The People of Azerbaijan - History

The People of Azerbaijan - History

Azerbaijan

The overwhelming majority of Azerbaijans population are of Azeri ethinic group and Muslim. The population lives in the major cities and in the fertile agricultural regions. The estimated population in 2017 was 9,961,396. The age expectancy is slightly above 63 years, and almost .79 percent of infants die at birth.

1990200020102016
Population, total (millions)7.168.059.059.76
Population growth (annual %)0.40.81.21.1
Income share held by lowest 20%..7.4....
Life expectancy at birth, total (years)65677172
Fertility rate, total (births per woman)2.721.91.9
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)33374553
Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49)..5555..
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)978199100
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)95743931
Prevalence of underweight, weight for age (% of children under 5)..146.54.9
Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)52678998
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)999090111
School enrollment, primary (% gross)114.697.293.8106.4
School enrollment, secondary (% gross)9274....
School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI)11....
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)0.10.10.10.1
Environment
Forest area (sq. km) (thousands)8.58.710.111.4
Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area)5.25.8..5.5
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal resources)..124.1147.5147.5
Urban population growth (annual %)-0.11.21.61.6
Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)3,1651,4031,2801,502
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)7.623.673.393.93
Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)2,5762,0401,6032,202

Azerbaijan » City Info » History

Pre historic excavations at Gobustan especially it’s rock paintings.

4th century B.C:

Emergence of two strong kingdoms, Caucasian Albania in north and Atropatan in south.

First Golden Age (9th -12th century A.D.):

Shirvanshah dynasty's governance from 7th century to 14th century A.D. Literature, arts and music prospered in this era. Great poet Nizami Ganjevi who created the epic ‘Khamsa’ born in this era.

Second Golden Age (15th -16th century A.D.):

Rule of Shah Ismail (Khatai) the First from the 15th century. An excellent ruler and connoisseur of arts, with himself being a poet. Established Azeri Turkish as state language of the vast empire of Safavids.

Partition of Azerbaijan:

After the decline of Safavids Empire in the 19th century, Russia and Persia divided Azerbaijan along the Araz River with the northern part under Russian control and southern ruled by Persia.

Transformation of Azerbaijan in the 20th century:

After the massive discovery of oil in Azerbaijan, the region transformed completely raising the socio-economic strata of the society with middle class people becoming millionaires.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920):

Under the leadership of Mehmet Emin Rasulzadeh, the first Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established with Georgian’s, Azerbaijanis, Russians, Armenian’s and Jewish leaders being included in its parliament.

Independence of Azerbaijan from Russia:

After 70 years of Russia rule, Azerbaijan’s won their Independence on October 18, 1991. Many martyrs had sacrificed their lives so that their country could see this day. In fact Azerbaijan is the only country with no Russian military force on its base. Today despite the fact that the oil and natural gas industry is the premium reason for growth in economy, people are facing economic hardships due to inflation and non-oil industries. But the situation has slowly improved and is improving with time as World Bank declared the country as top 10 reformer in 2008.


History

Azerbaijan is believed to be named after Atropates, a Median satrap (governor) who ruled in Atropatene (modern Iranian Azarbaijan). Atropates is derived from Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire." Azerbaijan has seen a host of inhabitants and invaders, including Caucasians, Medes, Scythians, Persians, Armenians, Greeks, Romans, Khazars, Arabs, Oghuz, Seljuks, Mongols, and Russians.

Ancient period

Caucasian Albanians are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of Azerbaijan. Early invaders included the Scythians in the ninth century BCE. Following the Scythians, the Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras. The Medes forged a vast empire between 900-700 BCE, which was overthrown by the Achaemenids around 550 BCE. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in Azerbaijan. The Achaemenids in turn were defeated by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, but the Median satrap Atropates was allowed to remain in power. Following the decline of the Seleucids in Persia in 247 BCE, an Armenian Kingdom exercised control over parts of Azerbaijan between 190 BCE to 428 CE. Caucasian Albanians established a kingdom in the 1st century BCE and largely remained independent until the Sassanids made the kingdom a vassal state in 252 CE. Caucasian Albania's ruler, King Urnayr, officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century CE, and Albania would remain a Christian state until the 8th century. Sassanid control ended with their defeat by Muslim Arabs in 642 CE.

Medieval period

Muslim Arabs defeated the Sassanids and Byzantines as they marched into the Caucasus region. The Arabs made Caucasian Albania a vassal state after the Christian resistance, led by Prince Javanshir, surrendered in 667. Between the 9th and 10th centuries, Arab authors began to refer to the region between the Kura and Aras rivers as Arran. During this time, Arabs from Basra and Kufa came to Azerbaijan and seized lands that indigenous peoples had abandoned the Arabs became a land-owning elite. Conversion to Islam was slow as local resistance persisted for centuries and resentment grew as small groups of Arabs began migrating to cities such as Tabriz and Maraghah. This influx sparked a major rebellion in Iranian Azarbaijan from 816&ndash837, led by a local commoner named B𐆺k. However, despite pockets of continued resistance, the majority of the inhabitants of Azerbaijan converted to Islam. Later on, in the 10th and 11th centuries, Kurdish dynasties of Shaddadid and Rawadid ruled parts of Azerbaijan.

In the middle of the 11th century, the Seljuq dynasty overthrew Arab rule and established an empire that encompassed most of Southwest Asia. The Seljuk period marked the influx of Oghuz nomads into the region and, thus, the beginning of the turkification of Azerbaijan as the West Oghuz Turkic language supplanted earlier Caucasian and Iranian ones.

