Toucan AM-387 - History

Toucan AM-387 - History

Toucan

(AM-387: dp. 890; 1. 221'1"; b. 32'2"; s. 18.1 k.; cpl.
117; a. 1 3", 2 40mm., 2 dct.; cl. Auk)

Toucan (AM-387) was laid down on 16 February 1944 at Cleveland, Ohio, by the American Shipbuilding Co.; launched on 15 September 1944, sponsored by Miss Rose B. Jackiewicz; and commissioned on 25 November 1944, Lt. Comdr. S. H. Squibb, USNR, in command.

The minesweeper departed Cleveland on 28 November and proceeded via the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River to Boston where she arrived on 15 December. Toucan spent the next four months preparing for duty in the western Pacific.

Toucan departed Charleston on 20 April, transited the Panama Canal, and arrived at San Diego on 6 May. Three days later, the minesweeper sailed for Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on the 15th.

Getting underway again on the 27th, the ship served in the screens of various convoys as she proceeded to the Ryukyus via Eniwetok, Guam, and Ulithi.

Reaching Okinawa as American forces pushed ever closer to Japan's home islands, Toucan swept the waters surrounding the Ryukyus and then performed escort duty and sweeping operations with the 3d Fleet as it hammered away at Japanese ports, cities, and airfields through the end of July.

With the collapse of Japan under the massed weight of an Allied naval armada and the unexpected destructive capacity of two atomic bombs, the task of clearing the offensive and defensive minefields in Pacific seas began in earnest. From 14 to 24 August, Toucan took part in the "Skagway" sweep in the East China Sea and Ryukyus area. A call at Shanghai, China punctuated two further sweeping operations-from i September to 2 October and from 25 to 30 October. The latter was conducted in the Kyushu-Korea area. All told, she steamed over 40,000 miles and swept 134 mines in the East China Sea the lower Yangtze River, and in the Chusan Archipelago. On 6 February 1946, Toucan left Japanese waters and headed for the west coast, arriving at San Francisco on 23 March 1946. Moving to San Diego on 24 April, she began preparations for inactivation and was placed out of commission, in reserve, there on 1 July 1946.

The outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June 1950 increased the Navy's need for minecraft. Accordingly, Toucan was recommissioned on 27 October and operated on the west coast for more than a year.

On 4 January 1952, Toucan sailed for Sasebo and called at Pearl Harbor and Midway before reaching Sasebo on 2 February. She commenced Korean War operations in the Hungnam and Wonsan areas on 21 February, streaming: her sweeping gear and hunting for the dangerous North Korean mines. With periodic repairs at Sasebo, Toucan operated primarily off Wonsan. From February through August 1952, the ship fired more than 8,000 rounds of ammunition at communist shore targets-trading fire with the enemy on many occasions and dodging everything from 76 millimeter shells to small arms fire.

Her duties included the disruption of the North Korean fishing trade. The ship took 13 prisoners while destroying three sampans and damaging 22 more. The plucky minesweeper also scored hits on enemy bunkers, box cars, and railroad trestles before departing Korean waters on 1 August to head for Long Beach, Calif.

The minesweeper returned to the Korean fighting zone the following year and continued her sweeping and interdiction operations in the vicinity of the Cho-Do, Paengyoung-Do, and Cheju-Do island areas from June to September 1953. The ship sailed for California and operated along the west coast from the time of her arrival at Long Beach on 3 December 1953 through 17 July 1954.

Toucan returned to the Far East in the summer of 1954 and reached Inchon, Korea, on 14 August. Two days later, she got underway for the west coast of Korea and operated primarily in the Taeyongyong-Do and Tojang Po vicinity. She departed Sasebo on 11 January 1955 and proceeded to Hong Kong only to
return to Japanese waters a fortnight later. Her stay at Sasebo was brief. Four days later, she weighed anchor for Keelung, Formosa, and thence moved to the Tachen Islands. On 7 February, the minesweeper took part in the evacuation of Chinese Nationalists from the Tachen group and disembarked the evacuees at Sasebo a week later.

During this mission, Toucan was redesignated MSF387 on 7 February 1955.

Departing Sasebo only two days after her arrival from the Tachens, Toucan headed home and arrived at Long Beach on 11 March. She operated on the west coast as a unit of Mine Division 71 until August 1956 when she began another deployment to the Far East. She called at Yokosuka, Kobe, Sasebo, Fukuoka, Beppu, and Kagoshima, Japan, as well as Keelung, Formosa, before returning to Long Beach on 21 December.

On 1 May 1957, Toucan was inactivated and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet, berthing at the Columbia River, Oreg., Group. Upon disestablishment of this group, the minesweeper was transferred to Bremerton, Wash., where she remained until 27 May 1964. On that day, she was withdrawn from the reserve fleet for conversion and transfer to the Republic of China, effective on 22 December 1964.

Toucan received three battle stars for World War II and two battle stars for the Korean War.


Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships

Surfbird (AM-383) was laid down on 15 February 1944 by the American Shipbuilding Co., Lorain, Ohio launched on 31 August 1944 sponsored by Mrs. F. W. Chambers and commissioned on 25 November 1944, Lt. R. H. Nelson, Jr., USNR, in command.

Surfbird departed Lorain on 26 November en route to Boston, via Montreal, Quebec, and Halifax. She arrived at Boston on 15 December 1944 and held minesweeping trials. On 13 February 1945, the ship arrived at Little Creek, Va., to begin her shakedown training. After a brief period in the Charleston Naval Shipyard for alterations, she sailed for the west coast. The Panama Canal was transited on 27 April, and Surfbird arrived at San Diego on 6 May. Two days later, she and Toucan (AM-387) sailed for Hawaii.

Surfbird arrived at Pearl Harbor and on 26 May departed there for Okinawa Retto, via Eniwetok, Guam, and Ulithi. She arrived at Kerama Retto on 25 June and began daily sweeps of the "Skagway" area of the East China Sea. The minesweeper departed Okinawa on 5 September for North Saddle Island, at the entrance of the Yangtze River. She swept Bonham Strait and its approaches until 4 October and then swept the entrance to Chefoo Harbor, Shantung. Next was a two-day sweep of the approaches to Jinsen, Korea, after which she got underway for Shanghai. The Yangtze River was entered on 16 October and, by the end of the month, she had swept 32 mines.

Surfbird sailed from Shanghai on 17 November for Sasebo, Japan, to be repaired. From 14 through 31 December 1945, she swept mines in Tachibana Wan, Kyushu. She moved to Kure from Sasebo and remained there from 20 to 26 February 1946 when she sailed for the United States, via the Marianas, Marshalls, Johnston Island, and Pearl Harbor. The minesweeper arrived at San Diego on 14 April, and was decommissioned on 5 June 1946.

Surfbird was recommissioned at San Diego on 12 March 1952 and operated from there until December. On 1 December, she stood out to sea en route to the Far East. The minesweeper touched at Yokosuka, Japan, on 28 December 1952 and departed on 1 January 1953 with units of Mine Division (MinDiv) 76 to begin sweep and blockade operations between Wonsan and Hungnam, Korea. These patrols were only broken by brief intervals of replenishment and upkeep at Sasebo. On 25 May, Surfbird arrived at Inchon to make magnetic-acoustic sweeps of Yong Do and Cho Do. She returned to Sasebo on 6 June and sailed for the United States three days later.

Surfbird arrived at Long Beach on 3 July. Following an overhaul at Mare Island from 17 August to 28 October, she resumed local operations out of Long Beach. The ship departed the Far East again on 28 April 1954 and returned on 24 November 1954. In February 1955, her designation was changed from AM 383 to MSF-383. She trained along the California coast for the next year and on 1 March 1956 sailed for another tour with the 7th Fleet. When Surfbird was due for rotation on 9 August, she and Waxwing (MSO-389) began a 13,000-mile cruise home through the South Pacific. They called at Manila, P.I. Bali, Republic of Indonesia Darwin, Australia Port Moresby, New Guinea and Pago Pago, Samoa. They then called at Pearl Harbor before returning to Long Beach on 9 October 1956.

On 22 January 1957, Surfbird sailed for Yokosuka, her new home port, to begin a new career. She arrived in Japan on 12 February and began receiving degaussing equipment from Ampere (ADG-11). On 15 June, she was redesignated from MSF-383 to a degaussing ship, ADG-383. Until April 1965, Surfbird operated from Sasebo but her operations covered much of the western Pacific as she also degaussed ships of the allied sea services of Japan, Korea, the Republic of China, the Philippines, and the Republic of South Vietnam.

