Siege of Olynthus, 348 BC

Siege of Olynthus, 348 BC

Siege of Olynthus, 348 BC

The siege of Olynthus (348 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon complete his conquest of the Chalcidic League, one of his more powerful immediate neighbours, and an ally for several years.

At the start of his reign Philip had agreed an alliance with Athens, and protected by this alliance had dealt with problems on his northern and western borders. However in 357 BC, after the outbreak of the Social War (357-355 BC), a revolt against Athens by some members of her League, he besieged and captured Amphipolis (357 BC), a city that Athens had founded, but soon lost. This triggered a war with Athens, and so Philip needed a new ally on the Aegean coast. He won over Olynthus and the Clalcidic League by promising to capture Potidaea, a former league member then held by Athens. Olynthus accepted the offer and agreed to an alliance. Potidaea fell in 356 BC and was restored to the League.

Over the next few years Philip's power in Thrace greatly increased. Olynthus began to make overtures towards Athens, a breach of the spirit of the alliance with Philip. Late in 351, while returning from the successful siege of Heraeum, Philip marched his army through Chalcidice, perhaps in an attempt to intimidate his allies. This didn't work. Olynthus gave refuge to Philip's half brothers Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, perhaps as part of plan to replace Philip on the Macedonian throne.

In the third quarter of 349 BC Philip invaded League territory. He besieged and captured the otherwise unknown town of Zeira (or Zereia), and after its fall destroyed it. The League began to fall apart as its members surrendered to Philip to avoid the same fate. Stagirus, the birthplace of Aristotle, was amongst the places taken razed to the ground.

Olynthus sent envoys to Athens to beg for assistance, and under pressure from Demosthenes (this was when he produced his First Olynthiac Oration) the Athenian Assembly dispatched a token force north. This first contribution consisted of 2,000 peltasts and thirty triremes commanded by Chares. This first period of command ended when Chares was recalled to Athens and prosecuted for misconduct.

Olynthus was given some breathing room by affairs in Thessaly. Philip had expelled the tyrants of Pherae, but one of them, Peitholaus, had managed to regain control of the city. This was more important than the campaign against Olynthus, and so Philip left for Thessaly and expelled Peitholaus once again.

This gave the Athenians time to dispatch a second force, consisting of 4,000 peltasts, 150 cavalry and 18 triremes, commanded by Charidemus. He cooperated with the Olynthians and advanced into Pallene (the westernmost peninsula of Chalcide) and Bottiaea, ravaging the country. Part of this raid recovered areas that had already fallen to Philip, forcing him to reconquer them,

Probably in March 348 Philip resumed his campaign against Olynthus. Her port, at Mecyberna, was captured, as was the nearby town of Torone. Olynthus was then besieged, although the defenders did manage to get another message through to Athens.

Athens sent a third force in response to this embassy from Olynthus, calling for a force of Athenian citizens. A force of 2,000 hoplites, 300 cavalry and 17 triremes, commanded by Chares, who had now been pardoned, was dispatched, but it probably arrived too late, delayed once again by the Etesian Wind, a seasonal north wind.

Diodorus gives a very brief account of the siege. Philip captured Mecyberna (the port of Olynthus) and Torone (at the tip of Sithonia, the middle of the three peninsulas of Chalcidice) with the aid of traitors within the city. He then defeated the Olynthians in two battles, and forced them back into the city. He made a series of assault on the walls in which he lost many men. The city was finally betrayed by Euthycrates and Lasthenes, the chief magistrates of Olynthus, who accepted bribes from Philip. According to Demosthenes the two men didn’t benefit from their actions, and instead 'met the most ignominious fate of all'. He also gives some details of the bribes - Lasthenes roofed his house with a gift of Macedonian timber, Euthycrates received a large herd of cattle. Philip was known to have said that he expanded his kingdom more with gold than with his army, and this was a good example of that trend.

One of these two battles might have involved the incident mentioned by Demosthenes (On the False Embassy, Dem.19 267) in which 500 cavalry with all of their equipment were betrayed by their officers and captured by the Macedonians.

The city fell in the autumn of 348 BC. Any captured Athenians were imprisoned, while the locals were sold into slavery. Chalcidice became part of Macedonia. Some of the money taken in loot here was used to bribe potential allies in other Greek cities. Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, who had remained in the city, were captured and killed.

Demosthenes gives us overall totals for the Athenian contribution to the war - 10,000 mercenaries, 4,000 citizen soldiers and 50 war galleys. He also gives the Olynthians 10,000 men with 1,000 cavalry. He also claimed that 32 towns in Chalcidice were wiped out.

Even as this siege was coming to its end, Philip began to hint that he wanted peace with Athens. This eventually led to the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC), the agreement that ended the ten year long 'War of Amphipolis' between Athens and Philip, and helped clear the ground for Philip to end the Third Sacred War.