However, Iranian cultural influence survived, as evidenced by the works of then contemporary writers such as Persian poet Nezāmī Ganjavī. The emerging Turkic identity was chronicled in epic poems or dastans, the oldest being the Book of Dede Korkut, which relate allegorical tales about the early Turks in the Caucasus and Asia Minor. Turkic dominion was interrupted by the Mongols in 1227 and later the Mongols and Tamerlane ruled the region until 1405. Turkic rule returned with the Sunni Qara Qoyunlū (Black Sheep Turkmen) and Aq Qoyunlū (White Sheep Turkmen), who dominated Azerbaijan until the Shi'a Safavids took power in 1501.

Modern period

The Safavids, who rose from Iranian Azerbaijan, established a the modern multi-ethnic Iranian state, which lasted until 1722. Noted for achievements in state building, architecture, and the sciences, the Safavid state crumbled due to internal decay and external pressures from the Russians and Afghans. The Safavids encouraged and spread Shi'a Islam which is an important part of the national identity of Iranian Azerbaijani people as well as many Azerbaijanis from the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Safavids encouraged the arts and culture and Shah Abbas the Great created an intellectual atmosphere which according to some scholars was a new Golden Age of Persia. He reformed the government and the military, and responded to the needs of the common people.

After the Safavid state came brief Ottoman rule followed by the conquest of Nadir Shah Afshar, a chieftain from Khorasan who reduced the power of the Shi'a. The brief reign of Karim Khan came next, followed by the Qajars, who ruled Azerbaijan and Iran starting in 1779. Russia loomed as a threat to Persian holdings in the Caucasus in this period. The Russo-Persian Wars began in the 18th century and ended in the early 19th century with the Gulistan Treaty of 1813 and the Turkmanchai Treaty in 1828, which officially gave the Caucasian portion of Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire..

Iranian Azerbaijan's role in the Iranian constitutional revolution cannot be underestimated. The greatest figures of the democracy seeking revolution Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan were both from Iranian Azerbaijan. The Constitutional Revolution of 1906-11 shook the Qajar dynasty, whose kings had virtually sold the country to the tobacco and oil interests of the British Empire and has lost territory to the Russian empire. A parliament (Majlis) came into existence by the efforts of the constitutionalists. It was accompanied in some regions by a peasant revolt against tax collectors and landlords, the only indigenous mainstay of the monarchy. Pro-democracy newspapers appeared, and Iranian intellectuals began to relish the modernist breezes blowing from Paris and Petrograd. The Qajar Shah and his British advisers crushed the Constitutional Revolution, but the demise of the dynasty could not be long postponed. The last Shah of the Qajar dynasty was soon removed by a military coup led by Reza Khan, an officer of an old Cossack regiment, which had been created by Czarist Russia and officered by Russians to protect the Qajar ruler and Russian interests. In the quest of imposing national homogeneity on the country where half of the population consisted of ethnic minorities, Reza Shah issued in quick succession bans on the use of Azerbaijani language on the premises of schools, in theatrical performances, religious ceremonies, and, finally, in the publication of books.

With the dethronment of Reza Shah in September 1941, Russian troops captured Tabriz and northwestern Persia for military and strategic reasons. Azerbaijan People's Government, a client state set up by the order of Stalin himself, under leadership of Sayyid Jafar Pishevari was proclaimed in Tabriz However, under pressure by the Western countries, the Soviet army was soon withdrawn, and the Iranian government regained control over Iranian Azerbaijan by the end of 1946.

While the Azeris in Iran largely integrated into modern Iranian society, the northern Azeris lived through the transition from the Russian Empire to brief independence from 1918-1920 and then incorporation into the Soviet Union despite pleas by Woodrow Wilson for their independence at the Treaty of Versailles conference. The Republic of Azerbaijan achieved independence in 1991, but became embroiled in a war over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia.


Religion and Festivals

Women in traditional wear for Novruz celebrations, Baku, Azerbaijan. Image credit: Photographer RM/Shutterstock

The government of Azerbaijan has not identified any religion as the official religion of the country. Despite this, the vast majority of the population here identifies as a practicing Muslim. In fact, only around 5% of the population follows Christianity, the Russian Orthodox Church specifically.

One of the biggest festivals celebrated in this country is the Novruz, which marks both the beginning of springtime and the beginning of the new year. Each of the four weeks leading up to the spring equinox are dedicated to one of the elements: water, fire, earth, and wind. People carry out festivities in honor of these elements each Tuesday. These activities could include planting a tree, cleaning the house, or baking pastries. The government has designated an entire week as a public holiday in recognition of Novruz. It is a mostly secular holiday so it has no outright religious affiliation, but it has been linked to Zoroastrianism, a pre-Islamic religion from Iran.


Geographical facts

21. Agricultural region: The Kura River Valley in Azerbaijan is its major agricultural zone.

22. Mountains vs plains: Mountains cover 60% area of the country and the remaining is covered by plains and lowlands.

23. Highest point: Bazarduzu ( Parent range: Greater Caucasus ) is the highest peak of the country at 4466 meters.

24. Location: Azerbaijan is located at the intersection of the temperate and subtropical climate zones.

25. Also known as: Azerbaijan is also called as “the museum of mineral waters.” Istisu (hot water spring), Sirab, and Badamly are famed mineral waters. The country has more than 1000 unlimited mineral water resources.

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26. A land of many rivers: Azerbaijan also has an abundance of small and large rivers accounting to more than 8400 in total. However, only 24 of these rivers are more than 100 kilometers long.

27. Country’s largest port: Baku, with an estimated population of 3 million, is the largest port on the Caspian Sea. Baku is expected to be 5,500 years old.

28. Baku is also interpreted as “windy city” or “city on a hill”.

29. Offshore oil: Baku is also home to the world’s first offshore oil platform – Oil Rocks.

30. Relation with other countries: Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 158 countries. And it is also a member of the United Nations, IMF, and NATO.