Surfbird stood out of Subic Bay on 11 April 1965 en route to Vietnam. Upon her arrival there, she was assigned patrol duty on Operation "Market Time" until returning to Sasebo on 7 May. Surfbird again performed "Market Time" patrols and special ranging service off the coast of South Vietnam from 2 to 22 August 1966 and from 17 September to 7 October 1966. She returned to Vietnam for operations during the following periods: 8 to 15 September and 10 to 14 November 1967 17 June to 20 July 1968 8 to 28 March, 16 August to 10 September, and 2 to 26 October 1969, 4 January to 7 February and 21 July to 3 August 1970.

On 5 August 1970, Surfbird was notified that she was to be inactivated. She departed Japan on 7 September and after making port calls at Guam and Hawaii, arrived at the Inactivation Facility, Bremerton, Wash., on 3 October. Surfbird was decommissioned on 18 December 1970 and attached to the Pacific Reserve Fleet, where she remained into February 1976.

Surfbird received three battle stars for service in World War II, two for Korean service, and eight for service in Vietnam. Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation


Toucan

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Toucan, (family Ramphastidae), the common name given to numerous species of tropical American forest birds known for their large and strikingly coloured bills. The term toucan—derived from tucano, a native Brazilian term for the bird—is used in the common name of about 15 species (Ramphastos and Andigena), and the aracaris and toucanets are very similar smaller birds of the same family that are also considered toucans, bringing the total number of species to about 35.

The largest toucans, up to 60 cm (24 inches) long, are Ramphastos species. An example common in zoos is the red-breasted (also called green-billed) toucan (R. dicolorus) of Amazonia. Another common zoo resident is the keel-billed toucan (R. sulfuratus), which is about 50 cm (20 inches) long. It is mainly black with lemon yellow on the face, throat, and chest, bright red under the tail, and multicoloured markings on the bill.

Toucan bills can be one-third of the bird’s total length. Though the bill appears unwieldy, even heavy, it is composed of extremely lightweight bone covered with keratin—the same material as human fingernails. The common names of several species, such as the chestnut-mandibled toucan, the fiery-billed aracari, and the yellow-ridged toucan, describe their beaks, which are often brightly coloured in pastel shades of green, red, white, and yellow. This coloration is probably used by the birds for species recognition, as many toucans have similar body patterns and coloration—mainly black with a bold breast colour. The bill is also believed to have a frightening effect on other birds, including hawks. The wings of toucans are short and rounded, and the tail is usually long these traits, along with the large bill, make toucans ungainly fliers.

In feeding, the toucan obtains food with the saw-edged bill and must toss back its head before swallowing. Although toucans are often considered to be primarily fruit eaters, most species consume a wide variety of food, including insects, snakes, frogs, and occasionally even small mammals. Toucans are also predators on the contents of songbird nests, consuming both eggs and nestlings. In foraging, toucans form large associations of two or more species that search for fruiting trees.

Toucans are among the noisiest of forest birds their repertoire includes loud barks, bugling calls, and harsh croaks. Larger species perch high in the canopy and utter loud calls that are accompanied by ritualized movements of the head and bill. The vocalizations act as rallying calls that attract groups of birds to good foraging sites. These sounds also seem to function in species recognition, as similar species of toucans that live in the same habitat have unmistakably different calls.

Toucans tend to roost somewhat gregariously in treetop bands. They nest high in tree holes but do not excavate their own cavities. Instead, they find old woodpecker nests or natural holes formed by loss of tree branches. Two to four glossy white eggs are deposited in an unlined cavity, where they are incubated in shifts by both parents. Incubation lasts from 16 days to six weeks or more in some species. The naked hatchlings have large pads on their heels and require at least three weeks before their eyes open. They lack the large bill but grow it nearly to completion during their time in the nest. After about 45 days the nestlings begin life on their own. Family groups may remain together for a long time, as small flocks are often seen throughout the year.

Toucans are nonmigratory, but the mountain toucans ( Andigena) move seasonally up and down the Andes Mountains in search of fruit. Like manakins of the forest understory, toucans contribute to the maintenance of tropical forest diversity because they consume and disperse seeds of many plant species.

About 35 species of toucans belonging to six genera constitute the family Ramphastidae, but recent DNA evidence suggests that the New World barbets should also be included in this family. Toucans and barbets are related to woodpeckers all are piciforms, whose members possess two rearward- and two forward-pointing toes. Although toucans superficially resemble hornbills of the Old World, the two groups are unrelated and belong to different orders.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Alison Eldridge, Digital Content Manager.


Contents

South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically [8] and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone [9] [10] [11] and among the countries of Central America. [12] [13] Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.

South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana the largest river by volume, the Amazon River the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m or 22,841 ft) the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert [14] [15] [16] the wettest place on earth, López de Micay in Colombia the largest rainforest, the Amazon rainforest the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, covering approx. 47.3% of the continent's land area and encompassing around half of the continent's population. [17] The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions: the Andean states, Caribbean South America, The Guianas, and the Southern Cone. [18]

Outlying islands Edit

Physiographically, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. The Dutch ABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao), the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad Island and Tobago Island etc.), the State of Nueva Esparta, and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northern portion of the South American continental shelf and are sometimes considered parts of the continent. Geopolitically, all the island countries and territories in the Caribbean have generally been grouped as a subregion of North America instead. By contrast, Aves Island (administered by Venezuela) and the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (San Andrés Island, Providencia Island, and Santa Catalina Island etc., which are administered by Colombia) are politically parts of South American countries but physiographically parts of North America. [11] [19] [20]

Other islands often associated with South America are the Chiloé Archipelago and Robinson Crusoe Island (both administered by Chile), Easter Island (generally considered a part of Oceania, also administered by Chile), the Galápagos Islands (administered by Ecuador), and Tierra del Fuego (split between Argentina and Chile). In the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil administers Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica) [21] have been administered as two British Overseas Territories under the Crown, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.

Special cases Edit

An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate, Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America. [22] Administered as a dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, the island is geopolitically a part of Africa.

An uninhabited sub-Antarctic volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean, Bouvet Island (administered by Norway) is geographically, geologically, biographically, and hydrologically associated with Antarctica, but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead.

Climate Edit

The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude. [24]

In temperate latitudes, winters and summers are milder than in North America. This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone (the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region. [24] ), therefore giving the Southern Cone more oceanic influence, which moderates year round temperatures.

The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 °C (81 °F), with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory. [24]

The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type. [24]

The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare. [25] In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas Plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions, with Chocó in Colombia being the most rainy place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas. [26] The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the driest regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the Pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime. [24]

Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream. [24] [27]

Fauna Edit

South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on Earth. South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of Earth's species.

Prehistory Edit

South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.

South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.

The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC. [28]

By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society. [28]

South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods. [28]

Pre-Columbian civilizations Edit

The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.

One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters (10,423 ft). Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.

In the central coast of Peru, around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, Moche (100 BC – 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC – 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art. At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC – 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion.

Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600–1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.

The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers.

Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimú Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Western Bolivia and southern Peru). Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.

The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers, waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years.

European colonization Edit

In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries. [29]

The treaty established an imaginary line along a north–south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.

Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.

European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) – to which the native populations had no immune resistance – caused large-scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the depopulation. After this, enslaved Africans, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.

The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices. Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.

Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers.

Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal. Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered. They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples. Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.

Guyana was initially colonized by the Dutch before coming under British control, though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was occupied by the French. The region was initially partitioned between the Dutch, French and British before fully coming under the control of Britain.

Suriname was first explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century. It became a Dutch colony in 1667. [30]

Slavery in South America Edit

The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines along with enslaved Africans who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries via the slave trade. European colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Atlantic slave trade brought enslaved Africans primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since 1502. [31] The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Nearly 40% of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. [32] [33]

In contrast to other European colonies in the Americas which mainly used the labor of African slaves, Spanish colonists mainly enslaved indigenous Americans. In 1750, the Portuguese Crown abolished the enslavement of indigenous peoples in colonial Brazil, under the belief that they were unfit for labor and less effective than enslaved Africans. Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas on slave ships, under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold in slave markets. [34] After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823, Uruguay in 1830, Bolivia in 1831, Colombia and Ecuador in 1851, Argentina in 1853, Peru and Venezuela in 1854, Suriname in 1863, Paraguay in 1869, and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery. [35]

Independence from Spain and Portugal Edit

The European Peninsular War (1807–1814), a theater of the Napoleonic Wars, changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. First, Napoleon invaded Portugal, but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil. Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and appointed his own brother instead. This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king.

Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain. This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists, who supported Spanish authority over the Americas. The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.

The independence of South America was secured by Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) and José de San Martín (Argentina), the two most important Libertadores. Bolívar led a great uprising in the north, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, along with Chilean expatriates, and liberated Chile. He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.

