King George's War (1744-18 October 1748) (America)The American part of the War of the Austrian Succession, the third of four French and Indian Wars. King George's War also saw the continuation of the War of Jenkin's Ear (from 1739) between Britain and Spain. Hostilies between Britain and France in the Americas were triggered by the French capture of a British fort off Nova Scotia. With a combination of British warships and colonial troops, the British captured the key French fort of Louisburg, Nova Scotia (1745), and succesfully held it against two French attempts at recapture (1746 and 1747). The fall of Louisburg isolated the French colonies in Canada. There were also successes against French colonies in the West Indies, while the French with Indian help raided the British colonies. The war was ended, along with the War of Austrian Succession, by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (18 October 1748) which restored all conquered lands in the Americas.
King George's War
From 1744 until 1748, England and France were engaged in King George's War. This was the North American phase of the larger War of the Austrian Succession from 1740 to 1748. The war was only one in a series of wars that had been fought between England and France since the late 1600s. What made King George's War somewhat different from the earlier conflicts was that it partially occurred in the New World. In the previous wars, no major battles had been fought in the New World. All of these conflicts, including King George's War, began because each side hoped to gain dominance in Europe as well as in various European colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
During King George's War, England succeeded in capturing Fort Louisbourg, a major French fortress located on Cape Breton Island. The fort guarded the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Some of France's major outposts in North America, such as Quebec and Montreal, depended on the river to access the Atlantic Ocean. By capturing Fort Louisbourg, the English greatly hampered the fur trade between the French and the Native Americans. Cut off from France, French merchants in North America could not acquire manufactured goods to trade with American Indians. England had isolated some of France's colonies in North America. English businessmen quickly stepped in to fill the void, becoming major trading partners with the Native Americans in the Ohio Country. At the war's conclusion, little changed in North America. The English returned Fort Louisbourg to the French, and the respective sides controlled much of the same territory that they had prior to the conflict. They also both claimed ownership of the Ohio Country, but England had a somewhat greater presence in the region due to their enhanced ability to trade with the American Indians.
With both the French and English claiming the Ohio Country, future conflicts were destined to occur. The French and Indian War (1756-1763) and the resulting peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris (1763), would finally settle the issue. Due to its victory in the French and Indian War, England emerged from the conflict as the European owner of the Ohio Country. Although other European nations recognized England's ownership of the Ohio Country, American Indians in the region did not. Conflict followed as British settlers continued to moved west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The War of Jenkins' Ear (named for a 1731 incident in which a Spanish commander chopped off the ear of British merchant captain Robert Jenkins and told him to take it to his king, George II) broke out in 1739 between Spain and Great Britain, but was confined to the Caribbean Sea and conflict between Spanish Florida and the neighboring British Province of Georgia. The War of the Austrian Succession, nominally a struggle over the legitimacy of the accession of Maria Theresa to the Austrian throne, began in 1740, but at first did not involve either Britain or Spain militarily. Britain was drawn diplomatically into that conflict in 1742 as an ally of Austria and an opponent of France and Prussia, but open hostilities between them did not take place until 1743 at Dettingen, and war was only formally declared between France and Britain in March 1744.
King George's War (1744-18 October 1748) (America) - History
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Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1700s
Wars amongst colonial powers from Queen Anne to French and Indian led to growing unrest within the colonies themselves as taxes were levied without representation, which would lead to the next decade to come and revolution. American leaders began to emerge in a variety of ways, including George Washington trying to become a British General and Ben Franklin beginning his publishing career and flying a kite.
Above: First sited in 1741 by Europeans, Mount Saint Elias, 2008. Courtesy National Park Service. Right: Fort Necessity, French and Indian War.
Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1700s
French, Indian, English Rules
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October 18, 1748 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed, ending King George's War between France, Great Britain, and their Indian allies in New England and Nova Scotia.
They had been at it again for four years since the French raided the British outpost at Canso, Nova Scotia on May 23, 1744. In what would be the third of the four French and Indian Wars between New France and their Indian allies, the Wabanaki Confederacy (Abenaki, Micmac, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Maliseet), and the British colonists and their native allies, the Iroquois Conferacy (Onondaga, Cayuga, Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida). King George's War, named after British monarch King George III, would take a large toll on the colonies affected, but solve few problems.
So after battles raging from Nova Scotia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the Ohio Valley at places such as Fort Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Saratoga in the New York frontier, and Fort Massachusetts (North Adams), took that toll (as many as eight percent of the men at the Massachusetts Bay Colony were killed), the end was necessary, but the war fruitless. Yes, the French regained control of Louisbourg, captured by the British during the war. They did that in exchange for Madras, India, captured by the British in September 1746, as part of the larger War of Austrian Succession. Yes, there were World Wars before the ones they numbered.
Losing Louisbourg back to New France did not sit well with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They had lost so much of their manpower, munitions, and money during the war, and some considered its capture as a right of the divine, hoping that it would, "remain united [with the British Empire] for ever," said Thomas Prince, Boston pastor.
