8 December 1943

8 December 1943

8 December 1943

December 1943

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New Guinea

Australian troops capture Wareo

War in the Air

General Spaatz is appointed to command US Strategic Air Forces in Europe



Historical Events on December 8

Event of Interest

1777 Captain James Cook leaves Society Islands

Music Premiere

1813 Ludwig van Beethoven's 7th Symphony in A, premieres in Vienna with Beethoven conducting

Event of Interest

1846 Hector Berlioz's "La Damnation de Faust" premieres

Music Premiere

1849 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Luisa Miller" premieres in Naples

    Gustav Freytag's "Die Journalisten" premieres in Breslau Pope Pius IX proclaims Immaculate Conception, makes Mary, free of Original Sin

Music Concert

1857 1st production of Dion Boucicault's "Poor of New York"

Event of Interest

1863 Abraham Lincoln issues his Amnesty Proclamation and plan for Reconstruction of the South

Event of Interest

1864 The Clifton Suspension Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, is finally opened in Bristol, England, 5 years after his death

Historic Publication

1864 James Clerk Maxwell's paper "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is 1st read by the Royal Society in London (published by the Royal Society 1865)

    20th Roman Catholic ecumenical council, Vatican I, opens in Rome Timothy Eaton founds T. Eaton Co. Limited in Toronto, Canada.

Event of Interest

1874 Jesse James gang takes train at Muncie Kansas

    Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Volki i Ovsty" premieres in St Petersburg Suriname begins compulsory education for 7-12 years 5,000 armed Boers gather in Paardekraal, South Africa Vienna's Ring Theater destroyed by gaslight fire, killing an estimated 384-1000 people

Election of Interest

1886 American Federation of Labor (AFL) formed by 26 craft unions Samuel Gompers elected AFL president

Battle of Interest

1895 Battle at Amba Alagi: Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II drives Italian General Baratieri out

Event of Interest

1902 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr became Associate Justice on US Supreme Court

Event of Interest

1912 Wilhelm II of Germany calls 'War Council'

    Construction starts on Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco Battle of the Falkland Island: British Royal Navy destroys a German battle squadron

Music Premiere

1914 Irving Berlin's musical "Watch your Step" premieres in NYC

    Boers rebelling against the British in South Africa suffer several defeats, with one of their leaders, General Beyers, accidentally drowning

Music Premiere

1915 Jean Sibelius' 5th Symphony in E premieres

Event of Interest

1915 John McCrae's poem "In Flanders Fields" appears anonymously in "Punch" magazine

Anglo-Irish Treaty

1921 Eamon de Valera publicly repudiates Anglo-Irish Treaty

    German-US friendship treaty signed Labour/Liberals win British parliament Salary & price freeze in Germany Broadway Theater opens at 1681 Broadway NYC

Music Premiere

1930 Cole Porter's musical "The New Yorkers" opens at B. S. Moss's Broadway Theatre, NYC runs for 169 performances

    Coaxial cable patented French nun Bernadette Soubirous, who saw the vision of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, is canonized by the Catholic Church Friedrich Wolf's "Professor Mamlock" premieres in Zurich The Japanese military police launches a violent suppression of the religious sect Oomoto, beginning with a crackdown on the sect's operational bases of Ayabe and Kameoka in Kyoto Prefecture and the arrest of its leader Onisaburo Deguchi. Anastasio Somoza García elected President of Nicaragua NAACP files suit to equalize salaries of black & white teachers Highest temperature for December in US recorded in La Mesa Calif National Football League Championship, Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C.: Chicago Bears beat Washington Redskins, 73-0 most one-sided victory in NFL history first NFL title game broadcast on national radio Chełmno extermination camp opens, 50 kilometres from Łódź, Poland London: Dutch government-in-exile declares war on Japan Russian 16th army recaptures Krijukovo San Francisco 1st blackout, at 6:15 PM