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Olynthus, ancient Greek city situated on the Chalcidice Peninsula of northwestern Greece. It lay about 1.5 miles (2.5 km) inland from the Gulf of Torone of the Aegean Sea. A Thracian people called the Bottiaeans inhabited Olynthus until 479 bce , when Persian forces killed them and handed the town over to local Greeks from Chalcidice. Though dominated for a time thereafter by Athens, Olynthus revolted against the latter in 424 and was subsequently able to maintain its independence. Olynthus became the chief Greek city west of the Strymon (modern Struma) River, and in 432 it founded and became the chief city of the Chalcidian League, a confederation of the Greek cities of the Chalcidice Peninsula. By 382 the league’s power had aroused the hostility of Sparta, which, after three years of fighting, defeated Olynthus and disbanded the league in 379. But after the defeat of Sparta by Thebes in 371, Olynthus reestablished the league and was able to attain even greater wealth and power than before. When war broke out between Philip II of Macedon and Athens (357), Olynthus initially allied itself with Philip. Fearing the latter’s increasing power, however, Olynthus shifted its allegiance to Athens. Philip’s consequent threats against Olynthus prompted Demosthenes to deliver three great speeches (the “Olynthiacs”) urging Athens to aid Olynthus. But the Athenians did nothing, and Philip razed Olynthus in 348.

Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens revealed the grid plan of the ancient town and provided material for study of the relations between Classical and Hellenistic Greek art. The site is occupied by the modern town of Ólinthos.

This article was most recently revised and updated by John M. Cunningham, Readers Editor.


Youth and accession Edit

Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice I. After the assassination of his eldest brother, Alexander II, Philip was sent as a hostage to Illyria by Ptolemy of Aloros. [5] [6] Philip was later held in Thebes (c. 368–365 BC), which at the time was the leading city of Greece. While in Thebes, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas, [7] [8] and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes.

In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. In 359 BC, Philip's other brother, King Perdiccas III, died in battle against the Illyrians. Before leaving, Perdiccas had appointed Philip as regent for his infant son Amyntas IV, but Philip succeeded in taking the kingdom for himself. [9]

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonia brought him early success. He first had to remedy a predicament which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paeonians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under the Macedonian pretender Argaeus II. [10]

Improvements to the army Edit

Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paeonians and Thracians promising tributes, and defeated the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359 BC). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. Philip II made many notable contributions to the Macedonian army. The cavalry and infantry, which were the primary source of the army's strength, roughly doubled from the time of the battles with the Illyrians to 334 BC. [11] The discipline and training of the soldiers increased as well, but the Macedonian soldiers under Philip were provided with rewards and bonus wages for exceptional service and the possibility of promotion through the ranks. In addition to these changes, Philip created the Macedonian phalanx, an infantry formation that consisted of soldiers all armed with a sarissa. Philip is credited for adding the sarissa to the Macedonian army, where it soon was the common weapon used by most soldiers. [11] [12]

Early military career Edit

Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this marriage did not prevent him from marching against the Illyrians in 358 BC and defeating them in a battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and earned the favour of the Epirotes. [13]

After securing the western and southern borders of Macedon, Philip went on to siege Amphipolis in 357 BC. The Athenians had been unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, so Philip reached an agreement with Athens to lease the city to them after his conquest, in exchange for Pydna (which was lost by Macedon in 363 BC). However, after conquering Amphipolis, Philip captured Pydna for himself and kept both cities (357 BC). Athens soon declared war against him, and as a result, Philip allied Macedon with the Chalcidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356 BC. [14]

In 357 BC, Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. Alexander was born in 356 BC, the same year as Philip's racehorse won at the Olympic Games. [15]

During 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. He then established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which yielded much of the gold he later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. [16]

In 355–354 BC he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip was injured in his right eye, which was later removed surgically. [17] Despite the arrival of two Athenian fleets, the city fell in 354 BC. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian coast (354–353 BC). [18]

Third Sacred War Edit

Philip's involvement in the Third Sacred War (356-346 BC) began in 354 BC. At the request of the Thessalian League, Philip and his army traveled to Thessaly in order to capture Pagasae, resulting in an alliance with Thebes. A year later in 353 BC, Philip was once again asked to assist in battle, but this time against the tyrant Lycophron who was supported by Onomarchus. Philip and his forces invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians and forcing Phayllus, the brother of Onomarchus, to leave. [19]

That same year, Onomarchus and his army defeated Philip in two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, and the additional support of the Thessalian League's forces. At the Battle of Crocus Field, 6,000 Phocians fell and 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle earned Philip immense prestige as well as the free acquisition of Pherae. He was made the leader (archon) of the Thessalian League and was able to claim Magnesia and Perrhaebia, which expanded his territory to Pagasae. [20] [18] Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae.