When British Parliament acknowledged that contribution of the Massachusetts Bay Colony with a payment of one hundred and eight thousand pounds, it was useful in retiring their devalued paper money, but did little to prevent the same colony from future conflict. That was similar with what would later occur in territory as far west as the Ohio Country, which both France and Britain claimed, and the colonists, predominantly British subjects at the time of the treaty in that area. The fourth French and British war would soon come, in 1754, in what we would know as the French and Indian War. At least that one had an outcome with a victor, Great Britain, and a loser, France, that would end the New England versus New France question. It was in favor of the British.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Negotiations for peace had begun in 1746, but were slowed by British hopes that their position in the war would improve with additional victories and thus assist in the negotiations. When that did not occur, a congress was called concerning not only King George's War, but the War for Austrian Succession, as well. It was held in the Holy Roman Empire city of Aachan, or Aix-la-Chapelle, starting April 24, 1748. Six days later a draft treaty was completed. On October 18, 1748, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands signed the final version.
For other belligerants outside the King George's War aspect of the larger War for Austrian Succession, they had the choice to sign or continue the war. There was little appetite to continue. Austria, Spain and Sardinia agreed on December 4, 1748. The Duchy of Modena and the Republic of Genoa agreed on January 21, 1749.
Select Text, Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748
Definitive Treaty of Peace and Friendship, BETWEEN His Brit.iinkk Majesty, the Most Christian King, and the States General of the United Provinces. Concluded at Alx la Chapelle the 18th Day of October N.S. 1748. To which The Empress Queen of Hungary, the Kings of Spain and Sardinia, the Duke of Modena, and the Republick of Genoa, have acceded.
Article I. - There shall be a Christian Universal and Perpetual Peace, as well by Sea as Land, and a sincere and lasting Friendship between the Eight Powers abovementioned and between their Heirs and Succesors, Kingdoms, States, Provinces, Countries, Subjects and Vassals,' of what Rank and Condition foever they may be, without Exception of Places or Persons. So that the High Contracting Powers may have the greatest Attention to maintain between them and their said States and Subjects, this reciprocal Friendship and Correspondence, not permitting any Sort of Hostilities to be committed, on one Side or the other, on any Cause, or under any Pretence whatsoever and avoiding every Thing that may, for the Future, disturb the Union happily re-established between them and, on the contrary, endeavouring to procure, on all Occasions, whatever may contribute to their mutual Glory, Interests and Advantage, without giving any Assistance or Protection, directly or indirectly, to those who would injure or prejudice any of the said High Contracting Parties,
Article IX. - In Consideration that, notwithstanding the reciprocal Engagement taken by the 18th Article of the Preliminaries, importing, that all the Restitutions and Cessions should be carried on equally, and should be executed at the same Time, his most Christian Majesty engages, by the 6th Article of the present Treaty, to restore, within the Space of six Weeks, or sooner if possible, to be reckoned from the Day of the Exchange of the Ratifcations of the present Treaty, all the Conquests which he has made in the Low Countries whereas it is not possible, considering the Distance of the Countries, that what relates to America should be effected within the same Time, or even to fix the Time of its entire execution His Britannick Majesty likewise engages on his Part to send to his most Christian Majesty, immediately after the Exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty, Two Persons of Rank and Confederation, who shall remain there as Hostages, till there shall be received a certain and authentick Account of the Restitution of Isle Royal called Cape Breton, and of all the Conquests which the Arms or Subjects of his Britannick Majesty, may have made before, or after the signing of the Preliminaries, in the. East and West Indies.
Their Britannick and most Christian Majesties oblige themfelves likewise to cause to be delivered, upon the Exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty, the Duplicates of the Orders addressed to the Commissaries appointed to restore, and receive, respectively, whatever may have been conquered, on either Side, in the said East and West Indies, agreeably to the 2d Article of the Preliminaries, and to the Declarations of the 21st and 31st of May, and the 8th of July last, in regard to what concerns the said Conquests in the East and West Indies. Provided nevertheless, that Isle Royal called Cape Breton, shall be restored with all the Artillery and warlike Stores, which fall have been found therein on the Day of its Surrender, conformably to the Inventories, which have been made thereof, and in the Condition that the said Place was in, on the said Day of its Surrender. As to the other Restitutions, they shall take place conformably to the Meaning of the second Article of the Preliminaries, and of the Declarations and Convention of the 21st and 31st of May, and the 8th of July last, in the Condition in which Things were on the 11th of June, N. S. in the West Indies, and on the 31st of October, also N. S. in the East Indies And every Thing besides shall be reestablished on the Foot that they were or ought to be before the present War.
The said respective Commissaries as well those for the West, as those for the East-Indies, shall be ready to set out on the first Advice that their Britannick and most Christian Majesties shall receive of the Exchange of the Ratifications, furnished with all the necessary Instructions, Commissions, Powers, and Orders, for the most expeditious Accomplishment of their said Majesties Intentions, and of the Engagements taken by the present Treaty.
Some of the above words of the treaty had been modified in spelling to increase the understanding and readibility of the text.
Legends of America
This Pre-United States history timeline includes the first inhabitants of what is now the United States, the colonial settlers, and the events that led to the American Revolution.
The United States was first inhabited by Asian nomads who crossed the Bering Land Bridge in present-day Alaska thousands of years before Europeans discovered the continent.
Many years later, Europeans began to explore the continent, and soon settlers began to live in this vast land, eventually establishing what the United States of America is.
Pre-United States History Timeline
16,000 – 8,000 BC – Paleoindian hunter-gatherers migrated across the Bering land-and-ice bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
13,500 BC to 11,000 BC – The Clovis Culture begins in North America. The era was named for distinct stone tools found near Clovis, New Mexico.
3,000 BC to 1000 AD – The Woodland Period begins in Eastern America.