Major studies of Azeris

Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Albert Valeev, Sergei Litvinov, Ruslan Valiev, Vita Akhmetova, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, and Shahlo Turdikulova. "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia." PLoS Genetics 11:4 (April 21, 2015): e1005068.
The dataset for this autosomal DNA study includes samples from 18 Azeris from northwestern Iran and 5 Azeris from Daghestan. The Azeris received their partial Turkic ancestry around the 9th century according to the genetic evidence and didn't subsequently receive much or any additional Turkic ancestry, since their "Central Asian ancestors crossed the Iranian plateau and became largely inaccessible to subsequent gene flow with other Turkic speakers". Their ADMIXTURE analysis, shown in Figure 2, demonstrated that the Azeris "share most of their genetic ancestry with their current geographic non-Turkic neighbors."

Roza Arambievna. "Genogeografiya tyurkoyazichnikh narodov Kavkaza: analiz izmenchivosti Y-khromosomy." Dissertation. Moscow, 2013.
125 Azerbaijani men from Azerbaijan and Daghestan were tested and compared with other peoples of the Caucasus. Azerbaijanis and Kumyks have similar genetic profiles in terms of what Y-DNA haplogroups they tend to have. They share the same 6 main Y-DNA haplogroups but possess them in different frequencies. Excerpts from the paper:

Levon Yepiskoposian, Shot Margarian, Laris Andonian, and Vahid Rashidvash. "The Location of Azaris on the Patrilineal Genetic Landscape of the Middle East (A Preliminary Report)." Iran and the Caucasus 15:1-2 (2011): pages 73-78.
The Azeris are more closely related to neighboring peoples than to Central Asians. They are mostly an Iranian people who adopted a Turkic language. Abstract:

L. Andonian, S. Rezaie, A. Margaryan, D. D. Farhud, K. Mohammad, K. Holakouie Naieni, M. R. Khorramizadeh, M. H. Sanati, M. Jamali, P. Bayatian, and Levon Yepiskoposyan. "Iranian Azeri's Y-Chromosomal Diversity in the Context of Turkish-Speaking Populations of the Middle East." Iranian Journal of Public Health 40:1 (2011): pages 119-123.
100 unrelated Turkic-speaking Azeri males from northwestern Iran were tested on their Y-DNA. Conclusion:

Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Ahmad Ranjbar, Ali Rahimipour, Kazem Najati, and Mohammad Rahbani Nobar. "Molecular diversity of mitochondrial DNA in Iranian Azeri ethnicities vis-à-vis other Azeris in Asia." Iranian Journal of Biotechnology 9:2 (April 2011).
133 ethnic Azeri people from Iran's Azerbaijan region were tested on their mtDNA. Excerpts from the abstract:

"[. ] Fourteen haplogroups were characterized from which 82% were identified as European specific haplogroups. The H haplogroup was the most frequent and 79 haplotypes were specified. In this study, the Iranian Azeri population was found to be a heterogenic population where all the specific haplogroups of Asians, Europeans and Africans were present in the studied population. Comparing the haplogroups of the present investigation with other populations indicated a very close similarity with other Iranian populations, but was different from haplogroups of other Asian populations who also speak the Azeri language."

Excerpts from the middle of the study:

"[. ] 14 haplogroups were found, where more than 90% of the Azeri population belonged to the I, U, K, T, J, H, HV, W and X haplogroups . The most prevalent of these was the H haplogroup (25.57%) followed by the U haplogroup (20.3%). From the European haplogroups, 8 haplogroups H, I, J, K, T, U, W, X were found in 109 Azeris (81.96%) the West Asian haplogroup, HV, was found to be present in 13 Azeris (9.77%). Three Azeris (2.26%) with the N haplogroup and 4 others with unknown haplogroups (3%) were also observed. From the 8 Asian haplogroups (A-G, M), the A, M and D haplogroups were found in 3 Azeris (2.26%) and the African haplogroup (L) was observed in one Azeri subject (0.75%) (Table 2). [. ] In this population, specific European (H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, X), Asians (M, A, D) and African (L) haplogroups of the mtDNA have been observed, but most of this population (82%) possess the European specific haplogroups . [. ] Considering the similarity between the Azeri and Iranian haplogroups (Table 3), it can be concluded that the Iranian population have been living in Azerbaijan since ancient times, and a small ethnic group who spoke the Altaic language subsequently invaded this region, as confirmed by historical documents. In the 11th century this region was invaded by 'Seljuq' Turks (Gharagheshlaghi et al., 2007) and 'Oghuz' nomadic riders (Johanson et al., 1998)."

Ivan Nasidze, Tamara Sarkisian, Azer Kerimov, and Mark Stoneking. "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome." Human Genetics 112 (2003): pages 255-261.
This study showed that some Azeris of Azerbaijan are closely related to Armenians and Kurds, and not very related to other Turkic-speaking peoples. This is because Azeris descend primarily from an indigenous people that adopted the Turkic language later on. Abstract:

Tatiana Zerjal, R. Spencer Wells, Nadira Yuldasheva, Ruslan Ruzibakiev, and Chris Tyler-Smith. "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia." American Journal of Human Genetics 71:3 (September 2002): pages 466-482.
Azeri people descend to a small extent from Central Asians, as reflected by the Y-DNA haplogroup H12. Azeris have more Central Asian ancestry than Armenians and Georgians do. Excerpt from the middle of the study:

P. Sh. Asadova, Yu. V. Shneider, I. N. Shilnikova, and O. V. Zhukova. "Genetic Structure of Iranian-Speaking Populations from Azerbaijan Inferred from the Frequencies of Immunological and Biochemical Gene Markers." Russian Journal of Genetics 39:11 (November 2003): pages 1334-1342.
The Talysh and Tat peoples of Azerbaijan speak Iranian languages. They were found to be very closely related to Turkic-speaking Azeris. Abstract:

Research conducted by Maziar Ashrafian Bonab, et al. of the Department of Genetics at University of Cambridge showed that Azeris living in Iran are connected to the Persian (Iranian) people of Iran in terms of their FST (fixation index) value, their MRCA (most recent common ancestor), and their mtDNA genetic types, and that Azeris are distant from Anatolian Turks and European Turks.

