James 'Jeb' Stuart 1833-1864

James 'Jeb' Stuart 1833-1864

James 'Jeb' Stuart 1833-1864

James Ewell Brown Stuart was born 6th February 1833 on the Laurel Hill plantation in Patrick County Virginia, the seventh of ten children. He has strong parallels to Prince Rupert of the Rhine of the English Civil War in his character as both were dashing, cavalier and flamboyant cavalry commanders. His operations were audacious and daring and helped raise the morale of the Confederacy but his impact on the war was small in real terms.

James was educated at home and then at Wytheville Virginia and attended Emory and Henry College between 1848 and 1850 entering West Point in 1850 to graduate 4 years later, 13th out of a class of 46. In October 1854 he was commissioned as a 2nd Lt in the US mounted rifles and joined the regiment in Texas in December. The following March he transferred to the 1st Cavalry in Kansas and was promoted to 1st Lt by the end of the year. He then spent the next 5 years doing outpost work on the frontier. In 1859 he went East to sell his patient on a device for attaching sabers to belts to the War Department. While there he met his old superintendent from West Point Col Robert E Lee and became involved in the Southern cause. When Virginia succeeded from the Union in 1861 he resigned his commission and quickly gained a commission as a Captain of Cavalry in the Confederate Army, but as the Confederate army was quickly reorganised he was soon made Colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry.

It is generally thought that the Confederates had the better cavalry at the start of the American Civil War. Certainly the Confederate cavalrymen were more likely to have ridden horses before and over the rough terrain over which much of the fighting took place. They were dashing and very skilled at deep raids into Union territory, cutting supply lines and disrupting communications but were more limited on the battlefield. They were neither trained or equipped for the classic European style cavalry battles, never charged formed infantry or harried retreating enemy troops. Preferring to stand and shoot vs. enemy cavalry rather than engage with sabers they were crippled by a shortage of carbines and often used sawn off shotguns which were lethal at close range but outclassed by the Union's breech loading repeating carbines introduced as the war continued.

At the First Battle of Bull Run (21st July 1861) Stuart's Cavalry covered the left flank and made a well-timed charge. This led to his promotion to Brigadier-General in September 1861 with 2,400 men under his command. During the Peninsular Campaign of 1862 he performed well and created havoc with a wide sweep into the rear of the Union lines gaining useful intelligence for General Lee. After fighting in the Seven Days Battle he was promoted again to Major General. At the Second Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Antietam he again proved his worth to the Confederate Army, this time in command of the whole of the Confederate Cavalry. In October 1862 he raided as far as Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and returned with over a thousand captured horses. He fought at Fredericksburg supporting General Jackson and temporally taking command of his corps when Jackson was wounded at Chancellorsville.

The largest pure cavalry battle of the war took place at Brandy's Station on 9th June 1863 when Stuart's lines were attacked by General Pleasonton commanding 12,000 cavalry. Stuart's 10,000 held the line and inflicted more casualties on the Union cavalry. He then led his men on another long raid but did not get back to the main army until the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, which deprived Lee of vital reconnaissance in the prelude to the battle. During the winter of 1863-64 his cavalry carried out several small actions and much riding. In the spring of 1864 General Grant launched his attack into the Wilderness to destroy the Army of Virginia. On 9th May 1864 while General Grant and General Lee battled at Spotsylvania, the Union General Phillip Sheridan led 10,000 Cavalry on a massive raid on Richmond. Stuart faced him with 4,500 cavalry. They clashed on the 11th May at the battle of Yellow Tavern. The Confederates were driven from the field with 1,000 dead. Stuart was mortally wounded by a dismounted Union trooper and died the next day. Lee mourned him as a son and he was buried outside Richmond.

Stuart was the an iconic cavalry commander for the South, young, dashing and much loved by his men, his camp was renown for its high spirits and good morale. General Lee held him in high regard. Although the Cavalry was well regarded by the other arms of the Confederate Army he was popular throughout. Typically of Cavalry commanders he was ostentatious and often wore a red lined cloak with a Peacock plume in his hat. Such an obvious piece of clothing quite probably marked him as a target for the Union marksmen. His exploits did not have a huge affect on the war but his impact on morale was far from insignificant.