There were no hostilities with Athens yet, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonians. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again travel south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus. To the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands. [21]

In 348 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his half-brothers, Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city because its expeditions held back by a revolt in Euboea. The Macedonian king took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula, resulting in the Chalcidian League dissolving. [22]

Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic Games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. [18]

Later campaigns (346–336 BC) Edit

With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip II turned to Sparta he sent them a message: "If I win this war, you will be slaves forever." In another version, he warned: "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." According to both accounts, the Spartans' laconic reply was one word: "If." Philip II and Alexander both chose to leave Sparta alone. Later, Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. [18]

In 345 BC, Philip conducted a hard-fought campaign against the Ardiaioi (Ardiaei), under their king Pleuratus I, during which Philip was seriously wounded in the lower right leg by an Ardian soldier. [23]

In 342 BC, Philip led a military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus, and in 339 BC, began another siege against the city of Byzantium. As both sieges failed, Philip's influence over Greece was compromised. [18] He successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, and in the same year, destroyed Amfissa because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to Delphi. These decisive victories led to Philip being recognized as the military leader of the League of Corinth, a Greek confederation allied against the Persian Empire, in 338/7 BC. [24] [25] Members of the league agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. [26]

Asian campaign (336 BC) Edit

Philip II was involved quite early against the Achaemenid Empire. From around 352 BC, he supported several Persian opponents to Artaxerxes III, such as Artabazos II, Amminapes or a Persian nobleman named Sisines, by receiving them for several years as exiles at the Macedonian court. [27] [28] [29] [30] This gave him a good knowledge of Persian issues, and may even have influenced some of his innovations in the management of the Macedonian state. [27] Alexander was also acquainted with these Persian exiles during his youth. [28] [31] [32]

In 336 BC, Philip II sent Parmenion, with Amyntas, Andromenes and Attalus, and an army of 10,000 men into Asia Minor to make preparations for an invasion to free the Greeks living on the western coast and islands from Achaemenid rule. [33] [34] At first, all went well. The Greek cities on the western coast of Anatolia revolted until the news arrived that Philip had been assassinated and had been succeeded as king by his young son Alexander. The Macedonians were demoralized by Philip's death and were subsequently defeated near Magnesia by the Achaemenids under the command of the mercenary Memnon of Rhodes. [34] [33]

The kings of Macedon practiced polygamy. Philip II had seven wives throughout his life, all members of royalty from foreign dynasties. All of Philip's wives were considered queens, making their children royalty as well. [35] The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by Athenaeus, 13.557b–e:

    , the daughter of Illyrian king Bardyllis. Mother of Cynane. , the sister of Derdas and Machatas of Elimiotis. of Pherae, Thessaly, mother of Thessalonica. of Epirus, daughter of Neoptolemus I, [36] mother of Alexander the Great and Cleopatra.
  • Philinna of Larissa, mother of Arrhidaeus later called Philip III of Macedon. , daughter of the king Cothelas, of Thrace.
  • Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of general Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon.

King Philip was assassinated in October 336 BC at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. Philip and his royal court were gathered in order to celebrate the marriage of Alexander I of Epirus and Cleopatra of Macedon—Philip's daughter by his fourth wife Olympias. While the king was entering into the town's theatre, he was unprotected in order to appear approachable to the Greek diplomats and dignitaries who were present at that time. Philip was suddenly approached by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his seven bodyguards, and was stabbed in his ribs. After Philip was killed, the assassin then immediately tried to escape and reach his getaway associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance to Aegae. The assassin was pursued by three of Philip's other bodyguards, and during the chase, he accidentally tripped on a vine. He was then subsequently stabbed to death and murdered by the bodyguards. [37]

The reasons for the assassination are difficult to expound fully. There was already controversy among ancient historians the only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle who states, rather tersely, that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by Attalus (Philip's uncle-in-law) and his friends. [38] Attalus was the uncle of Philip's wife Cleopatra (renamed Eurydice upon marriage).