Fulvio Cruciani, Roberta La Fratta, Beniamino Trombetta, Piero Santolamazza, Daniele Sellitto, Eliane Beraud Colomb, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Federica Crivellaro, Tamara Benincasa, Roberto Pascone, Pedro Moral, Elizabeth Watson, Bela Melegh, Guido Barbujani, Silvia Fuselli, Giuseppe Vona, Boris Zagradisnik, Guenter Assum, Radim Brdicka, Andrey I. Kozlov, Georgi D. Efremov, Alfredo Coppa, Andrea Novelletto, and Rosaria Scozzari. "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12." Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6) (June 2007): pages 1300-1311. First published online on March 10, 2007.
"Table 1: Frequencies (%) of the Y-chromosome E-M78 sub-haplogroups in the 81 populations analyzed" includes samples from 97 Azeri males. 2.06% of them (that is, two individuals) were in E-M78 and 2.06% in E-V13.

Siiri Rootsi, Natalie M. Myres, Alice A. Lin, Mari Järve, Roy J. King, Ildus A. Kutuev, Vicente M. Cabrera, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Kärt Varendi, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Doron M. Behar, Rita Khusainova, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovska, Pavao Rudan, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Shirin Farjadian, Alena Kushniarevich, Rene J. Herrera, Viola Grugni, Vincenza Battaglia, Carmela Nici, Francesca Crobu, Sena Karachanak, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Massoud Houshmand, Mohammad H. Sanati, Draga Toncheva, Antonella Lisa, Ornella Semino, Jacques Chiaroni, Julie Di Cristofaro, Richard Villems, Toomas Kivisild, and Peter A. Underhill. "Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus." European Journal of Human Genetics 20 (2012): pages 1275-1282. First published online on May 16, 2012.
297 Azeri men from Iran were included in this study. Supplementary Table 1 tells us that 38 out of these Azeris carried G haplogroups, or 12.8%. Breaking this down into the subhaplogroups, 3% of the Azeris had G-P15, 2% had G-M527, 2% had G-M406, 1.7% had G-P303, and all other G subhaplogroups were less frequent. For G1, 1.3% was the frequency. G haplogroup diversity among the Azeris was 0.88, among the highest of the groups in the study.

Viola Grugni, Vincenza Battaglia, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Silvia Parolo, Nadia Al-Zahery, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Francesca Gandini, Massoud Houshmand, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Antonio Torroni, and Ornella Semino. "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians." PLoS ONE 7(7) (July 18, 2012): e41252.
938 males from 15 ethnic groups living in Iran had their Y-chromosomes tested. 63 Azeris from the Azerbaijan Gharbi region of northwestern Iran were among the test subjects. The study suggests "The Azari people likely derive from ancient Iranic tribes, such as the Medians in Iranian Azerbaijan. [. ] Today, the Azari language is completely replaced by Turkish or Azeri language. The question remains whether this language replacement happened with Turkish people gene flow or it happened simply as a result of acculturation without gene flow." The study presents the Azeris' Y-DNA data in Figure 1, "Frequencies of the main Y-chromosome haplogroups in the whole Iranian population (inset pie)", where it is shown that G-M201, J2-M410, Q-M242, R1-M269, R1-M198, and T-M70, are some of the haplogroups encountered among the Azeris of Iran. The exact percentages of their presence are listed on "Table 1. Haplogroup frequencies (%) in the examined Iranian groups."

S. Farjadian and A. Ghaderi. "HLA class II similarities in Iranian Kurds and Azeris." International Journal of Immunogenetics 34:6 (December 2007): pages 457-463. First published online on October 4, 2007. Excerpts from the Abstract:


Azerbaijan Culture

Religion in Azerbaijan

Mostly Shia Muslim although there are Russian Orthodox and Jewish communities.

Social Conventions in Azerbaijan

Foreign women should dress modestly, especially in the rural areas, and cultivate a certain coolness of manner. Both men and women should avoid wearing shorts as this will attract unwelcome attention. Although mostly Muslim in population, Azerbaijan is a largely secular society that views religion as a private matter. Handshaking is the normal form of greeting. Business cards are invariably exchanged at any kind of official meeting, and not infrequently on first meeting socially as well. It's always a good idea to give gifts to people you meet, business contacts. Flowers, post-cards, picture books and alcohol make excellent presents.


Azerbaijan and Pakistan: Historical relations and perspectives

Having located most of its area in Asian Continent makes Azerbaijan as a half-brother of Pakistan by region. Owing to linkage of border with the neighboring states of Pakistan, aroma of delicious food and culture can also be experienced in Pakistan. Cherry on top, majority of people in both countries practices the same religion. Previously, Azerbaijan was under the USSR regime but after its defeat in Afghanistan, in which Pakistan played a major role. Azerbaijan got its independence from the USSR, after 80 years of struggle, in 1991. Pakistan was the first country to recognize Azerbaijan as an independent state that made our bond much stronger. The relationship of Pakistan with Azerbaijan has myriad of reasons, previously before the independence of Pakistan, Pakistan’s people going there for business purposes and its wareabouts can still be witnessed in the latter. They are strategic allies. The former is one of the few countries to recognize the Khojaly Massacre, carried out by Armenia against Azerbaijan’s people, a carnage in which according to local news more the six hundred people lost their lives and hundreds of people lost their beloved ones. Moreover, Pakistan also supports Azerbaijan’s side of Nagorno Karabakh conflict.