In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, which later became the Empire of Brazil. Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia, Cisplatina and Pará, independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825, on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom.

Nation-building and fragmentation Edit

The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America. Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times (such as Paraguay or Uruguay), while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries (such as the Republic of Entre Ríos and the Riograndense Republic).

The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Ríos, led by a caudillo. [36] In spite of the "Republic" in its title, General Ramírez, its caudillo, never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios. Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics. The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821.

In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil, which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to control the region. Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Later in 1836, while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sul proclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis. With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839. The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845. [37] [38]

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation, a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation (1836–1839) and again during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War.

Wars and conflicts Edit

Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence, the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves. Most of the 1810 borders countries had initially accepted on the uti possidetis iuris principle had by 1848 either been altered by war or were constested. [39]

In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Argentina's predecessor. The result was a stalemate, ending with the British government arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.

Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, with the support of the Argentine Confederation. The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.

Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation. During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic. At the same time the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides. In 1851 the Brazilian Empire, supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas, who ruled the confederation with an iron hand. Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazilian Empire, British Empire, French Empire and the Unitarian Party of Argentina. [40]

Peace lasted only a short time: in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders. The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In 1864, after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan–Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again. This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War. [ citation needed ]

The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war. The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively. This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay. The country lost 40% of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60% of its population, including 90% of the men. The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876. [41]

The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru. The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881. The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884. Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea. [42]

In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in 1902. In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers, joined the allied side in the First World War and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces in the region. Brazil was the only South American country that participated in the First World War. [43] [44] Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru entered a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon. In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory. Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought decisively for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil. [45]

Also in this period the first naval battle of World War II was fought on the continent, in the River Plate, between the British Royal Navy and German submarines. [46] The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942, being the only South American country to fight in this war (and in both World Wars). Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign. [47] [48]

A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982, following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, which ended with an Argentine defeat. The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.

Rise and fall of military dictatorships Edit

Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars. Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the "dreadnought". At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase. [49] [50]

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.

Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. [52] Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, on most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued.

International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century. [53] [ neutrality is disputed] The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur. Notably, starting with the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide [ citation needed ] – the election of several leftist and center-left administrations to most countries of the area, except for the Guianas and Colombia.

Arms Flag Country or territory Capital Area [54] Population
(2018) [1] [2]
Population
density
Argentina Buenos Aires 2,766,890 km 2
(1,068,300 sq mi)
44,361,150 14.3/km 2
(37/sq mi)
Bolivia La Paz,
Sucre [note 9]
1,098,580 km 2
(424,160 sq mi)
11,353,142 8.4/km 2
(22/sq mi)
Bouvet Island
(Norway) [note 10]
49 km 2
(19 sq mi)
0 0/km 2
(0/sq mi)
Brazil Brasília 8,514,877 km 2
(3,287,612 sq mi)
209,469,323 22/km 2
(57/sq mi)
Chile [note 11] Santiago 756,950 km 2
(292,260 sq mi)
18,729,160 22/km 2
(57/sq mi)
Colombia Bogotá 1,141,748 km 2
(440,831 sq mi)
49,661,048 40/km 2
(100/sq mi)
Ecuador Quito 283,560 km 2
(109,480 sq mi)
17,084,358 53.8/km 2
(139/sq mi)
Falkland Islands
(United Kingdom)
Stanley 12,173 km 2
(4,700 sq mi)
3,234 0.26/km 2
(0.67/sq mi)
French Guiana
(France)
Cayenne (Préfecture) 91,000 km 2
(35,000 sq mi)
282,938 2.1/km 2
(5.4/sq mi)
Guyana Georgetown 214,999 km 2
(83,012 sq mi)
779,006 3.5/km 2
(9.1/sq mi)
Paraguay Asunción 406,750 km 2
(157,050 sq mi)
6,956,066 15.6/km 2
(40/sq mi)
Peru Lima 1,285,220 km 2
(496,230 sq mi)
31,989,260 22/km 2
(57/sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom) [note 12]
King Edward Point 3,093 km 2
(1,194 sq mi)
20 0/km 2
(0/sq mi)
Suriname Paramaribo 163,270 km 2
(63,040 sq mi)
575,990 3/km 2
(7.8/sq mi)
Uruguay Montevideo 176,220 km 2
(68,040 sq mi)
3,449,285 19.4/km 2
(50/sq mi)
Venezuela Caracas 916,445 km 2
(353,841 sq mi)
28,887,118 27.8/km 2
(72/sq mi)
Total 17,824,513 km 2
(6,882,083 sq mi)
423,581,078 21.5/km 2
(56/sq mi)

Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. Brazil was the only exception, being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence, until a coup d'état proclaimed a republic. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil, [56] [ full citation needed ] Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. [57]

All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname, a parliamentary republic. French Guiana is a French overseas department, while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories. It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.

Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world. [58] This new political organization, known as Union of South American Nations, seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.

South America has a population of over 428 million people.There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and Amerindians. There is a high percentage of Mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians, [ further explanation needed ] especially in Brazil, Peru, and Argentina. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by English, French and Dutch in smaller numbers.

Language Edit

Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately 200 million speakers each. Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname English is the official language of Guyana, although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese, Chinese, Hindustani and several native languages. [59] English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French Guiana and the second language in Amapá, Brazil.

Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Colombia Wayuunaiki in northern Colombia (La Guajira) and northwestern Venezuela (Zulia) Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.

Other languages found in South America include Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela and German in certain pockets of Argentina and Brazil. German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela and in Paraguay. [60]

Religion Edit

An estimated 90% of South Americans are Christians [61] (82% Roman Catholic, 8% other Christian denominations mainly traditional Protestants and Evangelicals but also Orthodox), accounting for c. 19% of Christians worldwide.

African descendent religions and Indigenous religions are also common throughout all South America, some examples of are Santo Daime, Candomblé, Umbanda and Encantados.

Crypto-Jews or Marranos, conversos, and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America.

Both Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area.

East Asian religions such as Japanese Buddhism, Shintoism, and Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions are common in Brazil and Peru. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.

Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries.

Hindus form 25% of the Guyanese population and 22% of Suriname's. [62] [63]

Muslims account for 6.8% of the Guyanese population and 13.9 of the Surinamese population. [62] [63] Almost all Muslims in Suriname are either Javanese or Indians and in Guyana, most are Indian.

Part of Religions in South America (2013): [64]

Religion in South America
Countries Christians Roman Catholics Other Christians No religion (atheists and agnostics)
Argentina 88% 77% 11% 11%
Bolivia 96% 74% 22% 4%
Brazil 88% 64% 22% 8%
Chile 70% 57% 13% 25%
Colombia 92% 80% 12% 7%
Paraguay 96% 87% 9% 2%
Peru 94% 81% 13% 3%
Suriname 51% 29% 22% 5%
Uruguay 58% 47% 11% 41%
Venezuela 88% 71% 17% 8%

Ethnic demographics Edit

Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America. In Argentina, the European influence accounts for 65–79% of the genetic background, Amerindian for 17–31% and sub-Saharan African for 2–4%. In Colombia, the sub-Saharan African genetic background varied from 1% to 89%, while the European genetic background varied from 20% to 79%, depending on the region. In Peru, European ancestries ranged from 1% to 31%, while the African contribution was only 1% to 3%. [65] The Genographic Project determined the average Peruvian from Lima had about 28% European ancestry, 68% Native American, 2% Asian ancestry and 2% sub-Saharan African. [66]

Descendants of indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, or the Urarina [67] of Amazonia make up the majority of the population in Bolivia (56%) and Peru (44%). [68] [69] In Ecuador, Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies.

People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent, or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina, [70] and Uruguay [71] and more than half of the population of Chile (64.7%) [72] and (48.4%) in Brazil. [73] [74] [75] In Venezuela, according to the national census 42% of the population is primarily native Spanish, Italian and Portuguese descendants. [76] In Colombia, people who identify as European descendant are about 37%. [77] [78] In Peru, European descendants are the third group in number (15%). [79]

Mestizos (mixed European and Amerindian) are the largest ethnic group in Bolivia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia [77] and Ecuador and the second group in Peru and Chile.

South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans. This group is significantly present in Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and Ecuador.

Brazil followed by Peru have the largest Japanese, Korean and Chinese communities in South America, Lima has the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America. [80] Guyana and Suriname have the largest ethnic East Indian community.