P.G.T. Beauregard

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (1818-1893) was a U.S. military officer who later served as a Confederate general during the Civil War (1861-65). A native of Louisiana, Beauregard resigned from the U.S. Army in February 1861 and ordered the first shots of the Civil War during the bombardment of Fort Sumter in April 1861. Beauregard was instrumental in the early Confederate victory at the First Battle of Bull Run and in 1862 served at the Battle of Shiloh and Siege of Corinth. Beauregard’s outspoken and combative nature led to a strained relationship with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and in 1863 he was removed from his post and placed in command of the defenses of Charleston, South Carolina, where helped withstand repeated naval assaults by Union forces. Beauregard later returned to the field and led a crucial defense of Petersburg in 1864. After the war Beauregard worked as a railroad director and as a supervisor for the Louisiana Lottery. He died in 1893 at the age of 74.


Early Years

James Ewell Brown Stuart was born on February 6, 1833, in Patrick County, Virginia. The family farm, Laurel Hill, was not grand enough, perhaps, to qualify as a plantation, but was nevertheless run by enslaved labor. His family was socially prominent if not exactly prosperous. Stuart graduated from the United Sates Military Academy at West Point, New York, ranking thirteenth of forty-six in the class of 1854. His classmates included fellow Virginians John Pegram and George Washington Custis Lee, both of whom were to become, like Stuart, major generals in the Confederate States Army. After graduation, Stuart was brevetted a second lieutenant in the Regiment of Mounted Rifles and was assigned to duty in Texas, where he took part in the campaign against the Apaches.

He was commissioned to the substantive grade of second lieutenant on October 31, 1854, and was transferred to the new 1st United States Cavalry on March 3, 1855, then headquartered at Fort Leavenworth on the Kansas frontier. On November 14, 1855, he was married at Fort Riley, Kansas Territory, to Flora Cooke , the daughter of Colonel Philip St. George Cooke , and in the following month, December 20, 1855, he was promoted to first lieutenant. He was wounded in a skirmish with the Cheyenne Indians on the Solomon River in Kansas on July 29, 1857. In October 1859 he served as volunteer aide to Robert E. Lee who had been dispatched to Harpers Ferry to deal with John Brown’s raid, and, under a flag of truce, attempted to negotiate the surrender of Brown and his followers. Hollywood has twice filmed this incident, with the role of Stuart played by Errol Flynn in Santa Fe Trail (1940) and by John Lupton in Seven Angry Men (1955).

Stuart was promoted to captain on April 22, 1861, but resigned on May 14, 1861, shortly after Virginia’s secession , to accept a commission as a colonel in the Confederate army. His father-in-law, one of the Regular Army’s leading cavalrymen, did not follow suit, leading to a family breach. Stuart even renamed his months-old son, Philip St. George Cooke Stuart, after himself, James Ewell Brown Stuart Jr.


Early life [ edit | edit source ]

Stuart was born at Laurel Hill Farm, a plantation in Patrick County, Virginia, near the border with North Carolina. He was of Scottish American and Scots-Irish background. He was the eighth of eleven children and the youngest of the five sons to survive past early age. His great-grandfather, Major Alexander Stuart, commanded a regiment at the Battle of Guilford Court House during the American Revolutionary War. His father, Archibald Stuart, was a War of 1812 veteran, slaveholder, attorney, and Democratic politician who represented Patrick County in both houses of the Virginia General Assembly, and also served one term in the United States House of Representatives. Archibald was a cousin of Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart. Elizabeth Letcher Pannill Stuart, Jeb's mother, who was known as a strict religious woman with a good sense for business, ran the family farm.