986 AD – Norsemen settle Greenland and sees the coast of North America, but doesn’t land.
1000 to 1520 AD – The Mississippian culture begins in North America.
1001 – Leif Ericson explores North America.
c. 1100 – Oraibi, a Hopi village in Navajo County, Arizona, was settled sometime before this time, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements within the United States.
c. 1100-1200 – Cahokia, Illinois, near modern-day St. Louis, Missouri, reaches its peak population.
c. 1190 – Construction begins on the Cliff Palace by Ancestral Puebloans in modern-day Colorado.
1492 – Christopher Columbus discovers America.
1497 – John Cabot claims North America for England.
1507 – A new world map by Martin Waldseemuller names the New World “America” continents in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.
1508 – First European colony and oldest known European settlement in a United States territory is founded at Caparra, Puerto Rico, by Ponce de Leon.
1513 – Vasco Núñez de Balboa crosses isthmus of Panama, sees the Pacific Ocean.
1519 – Ferdinand Magellan is the first to go around the world
Alonzo de Pineda explores the Gulf Coast of America
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano, working for France, explores coastline from present-day Maine to North Carolina.
Panfilo de Narvaez and Crew Waiting
1528 – Panfilo de Narvaez conquers Cuba and explores Florida.
Alvar Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
1534 – Jacques Cartier explores the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River and claims modern Quebec, Canada for France.
1539 – Hernando de Soto explores south-eastern North America.
1540 – Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores south-western North America
Discovery of the Grand Canyon by Garcia Lopez de Cardenas
Pedro de Tovar comes in contact with the Hopi people at Oraibi as part of the expedition led by Francisco Vasquez de Coronado.
1541 – Hernando de Soto discovers the Mississippi River, strengthening Spanish claims to North America’s interior.
Explorer Juan Ponce de León of Spain landed on the coast of Florida.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores Kansas.
1542 – Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo discovers and explores the Californian coast.
1559 – Tristan de Luna explores North America.
1562 – Jean Ribault leaves France with 150 colonists for the New World, establishing Charlesfort on Parris Island in South Carolina, abandoned several years later.
1563 – Francisco de Ibarra explores New Mexico.
1564 – French Fort Caroline was established on the banks of the St. Johns River, Florida. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés sacked the fort in 1565.
1565 – Admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founds St. Augustine, Florida, the earliest successful Spanish/European settlement in the future continental United States.
1576 – Sir Martin Frobisher explores the Baffin Bay and the Hudson Strait.
1577 – Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the world from December 13, 1577, to September 26, 1580.
1579 – Francis Drake claims California’s lands for England and Queen Elizabeth I, landing in Drake’s Bay and naming it New Albion.
1584 – Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, who were in the service of Sir Walter Raleigh, explore the coast of North Carolina.
March 25, 1585 – Sir Walter Raleigh receives the patent to explore and settle in North America.
June 1585 – Walter Raleigh’s fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island, North Carolina.
June 4, 1585 – Virginia colony of Roanoke Island established by Walter Raleigh.
1587 – Virginia Dare was born in Roanoke making her the first known English child born in the New World.
The first Asians to set foot on the United States occurred when Filipino sailors arrived in Spanish ships at Morro Bay, California.
1588 – The first battle of the English against the Spanish Armada begins, leading to their defeat and the lessening of Spain’s influence in the New World and the rise of English influence in the Americas.
Discovery of the word Croatoan at the vanished colony of Roanoke, North Carolina.
1598 – Juan de Archuleta explores Colorado.
1602 – Captain Bartholomew Gosnold is the first Englishman to land on the New England coast, exploring and naming Cape Cod and Martha’s Vineyard.
1605 – The first capital of French Acadia was established as Port-Royal in modern-day Nova Scotia it lasted until 1613.
George Weymouth explores New England.
1606 – The joint-stock company Virginia Company of London is founded and granted a Royal Charter by James I to settle in the New World.
1607 – Captain John Smith leads colonists to establish Jamestown, Virginia, the Americas’ first permanent English settlement.
The short-lived Popham Colony was founded in Maine by the Virginia Company of Plymouth.
1608 – Quebec, Canada, was founded by Samuel de Champlain.
1609 – Henry Hudson explores the Hudson River and Delaware Bay for the Dutch.
1609-10 – These years are known as the Starving Time at Jamestown, Virginia.
1610 – Santa Fe, New Mexico is established by Spain.
1612 – The Dutch establish a fur trading center with the Native Americans on Manhattan Island.
1614 – The Dutch claim New Netherland. Located on the east coast of America, it included New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
John Rolfe successfully harvests tobacco in Jamestown, Virginia, ensuring the colony’s success.
1617-19 – Smallpox kills roughly 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Indians.
Dutch ship landing in Virginia with African Americans in 1619.
1619 – The first African Americans are brought to Jamestown, beginning the practice of slavery in the Virginia colony.
The House of Burgesses was formed in Jamestown, the first democratically elected legislative body in English North America.
1620 – The Mayflower Compact was signed and the Plymouth Colony is founded in what would become Massachusetts by the Plymouth Company.
1622 – Indian massacre of 1622 in Virginia.
1624 – King James I revokes the Virginia Company’s charter, and Virginia becomes a royal colony.
New Amsterdam is founded by the Dutch West India Company, which would later be renamed New York.
1628 – Massachusetts Bay Colony founded.
1632 – The Province of Maryland was founded.