'Infamy' as Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor

1941 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers "Day of Infamy" speech to US Congress a day after the bombing of Pearl Harbor

The USS Shaw explodes after taking a direct hit at Pearl Harbor. © Everett Historical/Shutterstock.com
    8th Heisman Trophy Award: Frank Sinkwich, Georgia (HB) John Van Druten's "Voice of the Turtle" premieres in NYC US Army rocket plane XS-1 makes 1st powered flight "Caribbean Carnival" opens at International Theater NYC for 11 performances "Marinka" closes at Winter Garden Theater NYC after 168 performances 14th Heisman Trophy Award: Doak Walker, SMU (HB) Jordan annexs Arabic Palestine Jule Styne's "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" opens at Ziegfeld Theater NYC for 740 performances Chinese Nationalist government moves from Chinese mainland to Formosa

Film Release

1949 "On the Town", the film adaptation of the Broadway musical, starring Gene Kelly, Frank Sinatra, Ann Miller and Vera-Ellen, is released

    "Tree Grows in Brooklyn" closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 267 performances AL alters its restrictions on night games, adopting NL's suspended game rule & lifting its ban on lights for Sunday games 1st TV acknowledgement of pregnancy (I Love Lucy) French troops shoot on demonstrators at Casablanca, 50 die Isaak Ben-Zwi elected president of Israel 19th Heisman Trophy Award: Johnny Lattner, Notre Dame (HB)

United Nations Speech

1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his "Atoms for Peace" speech at the United Nations in New York


December 8 Birthdays

Jim Morrison (James Douglas Morrison)

Born December 8, 1943 d. 1971

American singer, with The Doors. Known as "The Lizard King." Raised a military brat, his father commanded U.S. naval forces during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, which provided the pretext for U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
Shortly after earning his bachelor's degree in 1965 from the UCLA film school, he and fellow UCLA student Ray Manzarek formed The Doors, taking the name from Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception, which was a reference to the unlocking of doors of perception through psychedelic drug use.
When The Doors appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show, Sullivan's censors requested they change the lyrics of Light My Fire from "Girl we couldn't get much higher" to "Girl we couldn't get much better", due to its perceived reference to drugs. The band agreed, but sang the song with the original lyrics anyway, to which Sullivan banned them from ever again appearing on his show, to which Morrison replied, "Hey, that's okay - we just did the Ed Sullivan show."
Morrison was convicted of indecent exposure for supposedly exposing himself on stage in 1969. He was released on bond, but died eight months later of a drug-induced heart attack while the conviction was being appealed.
Music: Light My Fire (1967, #1) and L.A. Woman (1971).

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Born December 8, 1925 d. 1990

American singer, dancer, actor. Music: That Old Black Magic (1956) and Candy Man (1972, #1). He and Nancy Sinatra engaged in U.S. TV's first interracial kiss on her TV special Movin' with Nancy (1967). After a 1954 car crash that robbed him of his left eye, he joked of being "the world's only one-eyed Jewish n--ger."

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E. C. Segar (Elzie Crisler Segar)

Born December 8, 1894 d. 1938

American cartoonist, creator of Popeye the Sailor (1929). It is claimed that Frank "Rocky" Fiegel was the real-life inspiration for the Popeye character. Fiegel was unusually strong, had a characteristic pipe, and a propensity for fist-fighting. He was from Segar's hometown and according to Popeye historian Michael Brooks, Segar regularly sent him money.
Segar also coined the "goon" and some claim the jeep was named after a character Segar created in 1936, called Eugene the Jeep. Eugene the Jeep was small, able to move between dimensions, and could solve seemingly impossible problems, qualities World War II serviceman attributed to the Willys MB light utility vehicle. The word "jeep" itself had been in use as early as World War I as U.S. Army slang for new uninitiated recruits and by Army mechanics to refer to new unproven vehicles.
The Popeye characters started in his comic strip Thimble Theatre in 1919, later renamed Popeye after the introduction of the Popeye character in 1929. Chester drew inspiration for a number of his Popeye characters from real people he knew in his home town, such Dora Paskel from whom he based the Olive Oyl character.