Therefore, it has not established ties with Armenia over the issue. Love and affection have always been flourishing from both sides and in pursuant, Azerbaijan is on Pakistan’s side on the Kashmir Issue. They have also increased their bilateral businesses with each other. Azerbaijan would love to join CPEC as well, as it is a leading route of trade to the Central Asia.

Both of the countries can acquire a bigger volume of trade in the upcoming future. They both had hitherto good relationship and it will grow even more in the future. If we consider that we have a very close people-to-people relationship than it won’t be true, the main reason behind this social gap is education and awareness.

Many of the new generation don’t know the close ties between them-the past history of both and how they helped each other in time of need. Both of the countries share the same ethnicity. Sharing common borders with Iran has brought drastic effects on culture commonality in both countries.

However, with the passage of time, the social media has brought awareness amongst the two nations and their close ties and traveling to Azerbaijan has become a norm in the youth of Pakistan. The more it is appreciated on governmental level, the more it will coalesce. Pakistan-Azerbaijan Alumni have also one of the prestigious role in bringing the two nations close together. Recently, Azerbaijan Dastarkhwan for the fasting the people of Pakistan was streaming on social media that gives an immense pleasure of brotherhood to the people of Pakistan.

Before the USSR collapse, Azerbaijan was under its regime. From 1920s Azerbaijan was dominated by the USSR and there were a lot of sanctions on it. It got its independent in 1991 from the former and became an independent country. Pakistan played a major role in its independence. Pakistan indirectly weaken the USSR in Afghanistan War which broke the back of the USSR and made it economically isolated.

Pakistan was the first country to recognize Azerbaijan as an independent state on December 12,1991. Just after 4 years of its independence Farooq Leghari- the than president of Pakistan- became the first person from Pakistan to visit Azerbaijan in 1995.Recently, the attendance of acting Deputy Speaker and Chairman of the Upper House of the Parliament of Pakistan visit to Azerbaijan on its 100th anniversary of its parliament will bloom the future relationship with Azerbaijan.

Similarly, the Khojaly Massacre, which was committed by Armenians in the Azerbaijan’s town of Khojaly on the night of 25-26th February, 1992, is considered one of the gravest crime against humanity in the late 20th century.

This merciless, cruel and heart trenching slaughtering was the most dreadful mass terror act in the history of humankind. Pakistan didn’t forget Khojaly Massacre. More than 613 people, including 63 children, 106 women and 70 old people were killed in the massacre.

Eight families were totally vanished. 130 children lost single parent and 25 children lost both. Some 1275 innocent resident were taken hostage, while the fate of 150 people is still unknown at large. Armenian armed forces slaughtered innocent people in Khojaly, so as to cover their tracks, they resorted to extreme brutality, destroying Khojaly Monuments, which had been a unique importance to the people of Azerbaijan and entire humanity as well, owing to this very reason Pakistan stood with Azerbaijan on Nagorno-Karabakh Issue and has given its clear stance on Khojaly Massacre. The former has not extended de-facto-recognition of the newly independent state of Armenia in order to express solidarity with the people of Azerbaijan. At the same, Azerbaijan fully support Pakistan on the Kashmir stance which is no different than Khojaly massacre, in Kashmir people are killed on daily basis through different manners. Azeri ambassador called for the implementation of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution on Kashmir. In addition to this Azerbaijan is also a member of Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir.

Furthermore, the bilateral strategic cooperation between these two states embraces the economic, cultural, political, and especially defense fields. Taking into account their close ties, the current level of military cooperation between them needs to be emphasized. While Azerbaijan’s defense industry has strategic relations with various countries, Baku has been seeking ways of expanding military cooperation with Pakistan in particular over the last years.

Giving Pakistan the status of a nuclear power, combined with its dynamic military muscle, military cooperation can be seen as another fundamental building block of the bilateral relationship. The two countries have signed a defense agreement in May of 2003, which allows Azerbaijani military personnel, in particular special force units, to take part in annual military drills along with Pakistan Armed Forces.

As a part of the agreement, Azerbaijan’s naval personnel have participated in the biggest Pakistan-led multinational exercise, AMAN-2013, held in March 2013 in the Arabian Sea. In addition to this, they will hold bilateral military exercises, according to comments from Ex-Pakistan’s Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif during his official visit to Azerbaijan in October 2016.

Beyond joint exercises, military and defense cooperation between Azerbaijan-Pakistan have taken form of continuous dialogue in high-level meetings, as well as military agreements such as the military cooperation agreement that was signed in February 2014 in Islamabad. The same document was updated in 2015 and 2016, during the Working Group Meetings in Baku and Islamabad, respectively.

Likewise, China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which is the future of trade from China to the whole world. Azerbaijan can take advantage by investing in the corridor. Also, the Azerbaijan is eyeing the JF-17 Thunder (also known as the FC-1 Xiaolong), a multi-functional aircraft that was jointly developed by Pakistan and China.

Although Azerbaijan has expressed interests in importing the JF-17, no formal deal has been reached yet. Nevertheless, the Pakistan Ministry of Defense was invited to demonstrate the JF-17 at the 2016 Azerbaijan International Defense Exhibition (ADEX-2016) for the first time. During the exhibition, Minister of Defense Industry Yavar Jamalov repeatedly showed interest in importing new fighter jets. In the same year, Azerbaijan’s First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub Eyyubov attended the International Defense Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS), where he reiterated his government’s interest in buying new aircraft. Currently, the Azerbaijan Air Forces operate mainly MiG-29, Su-25, and MiG-21 aircraft. JF-17 is highly economic, efficient and effective that could be witnessed from recent Indian attack where it has accepted defeat of its defense at the hands of JF-17.