The Happy Warrior JEB Stuart

Lincoln’s decision to wage war on the South spared JEB Stuart the humiliation of having to trade his cavalry saber for a lawyer’s shingle. He resigned a captain and was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of Virginia infantry, assigned to the command of Stonewall Jackson. Jackson transferred him to the cavalry, where Joseph E. Johnston promoted him to colonel. Stuart’s dash—and efficiency—were apparent from the start. In one early engagement (Stuart was wearing a blue coat and his old U.S. Army cavalry pants), he found himself amidst dozens of Federals, began giving them imperious orders, and then told them to surrender. They did, assuming they were surrounded by unseen Confederates, and he led them away as prisoners of war.

To train his green cavalry, he would keep them in the saddle all hours, ride them into trouble (under fire, surrounded by the enemy), and then laugh and get them out again, always coolly, always daring danger. He looked for men who relished hard-riding, who thought cavalry work was “fun” (“You don’t want to go back to camp, I know it’s stupid there, and all the fun is out here. I never go to camp if I can help it” ), and who shared his disdain for shell-fire (he even organized a special company, Company Q, eventually abolished, to drain off from his other units the lazy, malingering, cowardly, and dull—and anyone who didn’t enjoy racing past whizzing bullets was certainly dull). As he instructed his troopers: “You are brave fellows, and patriotic ones too, but you are ignorant of this kind of work, and I am teaching you. I want you to observe that a good man on a good horse can never be caught. Another thing: cavalry can trot away from anything, and a gallop is unbecoming a soldier, unless he is going toward the enemy. Remember that. We gallop toward the enemy, and trot away, always.”

JEB Stuart had a habit of finding himself amidst the enemy—and not always by intent. At First Manassas, when his men were ordered onto the field, he called out to the unit of Zouaves before him, “Don’t run, boys. We’re here!” only to realize that the troops bore the stars and stripes of the Union, and what started as a greeting became a cavalry charge. But such was life in the cavalry—though life with Stuart’s cavalry was far different from life with, say, Sheridan’s.

With his plumed hat, scarlet cloak, thigh-high riding boots, courtly manners with women, love of fun, and affection for flowers (both giving them and receiving them as a conqueror’s garlands), he was the Middle Ages come to life, which was no coincidence, as the South was enraptured by the books of Sir Walter Scott. The knightly ideal was not remote from Virginia cavaliers, but few took it as far as JEB Stuart did. He gave his camps names like Qui Vive and Quien Sabe, and surrounded himself with the Southern equivalent of a medieval court that included a minstrel (or in this case a banjo plucker), a “fighting bishop” (the Reverend Major Dabney Ball), relations of the “King” (Robert E. Lee’s son Rooney and nephew Fitzhugh), a foreign mercenary come to join the Round Table (the Prussian Giant, Heros von Borcke, who after the war flew the Confederate battle flag from the ramparts of his ancestral castle), a golden knight errant (John Pelham, an Alabama-born West Pointer, 30 of romantic blond good looks, a bang up reputation as an athlete, and a fearlessness that petrified those it didn’t inspire, earning him the nickname “the Gallant Pelham”), and a fierce pet raccoon for a watchdog.

But all of this should not blind us to how skilled an officer he was. Joseph E. Johnston wrote of him that “He is a rare man, wonderfully endowed by nature with the qualities necessary for an officer of light cavalry. Calm, firm, acute, active, enterprising, I know of no one more competent than he to estimate the occurrences before him at their true value. If you add a real brigade of cavalry to this army, you can find no better brigadier general to command it.” In September 1861, he was duly promoted. In seven years in the regular army he had been promoted from second lieutenant to captain (which was accounted rapid promotion). But from March to September 1861, he had been promoted from first lieutenant in the United States Army to a brigadier general in the forces of the Confederate States of America. No one doubted that his swift elevation was merited. He was twenty-eight years old.

Stuart’s men were with General Joseph E. Johnston on the retreat from the Peninsula and with Lee during the defense of Richmond. It was during this latter service that his men leapt to prominence with their celebrated raid that had them riding round McClellan’s entire army, humiliating the Federal commander and having a daredevil’s good time doing it. (One of the Federal cavalry officers pursuing Stuart was his father-in-law and there were some who thought General Cooke was more hesitant in the field than usual.)