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Slaves operating the first cotton gin

Slaves operating the first cotton gin

Inventor of the Cotton Gin

Born December 8, 1765 d. 1825

American inventor. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin (1794). His cotton gin separated the seeds from the cotton by pulling the cotton though a mesh that blocked the seeds. He claimed to have gotten the idea from watching a cat who was trying to pull a chicken through a fence, but was only able to pull the feathers through.
His gin could generate up to 55 pounds (25 kg) of cleaned cotton daily, whereas a person could only do about a pound (0.45 kg) a day, turning cotton into a profitable crop. U.S. cotton exports went from less than 500,000 pounds (230,000 kg) in 1793 to 93 million pounds (42,000,000 kg) by 1810 making it the country's chief export.
Historians argue that the cotton gin helped preserve slavery in the U.S., since before its invention slave labor was primarily used in growing rice, tobacco, and indigo, none of which were profitable any more. But with the gin reducing the labor needed to remove the seeds, growing cotton became highly profitable and became the chief source of wealth in the South, greatly increasing the desire for slave labor.
Whitney lost most of his profits due to legal battles over patent infringements. He then turned to manufacturing guns for the U.S. Army.

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Born December 8, 1542 d. 1587

Queen of Scotland (1542-67). She ascended to the throne when she was only six days old. She was beheaded for her participation in a plot to kill Queen Elizabeth I.

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Sam Kinison (Samuel Burl Kinison)

Born December 8, 1953 d. 1992

American Comedian, actor, former tent-revival preacher. Known for his screams of "Ahh-ohhh-ahhh!" during his performances. From the age of 17 to 24, he was a "fire and brimstone" style preacher. His music video cover of The Troggs' Wild Thing was a hit on MTV.
He was killed when his car was hit by a drunk driver, six days after getting married to his third wife. His wife, who was also in the car, received only minor injuries and a concussion. According to a friend who at the accident scene, Kinison appeared to be having a conversation with an unseen entity, saying "I don't want to die. I don't want to die &hellip But why? &hellip Okay, okay, okay." He then went unconscious and died shortly after.
Film: Back to School.
Quote: "There's no happy ending to cocaine. You either die, you go to jail, or else you run out."

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American actress. Film: Never Say Never Again (1983, Domino Petachi) and Batman (1989, Vicki Vale). In 1993, she was ordered to pay $8.1 million for failing to appear in the movie Boxing Helena.

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Born December 8, 1947 d. 2017

American singer, with the Allman Brothers Band. In 1969, he and his brother Duane Allman formed the Allman Brothers Band, with Gregg writing several of their biggest hits, including Whipping Post, Melissa, and Midnight Rider. After his brother Duane died in a motorcycle crash, the band continued.
Allman's third marriage was to singer Cher from 1975 to 1979.

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David Carradine (John Arthur Carradine)

Born December 8, 1936 d. 2009

American actor. TV: Kung Fu (1972-75, Kwai Chang Caine) and Kung Fu: The Legend Continues (1993-97, plays the grandson of his character in Kung Fu).

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Flip Wilson (Clerow Wilson, Jr.)

Born December 8, 1933 d. 1998

American Grammy and Golden Globe-winning comedian. Known for his catchphrase: "The Devil made me do it!" and his character Geraldine Jones. Time magazine named him "TV's first black superstar" (1972). Albums: The Devil Made Me Buy This Dress (1970, Grammy). TV: The Flip Wilson Show (1970-74, which was the first successful network variety series starring an African American).

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Born December 8, 1916 d. 2006

American film director. Film: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954), Fantastic Voyage (1966), Dr. Dolittle (1967), Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), Soylent Green (1973), and Red Sonja (1985).