1636 – The first university in the colonies is founded — Harvard College.
Thomas Hooker founded the Connecticut Colony.
Roger Williams founds the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
The Pequot War begins in New England in July 1636 and lasts through September 21, 1638.
1637 – The New Haven Colony was founded in present-day Connecticut.
New Sweden was established around the southern Delaware River by Peter Minuit.
1639 – The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony is signed and officially adopted.
The English Crown formally recognizes the Virginia Assembly.
1640 – The French and Iroquois Wars escalate to full warfare.
1652 – Rhode Island enacted the first law declaring slavery illegal.
1656 – First Quakers arrive in New England.
1655 – The Peach Tree War was a large-scale attack on September 15, 1655, by the Susquehannock Indians and allied tribes on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River in New York.
1659-1663 – Esopus Wars were two conflicts between the Esopus tribe of Lenape Indians (Delaware) and New Netherland colonists.
1663 – King Charles II grants a charter for a new colony — the Province of Carolina.
1664 – New Amsterdam is captured by the English at the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
New Jersey and New York are established as Proprietary Colonies of England.
1667 – New Netherland is ceded to England under the Treaty of Breda.
1669 – The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina are drawn up.
Little Tennessee River Crossing, Appalachian Trail
1669-1670 – John Lederer of Virginia explores the Appalachian Mountains.
1670 – Charles Town (Charleston) is founded in present-day South Carolina.
1672-73 – Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette explored the Illinois Country.
1675-76 – King Philip’s War is fought in New England between natives and colonists.
1676 – Bacon’s Rebellion occurs in Virginia against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
1677 – Colonists in North Carolina rebel against ruling governor Thomas Colepeper.
Edmund Andros, Governor of New York, negotiates the Covenant Chain with the Iroquois.
The Province of Maine was absorbed by Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1679 – War between the Westo tribe and colonial South Carolina destroys the Westo.
The Province of New Hampshire is created out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony by royal decree from King Charles II.
1681 – William Penn receives a royal charter from King Charles II to establish Pennsylvania.
1682 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle explored the Ohio River Valley and the Mississippi River Valley, and he claimed the entire territory for France as far south as the Gulf of Mexico.
William Penn publishes “Frame of Government of Pennsylvania,” and Philadelphia is founded.
1685 – Fort St. Louis (French colonization of Texas) is established near Arenosa Creek on Matagorda Bay by French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle the fort was abandoned in 1688.
1686 – Henri de Tonti established the Arkansas Post as the first European settlement in the lower Mississippi River Valley.
1688-97 – King William’s War was fought between New France and New England and their respective Indian allies.
1689 – The Boston Revolt and Leisler’s Rebellion.
Toleration Act 1688 is passed by Parliament, which gives limited Freedom of Religion to all British citizens.
1690 – Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed a competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas.
1692 – Salem Witch Trials occur in Massachusetts.
1696 – Cahokia, Illinois was established by French missionaries from Quebec, Canada, and is one of the region’s earliest permanent settlements.
1699 – The capital of Virginia was moved from Jamestown to Williamsburg, and Jamestown was slowly abandoned.
Free African Americans were ordered to leave the Colony of Virginia.
1700 – José Romo de Vivar becomes one of the earliest Spanish settlers in present-day Arizona.
1701 – The Collegiate school at Saybrook is founded in Connecticut. It will later be renamed Yale College.
The Delaware Colony was granted a charter, separating it from Pennsylvania.1702 – East Jersey and West Jersey become crown colonies.
1703 – Kaskaskia, Illinois is established as a small mission station for the French.
Patrick Henry before the Virginia House of Burgesses
1705 – The House of Burgesses passes the Virginia Slave Codes.
1706 – Albuquerque, New Mexico is founded and named for the viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque.
1710 – Francis Nicholson takes Port Royal.
1711-15 – North Carolina fights the Tuscarora War with the Tuscarora people.
1712 – Carolina colony was divided into North and South Carolina.
New York Slave Revolt of 1712.
1713 – The Treaty of Utrecht is signed, bringing an end to Queen Anne’s War, the second in a series of French and Indian Wars.
1714 – Natchitoches is established by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent European settlement in present-day Louisiana.
1715 – The Yamasee War begins in South Carolina.
The Alamo in San Antonio, Texas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.
1718 – Mission San Antonio de Valero (The Alamo) was built as the first Spanish mission along the San Antonio River.
The French founds new Orleans, Louisiana.
Blackbeard, the pirate, is killed in battle by lieutenant Robert Maynard in the waters off of the Province of North Carolina.
1722 – Father Rale’s War, also known as Dummer’s War, begins. This was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy, allied with New France. It lasts until 1725.
1723 – The Colony of Virginia passes an act to deal with slave conspiracies.
The French establish Fort Orleans along the Missouri River near Brunswick, Missouri.
1729 – The Province of Carolina proprietors sell out to Crown.
The city of Baltimore, Maryland, was founded.
1732 – General James Oglethorpe founds the Province of Georgia.
1739 – The Stono Rebellion, a slave revolt in the Province of South Carolina, is crushed.
1740 – The Plantation Act is passed to encourage immigration to the colonies.
James Oglethorpe fails to take St. Augustine, Florida.
South Carolina enacts the Negro Act that made it illegal for slaves to move abroad, assemble in groups, raise food, earn money, and learn to write English.
