W 82–75
L 91–93
1994 * #6 First Round
Second Round
#11 Southern Illinois
#3 Louisville
W 74–60
L 55–60
1995 * #9 First Round #8 Saint Louis L 61–64 OT
1997 * #1 First Round
Second Round
Sweet Sixteen
Elite Eight
Final Four
#16 SW Texas State
#9 Temple
#4 Clemson
#1 Kentucky
W 78–46
W 76–57
W 90–84 2OT
W 80–72
L 69–78
1999 #7 First Round #10 Gonzaga L 63–75
2005 #8 First Round #9 Iowa State L 53–64
2009 #10 First Round #7 Texas L 62–76
2010 #11 First Round #6 Xavier L 54–65
2013 #11 First Round
Second Round
#3 Florida
W 83–63
L 64–78
2017 #5 First Round #12 Middle Tennessee State L 72–81
2019 #10 First Round
Second Round
#7 Louisville
#2 Michigan State
W 86–76
L 50–70

NIT results Edit

The Golden Gophers have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) 15 times. Their combined record is 33–12. They were NIT Champions in 1993, 1998 and 2014. However, their tournament appearances in 1996 and 1998 have been vacated, including their 1998 title, making their official record 27–11.

Year Round Opponent Result
1973 First Round
W 68–59
L 65–69
1980 First Round
Second Round
Bowling Green
Ole Miss
W 64–50
W 58–56
W 94–73
W 65–63
L 55–58
1981 First Round
Second Round
West Virginia
W 90–77
W 84–66
L 69–80
1983 First Round DePaul L 73–76
1992 First Round Washington State L 70–72
1993 First Round
Second Round
W 74–66
W 86–72
W 76–58
W 76–70
W 62–61
1996 * First Round
Second Round
Saint Louis
W 68–52
L 65–84
1998 * First Round
Second Round
Colorado State
Fresno State
Penn State
W 77–65
W 79–66
W 73–71
W 91–89
W 79–72
2001 First Round
Second Round
W 87–78
L 70–73
2002 First Round
Second Round
New Mexico
W 96–62
L 66–67
2003 First Round
Second Round
Saint Louis
W 62–52
W 84–70
W 63–58
L 74–88
2006 First Round
Second Round
Wake Forest
W 73–58
L 62–76
2008 First Round Maryland L 58–68
2012 First Round
Second Round
La Salle
Miami (FL)
Middle Tennessee
W 70–61
W 78–60
W 78–72
W 68–67 OT
L 51–75
2014 First Round
Second Round
High Point
Saint Mary's
Southern Miss
Florida State
W 88–81
W 63–55
W 81–73
W 67–64 OT
W 65–63

When the Gophers first organized, they played games in the on campus YMCA. In 1896, the team moved into the campus Armory, a large building with gymnasium space for the team to use, even if basketball was not its primary purpose. [14] They remained in the Armory for almost 30 years. Halfway through the 1924–25 season, coach Harold Taylor moved the team from the University Armory to the Kenwood Armory in downtown Minneapolis. [18] This significantly increased the attendance capacity at the University Armory was 2,000, and it was 6,500 at Kenwood. The team only played at Kenwood for a few seasons, however, as the University of Minnesota Field House — later known as Williams Arena — opened partway through the 1927–1928 season. The team moved in on January 31, 1928. [18]

The Field House increased attendance capacity further, to 9,500. It was named after Henry L. Williams, the former Minnesota Golden Gophers football coach in 1950, and was named after him when it was remodeled and expanded in 1950, bringing the arena to a capacity of 18,025, which was the largest in the country for 20 years and significantly larger than the capacity of Williams Arena today. [78] Gophers fans refer to Williams Arena as the Barn. Consequently, the student section is known as The Barn. Williams Arena was remodeled in 1993 again, to create a new facility for the women's team to use. [79] The team continues to play there to this day, making it one of the longest used arenas of any college basketball team and the oldest arena in the Big ten. [80] Williams Arena is also one of the few remaining arenas with a raised court, in which players have to go up stairs to reach the playing surface. [81]

In the early years of the program, the Gophers had several rivalries that have not extended into the modern era. Among them was a rivalry with Hamline University, now a Division III school in St. Paul. Hamline had one of the earliest college basketball programs in the country and it was several years before Minnesota competed on equal footing with them they played as late as 1935. [82] The greatest rival of the early years of the program was the Minnesota Aggies, representing the Minnesota School of Agriculture and Mining, which has since been incorporated into the University of Minnesota Twin Cities as the St. Paul campus. [83] Minnesota A&M dominated the Gophers, winning ten consecutive games Minnesota did not get its first win against the Aggies until 1899. [14] This rivalry expired especially early, and the two teams did not meet after 1901. The University of Minnesota is currently the only Division I basketball school in the state of Minnesota, so there are no intense intra-border rivalries as there are in most states.