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First Woman Secretary of a National Political Party

Dorothy McElroy Vredenburg

Born December 8, 1916 d. 1991

American politician. First woman secretary of a national political party (1944, secretary of the Democratic National Committee). This also made her the youngest person elected as an officer of either the Democratic or Republican party.

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Born December 8, 1911 d. 1976

American actor. TV: The Virginian (Judge Garth). He is famous for his portrayal of Willy Loman in stage and TV productions of Death of a Salesman.

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Born December 8, 1902 d. 1984

American actuary, bridge expert, author of numerous books on card playing.

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Born December 8, 1894 d. 1961

American author, cartoonist. Blind since the age of 40, he continued to illustrate his books until his death. He lost an eye when shot with an arrow while playing William Tell with a brother. He later became almost completely blind due to the injury. Even with his blindness, Thurber drew six covers and numerous classic illustrations for The New Yorker.

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Born December 8, 1891 d. 1964

American cartoonist. Creator of Skippy (1923-45).

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Born December 8, 1861 d. 1947

American auto manufacturer. Founder of Buick Motor Car Co. (1905), General Motors (1908), Chevrolet Motor Co (1915), and Durant Motors Inc (1921).

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Born December 8, 1828 d. 1867

American poet, known as the "Poet Laureate of the Confederacy."

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Born December 8, 1816 d. 1890

Chairman Democratic National Committee (1860-72). He established the Belmont Stakes, the third jewel of the Triple Crown series of American thoroughbred horse racing.

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Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)

Born December 8, 65 B.C. d. 8 B.C.

Roman poet. He was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The Latin aphorism "Carpe diem" meaning seize the day is from book 1 of his work Odes (23 BC).
Quote: "Nothing's beautiful from every point of view."
Quote: "Your own safety is at stake when your neighbor's wall is ablaze."
Quote: "The greatest lesson in life is to know that even fools are right sometimes."

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On This Day: December 8

On Dec. 8, 1941, the United States entered World War II as Congress declared war against Japan one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

On Dec. 8, 1925, Sammy Davis Jr., the American performer famous for his singing, dancing and comedy routines, was born. Following his death on May 16, 1990, his obituary appeared in The Times.

On Dec. 8, 1941, the United States entered World War II as Congress declared war against Japan one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

On This Date

1776 George Washington&aposs retreating army crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War.
1854 Pope Pius IX proclaimed the Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which holds that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was free of original sin from the moment of her own conception.
1863 President Abraham Lincoln announced his plan for the Reconstruction of the South.
1886 The American Federation of Labor was founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1980 Rock musician John Lennon was shot to death outside his New York City apartment building by Mark David Chapman. The former Beatle was 40.
1987 Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories began an intefadeh, or uprising.
1987 President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed a treaty calling for destruction of intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
1991 Russia, Belarus and Ukraine declared the Soviet national government dead, forming a new Commonwealth of Independent States.
1991 Kimberly Bergalis, who had contracted AIDS from her dentist, died in Florida at age 23.
1992 Americans saw live TV coverage of U.S. troops landing on the beaches of Somalia as Operation Restore Hope began.
1993 President Bill Clinton signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement.
1995 The Grateful Dead announced they were breaking up, four months after the death of lead guitarist Jerry Garcia.
2008 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed told the Guantanamo war crimes tribunal he would confess to masterminding the Sept. 11 attacks four other men also abandoned their defenses.

Historic Birthdays

Sammy Davis Jr. 12/8/1925 - 5/16/1990 American entertainer. Go to obituary »

The Grass Burr (Weatherford, Tex.), No. 6, Ed. 1 Wednesday, December 8, 1943

Bi-weekly student newspaper of Weatherford High School in Weatherford, Texas that includes school news and information along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 16 x 12 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information

Creator: Unknown. December 8, 1943.