The foreign policies of Azerbaijan have made plausible achievements in the past few years and relationship with Pakistan was always on their priority list.

If only the previous year is being examined we can find that both the countries have achieved milestones together in political, military, military-technical defense industry, security, cultural, media, science education, energy and humanitarian-social field. The trade turn over between the two countries have enormously increased by 25 percent in 2018. In the past one year around 40 mutual visits of ministers, government and military officials from both sides have occurred.

The number of tourists from both countries increased more than 10 times in past two years. To this Azerbaijan have brought a proposal of direct flight to Pakistan which will decrease the fare of traveling and will increase the social interaction of people in both countries. Azerbaijan have always taken two steps forward in friendship, State oil company of Azerbaijan(SOCAR) offered oil and oil products on deferred payment when Pakistan is in dire need of it due to de-escalation of economy. There are many such areas which will increase the bond of brotherhood of both countries.

All the above discussion brings us to conclusion that Azerbaijan and Pakistan have always been in good relationship with each other and it can be further enhanced by mutual cooperation at political, economic, social, technological and legal levels.

Azerbaijan has recently eased the visa process for Pakistanis which was a huge step for tourism industry and people-to-people interaction. Like in the past both countries have always stands by each other side on different issues i.e. Khojaly genocide, Kashmir issue etc. In the future, the bond will get much stronger as both the countries have great potential of bilateral business.

Moreover, Unity by faith integrates countries much stronger .Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan are Islamic countries and share the same faith. Pakistan and Azerbaijan’s governments can introduce students exchange program that can further make the two nations imbue of each other.

Bilateral business of buying arms, textile, and other minerals which is the major export area of Azerbaijan. Introducing each other product in their respective states can bring economic growth to them. It cannot only bring job opportunities for the new generation but can also introduce new ways of industrialization in both countries.

The attendance of paratroopers from Azerbaijan in 23rd March Parade-Pakistan’s day-made the event more mesmerizing and gave a gesture of brotherhood.

Both the countries had good relationship in the past and it will grow with each day passing in the future.


Colonialism and Nationalism

The Caucasus highlands are a region of stunning natural beauty and tremendous ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity. Stretching from the Black Sea to the shores of the Caspian, it is home to a vast array of communities: Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Russians, Meskhetian and Akhıska Turks, Kurds, Yezidis, Daghestanis, Abkhaz, Circassians, Chechens, Talysh, Ossetians, and Ingush, to name but a few.

The current din of nationalist posturing should not, however, obscure the enormous wealth of cultural heritage the incredibly diverse peoples of the region share, from music and dance to folklore and cuisine.

Between the early sixteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the region formed the northern part of a vast and ill-defined frontier zone that separated the Sunni Ottoman Empire from its Shi’ite rivals in Iran. While frequently the site of conflict between these two Muslim imperia, the territories that today make up modern Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan generally fell within the Iranian sphere of influence.

Given the geography and the technological constraints of the era, outside powers typically exercised their sovereignty with a light touch. Across the region local potentates enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy, with the various ethnic and religious communities living side by side in relative peace. However, between 1801 and 1828, Russian military expansion forced the Iranians from the Eastern Caucasus and the region was absorbed into the Caucasus Viceroyalty, administered from the cosmopolitan city of Tbilisi (today the capital of Georgia).

Regarding Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh specifically, the Armenian connection to the region can be traced back to antiquity. The region is still dotted with medieval Armenian monasteries and other major architectural monuments. However, although a major center of Armenian culture and religion, the region has long possessed a cosmopolitan character.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the city of Shushi/Shusha emerged as a site of cultural renaissance for both Armenians and Azerbaijani Turks. At the time of Sovietization, censuses show that Christian Armenians outnumbered Azerbaijanis nine to one in the highlands (i.e. Nagorno-Karabakh), while in the surrounding lowlands the population was predominantly Muslim.

As with many colonial regimes, the policies of the Russian administration heightened tensions among the various peoples of the Caucasus, a trend exacerbated by the rise of nationalism. Increasingly, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries intercommunal relations were placed under ever greater strain as populations came to regard themselves as members of distinct national communities.

This was particularly true of the Christian Armenians and Muslim Caucasian Turks, who, in the early twentieth century came to adopt the name Azerbaijani (Azerbaijan historically referring to the predominately Turkish-speaking province of north-western Iran and not the modern-day republic of Azerbaijan).

To a certain degree, ethno-national tensions were kept under control by the tsarist autocracy, but as imperial Russia began to unravel so too did the Caucasus. In 1905, with the empire in revolutionary tumult, a wave of intercommunal bloodletting, pitting Armenians against Azerbaijani Turks, swept the region, leaving hundreds dead. Then came the barbarism of the First World War.

For the Armenian community, the war was especially traumatic due to the Ottoman government’s decision in 1915 to initiate a genocidal campaign of deportation, rape, and massacre against the empire’s Armenian community that left possibly as many as 1.5 million dead.

While the Armenians of the Russian Empire were spared this annihilation, the genocide profoundly shaped the Armenian people. A significant proportion of modern Armenia’s population are descendants of refugee-survivors of the genocide, and thus the events of 1915 have come to be a lens through which the conflict with the Azerbaijanis is viewed.

The war was of monumental significance for another reason: it precipitated, following the revolutions of 1917, the destruction of the tsarist autocracy and the collapse of Russian authority in the Caucasus. In the immediate aftermath of this breakdown of colonial administration, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and, with the defeat of the Central Powers, Great Britain all sought (unsuccessfully) to extend their influence into the region.