Ethnic distribution in South America [81] [82] [83]
Country Amerindians White people Mestizos / Pardos Mulatos Black people Zambos Asian people
Argentina 1% 85% 14% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Bolivia 48% 12% 37% 2% 0% <1% 0%
Brazil <1% 48% 43% 0% 8% 0% 2%
Chile 6% 57% 37% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Colombia 2% 37% 50% 8% 2% 0% <1%
Ecuador 39% 10% 41% 5% 5% 0% 0%
Paraguay 3% 20% 75% 4% 0% 0% 0%
Peru 45% 15% 35% 2% 0% 0% 3%
Suriname 3.8% 1% 13.4%* noted in Suriname as mixed, regardless of race combination *see Pardo 37.4% *see Pardo 48.3%
Uruguay 0% 88% 8% 4% 0% 0% 0%
Venezuela 2.7% 43.6% 51.6% 0.7% 2.8% 0.6% 0.6%
Guyana 10.5% 0.36% 19.9%* noted in Guyana as mixed regardless of race combination *see Pardo 29.2% *see Pardo 39.98%

Indigenous people Edit

In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter-gatherers. There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest. [84]

Populace Edit

The most populous country in South America is Brazil with 209.5 million people. The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 49,661,048. Argentina is the third most populous country with 44,361,150.

While Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. The largest cities in South America, by far, are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Lima, and Bogotá. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and three of five in the Americas. Next in size are Caracas, Belo Horizonte, Medellin and Salvador.

Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 4 million and include the São Paulo metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, and Belo Horizonte metropolitan area. Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil, Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America: the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants.

South America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. In Brazil four megaregions exist including the Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo with more than 32 million inhabitants. The others are the Greater Rio, Greater Belo Horizonte and Greater Porto Alegre. Colombia also has four megaregions which comprise 72% of its population, followed by Venezuela, Argentina and Peru which are also homes of megaregions.

The top ten largest South American metropolitan areas by population as of 2015, based on national census numbers from each country:

Metro Area Population Area Country
São Paulo 21,090,792 7,947 km 2 (3,068 sq mi) Brazil
Buenos Aires 13,693,657 3,830 km 2 (1,480 sq mi) Argentina
Rio de Janeiro 13,131,431 6,744 km 2 (2,604 sq mi) Brazil
Lima 9,904,727 2,819 km 2 (1,088 sq mi) Peru
Bogotá 9,800,225 4,200 km 2 (1,600 sq mi) Colombia
Santiago 6,683,852 15,403 km 2 (5,947 sq mi) Chile
Belo Horizonte 5,829,923 9,467 km 2 (3,655 sq mi) Brazil
Caracas 5,322,310 4,715 km 2 (1,820 sq mi) Venezuela
Porto Alegre 4,258,926 10,232 km 2 (3,951 sq mi) Brazil
Brasilia 4,201,737 56,433 km 2 (21,789 sq mi) Brazil

South America relies less on the export of both manufactured goods and natural resources than the world average merchandise exports from the continent were 16% of GDP on an exchange rate basis, compared to 25% for the world as a whole. [85] Brazil (the seventh largest economy in the world and the largest in South America) leads in terms of merchandise exports at $251 billion, followed by Venezuela at $93 billion, Chile at $86 billion, and Argentina at $84 billion. [85]

Since 1930, the continent has experienced remarkable growth and diversification in most economic sectors. Most agricultural and livestock products are destined for the domestic market and local consumption. However, the export of agricultural products is essential for the balance of trade in most countries. [86]

The main agrarian crops are export crops, such as soy and wheat. The production of staple foods such as vegetables, corn or beans is large, but focused on domestic consumption. Livestock raising for meat exports is important in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Colombia. In tropical regions the most important crops are coffee, cocoa and bananas, mainly in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Traditionally, the countries producing sugar for export are Peru, Guyana and Suriname, and in Brazil, sugar cane is also used to make ethanol. On the coast of Peru, northeast and south of Brazil, cotton is grown. 50.5% of the South America's land surface is covered by forest, [87] but timber industries are small and directed to domestic markets. In recent years, however, transnational companies have been settling in the Amazon to exploit noble timber destined for export. The Pacific coastal waters of South America are the most important for commercial fishing. The anchovy catch reaches thousands of tonnes, and tuna is also abundant (Peru is a major exporter). The capture of crustaceans is remarkable, particularly in northeastern Brazil and Chile. [86]

Only Brazil and Argentina are part of the G20 (industrial countries), while only Brazil is part of the G8+5 (the most powerful and influential nations in the world). In the tourism sector, a series of negotiations began in 2005 to promote tourism and increase air connections within the region. Punta del Este, Florianópolis and Mar del Plata are among the most important resorts in South America. [86]

The most industrialized countries in South America are Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay respectively. These countries alone account for more than 75 percent of the region's economy and add up to a GDP of more than US$3.0 trillion. Industries in South America began to take on the economies of the region from the 1930s when the Great Depression in the United States and other countries of the world boosted industrial production in the continent. From that period the region left the agricultural side behind and began to achieve high rates of economic growth that remained until the early 1990s when they slowed due to political instabilities, economic crises and neoliberal policies. [86]

Since the end of the economic crisis in Brazil and Argentina that occurred in the period from 1998 to 2002, which has led to economic recession, rising unemployment and falling population income, the industrial and service sectors have been recovering rapidly. Chile, Argentina and Brazil have recovered fastest, growing at an average of 5% per year. All of South America after this period has been recovering and showing good signs of economic stability, with controlled inflation and exchange rates, continuous growth, a decrease in social inequality and unemployment–factors that favor industry. [86]

The main industries are: electronics, textiles, food, automotive, metallurgy, aviation, naval, clothing, beverage, steel, tobacco, timber, chemical, among others. Exports reach almost US$400 billion annually, with Brazil accounting for half of this. [86]

The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is larger than on most other continents. The richest 10% receive over 40% of the nation's income in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Paraguay, [88] while the poorest 20% receive 4% or less in Bolivia, Brazil, and Colombia. [89] This wide gap can be seen in many large South American cities where makeshift shacks and slums lie in the vicinity of skyscrapers and upper-class luxury apartments nearly one in nine South Americans live on less than $2 per day (on a purchasing power parity basis). [90]

Country GDP (nominal)
in 2017 (in millions of dollars) [91]
GDP (PPP)
in 2017 (in millions of dollars) [91]
GDP (PPP)
per capita
in 2017 [91]
Merchandise
exports
($bn), 2011 [85]
HDI
in 2017
(rank) [92]
Percent with
less than
$2 (PPP)
per person
per day [ citation needed ]
Argentina 628,935 912,816 20,707 83.7 0.825 2.6
Bolivia 39,267 83,608 7,552 9.1 0.693 24.9
Brazil 2,140,940 3,216,031 15,485 250.8 0.759 10.8
Chile 251,220 455,941 24,796 86.1 0.845 2.7
Colombia 306,439 720,151 14,609 56.5 0.747 15.8
Ecuador 97,362 184,629 11,004 22.3 0.752 10.6
Falkland Islands [93] (UK) 206.4 206.4 70,800 0.26
French Guiana [94] (France) 4,456 4,456 19,728 1.3
Guyana 3,591 6,398 8,306 0.9 0.654 18.0
Paraguay 28,743 68,005 9,779 9.8 0.702 13.2
Peru 207,072 429,711 13,501 46.3 0.750 12.7
Suriname 3,641 7,961 13,934 1.6 0.720 27.2
Uruguay 58,123 77,800 22,271 8.0 0.804 2.2
Venezuela 251,589 404,109 12,856 92.6 0.761 12.9
Total 3,836,569 6,642,623 17,852 669.1 0.772 11.3

Economically largest cities as of 2014 Edit

Rank City Country GDP in Int$ bn [95] Population (mil) [95] GDP per capita
1 São Paulo Brazil $430 20,847,500 $20,650
2 Buenos Aires Argentina $315 13,381,800 $23,606
3 Lima Peru $176 10,674,100 $16,530
4 Rio de Janeiro Brazil $176 12,460,200 $14,176
5 Santiago Chile $171 7,164,400 $32,929
6 Bogotá Colombia $160 9,135,800 $17,497
7 Brasília Brazil $141 3,976,500 $35,689
8 Belo Horizonte Brazil $84 5,595,800 $15,134
9 Porto Alegre Brazil $62 4,120,900 $15,078
10 Campinas Brazil $59 2,854,200 $20,759

The four countries with the strongest agriculture are Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Colombia. Currently:

  • Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane, soy, coffee, orange, guarana, açaí and Brazil nut is one of the 5 largest producers of maize, papaya, tobacco, pineapple, banana, cotton, beans, coconut, watermelon and lemon and is one of the 10 largest producers in the world of cocoa, cashew, avocado, persimmon, mango, guava, rice, sorghum and tomato
  • Argentina is one of the 5 largest producers in the world of soy, maize, sunflower seed, lemon and pear, one of the 10 largest producers in the world of barley, grape, artichoke, tobacco and cotton, and one of the 15 largest producers in the world of wheat, sugarcane, sorghum and grapefruit
  • Chile is one of the 5 largest world producers of cherry and cranberry, and one of the 10 largest world producers of grape, apple, kiwi, peach, plum and hazelnut, focusing on exporting high-value fruits
  • Colombia is one of the 5 largest producers in the world of coffee, avocado and palm oil, and one of the 10 largest producers in the world of sugarcane, banana, pineapple and cocoa is one of the 5 largest producers of avocado, blueberry, artichoke and asparagus, one of the 10 largest producers in the world of coffee and cocoa, one of the 15 largest producers in the world of potato and pineapple, and also has a considerable production of grape, sugarcane, rice, banana, maize and cassava its agriculture is considerably diversified 's agriculture is currently developing, being currently the 6th largest producer of soy in the world and entering the list of the 20 largest producers of maize and sugarcane. [96]

Brazil is the world's largest exporter of chicken meat: 3.77 million tonnes in 2019. [97] [98] The country is the holder of the second largest herd of cattle in the world, 22.2% of the world herd. The country was the second largest producer of beef in 2019, responsible for 15.4% of global production. [99] It was also the 3rd largest world producer of milk in 2018. This year, the country produced 35.1 billion liters. [100] In 2019, Brazil was the 4th largest pork producer in the world, with almost 4 million tonnes. [101]

In 2018, Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world, with a production of 3 million tonnes (behind only USA, Brazil and China). Uruguay is also a major meat producer. In 2018, it produced 589 thousand tonnes of beef. [102]

In chicken meat production, Argentina ranks among the 15 largest producers in the world, and Peru and Colombia among the 20 biggest producers. In beef production, Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers in the world. In honey production, Argentina ranks among the 5 largest producers in the world, and Brazil among the 15 largest. In terms of production of cow's milk, Argentina ranks among the 20 largest producers in the world. [103]

The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value. According to the 2019 list, Brazil has the thirteenth most valuable industry in the world (US$173.6 billion), Venezuela the thirtieth largest (US$58.2 billion, however, it depends on oil to obtain this value), Argentina the 31st largest (US$57.7 billion), Colombia the 46th largest (US$35.4 billion), Peru the 50th largest (US$28.7 billion) and Chile the 51st largest (US$28.3 billion). [104]

Brazil has the third-largest manufacturing sector in the Americas. Accounting for 28.5 percent of GDP, Brazil's industries range from automobiles, steel, and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft (Embraer), food, pharmaceutical, footwear, metallurgy and consumer durables. In the food industry, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. [105] [106] [107] In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper. [108] [109] [110] In the footwear industry, in 2019, Brazil ranked 4th among world producers. [111] [112] [113] [114] In 2019, the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world. [115] [116] [117] In 2018, the chemical industry of Brazil was the 8th in the world. [118] [119] [120] In textile industry, Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade. [121]

Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production. In 2018, Peru was the 2nd largest producer of silver and copper in the world, and the 6th largest producer of gold (the 3 metals that generate the highest value), in addition to being the 3rd largest producer in the world of zinc and tin and 4th in lead. Brazil is the second largest global iron ore exporter, has 98% of the known niobium reserves in the world, and it's one of the 5 biggest world's productors of bauxite, manganese and tin. Bolivia is the 5th largest producer of tin, the 7th largest producer of silver, and the 8th largest producer of zinc in the world [122] [123]

In the production of oil, Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019, with 2.8 million barrels / day. Venezuela was the 21st largest, with 877 thousand barrels / day, Colombia in 22nd with 886 thousand barrels / day, Ecuador in 28th with 531 thousand barrels / day and Argentina 29th with 507 thousand barrels / day. As Venezuela and Ecuador consume little oil and export most of their production, they are part of OPEC. Venezuela had a big drop in production after 2015 (where it produced 2.5 million barrels / day), falling in 2016 to 2.2 million, in 2017 to 2 million, in 2018 to 1.4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand, due to lack of investments. [124]

In the production of natural gas, in 2018, Argentina produced 1524 bcf (billion cubic feet), Venezuela 946, Brazil 877, Bolivia 617, Peru 451, Colombia 379. [125]

In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, Brazil exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. In January 2021, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted. [126]

Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.

Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers

Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.

Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing

Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest

Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world

Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.

Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world

General Motors plant in Rosario. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.

Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper

Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers

Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.

Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.

Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.

Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.

Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.

Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.

Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.

Tourism Edit

Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries. [127] [128]

South Americans are culturally influenced by their indigenous peoples, the historic connection with the Iberian Peninsula and Africa, and waves of immigrants from around the globe.

South American nations have a rich variety of music. Some of the most famous genres include vallenato and cumbia from Colombia, pasillo from Colombia and Ecuador, samba, bossa nova and música sertaneja from Brazil, and tango from Argentina and Uruguay. Also well known is the non-commercial folk genre Nueva Canción movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America.

People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo (mixed) of South American rhythms such as the Marinera (from Lima), the Tondero (from Piura), the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi, and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania. In the late 20th century, Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock. Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres. In the central and western regions of Bolivia, Andean and folklore music like Diablada, Caporales and Morenada are the most representative of the country, which were originated by European, Aymara and Quechua influences.

The literature of South America has attracted considerable critical and popular acclaim, especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, Gabriel García Márquez in novels and Jorge Luis Borges and Pablo Neruda in other genres. The Brazilians Machado de Assis and João Guimarães Rosa are widely regarded as the greatest Brazilian writers.

Food and drink Edit

Because of South America's broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine has African, Mestizo, South Asian, East Asian, and European influences. Bahia, Brazil, is especially well known for its West African–influenced cuisine. Argentines, Chileans, Uruguayans, Brazilians, Bolivians, and Venezuelans regularly consume wine. People in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Chile, Bolivia and Southern Brazil drink mate, an herb which is brewed. The Paraguayan version, terere, differs from other forms of mate in that it is served cold. Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapes in Peru and Chile. Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, African, Arab, Andean, and Amazonic food.

Plastic arts Edit

The artist Oswaldo Guayasamín (1919–1999) from Ecuador, represented with his painting style the feeling of the peoples of Latin America [131] highlighting social injustices in various parts of the world. The Colombian Fernando Botero (1932) is one of the greatest exponents of painting and sculpture that continues still active and has been able to develop a recognizable style of his own. [132] For his part, the Venezuelan Carlos Cruz-Diez has contributed significantly to contemporary art, [133] with the presence of works around the world.

Currently several emerging South American artists are recognized by international art critics: Guillermo Lorca – Chilean painter, [134] [135] Teddy Cobeña – Ecuadorian sculptor and recipient of international sculpture award in France) [136] [137] [138] and Argentine artist Adrián Villar Rojas [139] [140] – winner of the Zurich Museum Art Award among many others.

Sport Edit

A wide range of sports are played in the continent of South America, with football being the most popular overall, while baseball is the most popular in Venezuela.

South America hosted its first Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2016, and has hosted the Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2018.

South America shares with Europe supremacy over the sport of football as all winners in FIFA World Cup history and all winning teams in the FIFA Club World Cup have come from these two continents. Brazil holds the record at the FIFA World Cup with five titles in total of all countries. [141] Argentina and Uruguay have two titles each. So far five South American nations have hosted the tournament including the first edition in Uruguay (1930). Two were from Brazil (1950, 2014), Chile (1962), and Argentina (1978).

South America is home to the longest running international football tournament the Copa América, which has been regularly contested since 1916. Uruguay won the Copa América a record 15 times, surpassing hosts like Argentina in 2011 to reach 15 titles (they were previously equal at 14 titles each during the 2011 Copa América).

Also, in South America, a multi-sport event, the South American Games, are held every four years. The first edition was held in La Paz in 1978 and the most recent took place in Santiago in 2014.

South American Cricket Championship is an international one-day cricket tournament played since 1995 featuring national teams from South America and certain other invited sides including teams from North America, currently played annually but until 2013 was usually played every two seasons.

Energy Edit

Due to the diversity of topography and pluviometric precipitation conditions, the region's water resources vary enormously in different areas. In the Andes, navigation possibilities are limited, except for the Magdalena River, Lake Titicaca and the lakes of the southern regions of Chile and Argentina. Irrigation is an important factor for agriculture from northwestern Peru to Patagonia. Less than 10% of the known electrical potential of the Andes had been used until the mid-1960s.

The Brazilian Highlands has a much higher hydroelectric potential than the Andean region and its possibilities of exploitation are greater due to the existence of several large rivers with high margins and the occurrence of great differences forming huge cataracts, such as those of Paulo Afonso, Iguaçu and others. The Amazon River system has about 13,000 km of waterways, but its possibilities for hydroelectric use are still unknown.