Cleitarchus' analysis Edit

Fifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. According to the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, [39] Pausanias of Orestis had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. The elder Pausanias' taunting of the new lover caused the younger Pausanias to throw away his life in battle, which turned his friend Attalus against the elder Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by getting Pausanias of Orestis drunk at a public dinner and then raping him. [40]

When Pausanias complained to Philip, the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. Philip also was recently married to Attalus' niece, Cleopatra Eurydice. Rather than offend Attalus, Philip tried to mollify Pausanias by elevating him within his personal bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour, so he planned to kill Philip. Some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was away in Asia fighting the Persians, he put his plan in action. [41]

Justin's analysis Edit

Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. Olympias seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, according to Justin's report: He writes that the same night of her return from exile, she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse, and later erected a tumulus over his grave and ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias. [42]

Modern analysis Edit

Many modern historians have observed that none of the accounts are probable: In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious – to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military personally loyal to Philip. What seems to be recorded are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the assassination, however their actions in response to the murder cannot prove their guilt in the crime itself – regardless of how sympathetic they might have seemed afterward. [43]

Whatever the actual background to the assassination, it may have had an enormous effect on later world history, far beyond what any conspirators could have predicted. As asserted by some modern historians, had the older and more settled Philip been the one in charge of the war against Persia, he might have rested content with relatively moderate conquests, e.g., making Anatolia into a Macedonian province, and not pushed further into an overall conquest of Persia and further campaigns in India. [44]

In 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos started excavating the Great Tumulus at Aigai [45] near modern Vergina, the capital and burial site of the kings of Macedon, and found that two of the four tombs in the tumulus were undisturbed since antiquity. Moreover, these two, and particularly Tomb II, contained fabulous treasures and objects of great quality and sophistication. [46]

Although there was much debate for some years, [47] as suspected at the time of the discovery Tomb II has been shown to be that of Philip II as indicated by many features, including the greaves, one of which was shaped consistently to fit a leg with a misaligned tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia). Also, the remains of the skull show damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically recorded to be an arrow). [48] [49]

A study of the bones published in 2015 indicates that Philip was buried in Tomb I, not Tomb II. [50] On the basis of age, knee ankylosis, and a hole matching the penetrating wound and lameness suffered by Philip, the authors of the study identified the remains of Tomb I in Vergina as those of Philip II. [50] Tomb II instead was identified in the study as that of King Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice II. [50] However, this latter theory had previously been shown to be false. [49]

More recent research gives further evidence that Tomb II contains the remains of Philip II. [51]

Specifications [ edit | edit source ]

The BC-224-A, -B, -C, and -D and the BC-348-B, and -C, tuned 1.5-18 MHz in six bands. The Signal Corps had the receiver design modified to add a 200-500 kHz band and compress the 1.5-18 MHz coverage into the remaining five bands. This modified design became the BC-224-E and the BC-348-E. The 200–500 kHz and 1.5-18 MHz tuning range remained constant for subsequent production of all models. ΐ]

Olynthus, Villa of the Bronzes (Building)

House of regular Olynthian type, with central courtyard, pastas, rooms along north, kitchen-complex with bath and "flue" in southeast, and storage room in southwest corner of the house.

No earlier than 432 BC, when Olynthus was "synoecized" destroyed by Philip II in 348 BC. Probably not built before ca. 400 BC, since most of the houses in this part of the city probably date to the fourth century.

The Villa of the Bronzes is a well-built and well-preserved house, and had been heavily burned, particularly in the northern part. A number of weapons found in the court and other rooms, including a shield, a sword, three knives, two spearheads, five arrowheads and thirteen slingbullets, attest to the heavy fighting here during the capture of the city, and led to the naming of the house.

The house is quite regular in plan. The court takes the common position in the center of the south side of the house, and the pastas opens to the court through a colonnade of two columns and two engaged pilasters. Two stone Doric capitals and a pilaster capital from this colonnade were found near the bases. To the north of the pastas are three rooms, two connected by a pillar partition and forming a suite with a light well like that in the House of Many Colors . A fourth room in the northeast corner of the house (d) was entered through an anteroom (f) from the pastas, and might have served as an andron. In the southeast corner of the house was a kitchen-complex with flue and bath, and in the southwest was a storeroom. The house had a double door, a narrow door on the west for people and a wider door, 1.9 m wide, on the east, whose threshold was rutted by cart wheels.

Although similar in plan to the House of Many Colors , the Villa of the Bronzes has no proper andron, but has more architecturally unspecialized space than does the House of Many Colors .

The house was well built and appointed. Its south and west walls were built of drafted ashlar masonry, rare at Olynthus, and the court paved with cement and stone slabs. Six of its eleven rooms were painted, some with molded plaster, and room b had a mosaic floor.

The court, of about average size, was drained to the street via a channel and terracotta pipe. Most of the finds here seem to be remains of the final battle for the city: a shield, sword, three knives, two spearheads, and seven slingbullets. The skeleton of a large calf or small cow was also found on the floor of the court, perhaps another casualty of war.