JEB Stuart for his part, relished the danger (though he was perturbed once when a bullet sliced off half his prized moustache), and it was part of his character that he could perform his duties with the utmost skill, with the soberest estimate of the military realities of his situation, while indulging a rambunctious, fun-loving, cavalier spirit. His personality was such that if he could not entirely win over Wade Hampton (who chafed under the supremacy of the Virginians), he could warm the odd heart of Stonewall Jackson and even wheedle jokes out of him (and present him with a fine new uniform as a gift that left the western Virginian touched, and his staff delighted with amusement as they chided him to try it on). Lee regarded JEB Stuart almost as a son. And Stuart delighted Southern-sympathizing women wherever they could be found.

Nevertheless, he spoke often of the possibility of death—though in no morbid way. When he was chided for exposing himself too often to the enemy, he remarked that he was easily replaceable. He once explained his troop movements to one of his officers so that in case he was killed on the campaign, the officer could explain why Stuart had acted as he did. He was utterly committed to the cause and told his wife Flora that it was his wish that his son should “never do anything his father would be ashamed of” and should “never forget the principles for which his father struggled.”

Those principles were, of course, the defense of his native Southland and of the sovereign rights of the state of Virginia. Slavery he accepted as part and parcel of the South’s way of life, but like most men of his class, station, and background he was sympathetic, in a paternal way, towards blacks, as were many of his men. On one occasion they discovered that Yankees had stopped at a Virginia plantation and made off with a black carriage driver’s watch. The Confederates rode down the blue-bellies, and Confederate Captain William Blackford told them: “Do you see those pine saplings? Well, those ladies back there [at the plantation] tell me you treated them with respect if you hadn’t, I would be hanging every one of you by your halter straps. Now, one of you took a watch from an old Negro back there. Hand it up to me.” The watch was surrendered and returned to its rightful owner.

JEB Stuart took pride in such knight errantry among his men. Blackford noted that “next to having a staff composed of handsome men about him, he liked to see them mounted on fine horses.” And lest you, as a decadent modern reader, suspect something awry from the mention of “handsome men” I can assure that you’re wrong. For him it was simply a matter of having knights worthy of their calling—handsome, daring, well-bred, on fine horses, laughing at hazards, and dancing and singing the night away. And lest Stuart’s fondness for balls, flirtations, and girls bearing flowers lead your thoughts down another immoral alley, we have it on the good authority of his staff officers that Stuart was utterly innocent in these matters.

Stuart was a man who stood by his vows. He told his mother, at the age of twelve, that he would never drink alcohol—and he never did. He even left orders that if he were wounded he was not to be given medicinal whiskey. He was also a keen supporter of religious revivals among the men, and told one scoffer that he regarded no calling higher than that of a clergyman. It might be hard today to find hearts so pure, but surely it is harder when Virginians, and others, no longer aspire to the spirit of the Virginia cavalier, no longer think of chivalry as an ideal to be pursued, or of knighthood as a practice for the current age. Such ambitions are gone with the wind, ground out, as JEB Stuart eventually was, by the ruthless determination of the likes of Phil Sheridan.


James Ewell Brown Stuart

Jeb Stuart was born in Patrick County, Va., on Feb. 6, 1833. Educated at home and at Emory and Henry College, he entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1850 and graduated thirteenth in the class of 1854. On Nov. 14, 1855, he married Flora Cooke they had three children.

Commissioned brevet second lieutenant in the Mounted Rifles, Stuart was transferred to the 1st U.S. Cavalry in 1855. In October 1859 he served as aide to Col. Robert E. Lee in capturing John Brown at Harpers Ferry, Va. He resigned his commission when Virginia seceded from the Union, and as the Civil War began he accepted appointment as colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry.