Most of the continent's energy is generated through hydroelectric power plants, but there is also an important share of thermoelectric and wind energy. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries that generate nuclear power, each with two nuclear power plants. In 1991 these countries signed a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement.

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became self-sufficient in oil in 2006–2007. Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019, with 2.8 million barrels / day. Production manages to supply the country's demand. [124] In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, the country exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. In January this year, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted. [126]

Brazil is one of the main world producers of hydroelectric power. In 2019, Brazil had 217 hydroelectric plants in operation, with an installed capacity of 98,581 MW, 60.16% of the country's energy generation. [142] In the total generation of electricity, in 2019 Brazil reached 170,000 megawatts of installed capacity, more than 75% from renewable sources (the majority, hydroelectric). [143] [144]

In 2013, the Southeast Region used about 50% of the load of the National Integrated System (SIN), being the main energy consuming region in the country. The region's installed electricity generation capacity totaled almost 42,500 MW, which represented about a third of Brazil's generation capacity. The hydroelectric generation represented 58% of the region's installed capacity, with the remaining 42% corresponding basically to the thermoelectric generation. São Paulo accounted for 40% of this capacity Minas Gerais by about 25% Rio de Janeiro by 13.3% and Espírito Santo accounted for the rest. The South Region owns the Itaipu Dam, which was the largest hydroelectric plant in the world for several years, until the inauguration of Three Gorges Dam in China. It remains the second largest operating hydroelectric in the world. Brazil is the co-owner of the Itaipu Plant with Paraguay: the dam is located on the Paraná River, located on the border between countries. It has an installed generation capacity of 14 GW for 20 generating units of 700 MW each. North Region has large hydroelectric plants, such as Belo Monte Dam and Tucuruí Dam, which produce much of the national energy. Brazil's hydroelectric potential has not yet been fully exploited, so the country still has the capacity to build several renewable energy plants in its territory. [145] [146]

As of February 2021, [ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of wind power was 19.1 GW, with average capacity factor of 58%. [147] While the world average wind production capacity factors is 24.7%, there are areas in Northern Brazil, specially in Bahia State, where some wind farms record with average capacity factors over 60% [148] [149] the average capacity factor in the Northeast Region is 45% in the coast and 49% in the interior. [150] In 2019, wind energy represented 9% of the energy generated in the country. [151] In 2019, it was estimated that the country had an estimated wind power generation potential of around 522 GW (this, only onshore), enough energy to meet three times the country's current demand. [152] [153] In 2020 Brazil was the 8th country in the world in terms of installed wind power (17.2 GW). [154]

Nuclear energy accounts for about 4% of Brazil's electricity. [155] The nuclear power generation monopoly is owned by Eletronuclear (Eletrobrás Eletronuclear S/A), a wholly owned subsidiary of Eletrobrás. Nuclear energy is produced by two reactors at Angra. It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) on the Praia de Itaorna in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. It consists of two pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with capacity of 657 MW, connected to the power grid in 1982, and Angra II, with capacity of 1,350 MW, connected in 2000. A third reactor, Angra III, with a projected output of 1,350 MW, is planned to be finished. [156]

As of February 2021, [ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of photovoltaic solar was 8.5 GW, with average capacity factor of 23%. [157] Some of the most irradiated Brazilian States are MG ("Minas Gerais"), BA ("Bahia") and GO (Goiás), which have indeed world irradiation level records. [158] [149] [159] In 2019, solar power represented 1.27% of the energy generated in the country. [151] In 2020, Brazil was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed solar power (7.8 GW). [160]

Transport Edit

Transport in South America is basically carried out using the road mode, the most developed in the region. There is also a considerable infrastructure of ports and airports. The railway and fluvial sector, although it has potential, is usually treated in a secondary way.

Brazil has more than 1.7 million km of roads, of which 215,000 km are paved, and about 14,000 km are divided highways. The two most important highways in the country are BR-101 and BR-116. [161] Argentina has more than 600,000 km of roads, of which about 70,000 km are paved, and about 2,500 km are divided highways. The three most important highways in the country are Route 9, Route 7 and Route 14. [161] Colombia has about 210,000 km of roads, and about 2,300 km are divided highways. [162] Chile has about 82,000 km of roads, 20,000 km of which are paved, and about 2,000 km are divided highways. The most important highway in the country is the Route 5 (Pan-American Highway) [163] These 4 countries are the ones with the best road infrastructure and with the largest number of double-lane highways.

Due to the Andes Mountains, Amazon River and Amazon Forest, there have always been difficulties in implementing transcontinental or bioceanic highways. Practically the only route that existed was the one that connected Brazil to Buenos Aires, in Argentina and later to Santiago, in Chile. However, in recent years, with the combined effort of countries, new routes have started to emerge, such as Brazil-Peru (Interoceanic Highway), and a new highway between Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina and northern Chile (Bioceanic Corridor).

There are more than 2,000 airports in Brazil. The country has the second largest number of airports in the world, behind only the United States. São Paulo International Airport, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, is the largest and busiest in the country - the airport connects São Paulo to practically all major cities around the world. Brazil has 44 international airports, such as those in Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Florianópolis, Cuiabá, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza, Belém and Manaus, among others. Argentina has important international airports such as Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Bariloche, Mendoza, Salta, Puerto Iguazú, Neuquén and Usuhaia, among others. Chile has important international airports such as Santiago, Antofagasta, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas and Iquique, among others. Colombia has important international airports such as Bogotá, Medellín, Cartagena, Cali and Barranquilla, among others. Other important airports are those in the capitals of Uruguay (Montevideo), Paraguay (Asunción), Peru (Lima), Bolivia (La Paz) and Ecuador (Quito). The 10 busiest airports in South America in 2017 were: São Paulo-Guarulhos (Brazil), Bogotá (Colombia), São Paulo-Congonhas (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Lima (Peru), Brasília (Brazil), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires-Aeroparque (Argentina), Buenos Aires-Ezeiza (Argentina), and Minas Gerais (Brazil). [164]

About ports, Brazil has some of the busiest ports in South America, such as Port of Santos, Port of Rio de Janeiro, Port of Paranaguá, Port of Itajaí, Port of Rio Grande, Port of São Francisco do Sul and Suape Port. Argentina has ports such as Port of Buenos Aires and Port of Rosario. Chile has important ports in Valparaíso, Caldera, Mejillones, Antofagasta, Iquique, Arica and Puerto Montt. Colombia has important ports such as Buenaventura, Cartagena Container Terminal and Puerto Bolivar. Peru has important ports in Callao, Ilo and Matarani. The 15 busiest ports in South America are: Port of Santos (Brazil), Port of Bahia de Cartagena (Colombia), Callao (Peru), Guayaquil (Ecuador), Buenos Aires (Argentina), San Antonio (Chile), Buenaventura (Colombia), Itajaí (Brazil), Valparaíso (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay), Paranaguá (Brazil), Rio Grande (Brazil), São Francisco do Sul (Brazil), Manaus (Brazil) and Coronel (Chile). [165]

The Brazilian railway network has an extension of about 30,000 kilometers. It's basically used for transporting ores. [166] The Argentine rail network, with 47,000 km of tracks, was one of the largest in the world and continues to be the most extensive in Latin America. It came to have about 100,000 km of rails, but the lifting of tracks and the emphasis placed on motor transport gradually reduced it. It has four different trails and international connections with Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay. Chile has almost 7,000 km of railways, with connections to Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Colombia has only about 3,500 km of railways. [167]

Among the main Brazilian waterways, two stand out: Hidrovia Tietê-Paraná (which has a length of 2,400 km, 1,600 on the Paraná River and 800 km on the Tietê River, draining agricultural production from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and part of Rondônia, Tocantins and Minas Gerais) and Hidrovia do Solimões-Amazonas (it has two sections: Solimões, which extends from Tabatinga to Manaus, with approximately 1600 km, and Amazonas, which extends from Manaus to Belém, with 1650 km. Almost entirely passenger transport from the Amazon plain is done by this waterway, in addition to practically all cargo transportation that is directed to the major regional centers of Belém and Manaus). In Brazil, this transport is still underutilized: the most important waterway stretches, from an economic point of view, are found in the Southeast and South of the country. Its full use still depends on the construction of locks, major dredging works and, mainly, of ports that allow intermodal integration. In Argentina, the waterway network is made up of the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers. The main river ports are Zárate and Campana. The port of Buenos Aires is historically the first in individual importance, but the area known as Up-River, which stretches along 67 km of the Santa Fé portion of the Paraná River, brings together 17 ports that concentrate 50% of the total exports of the country.

