Milwaukee

Milwaukee

Milwaukee is situated where the Milwaukee, Menomonee and Kinnickinnic rivers flow into Milwaukee Bay. Mahn-a-waukee Seepe ("gathering place by the river") was used by several Native American tribes and was visited by Jacques Marquette and Luis Joliet in 1673.

In 1793 the North West Company established a fur-trading post in Milwaukee. A French-Canadian, Solomon Juneau, arrived in 1818 and his fur trading enabled him to acquire a considerable fortune. Juneau acquired large areas of land in the area and built the settlement's first store and tavern and became president of the village in 1837.

After the failed revolutions in Europe in 1848, Milwaukee attracted large numbers of immigrants escaping from dictatorial rulers. In 1890 over 80,000 people living in the city had been born in Europe. This was 39 per cent of the 240,000 population and included over 55,000 from Germany.

These immigrants brought with them progressive political ideas and the city soon had a large and active branch of the Socialist Party. The leader of the group was Victor Berger, the editor of the Milwaukee Leader. In 1910 the party put up Emil Seidel as their candidate for mayor. With the support of the city's large German-born population, Seidel became the first socialist mayor of a city in the United States. One of Seidel's achievements was to introduce the country's first worker's compensation program in 1911. Other initiatives included adult and worker education classes and free medical and dental examinations for schoolchildren.

The supporters of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party joined forces to defeat Seidel in 1912. However, another socialist, Daniel Hoan, was elected in 1916. Hoan remained mayor for twenty-four years, the longest continuous socialist administration in United States history. He brought in a large number of progressive reforms including the country's first public housing project, Garden Homes, started in 1923. Hoan also led the successful drive towards municipal ownership of the stone quarry, street lighting, sewage disposal and water purification.

Hoan developed a reputation for honest and efficient government. In 1999, Melvin Holli, the author of The American Mayor, and a group of experts on local government, voted Hoan as the eighth best mayor in United States history. Holli wrote: "Although this self-identified socialist had difficulty pushing progressive legislation through a nonpartisan city council, he experimented with the municipal marketing of food, backed city-built housing, and in providing public markets, city harbor improvements, and purging graft from Milwaukee politics. Perhaps Hoan's most important legacy was cleaning up the free-and-easy corruption that prevailed before he took office."

Hoan was defeated in 1941 and three years later left the Socialist Party and joined the Democratic Party. He ran for mayor again in 1948 but was defeated by the socialist candidate, Frank Zeidler who remained in power until 1960.

Milwaukee is the largest city in Wisconsin and in 1990 had a population of 628,000. It is the main port of entry for the entire Midwest and to world ports via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Milwaukee produces heavy machinery, electrical equipment, diesel and gasoline engines, tractors, motorcycles, refrigeration equipment and beer. The city was hard hit in the 1979-82 recession but recovered in the late 1980s.

Milwaukee has always been an almost German city. In 1856, the preponderance of the German element was even greater than at present; in fact, its Americanization, which has in the meantime progressed very rapidly, had then hardly begun. It was known among German-Americans as "Deutsch-Athen" and comparatively speaking, deserved the name. There was a large number of educated and accomplish men among my countrymen, and in them the love of music and art was very marked.

Our large industrial cities have been the greatest beneficiaries and the worst sufferers from this transition to a complex mechanization of our economic life.

The machine has not only transformed our social environment but has solved the age-old struggle to produce enough to properly feed, house and clothe the human family. In the past families periodically visited the peoples of the world, taking a toll of millions of lives. The machine has multiplied production on the farm and in the factory ten-fold. The problem is no longer one of famine due to under-production. The machine has changed all of this to one of danger of starvation because we can produce too much.

The cause of this period of depression is deep-seated, not superficial. It lies in the fact that the machine has been made an instrument of exploitation of the workers for private gain, and not the means of relieving their burden, shortening hours of work, and allowing more leisure for recreation and the enjoyment of the fruits of their toil. The machine has enslaved the workers, instead of the workers becoming the masters of the machine.

The country cannot be restored to its status of artificial prosperity which followed the world war by superficial remedies. A temporary cure can be effected, and Milwaukee and other cities have taken the initial step toward such a cure. But full rehabilitation will not come until the core of the situation is touched.


History

UWM Department of History’s faculty, staff, and students pursue research and teaching interests that span the globe. We provide undergraduate and graduate students with the opportunity to engage in the process of historical discovery and analysis, giving them skills and knowledge that will be useful in every kind of work and in civic life. The department promotes scholarly activities and excellence in research involving faculty and students, and is committed to service that addresses the diverse needs of our students, profession, and the larger community.

History is a popular major for undergraduates at UWM. Our alumni successfully pursue careers in a wide range of professions, including journalism, law, civil service, library science, primary and secondary education, museum curation, and more. At the graduate level, we offer both the MA and the PhD. Our MA program offers a general degree in History or a specialization in Public History, or Urban Historical Studies, or a coordinated degree in both History and Library/Information Science in collaboration with UWM School of Information Studies.