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Rescuing Texas History, 2017 and was provided by the Weatherford High School to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 22 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

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Audiences

Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

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Weatherford High School

In 1875, the Weatherford High School Association was formed. The first five students graduated in 1885, receiving certificates of completion. In 1894, the first Weatherford High School diplomas were awarded. Weatherford Independent School District was formed in 1954, and the first high school was built. The present campus, opened in January 2003, serves approximately 1,850 students with over 150 faculty and staff members.


December 8, 1943, on Bougainville, Papua New Guinea-PFC Homer J. Finley, Jr. and his four-legged comrade "Jack", a Belgian Shepherd of the 1st Marine War Dog Platoon. [1843x1914]

Together, Homer and Jack landed on Bougainville and bravely fought against a relentless enemy. During that short period, they always looked after each other, which created a special bond between them, but Homer was then assigned to other duties, and the two Marines were separated.

Jack was later wounded by a Japanese sniper while carrying a vital message, but despite his injury, he pursued his mission and delivered the message.

At the end of the war, Homer returned to the United States and was stationed at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. One day, Homer was walking through the camp, when suddenly, he saw Jack. As he approached, another Marine told him: "Well don't get too close to him because nobody else can, he's vicious". Homer replied: "If I know Jack, he won't bother me one little bit". As he opened the gate, the Belgian Shepherd jumped into his arms, put his paws on Homer's shoulders and licked his face. Looking back on that reunion, the WWII veteran said: "This kind of tears me up when I think about it. The fact that he remembered me close to two years from the last time I had seen him was really something".


December 8, 1943 – Eisenhower Dies in Jeep Accident

One day after being unceremoniously appointed Supreme Commander in the coming Operation Overlord in a handwritten note from FDR to Stalin, General Dwight David Eisenhower died in a jeep accident while being transported from headquarters. While some speculate that the accident was in fact Nazi assassination or perhaps political intrigue, the majority of historians agree that it was simply the fault of a dog crossing the road. Funeral services were conducted in Europe and again in the United States with the war hero’s body being interred at Arlington National Cemetery. Having lost a great leader, FDR woefully appointed Chief of Staff George C. Marshall, whom he had earlier told, “I didn't feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington” when explaining his choice.

Many considered the appointment a demotion for Marshall, as he was in key position in Washington to organize and manage the resources of the Allies. Churchill himself would call Marshall the “organizer of victory”, and now it was Marshall’s duty to exact that victory in Europe. With the landing at Normandy in June 1944, victory in Europe gradually became a reality. When the war ended, Marshall continued to his duties to America by his appointment to China by President Truman to broker peace between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists. No peace could be made (and Marshall argued against the Pentagon that the United States simply shouldn’t become involved), and Marshall returned to the US, soon appointed Secretary of State. Here he would win a Nobel Peace Prize for his “Marshall Plan” for the organization and rebuilding of post-war Europe, also being named Time Magazine’s Man of the Year for the second time.

After retiring on grounds of ill health, Marshall was again brought to duty on the call of President Truman to be Secretary of Defense. The Korean War had shown how poorly the post-war American armed forces had been organized, and no one organized better than Marshall. Marshall effectively prepared the military for demobilization in less than a year and retired again. Meanwhile, fellow Five Star General Omar Bradley would be instrumental in Truman’s decision to relieve MacArthur of command before he sparked a war with China.

In 1952, Marshall would be called up again, this time by the Democratic Party. General Bradley was running on the Republican ticket for president, and the Democrats sought a president that could surpass his military clout. Marshall declined, saying, “I’ll stick with retirement. When men like Joe McCarthy are running around, Washington is no place for me.”

While the Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson would lose out against President Bradley, Marshall’s famous statement would cause a surge of unpopularity for McCarthy, costing him his reelection to the Senate. Bradley’s two terms would be famed for their time of prosperity, forward development with projects such as the Bradley Continental Highway, and his liberal leanings, continuing New Deal programs and combating segregation, as well as his openness in international policy with Communism. The Bradley Doctrine would prevent America from becoming something of a policeman, instead working to ensure that proper popular elections were held, preventing another Korea and MacArthur.