As at the House of Many Colors , the pastas was apparently an important workplace. In many respects the assemblages of the two pastades are remarkably similar. In the northeast corner of the pastas was a cult assemblage, with a fine marble louter and base, nearly complete and mended in antiquity, and a marble portable altar. Another portable altar was found about two meters in front of the door to room b. A great many vases were found along the north wall between the doors to rooms b and c, including an askos, a fish plate and two plates, six saucers, and many other fragments, "usually broken in large pieces and lying on the floor as if they fell from a shelf or from somewhere above rather than as if this were any sort of a discard dump. Most of the pottery consists of the familiar small black glaze saucers" (excavation fieldbook). This chest or shelf also held a hollow bronze instrument with claw-like projections and a few other bronze objects, while other miscellaneous metal objects were scattered through the pastas, most notably a bronze basin near the westernmost base of the pastas, a finger ring, and a heavy hook.

The two rooms north of the pastas (a and b) form a suite with light well similar to that in the House of Many Colors . Architecturally, the suite differs from that in the House of Many Colors, in that the light well was not accessible from the pastas but only through the pillar partition from b, and the main room b was well decorated, with red stuccoed walls and a pebble mosaic floor but in general the two suites must have been fairly similar (especially if the main room in the House of Many Colors had been painted and paved with mosaic as was intended).

This suite was used quite differently, however, from that in the House of Many Colors . In the main room, a chest or other furnishing stood at the north wall, attested by eight iron bosses in two sizes. The furnishing probably held either perishable or precious objects. Two elegant lamps, one with two, the other with four nozzles and with central handles, were found nearby. Otherwise, the room contained a rather mixed assemblage: a couple of saucers, an arrowhead, two heavy hooks (perhaps attached to the door, where they were found), a pin, and three coins. We should perhaps interpret this as a more formal living or reception room, lit with fancy lamps and with decorated furniture.

The light well (a), on the other hand, had an earth floor on which were found many ashes and traces of burning, apparently not only from the fire of the destruction but from "continuous fires here" during the use of the house. These fires might have heated the main room of the suite. There is no reason to think that this was a cooking area: no cookingwares or bones were found here or nearby.

In the northwest corner of room a was an odd egg-shaped pithos sunk into the floor, and in the center of the west wall of the room were 20 nails, apparently the remains of another piece of furniture. Several small iron bosses were found in this room although their exact locations were not noted they too might belong to this furnishing. Near the furnishing were two more fancy double-nozzled lamps like those in the main room, personal articles like a bone spatula, a finger ring with a decorated bezel, and two black-glazed plates. On the other side of the room near the pillar partition were at least 25 saucers and another plate, while many other vases were scattered in this room, and in the southwest corner was a large shallow pot. The interpretation of this area is difficult: presumably it serviced the main room (b), but the use of the pithos, the saucers and other objects is problematic.

The kitchen complex in the southeast corner of the house consisted of a large kitchen, a "flue" separated by a pillar partition, and a cement-paved bath with a tub still in situ (rooms i, j and k). The flue and bath were separated by only a light partition, which left its impression on the yellow plaster of the bath. A fragment of a lower grindstone in the kitchen might suggest that this, like the kitchen in the House of Many Colors , was used for food preparation, although it may have been reused here for some other purpose.

The floor of the flue was covered with a layer of ash, charcoal, burned earth and fragments of animal bones, up to 3 cm. thick this was apparently a cooking room like the flue in the House of Many Colors . A tub was found in situ in the bathroom. Nearby was a large terracotta spouted basin full of ashes, perhaps a makeshift brazier for heating water.

The other corner of the house was taken up by a large storeroom (g), like that in the House of Many Colors . This contained a huge pithos, 1.7 m in diameter, whose lid was found nearby.

As at the House of Many Colors , there is architectural evidence for a second story at the Villa of the Bronzes. A stone stairbase was found along the south wall of the court, shifted out of place but probably at approximately its original location and the kitchen has a pillar partition which probably implies a room above.

Olynthus, 12, 235-258 other Olynthus volumes unpublished excavation notes.

Signal Corps BC-348Q receiver

The Signal Corps BC-348Q is a WW II vintage U S Army Air Corps receiver with a VLF band covering 200 to 500 KHz and five HF bands covering 1.5 to 18.5 MHz. The manual for the BC-348Q and its J and N brothers can be found on several websites including BAMA. See the links on the home page for PDF copies. Here is a link to another BC-348Q I acquired some years ago .

The BC-348 was used as the long-distance liaison receiver for large aircraft such as bombers in World War II and the early 1950's.
All BC-348 models were equipped with a dynamotor power supply to match the 28 volt power on the aircraft. A very similar model BC-224 was designed for 14 volt aircraft. The tubes in the BC-348, all with 6 volt filaments, were wired in series/ parallel to match 28 volts.

These are single conversion superhets with an IF frequency of 915 KHz. All of the BC-348 models featured switchable AVC or manual RF gain, a beat frequency oscillator, a crystal filter, 2 stages of RF and 3 stages of IF amplification. This example is a model "Q" of the J,N,Q family manufactured by Wells-Gardner.