Assigned to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley, Stuart quickly distinguished himself for daring. Gallantry at First Manassas (Bull Run) in July 1861 earned him a brigadier general's wreath. In June 1862 Gen. Lee ordered him to reconnoiter Gen. George B. McClellan's rear positions on the Virginia Peninsula. Leading 1,200 men, Stuart won lasting renown with his "Ride around McClellan." Promoted to major general in July 1862, he took command of the cavalry division of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

Stuart became one of the most skilled scouts and intelligence officers in the war. He distinguished himself in the campaign of Second Manassas, and in the invasion of Maryland he and his dismounted troopers proved stubborn fighters. In December 1862 Stuart's horse artillery helped stall the attack on Stonewall Jackson's corps at Fredericksburg. Perhaps his most decisive action came during Jackson's march to intercept Gen. Joseph Hooker in the Virginia Wilderness in April 1863. Assigned the task of discovering enemy plans and screening the Confederate advance, Stuart, plumed hat everywhere in evidence, his banjo-playing companion, "Sweeny," in tow, did superbly. When Jackson was mortally wounded in the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, Stuart took temporary command of the II Corps and handled it well in the action of May 3.

At Brandy Station, Va., Stuart's cavalry was surprised and sorely tested for the first time. In the Gettysburg campaign, Stuart's love of adventure led him to his one glaring blunder when Lee most needed him, Stuart was away on a raid toward Washington, D.C. Rejoining the army on July 2, Stuart's command had no decisive part in the Battle of Gettysburg.

Stuart did not disappoint Lee again. With dwindling manpower and scant forage, he managed Lee's cavalry adroitly through the winter and spring of 1863-1864. On May 11, 1864, Stuart halted Gen. Philip Sheridan's big corps heading for Richmond, but he was wounded at Yellow Tavern and died the next day. His death removed a quality of zeal from Lee's cavalry and left a permanent gap in Southern leadership.


Jeb Stuart

James Ewell Brown Stuart – Confederate cavalry officer whose reports of enemy troop movements were of particular value to the Southern command during the American Civil War (1861-65).

An 1854 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Stuart resigned his commission to share in the defense of his state when Virginia seceded from the Union (April 1861). At the First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) that July, he distinguished himself by his personal bravery. Later in the year he was promoted to brigadier general and placed in command of the cavalry brigade of the Army of Northern Virginia. Just before the Seven Days’ Battle–fought in June 1862 in defense of Richmond–Stuart was sent out by Confederate general Robert E. Lee to locate the right flank of the Federal army under General George B. McClellan. He not only successfully achieved his mission, but he also rode completely around McClellan’s army to deliver his report to Lee. In the next campaign he had the good fortune, in his raid against Federal communications, to bring back a staff document from which Lee was able to discover the strength and position of Federal forces.

Stuart, promoted to a major general and commander of the cavalry corps, was present at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas, August 1862) and again circled the Federal army, returning with 1,200 enemy horses. During the Maryland campaign that followed, he brilliantly defended one of the passes of South Mountain (Crampton’s Gap), thus enabling Lee to concentrate his army in time to meet McClellan’s attack. By the winter of 1862 Stuart’s extraordinary skill as an intelligence officer was fully recognized, and Lee called him the “eyes of the army.”

At the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862) Stuart’s horse artillery rendered valuable service by checking the Federal attack on General T.J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson’s corps. The following May at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Stuart was appointed by Lee to take command of the 2nd Army Corps after Jackson had been wounded.

The next campaign at Gettysburg, Pa. (July 1863), was preceded by the cavalry Battle of Brandy Station (June 9), at which for the first time Stuart and his men were met by worthy opposition from the Federal cavalry. The Confederates’ northward march to the Potomac River was screened by Stuart’s cavalry corps, which held the various approaches on the right flank of the army. Stuart’s conduct at Gettysburg was long a subject of controversy. Though ordered by Lee to deploy his cavalry as a screen while also gathering intelligence for the advancing Confederate army, Stuart instead struck off on a raid, was delayed, and arrived at Gettysburg too late to provide Lee with vital information on the positions and movements of the Union forces. When Stuart did rejoin Lee’s army at Gettysburg on July 2, the battle had already begun, and his exhausted forces were of little help.