Only two railroads are continental: the Transandina, which connects Buenos Aires, in Argentina to Valparaíso, in Chile, and the Brazil–Bolivia Railroad, which makes it the connection between the port of Santos in Brazil and the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in Bolivia. In addition, there is the Pan-American Highway, which crosses Argentina and the Andean countries from north to south, although some stretches are unfinished. [168]

Two areas of greater density occur in the railway sector: the platinum network, which develops around the Platine region, largely belonging to Argentina, with more than 45,000 km in length And the Southeast Brazil network, which mainly serves the state of São Paulo, state of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Brazil and Argentina also stand out in the road sector. In addition to the modern roads that extend through northern Argentina and south-east and south of Brazil, a vast road complex aims to link Brasília, the federal capital, to the South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions of Brazil.

South America has one of the largest bays of navigable inland waterways in the world, represented mainly by the Amazon basin, the Platine basin, the São Francisco and the Orinoco basins, Brazil having about 54,000 km navigable, while Argentina has 6,500 km and Venezuela, 1,200 km.

The two main merchant fleets also belong to Brazil and Argentina. The following are those of Chile, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia. The largest ports in commercial movement are those of Buenos Aires, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Bahía Blanca, Rosario, Valparaíso, Recife, Salvador, Montevideo, Paranaguá, Rio Grande, Fortaleza, Belém and Maracaibo.

In South America, commercial aviation has a magnificent expansion field, which has one of the largest traffic density lines in the world, Rio de Janeiro–São Paulo, and large airports, such as Congonhas, São Paulo–Guarulhos International and Viracopos (São Paulo), Rio de Janeiro International and Santos Dumont (Rio de Janeiro), El Dorado (Bogotá), Ezeiza (Buenos Aires), Tancredo Neves International Airport (Belo Horizonte), Curitiba International Airport (Curitiba), Brasilia, Caracas, Montevideo, Lima, Viru Viru International Airport (Santa Cruz de la Sierra), Recife, Salvador, Salgado Filho International Airport (Porto Alegre), Fortaleza, Manaus and Belém.

The main public transport in major cities is the bus. Many cities also have a diverse system of metro and subway trains, the first of which was the Buenos Aires subte, opened 1913. [169] The Santiago subway [170] is the largest network in South America, with 103 km, while the São Paulo subway is the largest in transportation, with more than 4.6 million passengers per day [171] and was voted the best in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro installed the first railroad of the continent in 1854. Today the city has a vast and diversified system of metropolitan trains, integrated with buses and subway. Recently it was also inaugurated in the city a Light Rail System called VLT, a small electrical trams at low speed, while São Paulo inaugurated its monorail, the first of South America. [ citation needed ] In Brazil, an express bus system called Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), which operates in several cities, has also been developed. Mi Teleférico, also known as Teleférico La Paz–El Alto (La Paz–El Alto Cable Car), is an aerial cable car urban transit system serving the La Paz–El Alto metropolitan area in Bolivia.


With more than 40 species, the toucan comes in a variety of sizes. These range from as small as 7 inches to more than 2 feet. The average full-grown toucan weighs just less than a pound about 14 ounces.

A toucan’s body is short and compact, similar to that of a crow’s, and is mostly covered with black feathers, with the throat area having white or yellow feathers.


Toucan bill and diet

Both male and female toucans possess large, colorful bills. Their exact purpose isn't clear, though they're believed to play a role in the courthship ritual and in self-defense. As a weapon, however, the bill is more show than substance. It's a lightweight honeycomb of keratin—the same protein that makes up fingernails and horn—supported by thin rods of bone. While its size may deter predators, it is of little use in fighting them. The toco toucan can also regulate the flow of blood to its bill, allowing the bird to use it as a way to distribute heat away from its body.

The bill is useful as a feeding tool. The birds use them to reach fruit on branches that are too small to support their weight. And the bill's serrated edges are useful for peeling fruit. In addition to fruit such as figs, oranges, and guavas, toco toucans eat insects and eggs and nestlings of young birds.


Toucan AM-387 - History

Surfbird - A shore bird of the Pacific coasts of America, allied to the Turnstones.

(AM-383): dp. 890 l. 221'2" b. 32'2" dr. 10'9" s. 18 k. cpl. 117 a. 1 3, 2 40mm. cl. Auk

Surfbird (AM-383) was laid down on 15 February 1944 by the American Shipbuilding Co., Lorain, Ohio launched on 31 August 1944 sponsored by Mrs. F. W. Chambers and commissioned on 25 November 1944, Lt. R. H. Nelson, Jr., USNR, in command.

Surfbird departed Lorain on 26 November en route to Boston, via Montreal, Quebec, and Halifax. She arrived at Boston on 15 December 1944 and held minesweeping trials. On 13 February 1945, the ship arrived at Little Creek, Va., to begin her shakedown training. After a brief period in the Charleston Naval Shipyard for alterations, she sailed for the west coast. The Panama Canal was transited on April, and Surfbird arrived at San Diego on 6 May. Two days later, she and Toucan (AM-387) sailed for Hawaii.

Surfbird arrived at Pearl Harbor and on 26 May departed there for Okinawa Retto, via Eniwatok, Guam, and Ulithi. She arrived at Kerama Retto on 25 June and began daily sweeps of the "Skagway" area of the East China Sea. The minesweeper departed Okinawa on 5 September for North Saddle Island, at the entrance of the Yangtze River. She swept Bonham Strait and its approaches until 4 October and then swept the entrance to Chefoo Harbor, Shantung. Next was a two-day sweep of the approaches to Jinsen, Korea, after which she got underway for Shanghai. The Yangtze River was entered on 16 October and, by the end of the month, she had swept 32 mines.

Surfbird sailed from Shanghai on 17 November for Sasebo, Japan, to be repaired. From 14 through 31 December 1945, she swept mines in Tachibana Wan, Kyushu. She moved to Kure from Sasebo and remained there from 20 to 26 February 1946 when she sailed for the United States, via the Marianas, Marshalls, Johnston Island, and Pearl Harbor. The minesweeper arrived at San Diego on 14 April, and was decommissioned on 5 June 1946.

Surfbird was recommissioned at San Diego on 14 March 1952 and operated from there until December. On 1 December, she stood out to sea en route to the Far East. The minesweeper touched at Yokosuka, Japan, on 28 December 1952 and departed on 1 January 1953 with units of Mine Division (MinDiv) 76 to begin sweep and blockage operations between Wonsan and Hungnam, Korea. These patrols were only broken by brief intervals of replenishment and upkeep at Sasebo. On 25 May, Surfbird arrived at Inchon to make magnetic-acoustic sweeps of Yong Do and Cho Do. She returned to Sasebo on 6 June and sailed for the United States three days later.

Surfbird arrived at Long Beach on 3 July. Following an overhaul at Mare Island from 17 August to 28 October, she resumed local operations out of Long Beach. The ship departed the Far East again on 28 April 1954 and returned on 24 November 1954. In February 1955, her designation was changed from AM-383 to MSF-383. She trained along the California coast for the next year and on 1 March 1956 sailed for another tour with the 7th Fleet. When Surfbird was due to rotation on 9 August, she and Waxwing (MSO-389) began a 13,000-mile cruise home through the South Pacific. They called at manila, P.I. Bali, Republic of Indonesia Darwin, Austrailia Port Moresby, New Guinea and Pago Pago, Samoa. They then called at Pearl Harbor before returning to long Beach on 9 October 1956.

On 22 January 1957, Surfbird sailed for Yokosuka, her new home port, to begin a new career. She arrived in Japan on 12 February and began receiving degaussing equipment from Ampere (ADG-11). On 15 June, she was redesignated from MSF-383 to a degaussing ship, ADG-383. Until April 1965, Surfbird operated from Sasebo but her operations covered much of the western pacific as she also degaussed ships for the allied sea services of Japan, Korea, the Republic of China, the Philippines, and the Republic of South Vietnam.

Surfbird stood out of Subic Bay on 11 April 1965 enroute to Vietnam. Upon her arrival there, she was assigned patrol duty on Operation "Market Time" until returning to Sasebo on 7 May. Surfbird again performed "Market Time" patrols and special ranging service off the coast of South Vietnam from 2 to 22 August 1966 and from 17 September to 7 October 1966. She returned to Vietnam for operations during the following periods: 8 to 15 September and 10 to 14 November 1967 17 June to 20 July 1968 8 to 28 March, 16 August to 10 September, and 2 to 26 October 1969 4 January to 7 February and 21 July to 3 August 1970.