With that many stages, one would expect these to be very capable shortwave receivers. Most existing BC-348 examples were purchased as military surplus and modified by hams (amateur radio operators) so they could be run on 115 volts AC.

These ads for the surplus BC-348 are from the November 1947 QST (left) and the January 1949 CQ magazines (below).

Note the price increase with inflation and demand in the two ads 14 months apart.

Articles on a variety of modifications appear in QST, CQ and other magazines beginning in 1947 to mid 1959 and beyond.

This BC-348Q was modified with an AC power supply. The removable dynamotor chassis (back left in the chassis picture below) was modified to accept a power transformer, a filter choke, 6X5 rectifier tube and a couple of electrolytic filter caps. The power switch and fuse were rewired to control AC power. The tube filaments and the dial lights were rewired in parallel for 6 volts from the transformer.

An original BC-348 has no ventilation openings. The design and the temperatures in an unpressurized aircraft at typical operating altitudes were apparently such that very little ventilation was needed. Although designed for use with headphones, it provides plenty of volume if used with an efficient speaker and the proper matching transformer.
The BC-348Q chassis showing power supply conversion (chassis back, left side)

According to the nomenclature plate, this receiver was part of "Order NO. 2541-WF-42" as serial number 1435. It was purchased at a ham radio swap meet. The BFO control was missing but the prior owner had thoughtfully tied a baggie with the knob and a couple of parts to the radio. The front panel was in very good cosmetic condition with no modifications. The back of the cabinet has a series of ventilation holes added.

Since the transformer power supply was homebrew, the first thing I did was check on the quality and safety of the work. I traced the power switch wiring and found that the fuse had been bypassed with a piece of wire. One of two electrolytic capacitors had a bare wire on the B+ side uncomfortably close to the chassis. I removed both electrolytics. After testing the power transformer, I determined that its high voltage was too high for the set. I rewired the power supply for choke input and installed a new electrolytic capacitor. I replaced the power cord with a safer three-wire grounded cord, rewired the fuse connections, installed a proper fuse, and disconnected the AC from the BC-348's original eight blade power connector. I tested several of the metal enclosed capacitors used in the set and to my surprise found them to be in good order. After repairing the power supply, I connected an external speaker with a proper 4000 ohm matching transformer and slowly powered the set while monitoring B+ voltage and current draw, keeping the variac throttled back a bit because of the still somewhat excessive B+. Surprisingly, the set worked well on shortwave broadcasts.

CW Oscillator on-off switch and the missing BFO control
The "Beat Frequency" Oscillator coil was badly bruised and other parts were missing. However, the "CW Oscillator" on-off switch was stuck in the "On" position. Contact cleaner did not solve the problem. I removed and opened the actual switch and was then able to repair it.I tried repairing the original BFO coil with a generic donor slug and control body. No luck. The coil had proper continuity and the bruised top section was OK when tested for a proper level of "Q" but the smaller inside section had near zero "Q" leading me to conclude it had a shorted turn. There was no indication of oscillation on the scope. I next tried a small variable capacitor and a generic AM broadcast oscillator coil using the BC-348's original fixed mica caps. I was delighted when my scope showed the oscillator working although, not surprisingly, at too high a frequency. I temporarily added a fixed cap between the plate feed and ground to bring the oscillator frequency down to the required 915 KHz. The variable cap was about 60 pf at full mesh. The cap could be tuned through a range of about 20 KHz above and below the 915 KHz target. The manual mentioned the original BFO had a range of about 4 KHz plus or minus the target. I experimented with a small trimmer cap in series with the variable cap to reduce the range to that value. By experimentation, another small fixed cap was selected to replace the temporary parallel cap so that the 915 KHz was still in the center of the variable cap range. The result worked quite well. I spent some time listening to 80 meter SSB. I could see why the radio was popular with hams of the 1950s and 60s.

Reducing excess B+ and distortion
I was told that the radio should be operated at or near its design high voltage of 228 volts. From the schematic, it is obvious that the B- is not tied to the chassis in a BC-348. The chassis is actually at 18 volts relative to B- and 210 volts relative to B+. The 18 volts to chassis provides a source of bias for the 6K6 final audio tube. A description in the manuals for several other models of the BC-348 mentions that the 6K6 audio output tube also helps with voltage regulation and is biased to draw a bit more current at higher voltages to keep the B+ voltage from the dynamotor in a relatively narrow range. The B+ for this modified set measured about 260 volts. I experimented with adding resistors in the B+ line. I found that reducing the voltage to the design maximum also reduced the maximum audio level slightly. However, in comparing the audio quality between the design B+ voltage and the higher voltage, I noticed that the higher voltage introduced noticeable distortion to the audio. I added a terminal strip and 720 ohm resistance for a final B+ that was very close to the design voltage.