1741 – The New York Conspiracy is suppressed. This was a plot by slaves and poor whites in New York to revolt and level New York City with fires.
1744 – King George’s War, the third of the four French and Indian Wars, begins. It lasts until 1748.
The mail-order catalog was conceptualized and invented by Benjamin Franklin.
1746 – Princeton University in present-day New Jersey is founded.
Trading with Native Americans
1747 – Englishmen and Virginians founded the Ohio Company to promote trade with Native American tribes and secure English control of the Ohio River Valley.
1749 – Province of Georgia overturns its ban on slavery.
c. 1750 – The population of the Thirteen Colonies is roughly 1.5 million.
1750 – Thomas Walker passes through the Cumberland Gap.
1754 – The French and Indian War begins and lasts until 1763.
Columbia University was founded as King’s College in present-day New York City.
1758 – The first black Baptist church is founded in Lunenburg, Virginia.
1760 – A huge fire destroyed much of Boston, Massachusetts.
February 10, 1763 – The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War (1754-1763). Canada east of the Mississippi River is added to the British empire.
Pontiac’s Rebellion against the British begins and lasts until 1766.
October 7, 1763 – The Proclamation of 1763 issued by King George III after the French and Indian War organizes the North American empire and stabilizes relations with Native Americans. No British settlements are allowed west of the Appalachian Mountains, and settlers already in these areas must return east.
Compiled and edited by Kathy Weiser-Alexander/Legends of America, updated January 2021.
King George's War (1744-18 October 1748) (America) - History
King George’s War, 1744-1748, (known as the War of Austrian Succession in Europe) was one of a series of 18th century conflicts in which France and England, with their Indian allies, sought to control the continent. The first battle was the French capture of the English town of Canso on Nova Scotia. New England responded by raising 4,000 militia men and laying siege to and capturing Fortress Louisbourg, considered one of the strongest fortresses in French Canada. Louisbourg also served as the home port for privateers that attacked English trading and fishing vessels. Other conflicts in the “war” were little more than border skirmishes, although the death tolls were high on both sides. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which effectively ended the war in Europe also brought a stop to hostilities in North America, although it resolved nothing. In addition, the terms of the treaty returned Louisbourg to the French. The French and Indian War, 1754-1763, is the name given to the American theater of a massive conflict involving Austria, England, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Sweden called the Seven Years War. The American conflict was precipitated by the French building Fort Dusquesne on the Ohio River, and area also claimed by the British. In 1754, the governor of Virginia sent twenty-one-year-old George Washington to demand the withdrawal of the French. The French refused and Washington, along with 150 men, tried to force them out, attacking a group of Fenchmen and killing ten of them, sparking the beginning of the French and Indian War. British troops under the command of General Edward Braddock joined George Washington at Fort Duquesne. Though the British outnumbered the French, the French and Indians nevertheless won the battle of Fort Duquesne.
The bulk of the fighting that occurred during the French and Indian War took place along lakes George and Champlain, in the state of New York near the Canadian border.
During 1755 the area of fighting expanded until it covered ground from Fort Dusquesne to Fort Niagara, Lake Champlain and as far as Nova Scotia. In autumn 1755 tensions rose further when the British captured two French ships, the Lys and the Alcide, off the coast of Nova Scotia. Britain and France finally declared war in May 1756, and so began the Seven Years' War.
The French, under the command of the Marquis de Montcalm, captured and razed Britain's only fort on the Great Lakes: Fort Oswego. The French and their Indian allies raided towns and farms in New York and Pennsylvania and the English colonists retaliated by doing the same to Indian settlements in the Ohio Valley. The British did their part setting up a blockade of the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island from which point the French guarded the Saint Lawrence River. Meanwhile, at Lake George in New York, the British and their colonists held Fort William Henry throughout the winter of 1756-1757.
But by the latter half of 1757 the outlook was bleak for the British. In August Montcalm returned with a large army and captured and burned Fort William Henry, following which the Indians massacred British and colonial prisoners. In September the British fleet, blockading Louisbourg and the Saint Lawrence River, was dispersed by a hurricane.
But the tide again turned when William Pitt became Britain's Prime Minister. He increased the number of troops in North America and sent in several strong military leaders. Pitt ordered General James Abercromby to lead forces in attacks against Crown Point and Fort Ticonderoga, and to send smaller forces against Fort Frontenac and Fort Duquesne. The British suffered severe casualties at Ticonderoga, but were more successful at Frontenac. The French deserted Fort Duquesne as General John Forbes's troops approached.
In the summer of 1759, General James Wolfe and his army scaled the cliffs of New France’s political capital, Quebec, and fought Montcalm's forces on the Plains of Abraham. Both Montcalm and Wolfe were killed in the battle, but it was a victory for the British. The French colonial government fled in May 1760 to the unfortified city of Montreal, where General Jeffrey Amherst arranged to have converge three armies. The French suffered from a lack of supplies and reinforcements caused mostly by a British blockade but in part by the relative apathy of the government in France. On September 8, 1760, Governor de Vaudreuil surrendered Montreal and Canada to Amherst. In the remaining years of the Seven Years' War, there was little military activity in North America.
When the Treaty of Paris was signed on February 8, 1763, Britain was left with all of French Canada, with the exception of two small islands, most of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, and a small part of Spanish Florida. The French were allowed to maintain a high degree of autonomy, but the treaty left the British dominant in North America east of the Mississippi River.