The Gophers were also an active participant in the early rivalry between Eastern schools and Midwestern schools for basketball preeminence. Minnesota broke up a stretch of Ivy League dominance from 1901 to 1906 with their successful 1902 season. The Eastern teams – Yale, Columbia, and Dartmouth were early powers – played with a more physical approach, while Midwestern teams used a different method. Wisconsin coach Walter Meanwell used the motion offense and "stress[ed] finesse." [84] W.C. Hyatt, who played for Yale, claimed that "The Minnesota and Wisconsin men played in the style prevalent among most of the girl colleges in the East, that is, the 'no contact' game." [85]

In the modern era of the program, as is the case with most Big Ten sports, Minnesota's primary rivals are the Iowa Hawkeyes and Wisconsin Badgers. In recent years, the rivalry with Wisconsin has become more intense than that with Iowa, primarily due to Wisconsin's rise to basketball powerhouse on the court. [86] Minnesota and Wisconsin's games together count towards the Border Battle, an annual trophy given to the points winner of several sports played between the two schools throughout the year. [87]

The Gophers also have a less heralded rivalry with Ohio State. The two teams have very little history together, outside of the 1972 brawl between the teams at Williams Arena. That incident still lingers in the hearts of many long-time Buckeye fans. [88]

Table of results
Season Overall record Conference record Post-season Notes
1895–96 4–7 none none none
1896–97 3–6–1 none none none
1897–98 5–8–1 none none none
1898–99 5–5 none none none
1899–00 10–3 none none none
1900–01 11–1 none none none
1901–02 15–0 none none Helms and Premo-Porretta National Champions
1902–03 13–0 none none Premo-Porretta National Champions
1903–04 10–2 none none none
1904–05 7–7–1 none none none
1905–06 13–2 6–1 none none
1906–07 10–2 6–2 none none
1907–08 11–7 2–6 none none
1908–09 8–6 3–6 none none
1909–10 10–3 7–3 none none
1910–11 9–4 8–4 none none
1911–12 7–6 6–6 none none
1912–13 3–8 2–8 none none
1913–14 4–11 4–8 none none
1914–15 11–6 6–6 none none
1915–16 10–6 6–6 none none
1916–17 17–2 10–2 none none
1917–18 9–3 7–3 none none
1918–19 13–0 10–0 none Helms National Champions
1919–20 8–8 3–9 none none
1920–21 10–5 7–5 none none
1921–22 5–8 4–7 none none
1922–23 2–13 1–11 none none
1923–24 9–9 5–7 none none
1924–25 9–7 6–6 none none
1925–26 6–10–1 5–7 none none
1926–27 3–13 1–11 none none
1927–28 4–12 2–10 none none
1928–29 4–13 1–11 none none
1929–30 8–9 3–9 none none
1930–31 13–4 8–4 none none
1931–32 15–3 9–3 none none
1932–33 5–15 1–11 none none
1933–34 9–11 5–7 none none
1934–35 11–9 5–7 none none
1935–36 7–17 3–9 none none
1936–37 14–6 10–2 none none
1937–38 16–4 9–3 none none
1938–39 14–6 7–5 none none
1939–40 13–8 5–7 none none
1940–41 11–9 7–5 none none
1941–42 15–7 9–6 none none
1942–43 10–9 5–7 none none
1943–44 7–14 2–10 none none
1944–45 8–13 4–8 none none
1945–46 14–7 7–5 none none
1946–47 14–7 7–5 none none
1947–48 10–10 5–7 none none
1948–49 18–3 9–3 none none
1949–50 13–9 4–8 none none
1950–51 13–9 7–7 none none
1951–52 15–7 10–4 none none
1952–53 14–8 11–7 none none
1953–54 17–5 10–4 none none
1954–55 15–7 10–4 none none
1955–56 11–11 6–8 none none
1956–57 14–8 9–5 none none
1957–58 9–12 5–9 none none
1958–59 8–14 5–9 none none
1959–60 12–12 8–6 none none
1960–61 10–13 8–6 none none
1961–62 10–14 6–8 none none
1962–63 12–12 8–6 none none
1963–64 17–7 10–4 none none
1964–65 19–5 11–3 none none
1965–66 14–10 7–7 none none
1966–67 9–15 5–9 none none
1967–68 7–17 4–10 none none
1968–69 12–12 6–8 none none
1969–70 13–11 7–7 none none
1970–71 11–13 5–9 none none
1971–72 18–7 11–3 NCAA 2nd Round none
1972–73 21–5 10–4 NIT 2nd Round none
1973–74 12–12 6–8 none none
1974–75 18–8 11–7 none none
1975–76 16–10 8–10 none none
1976–77 24–3 15–3 none Records unofficial due to NCAA sanctions (0–27, 0–18)
Team barred from appearing in post-season
1977–78 17–11 12–6 none Team barred from appearing in post-season
1978–79 11–16 6–12 none none
1979–80 21–11 10–8 NIT Runner-up none
1980–81 19–11 9–9 NIT 3rd Round none
1981–82 23–6 14–4 NCAA 2nd Round none
1982–83 18–11 9–9 NIT 1st Round none
1983–84 15–13 6–12 none none
1984–85 13–15 6–12 none none
1985–86 15–16 5–13 none Coach Jim Dutcher resigned midseason replaced by Jimmy Williams
1986–87 9–19 2–16 none none
1987–88 10–18 4–14 none none
1988–89 19–12 9–9 NCAA Sweet 16 none
1989–90 23–9 11–7 NCAA Elite 8 none
1990–91 12–16 5–13 none none
1991–92 16–16 8–10 NIT 1st Round none
1992–93 22–10 9–9 NIT Champions none
1993–94 21–12 10–8 NCAA 2nd Round Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1994–95 19–12 10–8 NCAA 1st Round Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1995–96 19–11 10–8 NIT 2nd Round Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1996–97 31–4 16–2 NCAA Final Four Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1997–98 20–15 6–10 NIT Champions Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1998–99 17–11 6–10 NCAA 1st Round Unofficial Record – Academic Fraud
1999–00 12–16 4–12 none none
2000–01 18–14 5–11 NIT 2nd Round none
2001–02 18–13 9–7 NIT 2nd Round none
2002–03 19–14 8–8 NIT 4th Place none
2003–04 12–18 3–13 none none
2004–05 21–11 10–6 NCAA 1st Round none
2005–06 16–15 5–11 NIT 2nd Round none
2006–07 9–22 3–13 none Coach Dan Monson resigned midseason replaced by Jim Molinari
2007–08 20–14 8–10 NIT 1st Round none
2008–09 22–11 9–9 NCAA 1st Round none
2009–10 21–14 9–9 NCAA 1st Round none
2010–11 17–14 6–12 none none
2011–12 23–15 6–12 NIT Runner-up none
2012–13 21–13 8–10 NCAA 3rd Round Tubby Smith fired after season
2013–14 25–13 8–10 NIT Champions First Championship win under Richard Pitino
2014–15 18–15 6–12 none none
2015–16 8–23 2–16 none none
2016–17 24–10 11–7 NCAA 1st Round First appearance at the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament under Richard Pitino
2017–18 15–17 4–14 none none
2018–19 21–13 9–11 NCAA 2nd Round none
2019–20 15–16 8–12 none Remaining Big Ten Tournament games cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic
2020–21 14–15 6–14 none Richard Pitino fired after season
NOTE: Records used are official Gophers records these records include the 1976–77 season, which Minnesota protests as ineligible,
but exclude the 1993–94 through 1998–99 seasons. With these seasons included in the Gophers record:

Overall Record: 1533–1128 (.576)
*Conference Championships in GOLD . Source: [73] [89]

Land seizures, 'unethical' research: University of Minnesota confronts troubled history with tribal nations

Every time Kevin DuPuis steps foot in the rugged red pine forest just west of Cloquet, Minn., he's reminded of the painful truth that this slice of land within the borders of the Fond du Lac Reservation does not belong to his tribe.

For more than a century, the 3,400-acre stretch has been home to the University of Minnesota Cloquet Forestry Center, a research outpost on land the federal government deeded to the university without the tribe's consent. Members of the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa have long taken issue with the U's presence there, demanding transparency about its research and defying a hunting ban around the forestry center. To this day, the tribe is fighting to reclaim the land.

"We want to be able to use the land how we feel that we should be able to use the land," said DuPuis, Fond du Lac's chairman. "It's rightfully ours."

Fond du Lac isn't the only band that has a dispute to settle with Minnesota's land-grant university. Tribal leaders statewide have called on the U to own up to actions "rooted in institutional racism." Members of the Red Lake Nation are seeking answers about research conducted on children decades ago, and the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council has criticized the U for not returning sacred objects it once displayed at its Weisman Art Museum to their rightful tribes.

The tension between the U and tribal nations can be traced to the very creation of the land-grant university system. The flagship Twin Cities campus was built on Dakota land ceded in treaties of 1837 and 1851. The Duluth campus is on land that was once home to Ojibwe people and other Native groups. And the Morris campus occupies land where an American Indian boarding school used to "assimilate" children once stood.

Though their histories are deeply intertwined, the university and tribal nations had not come together to discuss their troubled past until recently. After the death of George Floyd, the Indian Affairs Council renewed demands for the U to acknowledge and atone for past injustices.