Through the course of the latter half of the twentieth century, Communism would grow throughout the world, taking over many nations in Southeast Asia, North Africa, and Central and South America. By the 1980s, however, the Stalinist nations would begin to fall apart after defeat in Iran and Afghanistan, leading to Germany reunifying and the Soviet bloc disappearing. The other “communist” nations of the world turned either into militaristic dictators or revolutionized themselves as seen in Red China, conflict with which Bradley had said would be "The wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy."

In reality, Eisenhower lived to effective serve as Supreme Commander. Marshall conducted his administrative duties as necessary before retiring, while Eisenhower took up the election of 1952 to oppose the isolationism of Senator Robert Taft. In his presidency, Eisenhower set the precedent of fighting Communism as it grew up in nations, using the CIA and military advisers to prevent its spread.


Allied air attack on German shipping, 8 December 1943 (Med or Adriatic)

Post by allan125 » 03 Oct 2020, 04:23

Looking for information from the Kriegsmarine side, the information below was posted on some Allied forums, but I'm hoping that someone can provide more from the unit war diary, and perhaps provide information as to whether this was a single ship operation, or in convoy, what type of ship was involved, the location, and whether it was noted as an RAF or USAAF unit attack, any unit markings noted on them would be a bonus.

RAF or USAAF attack on German shipping on 8 December 1943 (could be Med or Adriatic)

Looking for some assistance with regard to an RAF or USAAF attack on German shipping on 8 December 1943, and we would like if possible to know what was the RAF/USAAF unit involved in the attack.

The details are pretty vague as it could be in the Mediterranean or the Adriatic.

This is about a German sailor who had previously served on the Prinz Eugen and Scharnhorst, he settled in Sheffield post-war and was wounded by bomb splinters on 8 December 1943. He was serving on 2 Transport Flotille, we have no idea of the actual type of ship, but a Herbert Gruner was the commander and was only an NCO, so we are presuming a caique, small motorboat, yacht, or even a Siebel ferry or Marinefahrprahm, and as it was supplying local garrisons this more points to the Adriatic than the Med.

The unit was 1 Transport Flotille, seconded to 2 Transport Flotille - 1 Transport Flotille was established in May 1943 in France, and in July 1943 moved to Italy with seventeen landing craft. Headquarters first at San Remo and later Imperia. 2 Transport Flotille was formed in September 1943 from units of 1Transport Flotille, headquartered in Venice, also oversaw transport operations in the Adriatic.

Unfortunately his file only gives the unit, date of the action and details of his injuries, but with no location, but as it states his injuries are "bomb splinters" we assume it was an air attack.


The United States declares war on Japan

On December 8, as America’s Pacific fleet lay in ruins at Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt requests, and receives, a declaration of war against Japan.

Leaning heavily on the arm of his son James, a Marine captain, FDR walked haltingly into the House of Representatives at noon to request a declaration of war from the House and address the nation via radio. “Yesterday,” the president proclaimed, �mber 7, 1941𠅊 date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.”

Roosevelt’s 10-minute speech, ending with an oath-“So help us God”—was greeted in the House by thunderous applause and stamping of feet. Within one hour, the president had his declaration of war, with only one dissenting vote, from a pacifist in the House. FDR signed the declaration at 4:10 p.m., wearing a black armband to symbolize mourning for those lost at Pearl Harbor.

On both coasts, civilian defense groups were mobilized. In New York, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia ordered the rounding up of Japanese nationals, who were transported to Ellis Island and held in custody indefinitely. In California, antiaircraft batteries were set up on Long Beach and the Hollywood Hills. Reports on supposed spy activity on the part of Japanese Americans began pouring into Washington, even as Japanese Americans paid for space in newspapers to declare unreservedly their loyalty to the United States. The groundwork was being laid for the tragic internment of Japanese Americans, thought a necessary caution at the time but regretted years later as a hysterical and bigoted response.