Scope and Content
Although this collection consists primarily of materials created during the French and Indian War, there are in nearly every series some materials from the preceding King George's War. There are enlistments and impressments, muster rolls and account rolls of those serving in the war. of interest are several contracts signed by men who served On the Louisbourg expedition in Cape Breton as well as in later campaigns, authorizing the transfer of their wages to another individual (often Jonathan Trumbull) to pay for provisions and to serve the recipients' speculative interests. There are also several receipts for wages paid by Trumbull. Numerous accounts and receipts provide information about how much money was spent on specific food items and alcohol, guns, blankets, and the shoeing of horses. There are details of military orders correspondence concerning intelligence (including concern over reports that the French were making snow shoes) and orders as well as letters to family. Finally, there are journals kept by men involved in the French and Indian War, an orderly book from Ticonderoga and a note book with color sketches and examples of various styles of penmanship.
Materials are organized into five series based largely on form: Enlisted Men, Finances, Orders, Correspondence, and Journals.
Series I: Enlisted Men consists of impressments and voluntary enlistments, with a few documents regarding desertion or discharge due to illness or family emergency. More numerous are muster rolls of enlisted and impressed men.
Series II: Finances consists of documents relating to the finances of war: transfers of wages to pay for provisions account rolls and accounts and receipts which include prices paid for specific foods as well as for guns, cartridges, blankets, et cetera.
Series III: Orders consists of orders given to march and to provide provisions for active regiments.
Series IV: Correspondence consists of correspondence regarding military intelligence, supplies, and descriptions of skirmishes. Includes some personal letters to family members.
Series V: Journals consists of journals, a notebook, and an orderly book kept by men serving in the French and Indian War, as well as a journal from the 1745 expedition to Louisbourg to Cape Breton.
Collection is arranged chronologically within in each series.
There are no restrictions on access to the collection.
Use of the material requires compliance with the Connecticut Historical Society's Research Center regulations.
Gorham and 40 rangers discovered 30 French canon at the Careening Wharf on June 9. The next day, the French Governor Du Chambon sent 100 inexperienced French troops under the command of Sieur de Beaubassin. Gorham and his rangers were able to launch a surprise attack on the French troops, killing five of them. One of Gorham’s (Indian) rangers was killed.(By June 11, Beaubassins force was decimanted with many Mi’kmaw fighters killed.)
By June 21 Gorham had built a Battery at Lighthouse Point. He had hauled 10 cannon from the Royal Battery. He shelled the Island Battery for five days and on June 27 the French Battery was silenced.
The French king was astonished at the fall of his great fortress in America, and determined to recapture it.
He sent D’Annville with a fleet for the purpose, but D’Annville died, and his successor committed suicide, and the project failed. The next year the king sent another fleet, but it was captured by the English and then came the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
King George's War (1744-18 October 1748) (America) - History
This war, known by the above name in America, was but the faint glimmer of the dreadful conflagration that swept over Europe at this time under the name of the War of the Austrian Succession. On the death of Charles VI, emperor of Austria, in 1740, the male line of the House of Hapsburg became extinct, and his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, ascended the Austrian throne. But there were other claimants, and the matter brought on a war of tremendous dimensions, embroiling nearly all the nations of Europe. Again we find France and England on opposite sides, war being declared between them in the spring of 1744. Of this great war we have little to record here, as little of it occurred in America. Aside from the usual Indian massacres, but one great event marks King George's War -- the capture of Louisburg.
Louisburg, as we have noticed, was built on a point of land on Cape Breton Island it commanded the chief entrance to the greatest of American rivers, except only the "Father of Waters." It was a powerful fortress it had cost six million dollars, and was twenty years in building. Its walls of solid masonry, from which frowned a hundred cannon, were from twenty to thirty feet high, and their circumference was two and a half miles. The fort was the pride of the French heart in America. It was looked upon as an impregnable fortress, that would keep out every intruder and baffle every foe yet it was reduced and captured by a fleet of little fighting strength, bearing a few thousand soldiers, chiefly New England farmers and fishermen.
The father of the Louisburg expedition was William Shirley, governor of Massachusetts, and William Pepperell of Maine was made its commander. New England furnished the men, while Pennsylvania sent some provisions, and New York a small amount of artillery. The fleet was composed of something over a hundred vessels of various grades, and just before sailing these were joined by four English men-of-war from the West Indies, commanded by Commodore Warren. On the first day of May, 1745, this motley fleet came under the walls of Louisburg. A landing was soon made, and the "men flew to shore like eagles to their quarry." Every effort of the French to drive them back was foiled. The artillery was managed by the master engineer, Richard Gridley of Boston, who was to figure in the same capacity in two far greater wars. The siege continued for six weeks, when a French war vessel of sixty-four guns, laden with military stores, came to the rescue of the fort but she was captured by the English fleet in open view of the helpless besieged in the fort. This was the final stroke. The garrison could hold out no longer. On the 17th of June the fort and batteries were surrendered, and the British flag soon waved over the walls of Louisburg.