I debated replacing the 6X5 with solid state diodes and adding some more series resistance. This could easily be done with a pair of 1N4007 diodes in a tube base and would therefore be a reversible decision. I may do that in the future. However, the tube rectifier did not seem to be causing any problems with excessive heat. I like the slow power up for B+ afforded by the 6X5 so for now I decided to leave well-enough alone.

BC-348 listening to SSB in the 80 meter ham band.

The BC-348Q is an excellent performer and fun to use for both shortwave listening and the lower ham bands. The crystal filter works very well and drifting is surprisingly quite minimal even from a cold start making listening to SSB relatively easy on the lower ham bands. Shortwave listening is of course very pleasing. I very much enjoy using this receiver.

More information
For nice pictures of a BC-348Q chassis with a dynamotor still in place, see the folowing web page by Ralph W5JGV .

For information on the history of the BC-348Q and related models, see the article by Ken KF6NUR at this link .

Here is a picture of the BC-348 and related components installed on a B-29. .

The Hewlett-Packard HP-200A audio oscillator, HP's first product, was the previous item on the bench.

4 &ndash He Had a Strained Relationship with Alexander

Although Philip was the man who gave Alexander his first military command, the pair had a difficult relationship. Philip had Alexander with his fourth wife, Princess Olympias of Epirus, but the couple had an unstable marriage mainly down to Philip&rsquos frolics with men and women. According to legend, Philip once told Alexander that the boy should be embarrassed by his high-pitched voice. This is a rumor but it probably speaks to a relationship where a father was perhaps concerned about being surpassed by his son.

While we don&rsquot know a great deal about their interactions in Alexander&rsquos early years, we know the two men&rsquos relationship practically fell apart in Philip&rsquos final years. After Philip married a young Macedonian woman named Cleopatra Eurydice, Alexander was concerned about being disinherited as he was not deemed to be a ‘pure Macedonian&rsquo. Cleopatra was his seventh wife and Olympias was greatly upset because of the possible ramifications for her son. She was right to be concerned because the youthful Cleopatra produced a boy named Caranus and a girl named Europa.

After a drunken bust-up during Philip&rsquos wedding ceremony, Alexander left the Macedonian court with his mother. Demaratus of Corinth, a family friend, helped to patch things up between the two and Alexander returned to Pella with Olympias. At this time, Caranus had not been born yet but Alexander knew that his future was only secure for as long as Cleopatra failed to produce a male heir. In 336 BC, Philip negotiated with Pixodarus of Caria with a view to marrying off his only other adult son, Arrhidaeus to the Persian&rsquos daughter. Alexander tried to get the princess&rsquo hand in marriage first and when Philip found out, he was furious because his son&rsquos actions were in danger of thwarting the diplomatic portion of his Asian conquest.

Plutarch wrote that Philip scolded Alexander for trying to marry a lowly girl whose father was little more than a slave of a barbarian king. Philip apparently placed Alexander under house arrest and banished four of his closest friends, including future Egyptian pharaoh, Ptolemy. Philip never had the opportunity to lead his planned invasion because he was murdered by his bodyguard and one-time lover, Pausanias. Despite their fractious relationship, Alexander was not involved. After Philip&rsquos assassination, Olympias ordered the murders of Caranus and Europa while Cleopatra committed suicide.

B-25 History Project Radio Restoration

Radio Restoration Project: In January of 2018, we announced an exciting restoration project. We will be restoring multiple complete B-25 radio sets to full working order. The project lead is our Combat Historian Mike Laney. Mike's grandfather flew 52 combat missions with the 486th BS, 340th BG, 57th BW from January 28 through August 15, 1944. This multi-year project will include, command, liaison, and emergency radio sets. One set will be donated to the Sandbar Mitchell restoration project. The second will be a mobile set to be used for education. A third will be part of a static "hands-on" museum display that will become a base for a WWII enthusiast ham radio club. If you would like to donate manpower or material for this project please contact us. To donate to this project, see link at bottom of page.

We are restoring to operating condition command (SCR-274-N) and liaison (SCR-287) radio sets for installation in a flying B-25 and as a ground station to demonstrate how these radios worked in World War II. The command set was operated by the pilot and was used for airplane to airplane communication. It consisted of the following:

Transmitters (35- BC-459 Ε.0 to 9.1 MHz] OR BC-458 Γ.3 to 7.0 MHz] and 37- BC-457 Β.0 to 5.3 MHz]), Receivers (26- BC-455 Δ.0 to 9.0 MHz] 27- BC-453 𖐶 to 550 KHz] and 28- BC-454 Α.0 to 6.0 MHz]), Command Radio Modulator (33- BC-456) and antenna relay (39- BC-442). The pilot used the following to remotely control the radios: Transmitter control box (5- BC-451) and receiver control box (3- BC-450). The transmitter control box had a button on top that allowed the pilot to send transmissions using CW (Morse Code). The transmitters and receivers usually were preset and tuned for the mission, and if needed the pilot could change the frequency using the control boxes. The BC-453 receiver was used for navigation beacons.