The aftermath of the 1917 revolutions also witnessed growing political fragmentation with the formation — following a brief experiment in federative unity in the spring of 1918 — of independent Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani republics.

The upshot: war. Nationalists sought to enforce claims over what were often ethnically mixed regions, with hostilities erupting between Azerbaijan and Armenia. This first Armenian-Azerbaijani war, which lasted two years, only came to an end when the Soviets invaded the region in 1920.


Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan History People Facts Britannica - Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january.

Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan History People Facts Britannica - Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january.. If no one is willing to ratchet tensions down, then the fighting proceeds. On 8 december 1999, the agreement establishing the legal basis for further cooperation. The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. In baku, ganja, lankaran and nakchivan. Azerbaijan signs what it calls the contract of the century with a consortium of international oil companies for the exploration and exploitation of three offshore oil fields.

Although only a small portion of the country lies in europe, azerbaijan has strong ties with europe and has joined several european. Azerbaijan is an excellent place for hiking and trekking, providing many interesting trails. آذربایجان ‎, āzerbāyjān ɑːzæɾbɑjˈdʒɑn), also known as iranian azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern iran that borders iraq, turkey, the nakhchivan autonomous republic, armenia, and the republic of azerbaijan The united states is committed to strengthening democracy and. Azerbaijan declared independence from the collapsing soviet union on aug.

Azerbaijan Cancels Daylight Saving Time from c.tadst.com Embrace the following quirks, and immerse yourself in the culture and traditions of azerbaijan. Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january. Its population is predominantly azerbaijani (azeri). The majority of the enclave's inhabitants are armenian christians agitating to secede from the predominantly muslim azerbaijan and join with armenia. Azerbaijan is bordered by russia in the north, georgia in the northwest, armenia in the west, and iran in the south. An international airport is located southeast of the city. Azerbaijan, country of eastern transcaucasia. It declared its sovereignty in 1989 and received independence in 1991.

Exit permits are no longer required.

Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january. Azerbaijan coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: If no one is willing to ratchet tensions down, then the fighting proceeds. Few cities in the world are changing as quickly and nowhere else in the caucasus do east and west blend as seamlessly or as chaotically. We have reviews of the best places to see in azerbaijan. It is also the first muslim country to have theater plays and operas. There are several ovir offices in azerbaijan: Its population is predominantly azerbaijani (azeri). آذربایجان ‎, āzerbāyjān ɑːzæɾbɑjˈdʒɑn), also known as iranian azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern iran that borders iraq, turkey, the nakhchivan autonomous republic, armenia, and the republic of azerbaijan Things to do in azerbaijan, asia: The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. Azərbaycan ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn), officially the republic of azerbaijan, is a country located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia. Azerbaijan is a member of 38 international organizations and has a strong diplomatic relationship with turkey.

The people living in azerbaijan before thousands of years from today worshiped the fire as they considered it. Coordinates azerbaijan or azarbaijan (persian: Azərbaycan ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn), officially the republic of azerbaijan, is a country located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia. Azerbaijan is a country in the caucasus region of eurasia. Tripadvisor has 102,617 reviews of azerbaijan hotels, attractions, and restaurants making it your best azerbaijan resource.

Behind Aliyev Style Reforms Business As Usual Azerbaijan Areas Homepage Osservatorio Balcani E Caucaso Transeuropa from www.balcanicaucaso.org Azerbaijan, country of eastern transcaucasia. The caucasus, göygöl national park, quba or khinalug, just to name some destinations. See tripadvisor's 102,629 traveler reviews and photos of azerbaijan tourist attractions. The united states established diplomatic relations with azerbaijan in 1992, following its independence from the soviet union. There are also a number of theatres. There are several ovir offices in azerbaijan: Some traits may be familiar and others foreign and contradictory, but this is what makes the country special. The people living in azerbaijan before thousands of years from today worshiped the fire as they considered it.

The capital, baku, lies on the caspian sea.

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The majority of the enclave's inhabitants are armenian christians agitating to secede from the predominantly muslim azerbaijan and join with armenia. Azerbaijan has one condition, and that is the liberation of its territories, he said on sunday. There are several ovir offices in azerbaijan: Located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia, it is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north, georgia to the northwest, armenia to the west and iran to the south. Embrace the following quirks, and immerse yourself in the culture and traditions of azerbaijan.

Jan 20 Massacre Turning Point For Azerbaijan S Independence Baku S Envoy Says Daily Sabah from idsb.tmgrup.com.tr It was an independent country from 1918 to 1920 before being incorporated into the soviet union. Azerbaijan is rich in natural gas and oil and has a low unemployment rate. Azerbaijan imposes strict restrictions on the importation of many pain killers and other prescription narcotics available in the united states. If no one is willing to ratchet tensions down, then the fighting proceeds. Azerbaijan signs what it calls the contract of the century with a consortium of international oil companies for the exploration and exploitation of three offshore oil fields. It is situated both in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the earth. Using the links above you can find the full weekend schedule, including details of practice and qualifying sessions, support races, press conferences and special events. Although only a small portion of the country lies in europe, azerbaijan has strong ties with europe and has joined several european.

Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january.

Azerbaijan is rich in natural gas and oil and has a low unemployment rate. The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. However, due to the often remote nature of these trails, it is important that you are well prepared and have a proper and reliable map with you. Together, the two countries work to promote european energy security, expand bilateral trade and investment, and combat terrorism and transnational threats. Exit permits are no longer required. Azerbaijan coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: Its population is predominantly azerbaijani (azeri). The united states established diplomatic relations with azerbaijan in 1992, following its independence from the soviet union. It declared its sovereignty in 1989 and received independence in 1991. The majority of the enclave's inhabitants are armenian christians agitating to secede from the predominantly muslim azerbaijan and join with armenia. The capital, baku, lies on the caspian sea. We have reviews of the best places to see in azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is a country in the caucasus region of eurasia.