The French king was astonished at tbe fall of his great fortress in America, and determined to recapture it. He sent D'Annville with a fleet for the purpose, but D'Annville died, and his successor committed suicide, and the project came to naught. The next year the king sent another fleet, but it was captured by the English and then came the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The peace, as arranged at Aix-la-Chapelle, restored to each power what it had possessed before the war -- save the great sacrifice of life and treasure -- and that meant that Louisburg must be restored to the French. A wave of indignation swept over the English colonies when they learned that the fruit of their great victory had been quietly handed back, without their knowledge or consent, to the enemy from whom it had been taken and here we find one of the many remote causes that led the colonists in later years to determine that American affairs must be managed in America and not by a corps of diplomats three thousand miles across the sea, who had little interest in the welfare and future of their kindred in the New World. 1
Source: "History of the United States of America," by Henry William Elson, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1904. Chapter VIII p. 168-170. Transcribed by Kathy Leigh.
Joseph Dow's History of Hampton: KING GEORGE'S WAR, 1744-1749
All this is true of Hampton. For more than twenty years, comparative safety had been enjoyed though, while the treacherous savages still roamed the wilds, none knew how soon peace might be broken, nor where the deadly tomahawk might strike. And so long as wily French Jesuits controlled Indian tribes, our English ancestors had no certain security. We cannot know the bitterness of the hour when tidings of war again reached these homes. It meant separation of families danger, perhaps captivity, or torture and death for the soldiers anxious watching and suspense and almost equal danger for those who remained.
England and France declared war against each other in March, 1744, and the war soon extended to the colonies of the two countries in America, where the chief event was the capture of Louisburg on the island of Cape Breton. The French then held this stronghold, which afforded them great advantages for annoying the English in their fisheries on the Grand Bank, and their trade with the colonies. The commander at Louisburg, soon after the declaration of war, despatched an armed force against two forts of the English in Nova Scotia, one of which was captured, and the other would have met with a like fate, but for the timely aid furnished by Governor Shirley of Massachusetts. The Indians of Nova Scotia joined the French in these attacks, and this led to an immediate declaration of war by the English, against them and all the tribes near them. The danger of the English colonies imminent, for it was well understood that the French were making formidable preparations for the vigorous prosecution of the war.
At this juncture, the bold plan was conceived, of wresting Louisburg from the hands of the French. It was thought feasible to take the city by surprise, early in the following spring. To whom belongs the merit of suggesting this daring enterprise is not fully settled. It is claimed for Governor Shirley and for Mr. William Vaughn of Portsmouth. The plan was laid before the General Court of Massachusetts, by the governor, and the expedition was decided upon by a bare majority, on the 26 th of January, 1745. That colony voted to furnish 3250 troops Rhode Island and New Hampshire voted 300 each, and Connecticut, 500, but New Hampshire actually sent 350 at first, and afterward, 120 more. Col. William Pepperrell, of Kittery, in the Province of Maine, was appointed commander-in-chief of the expedition.
We cannot enter into any details of the siege and surrender of Louisburg, any further than may be needful to show the humble part taken in the enterprise by individuals from this town. We have not been able to ascertain how many soldiers the town furnished, but have reason to believe that it was a full quota. During the siege, the New Hampshire troops were employed in some very laborious and hazardous undertakings, and uniformly showed themselves energetic and brave. One of the most dangerous attempts of the besiegers was to capture or destroy the Island Battery. In this unfortunate attempt by 400 volunteers from several regiments, the New Hampshire troops were very active. Some of the Hampton soldiers were of this number. Several of them, in a petition of a later date say: "When it was thought needful to make an attacks on the Island Battery, we readily ventured our lives in that dangerous enterprise, where, tho' we escaped with our lives [we] were in the utmost danger of losing them, and after the greatest trial of this sort, were obliged to submit to the mercies of our enemies."
Jeremiah Marston, who enlisted in Captain Sherburne's company, "was killed a fighting with the French and Indians, in the woods, at some distance from the walls of the city."
Dr. Nathaniel Sargent, Jr., eldest son of Dr. Nathaniel Sargent, who had, for more than thirty years, resided in Hampton, accompanied the expedition to Louisburg, "as a physician and chirurgeon, in the regiment that went out of this province. He was in the service five months and twenty days, and had the sole care and charge of said regiment as physician and chirurgeon for some time. He was obliged to remain out of the city, in the camps, ten days after the surrender, to look after and take care of upwards of thirty sick and wounded persons, having no person or persons to aid and assist him therein." Dr. Anthony Emery also went as a surgeon.
Other men from Hampton are known to have been at the siege, but we have no knowledge of their personal services or sufferings. The few names, with residences, that may be gleaned from official reports now available, are of men accredited indiscriminately to Hampton, whether from the old town, the Falls or North Hampton. Thus we find Shubael Dearborn, Joseph Redman, John Sleeper, Moses Leavitt (who died), Josiah Shaw, Nathaniel Moulton. Benjamin Thomas was allowed twenty pounds instead of a pension, for his arms being wounded. Capt. Edward Williams took a company down from Hampton Falls, and he died there. Ebenezer Gove, of Capt. Jonathan Prescott's company died so did Abner Sanborn, of Colonel Moore's company.
In the same war, though in a different quarter, Capt. Nathaniel Drake of Hampton, with his troop of fourteen mounted men, scouted in and about the woods of Nottingham, where some Indians had been lately seen but after ten days' diligent search, none were discovered. H:is men were: Daniel Marston, Reuben Dearborn, David Marston, Samuel Garland, John Taylor, Samuel Batchelder, Daniel Sanborn, Jethro Locke, Samuel Libbey, Samuel Fogg, Joseph Brown, Jonathan Hobbs, Obadiah Marston, Thomas Brown.