On 5 August 1970, Surfbird was notified that she was to be inactivated. She departed Japan on 7 September and, after making port calls at Guam and Hawaii, arrived at the Inactivation Facility, Bremerton, Wash., on 3 October. Surfbird was decommissioned on 18 December 1970 and attached to the Pacific Reserve Fleet, where she remained into February 1975. [Transcriber's Note: Surfbird was stricken 1976 and transferred to MarCom for disposal. Eventually she was sold for commercial use as Helenka B]

Surfbird received three battle stars for service in World War II, two for Korea service, and eight for service in Vietnam.


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In the late 1970s the M809 series 5-ton (4,536 kg) 6x6 trucks, based on a 1949 design, were becoming old and mechanically dated. It was still a useful type, with 35,000 in service. A "Product Improvement Package" was developed to rebuild and update the M809 series into the M939 series. A new cab and hood are spotting features, but there were also other improvements.

In 1982 AM General, who built all M809s, began rebuilding M809s into the M939 and M939A1 series at their South Bend, Indiana plant. They would rebuild 24,100. A follow-up model, the all-new M939A2 series, was produced by Bowen-McLaughlin-York/BMY in Marysville, Ohio. They would build 20,490. In 1991 the M939 series was replaced by the all-new design M1083-M1091 Medium Tactical Vehicles. [3] [4]

All models of the M939 share a common basic chassis, cab, hood, and fenders. The basic truck is a 6×6 (three axles, six wheels, all of which are powered) heavy truck. Early M939s were rebuilds of M809 vehicle chassis with a new automatic transmission, transfer cases, cab, and hood. Suffix –A2 are new production with later model Cummins engine. The vehicles have a wide variety of configurations and weights. [3] [5] [6]

Note that the motor and tire specifications, along with other improvements, apply to the A2 versions (and A1 versions) of each base model listed below. There is an M928, an M928A1, and M928A2.

Engines Edit

The M939 and M939A1 models use a Cummins NHC 250, a 855 cubic inches (14.0 L) naturally aspirated inline 6 cylinder diesel engine developing 240 horsepower (180 kW) at 2100 rpm and 685 pound force-feet (929 N⋅m) of torque at 1,500 rpm. [7] This was the standard engine of the M809 series. The M939A2 models use a newer and smaller Cummins 6CTA8.3 504 cubic inches (8.3 L) turbocharged inline 6 cylinder diesel engine developing 240 horsepower (180 kW) at 2100 rpm and 745 pound force-feet (1,010 N⋅m) torque at 1,500 rpm. [3] [8] [9]

Driveline Edit

By 1980 fewer soldiers knew how to shift manual transmissions and heavy-duty automatic transmissions had matured so the M809's manual was replaced with an Allison MT654CR 5-speed automatic. This is easier to drive, shifts better, and has less shock to the chassis than a manual transmission.

The M809 had an unusual 2-speed transfer case that engaged the front axle automatically, a more modern and conventional model was used. It could shift between low and high ranges while moving. In the low range the front axle is automatically engaged, in the high range the driver controls it. [10]

The M809 series used Rockwell-Standard double-reduction axles with a 6.44:1 ratio. New production M939A2 use a similar Meritor model, also with a 6.44:1 ratio. Steering boxes and some other components have also changed. Entire components are interchangeable but the component parts are different.

Chassis Edit

A ladder frame with three beam axles, the front on leaf springs, the rear tandem on leaf springs with locating arms, was used.

The M939 series uses 11:00 R20 tires with two tires per side per axle in the rear (rear tandem duals). This allows a heavy load to be carried on improved roads and most US trucks in the past have used them. Single, larger tires in a line (having the same track) work better and get stuck less often on soft ground. The M939A1 and M939A2 series use oversized 14:00 R20 tires and rear tandem "Super Singles". M939A2 series vehicles use a central tire inflation system (CTIS). [11]

There are three wheelbases (measurements are from the centerline of the front axle to the centerline of the rear tandem). The short, used for tractors and dump trucks, is 13 feet 11 inches (4.24 m), the long ("standard"), used for cargo trucks and wreckers, is 14 feet 11 inches (4.55 m), and the extra-long, used for long cargo trucks and expansible vans, is 17 feet 11 inches (5.46 m). [12]

The M809 series had an unusual air-over-hydraulic braking system, The M939 series have a commercial type air-brake system modified for military service.


Toucan AM-387 - History

rechercher Tachen en :

. Ilhas Yijiangshan , forçando Taiwan a abandonar as ilhas Tachen . Os Estados Unidos e a Marinha de Taiwan uniram . e civil da República Popular da China das ilhas Tachen para Taiwan . Embora as Ilhas Tachen mudassem de mãos durante a crise , os noticiários americanos .

. Yijiangshan , forçant la ROC à abandonner les îles Tachen . Les Marines américaine et taïwanaise ont joint leurs forces . taïwanaise ont joint leurs forces pour évacuer des Îles Tachen le personnel militaire et les civils taïwanais . Bien que . et les civils taïwanais . Bien que les Îles Tachen ont changé de main pendant la crise , les rapports .

. Yijiangshan Islands , forcing the ROC to abandon the Tachen Islands . The United States and the ROC Navies joined . to evacuate ROC military personnel and civilians from the Tachen Islands to Taiwan . Though the Tachen Islands changed hands during the crisis , American news reports .

. • Mapas de localización • Islas Dachen ( o Tachen ) Geolocalización en China Las islas Dachen o islas . Geolocalización en China Las islas Dachen o islas Tachen ( chino tradicional : 大 陳 群 島 , chino .

. Keelung , Formosa , and thence moved to the Tachen Islands . On 7 February , the minesweeper took part . part in the evacuation of Chinese Nationalists from the Tachen group and disembarked the evacuees at Sasebo a week later .

. Keelung , Formosa , and thence moved to the Tachen Islands . On 7 February , the minesweeper took part . part in the evacuation of Chinese Nationalists from the Tachen group and disembarked the evacuees at Sasebo a week later .

. BBC - 1955 : US evacuates Pacific islands • Tachen Islands Evacuation History • Pictures of the evacuation • Bank . the evacuation • Bank notes and brief history of Tachen between 1949 and 1955 ( in Traditional Chinese ) .

. BBC - 1955 : US evacuates Pacific islands • Tachen Islands Evacuation History • Pictures of the evacuation • Bank . the evacuation • Bank notes and brief history of Tachen between 1949 and 1955 ( Chinese ( Taiwan )) Retrieved .

. Keelung , Formosa , and thence moved to the Tachen Islands . On 7 February , the minesweeper took part . part in the evacuation of Chinese Nationalists from the Tachen group and disembarked the evacuees at Sasebo a week later .

. Wasp provided air cover for the evacuation of the Tachen Islands by the Chinese Nationalists . After the Tachen evacuation , Wasp stopped at Japan before returning to San .

. , Tchuruchak , Chuguchak , Tahcheng , Tchougoutchak , Tachen , T ' a - ch ' eng - hsien .

. ั้ งภายใต ้ สำน ั กพ ิ มพ ์ Tachen • Hysteric Glamour , 1998 • Son of Bob , .

. . Экзотические мозаики дворца Стокле ( Жиль Нере . Tachen / Арт - родник , 2000 ) .

. . Paul Klee . 1879 — 1940 . Benedikt Tachen . Köln . 1990 . ISBN 3 - 8228 - .

. Fontes • HEINRICH , Christoph , Monet , Tachen - Público , Colónia , 2004 Ligações externas • .

. Cristiane . ARTE DO SÉCULO XX . 2005 . Tachen Ligações externas • Blake at the Tate Gallery , .

. Referências •↑ HEINRICH , Christoph , Claude Monet , Tachen , Colónia . .

. biztosítottak 15 000 tajvani katona és 20 000 polgár Tachen - szigeteki evakuálásához . 1955 . június 28 - án .

. 1953 ) • Îles Yijiangshan ( 1955 ) • Achipel des Tachen ( 1955 ) • 1re crise du détroit de Taïwan .


8. They Face Threats in the Wild

Probably the best known and most recognizable of the toucans, the toco toucan is listed as “least concern” on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List because the species has “such an extremely large range.”   However, the overall population numbers are declining.

The main threats to the toco toucan and other toucan species are habitat loss and hunting. The rainforests are being taken down for farming, homes, and roads. For example, coca-growers took over the yellow-browed toucanet's range in Peru, leading this bird onto the endangered list.   The ariel toucan and the Eastern red-necked aracari in Brazil are also endangered due to deforestation.     Other species are vulnerable or near threatened.

Toucans also face threats from hunters who capture the bird to sell as pets, for food, or as trophies. When they take fruit from orchards, farmers sometimes hunt them as pests to keep them from stealing their crops.


Watch the video: Dangerous Minds Im not a damn toucan Womans