The liaison set was used for long distance communications, such as talking with the home base. This was located behind the bomb bay and operated by the radio-gunner. This consisted of the following components:

Transmitter (H- BC-375D), Receiver (G- BC-348), Tuning Units for BC-348 ࿃- Spare TU7B and TU6B installed in transmitter), Dynamotor (E- PE73C) and antenna tuner (J- BC-306A). The radio operator operated this equipment directly using microphone or transmitting key ࿂- J37).

Currently, we have assembled our ground liaison set and need to work out some kinks.

Future projects include obtaining an ARC-13 set (used later in the war) which was a advanced transmitter compared to the BC-375 transmitter. This was more compact and capable of changing frequencies without having to change out tuning units. The ultimate long-term goal is to have a museum type display that compares all the radio set-ups used in the B-25. Right now we are trying to figure out best way to provide the 28Vdc to the equipment to test it and ultimately operate it.

Aristotle’s classification of all material phenomena

Aristotle’s classification of all material phenomena into categories is contained in his work of the same name. According to this method, everything was part of substance and could be classified as such, while some individual items would be classified as an individual item. The latter are considered to be qualities rather than essential parts of substance. The ways in which Aristotle organized these categories does not always appear intuitively correct, which reflects differences in methods of thinking and language. He also distinguished between form and matter. Form is a specific configuration of matter, which is the basis or substance of all physical things. Iron is a substance or representation of matter, for example, which can be made into a sword. The sword is a potential quality of iron, and a child is potentially a fully grown person. It is in the nature of some matter, therefore, to emerge in a particular form. If form can be said to emerge from no matter, then it would do so as god. Whether one thing is itself or another thing depends on the four causes of the universe. The material cause explains what a thing is and what is its substance the final cause explains the purpose or reason for the object the formal cause defines it in a specific physical form, and the efficient cause explains how it came into existence. According to Aristotle’s thinking, all physical items can be explained and accounted for fully by reference to these four causes. In a similar way his exposition of the syllogism in all its possible forms and the definition of which of these are valid and to what extent are an effort to establish a system that is inclusive and universal and is both elegant and parsimonious in construction. The syllogism is Aristotle’s principal contribution to the study of logic.

The Cestrosphendone

Even though the Romans occasionally used slingers in their armies, there were never any cohorts created specifically for that purpose. Since there were no communities of Romans who trained their people from childhood with the sling, the Romans continued to rely on foreign auxiliaries such as the Balearic slingers. When the Romans besieged the city of Same on the island of Cephallania in the 2nd century B.C., they recruited slingers from Achaea. The range of the Achaean slingers was so great that they could strike the Samean defenders without any fear of being struck back. In the 1st century ad, the favored siege weapon of the Hebrews was used against them once again when the Roman emperors Vespasian and Titus recruited Arab slingers for sieges in Judea.

Gradually, slingers began to fade away from warfare in Europe and around the Mediterranean, mostly because the cultures that once emphasized training on the weapon stopped the practice. This happened for several reasons, such as conquered peoples assimilating the culture of their conquerors and discarding native traditions, but was primarily due to the weapon becoming increasingly obsolete over time. The downfall of the sling began with the invention of the cestrosphendone by the Macedonians around 170 B.C.. The weapon consisted of a sling attached to a wooden shaft that launched a heavy dart. Although it sacrificed range, the weapon did not require anywhere near the amount of training needed to use the sling effectively.

By the Middle Ages, a variant of the cestrosphendone, known as the staff-sling, was the projectile launcher that eventually fully replaced the sling in sieges throughout Europe. It was also easier to operate, had the ability to launch larger projectiles, and the missiles launched had higher arcs in their trajectories, making the staff-sling even more suited to siege warfare than the sling. In addition, the staff-sling doubled as a close-combat weapon and was more reliable when launching early grenades over fortified walls in the late Middle Ages.

After several innovations to the bow and the crossbow, the two became the much preferred ranged weapons throughout Medieval Europe. Siege defense especially became more suited to bow-type weaponry as fortifications began to increasingly include slits or small holes to shoot through so the soldier was completely protected by the walls. Slings continued to be used in naval warfare since the constant moisture could damage bowstrings, and they were especially effective when used by the Byzantines to launch pots of Greek fire at enemy ships. But once gunpowder was introduced in Europe, the sling became obsolete.

Watch the video: First Crusade: Siege of Antioch 1098 AD