Many other familiar names occur in the list of the Adjutant General's Report and in Provincial Papers, but as their residences are not given, we cannot say with authority, that they were Hampton men.
"A patched-up peace" was effected by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, October 7, 1748, news of which, however, did not reach the colonies for six months or more, so that hostilities continued into the following year. A full year elapsed ere a new treaty with the Indians, concluded at Falmouth, Maine, gave promise of tranquillity.
George Croghan - King George's War, 1744-1748
Britain's blockade of French ports made the few French trade goods reaching Ohio Country prohibitively expensive it was such a bonanza for the Pennsylvania traders that the French became alarmed. They knew that Indian trade and diplomacy were closely linked, and Croghan's activities threatened French influence among the regional natives. The trader established his first headquarters in the Ohio County at a Seneca village on the Cuyahoga River, the site of present-day Cleveland, Ohio. (Together with the Mohawk, the Seneca were among the Six Nations of the Iroquois League.) As Croghan expanded his trading network westward toward Detroit, held by the French, they urged French-allied Indians to attack him.
In April 1745, the Seneca protected Croghan from capture, but elsewhere French-allied Natives robbed a canoe-load of Croghan's furs. In 1746 the Iroquois appointed Croghan to its Onondaga Council. This was an honor they had made to William Johnson a few years earlier and to the French fur trader Louis-Thomas Joncaire de Chabert (1670–1740) decades before that. Philippe-Thomas Joncaire, son of the earlier trader, was Croghan's and Johnson's principal French opponent in the Ohio region. By 1746 Johnson and the Six Nations had acquiesced to Croghan's dominant role in Ohio Country affairs.
Croghan is believed to have contributed to the outbreak of violence in the Ohio Country. In early 1747, five French traders were murdered by Seneca and Wyandot warriors at the Wyandot village of Sandusky on Lake Erie, beginning an Indian revolt against the French fomented by Croghan. The Wyandot Chief Nicholas Orontony led it first, followed by Memeskia (or "Old Briton" as Croghan named him), known by the French as La Demoiselle, who was a Piankeshaw Miami chief. Although unsuccessful in driving out the French, the participating bands moved closer to the British. Reports claimed that Croghan had encouraged the uprising so that the Natives would trade with him and not the French. Old Briton relocated to Pickawillany on the Great Miami River, where Croghan built a stockade and trading post.
With the help of Mingo chiefs Tanacharison (Half King) and Scarouady, Croghan organized an Ohio Confederation of tribes. He brought the Miamis into an alliance with Great Britain, which was formalized in July 1748, at a treaty conference which he attended in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Andrew Montour, an interpreter, became Croghan's closest associate until his death in 1772. The other interpreter, Conrad Weiser, was Pennsylvania's Indian agent. He subsequently held an Indian conference at Logstown on the Ohio River at which Pennsylvania acknowledged the independence of the Ohio Confederation. Weiser later appointed Croghan to negotiate with the region's Indians.
At the 1748 Logstown conference, Weiser told the recently allied tribes that Britain had signed a peace treaty with France. As a result, he had no war supplies for them and distributed presents instead. Rumor of Celeron de Bienville's 1749 expedition to claim the Ohio Valley for France and to drive out the English traders prompted Governor James Hamilton (Pennsylvania) to dispatch Croghan to Logstown to investigate. Days before Celeron reached Logstown, its Mingo chiefs sold Croghan 200,000 acres (810 km2), excluding 2 square miles (5.2 km2) at the Forks of the Ohio for a British fort. His biographer Wainwright notes this was "a momentous event in his life."
The Virginia's Ohio Company agents Col. Thomas Cresap and Hugh Parker made overtures to the Indians at Pickawillany, which Croghan opposed in November 1749. A year later he and Montour began aiding Virginia by guiding its scout Christopher Gist on a tour of Ohio Indian villages. Croghan's 200,000 acres (810 km2) in unconfirmed Indian deeds motivated his shift in allegiance. Sometime in 1750 he realized that such large grants were against Pennsylvania statutes, but permitted in Virginia. Having alerted Governor Hamilton to the Mingo plea for a fort at the Forks of the Ohio, then backtracking, Croghan reversed himself another time. During a conference at the end of May 1751, he formally recorded the Mingo chiefs' request for the fort, but when Andrew Montour was called before the Pennsylvania Assembly for confirmation, he denied it. Taking no action, Pennsylvania effectively "defaulted its leadership in the West to Virginia's Ohio Company."
In the June 1752 conference at Logstown, Croghan was on the Indian Council and Andrew Montour acted as translator. The Mingo gave the Virginia's Ohio Company permission to build its fort and settle one hundred families on 500,000 acres (2,000 km2) in today's Western Pennsylvania. At the same time, Pickawillany was attacked by a French force led by Charles Langlade they killed Old Britain and their soldiers boiled and ate him.
For Croghan, "the year 1753 was far worse, for it saw the virtual end of the Indian trade due to warfare. Early in the spring, Canada's Governor Duquesne, opened his campaign to drive the English out of the Ohio Valley." In October 1753, Scarouady officially appointed Croghan as leader of the Ohio Confederation during a conference held at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Croghan represented the Confederation in communications to and from Pennsylvania, and received its presents for the tribes. By the time that the 21-year-old George Washington made his diplomatic journey to the French at Fort Le Boeuf, Croghan had already spent more than a decade in the Ohio Country. For most of that time, he had been the pivotal figure among its traders, Indians, and colonial agents.
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