For the first time in a long time, tribal leaders are optimistic the university is listening. U President Joan Gabel has met with leaders of the 11 tribal nations in Minnesota. She has made improving those relationships a top priority, and she is mulling remedies ranging from public apologies to reparations.

"We're in a moment right now where it feels as if we have a really positive outlook on how we can move forward," Gabel said.

'It will always be our land'

Hiking through woods and wetlands surrounding the forestry center, DuPuis pointed to where he hunts and traps animals such as foxes, bobcats, beavers and mink.

"My uncles would always tell me . 'It will always be our land. You can trap it,' " he said.

DuPuis and tribal members want the land to be used for natural reasons, not for research that they feel the U has never fully explained.

Cloquet researchers conduct long-term studies meant to improve forest and wildlife management and examine the impact of climate change. The forestry center doubles as an educational hub for some undergraduates, natural resource managers and area youth.

The band worries the U's research might negatively affect native plants and species. Fond du Lac and other bands have similarly clashed with the university over its genetic research on wild rice, which they view as sacred.

"Our perspective on the natural world is that everything is perfect. . Leave things alone," said Thomas Howes, Fond du Lac's natural resources program manager.

DuPuis has made clear to Gabel that Fond du Lac wants the land back. However, he said the band would also consider co-managing the territory.

Gabel said she looks forward to "advancing those conversations."

In northwest Minnesota, Red Lake Nation is trying to piece together information about university research conducted on tribal children in the 1960s.

While tales of the research were told by some elders, the tribe did not have a detailed account of what happened until 2018, when former Indian Health Service research director William Freeman brought records to the tribe's attention.

Freeman said he was appalled to learn of the "unethical" research. U researchers were studying Red Lake children who had contracted a kidney disease during an epidemic a decade before a new outbreak occurred, according to Freeman's report.

The researchers knew a shot of long-acting penicillin helped stop the first epidemic, yet they refrained from immediately telling local doctors, and more children fell ill. They took young children off the reservation for kidney biopsies, Freeman said. Researchers did a second biopsy on roughly a dozen children and performed the procedure on some kids who showed no symptoms of the disease.

"Doing that kind of research on kids . would be problematic," Freeman said, noting kidney biopsies were more painful then than they are today.

Red Lake Tribal Secretary Sam Strong said he and other tribal members feel the U treated their people as "guinea pigs."

"They basically chose to let our kids suffer for science," Strong said.

Red Lake's council has called for the university to make amends, and Strong met with the U's Medical School dean to discuss a path forward.

Among many requests, Red Lake leaders asked the U to make its physicians available to treat tribal members and to help their tribal college develop a nursing program. Most of all, the tribe wants the university to publicly acknowledge the research was "inhumane and unethical."

Tadd Johnson, the U's senior director of tribal nations relations, said he believes such apologies are in order. But the U first wants to thoroughly understand what happened. The university will soon begin working with tribal nations on a historical report of their relationship.

"We want all the facts — no matter how bad, how ugly, how awful they are — to come out," said Johnson, who is a member of the Bois Forte Band of Chippewa.

More work to be done

Rebecca Crooks-Stratton, secretary and treasurer of the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, praised the U for confronting its past and noted it has already made some positive steps forward, such as creating a tribal administration and governance degree program at the Duluth campus.

But there's still much to be done, said Shannon Geshick, the Indian Affairs Council's executive director. First, she said the university needs to comply with a 1990 federal law and return sacred objects to their rightful tribes.

The university's Weisman Art Museum houses more than 2,000 objects including stone tools, painted bowls and arrowheads that students and researchers excavated from New Mexico between 1928 and 1931. Gabel has ordered staff to inventory the objects and expedite their return to Pueblo tribes.

Additionally, Geshick said the U should waive tuition for American Indian students at all of its campuses. Currently, only students at the Morris campus can enroll for free.

Dannah Nephew, a senior at the Duluth campus and a descendant of the White Earth Nation, said the university can do more to support Indigenous students by increasing financial aid and creating campus spaces for them to pray and smudge.

Johnson is optimistic the university and bands will collaborate on many important issues going forward.

"To me, it's a new day at the University of Minnesota," he said. "These issues were lying dormant for a number of years. Suddenly, there's this awakening."

Ryan Faircloth • 612-673-4234

Ryan Faircloth covers higher education for the Star Tribune.

Experience the College of Liberal Arts Events

The Alworth Institute commemorates the life of Royal D. Alworth, Jr. through lectures on international issues and their domestic implications.

Hear UMD's world-renowned faculty, their students, and guest artists in the beautiful Weber Music Hall, which is known as a top-tier performance facility. The Department of Music offers more than 200 concerts and recitals per year.

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