Throughout the winter of 1863-64 Stuart continued to supply the Confederate command with accurate knowledge of Northern troop movements. But soon after the opening of the 1864 campaign his corps was drawn away from Lee’s army by General Philip Sheridan’s Federal cavalry forces. In attempting to keep the enemy from reaching Richmond, during the engagement generally known as Spotsylvania Courthouse, Stuart’s army met defeat (May 11), and he himself was mortally wounded at close range the next day.


Person:James Stuart (37)

James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (February 6, 1833May 12, 1864) was a United States Army officer from Virginia who became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as "Jeb", from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. While he cultivated a cavalier image (red-lined gray cape, yellow sash, hat cocked to the side with an ostrich plume, red flower in his lapel, often sporting cologne), his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears of Robert E. Lee's army and inspired Southern morale.

Stuart graduated from West Point in 1854, and served in Texas and Kansas with the U.S. Army. He was a veteran of the frontier conflicts with Native Americans and the violence of Bleeding Kansas, and he participated in the capture of John Brown at Harpers Ferry.

He resigned, when his home state of Virginia seceded, to serve in the Confederate Army, first under Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, but then in increasingly important cavalry commands of the Army of Northern Virginia, playing a role in all of that army's campaigns until his death. He established a reputation as an audacious cavalry commander and on two occasions (during the Peninsula Campaign and the Maryland Campaign) circumnavigated the Union Army of the Potomac, bringing fame to himself and embarrassment to the North. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, he distinguished himself as a temporary commander of the wounded Stonewall Jackson's infantry corps.

Stuart's most famous campaign, the Gettysburg Campaign, was flawed when his long separation from Lee's army, left Lee unaware of Union troop movements so that Lee was surprised and almost trapped at the Battle of Gettysburg. Stuart received significant criticism from the Southern press as well as the postbellum proponents of the Lost Cause movement.

During the 1864 Overland Campaign, Union Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's cavalry launched an offensive to defeat Stuart, who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern. Stuart's widow wore black for the rest of her life in remembrance of her deceased husband.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Jeb_Stuart. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.


Jeb Stuart Monument in Richmond, Virginia (1907)

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at J.E.B. Stuart. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

[Includes monument photos and portrait photo.]

. James E. B. Stuart graduated at West Point 1854, and was commissioned second lieutenant of cavalry wounded in battle with Cheyenne Indians, 1858 was at capture of John Brown in 1859 promoted 1860 to captaincy in United States Army in 1861 resigned and joined Confederate side, and was made Lieut.-Col. 1st Va. Cavalry, and rose rapidly to be Major-General, and was placed in command of all the cavalry of the army of Northern Va. Enjoyed the friendship and confidence of Lee, Jackson, and J. E. Johnston, and won the devotion of his men. This enterprising and distinguished officer— the Murat of the Confederacy — was killed at the age of 29, May, 1864, at the battle of Yellow Tavern. He was the youngest Major-General since the days of Napoleon. He was the idol of the army and of the people of Va. He m Flora, d of Gen. Philip St. George Cooke, U. S. A., by whom he left two children: 1. J. E. B., and 2. Virginia. .


Jeb Stuart

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Jeb Stuart, byname of James Ewell Brown Stuart, (born Feb. 6, 1833, Patrick county, Va., U.S.—died May 12, 1864, Yellow Tavern, near Richmond, Va.), Confederate cavalry officer whose reports of enemy troop movements were of particular value to the Southern command during the American Civil War (1861–65).

An 1854 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Stuart resigned his commission to share in the defense of his state when Virginia seceded from the Union (April 1861). At the First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) that July, he distinguished himself by his personal bravery. Later in the year he was promoted to brigadier general and placed in command of the cavalry brigade of the Army of Northern Virginia. Just before the Seven Days’ Battle—fought in June 1862 in defense of Richmond—Stuart was sent out by Confederate general Robert E. Lee to locate the right flank of the Federal army under General George B. McClellan. He not only successfully achieved his mission, but he also rode completely around McClellan’s army to deliver his report to Lee. In the next campaign he had the good fortune, in his raid against Federal communications, to bring back a staff document from which Lee was able to discover the strength and position of Federal forces.