Source: cloudfront-us-east-2.images.arcpublishing.com

Uae's mbz was known as 'the boss' at banque havilland. There are several ovir offices in azerbaijan: Find what to do today or anytime in june. Azerbaijan is an ancient country with rich history and culture. The capital, baku, lies on the caspian sea.

Some traits may be familiar and others foreign and contradictory, but this is what makes the country special. It declared its sovereignty in 1989 and received independence in 1991. Tripadvisor has 102,617 reviews of azerbaijan hotels, attractions, and restaurants making it your best azerbaijan resource. Iom's presence in azerbaijan dates back to 1996 with the establishment of the iom baku office in january. Exit permits are no longer required.

Although only a small portion of the country lies in europe, azerbaijan has strong ties with europe and has joined several european. Located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia, it is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north, georgia to the northwest, armenia to the west and iran to the south. Azerbaijan imposes strict restrictions on the importation of many pain killers and other prescription narcotics available in the united states. If travelers must bring such medications, they should bring diagnosis and prescription paperwork from a licensed practitioner in the united. The united states is committed to strengthening democracy and.

Exit permits are no longer required. Its population is predominantly azerbaijani (azeri). Some traits may be familiar and others foreign and contradictory, but this is what makes the country special. There are several ovir offices in azerbaijan: Tripadvisor has 102,617 reviews of azerbaijan hotels, attractions, and restaurants making it your best azerbaijan resource.

If travelers must bring such medications, they should bring diagnosis and prescription paperwork from a licensed practitioner in the united. It is also the first muslim country to have theater plays and operas. Total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline. Its population is predominantly azerbaijani (azeri). If no one is willing to ratchet tensions down, then the fighting proceeds.

Source: www.adventurouskate.com

Azerbaijan declared independence from the collapsing soviet union on aug. Using the links above you can find the full weekend schedule, including details of practice and qualifying sessions, support races, press conferences and special events. Azerbaijan is a member of 38 international organizations and has a strong diplomatic relationship with turkey. Exit permits are no longer required. It was an independent country from 1918 to 1920 before being incorporated into the soviet union.

Azerbaijan is rich in natural gas and oil and has a low unemployment rate. Azerbaijan declared independence from the collapsing soviet union on aug. Although only a small portion of the country lies in europe, azerbaijan has strong ties with europe and has joined several european. The majority of the enclave's inhabitants are armenian christians agitating to secede from the predominantly muslim azerbaijan and join with armenia. The exclave of nakhchivan is bounded by armenia to the north and east, iran to the south and west, and has a 10 km (6.2 mi) long border.

Source: static.worldpoliticsreview.com

Find what to do today or anytime in june. See tripadvisor's 102,629 traveler reviews and photos of azerbaijan tourist attractions. It is also the first muslim country to have theater plays and operas. If no one is willing to ratchet tensions down, then the fighting proceeds. Exit permits are no longer required.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Azerbaijan imposes strict restrictions on the importation of many pain killers and other prescription narcotics available in the united states. It is situated both in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the earth. See tripadvisor's 102,629 traveler reviews and photos of azerbaijan tourist attractions. The united states is committed to strengthening democracy and. Plov, or pilaf, is a traditional food in azerbaijan as well as other places in asia and eastern europe.

Located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia, it is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north, georgia to the northwest, armenia to the west and iran to the south.

Azerbaijan signs what it calls the contract of the century with a consortium of international oil companies for the exploration and exploitation of three offshore oil fields.

It is a part of the caucasus region, and is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north.

Azerbaijan is an excellent place for hiking and trekking, providing many interesting trails.

Azerbaijan signs what it calls the contract of the century with a consortium of international oil companies for the exploration and exploitation of three offshore oil fields.

Source: www.intrepidtravel.com

Azerbaijan, country of eastern transcaucasia.

Source: storage.googleapis.com

It is situated both in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the earth.

Source: www.middleeasteye.net

Azerbaijan is a member of 38 international organizations and has a strong diplomatic relationship with turkey.

The exclave of nakhchivan is bounded by armenia to the north and east, iran to the south and west, and has a 10 km (6.2 mi) long border.

Source: lp-cms-production.imgix.net

Azerbaijan declared independence from the collapsing soviet union on aug.

Azerbaijan is located at the junction of eastern europe and western asia along the southern flanks of the caucasus mountains.

It was an independent country from 1918 to 1920 before being incorporated into the soviet union.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Museums include the state art museum (founded 1924) as well as collections devoted to education, history, and literature.

Azərbaycan ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn), officially the republic of azerbaijan, is a country located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia.

Total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline.

The united states established diplomatic relations with azerbaijan in 1992, following its independence from the soviet union.

Source: assets.traveltriangle.com

It is situated both in the northern and eastern hemispheres of the earth.

Together, the two countries work to promote european energy security, expand bilateral trade and investment, and combat terrorism and transnational threats.

Few cities in the world are changing as quickly and nowhere else in the caucasus do east and west blend as seamlessly or as chaotically.

Source: www.globalconstructionreview.com

Although only a small portion of the country lies in europe, azerbaijan has strong ties with europe and has joined several european.

Located at the crossroads of eastern europe and western asia, it is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north, georgia to the northwest, armenia to the west and iran to the south.

Azerbaijan is a country in the caucasus region of eurasia.

Source: www.adventurouskate.com

It is a part of the caucasus region, and is bounded by the caspian sea to the east, russia to the north.

Together, the two countries work to promote european energy security, expand bilateral trade and investment, and combat terrorism and transnational threats.

Using the links above you can find the full weekend schedule, including details of practice and qualifying sessions, support races, press conferences and special events.


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