Stuart, promoted to a major general and commander of the cavalry corps, was present at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas, August 1862) and again circled the Federal army, returning with 1,200 enemy horses. During the Maryland campaign that followed, he brilliantly defended one of the passes of South Mountain (Crampton’s Gap), thus enabling Lee to concentrate his army in time to meet McClellan’s attack. By the winter of 1862 Stuart’s extraordinary skill as an intelligence officer was fully recognized, and Lee called him the “eyes of the army.”

At the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862) Stuart’s horse artillery rendered valuable service by checking the Federal attack on General T.J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson’s corps. The following May at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Stuart was appointed by Lee to take command of the 2nd Army Corps after Jackson had been wounded.

The next campaign at Gettysburg, Pa. (July 1863), was preceded by the cavalry Battle of Brandy Station (June 9), at which for the first time Stuart and his men were met by worthy opposition from the Federal cavalry. The Confederates’ northward march to the Potomac River was screened by Stuart’s cavalry corps, which held the various approaches on the right flank of the army. Stuart’s conduct at Gettysburg was long a subject of controversy. Though ordered by Lee to deploy his cavalry as a screen while also gathering intelligence for the advancing Confederate army, Stuart instead struck off on a raid, was delayed, and arrived at Gettysburg too late to provide Lee with vital information on the positions and movements of the Union forces. When Stuart did rejoin Lee’s army at Gettysburg on July 2, the battle had already begun, and his exhausted forces were of little help.

Throughout the winter of 1863–64 Stuart continued to supply the Confederate command with accurate knowledge of Northern troop movements. But soon after the opening of the 1864 campaign his corps was drawn away from Lee’s army by General Philip Sheridan’s Federal cavalry forces. In attempting to keep the enemy from reaching Richmond, during the engagement generally known as Spotsylvania Courthouse, Stuart’s army met defeat (May 11), and he himself was mortally wounded at close range the next day.


James 'Jeb' Stuart 1833-1864 - History

[CIVIL WAR]. STUART, James Ewell Brown "JEB" (1833-1864), Major General, CSA . Autograph letter signed twice ("J.E.B. Stuart"and "J.E.B.") to an unidentified member of the Confederate Congress, "Hd Qrs Cav Corps A.N. Va.," 10 February 1864. 4 full pages, 8vo, minor mat burn, evidence of mounting in margins of pages 2 and 3 .

JEB STUART CAMPAIGNS FOR PROMOTION TO LIEUTENANT GENERAL

A fine letter in which the daring cavalry commander expresses frustration over his slow advancement. Writing to a member of the Confederate Congress, Stuart sarcastically says: "I see the House is hard at work so am I. My reports are still up nearly to completion. Genl Lee's Pennsylvania [Gettysburg] report went in some time ago & mine with it. I have been so fortunate as to hold a command, properly belonging to a higher grade, I have escaped Providentially, being hurt, and as one consequence have not been promoted. When I lose my head however I hope to be promoted . Apropo of this subject of promotion I will quote part of what I endorsed on Mosby's last report of his operations - 'While self consciousness of having done his duty well is the patriot-soldier's best reward, yet the evidence of the appreciation of his country, is a powerful incentive to renewed effort, which should not be overlooked nor undervalued by those who have risen to the highest point of military and civic eminence -- that evidence is promotion .' That Col[onel] is the true doctrine . It is not always practicable to promote the deserving but when it is practicable it ought to be awarded graciously. A military man without aspirations is like a vessel without sail - a compass without the needle." The modest Stuart cautions that his comments should remain private: "I talk to you Col[onel] just the reflections that rise in my own mind, as to a friend who will not misconstrue what I write, but listen to the story with patience if not approval. Of course what I write on such subjects is private ." Stuart continued to campaign for his promotion to Lieutenant General throughout the Spring of 1864, but on 11 May of that year, he was fatally wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern.


Watch the video: Tribute To General. Stuart