Department News and Events

2021 Phi Alpha Theta Inductees

As part of this year’s Research Showcase, the department celebrates the new inductees of its honor society, Phi Alpha Theta. The department congratulates this year’s new members: Amber J. Bein Kassidee A. Bergdoll Michelle L. Evans Julia E. Hanley Zalen. Read More →

2021 Department Research Showcase

On April 22, 2021, the Department launched this year’s Research Showcase! On the site, 11 undergraduates, 2 graduate students, and 6 faculty present brief videos about their research. The work spans a wide range of interests and all are encouraged. Read More →

Fall 2021 Undergraduate Course Descriptions Posted

We’re excited to be back in classrooms in the fall, and the department has posted its list of courses. Unlike the generic course descriptions used in the official campus catalog, the descriptions posted here are prepared by the faculty every. Read More →


Milwaukee - History

Milwaukee Climate

County Name: Milwaukee
Division: 9 - Southeast
Latitude: 42 deg 57 min = 42.9467 N
Longitude: 87 deg 54 min = 87.8969 W
Elevation: 670 feet = 203 meters

  • Normals for 1981-2010
    Summary of monthly normals for temperature, degree days, precipitation, snow and growing season as generated by NCEI
  • Normals for 1981-2010 from Midwestern Regional Climate Center



    (temperature and precipitation) - What is a climatograph?
    (explanation)
    (explanation)
  • Daily Cumulative Precipitation
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    2021

    (commencing on 1 Oct for Water Year)
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    2021
  • Long-term and Seasonal Precipitation (explanation): Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Annual and for Water Year
  • Greatest daily precipitation total by year at
      (1871-1953) (1927-present)
  • NOTE: Greatest calendar-day precipitation totals (based upon local midnight) at this station may not necessarily correspond with greatest 24-hour precipitation totals obtained from the hourly precipitation records.
    • (1871-1953) (1928-present)
      (1871-1953) (1928-present)

    (Snow season runs 1 July -30 June)

    • Annual number of thunderstorm days at Airport (1948-present)
    • Seasonal distribution of thunderstorms Airport (1948-present).
    • Plots of frequency of thunder reports by week and by hour (Courtesy of Iowa Environmental Mesonet - IEM)
      • Standard Thunder by Hour plot at Milwaukee (1971-2017)
      • Select specific plot options for Milwaukee Thunder Climatology
      • Plots of frequency of fog reports by week and by hour (Courtesy of Iowa Environmental Mesonet - IEM)
        • Standard Fog by Hour plot at Milwaukee (1971-2017)
        • Select specific plot options for Milwaukee Fog Climatology
        • Wind statistics for Milwaukee from Wisconsin Wind Atlas (Naber-Knox, 1996)
        • Monthly wind rose data for Milwaukee:
          from Iowa Environmental Mesonet (IEM):
          1970-2015 or custom wind roses
        • Long-term average surface wind speed for Milwaukee Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Annual
        • Seasonal distribution of average surface wind speed for Milwaukee:
          1981-2010

        Additional questions concerning finding data?
        Check Your Guide to Wisconsin Weather and Climate Data


        The History of Milwaukee Tools

        It all started in 1918. World War I was coming to a close, and automotive tycoon Henry Ford was looking for a fabricator who was willing to produce a compact, lighter-weight, portable version of the 1/4" capacity power drill. A young Wisconsin manufacturer by the name of A.H. Petersen accepted Ford's commission, and developed what came to be known as the Hole-Shooter. Weighing in at only 5 pounds, this revolutionary power tool was driven by a series-type Westinghouse motor, and was the first industrial drill that was light enough to be operated with just one hand, but powerful enough to handle heavy-duty workloads.

        Four years later, in 1922, Petersen was joined by business partner Albert F. Siebert, and together, the two of them founded the A.H. Petersen Company. Tragically, a fire destroyed their manufacturing facility the following year, and the financial setback forced the company to close their doors. In 1924, Siebert was able to purchase the company's remaining assets at auction, and reopened the company as the Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation, with the goal of fully realizing the sales potential of the Petersen Hole-Shooter. But it didn't end there. Here you'll find some of the most significant moments in Milwaukee's tool-innovating company history.

        • Surprisingly, during its early days in the second half of the 1920s, the Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation relied more on tool repair than tool manufacturing to stay in business. Because they kept constant tabs on their customers' needs and the shortcomings of the tools that were brought to their company for repair, Milwaukee employees were able to ascertain exactly which niches needed to be filled in the marketplace. This information, combined with the hundreds of hours of research and analysis done by staff engineers, led to a stronger and more durable Hole-Shooter, which became a must-have tool for workers throughout the automotive and metalworking industries.
        • In 1930, Milwaukee Tools set their standards even higher by obtaining an equipment specification rating from the U.S. government for its newly-redesigned electric drill. Soon afterward, the company began applying Navy standards to the manufacture of all their portable tools, including a portable hand grinder and electric hammers, sanders and polishers.
        • By 1935, Milwaukee had developed a lightweight 3/4" electric hammer-drill, which was designed to both drill and sink anchors into concrete. Thanks to the fact that it could be converted into a standard 3/4" drill, the tool met with great market success, and sparked the subsequent design of a shorter, lighter precision drill.
        • As a result of the strong reputation they had earned among welders by the late 1930s, Milwaukee was asked to apply their expertise and improve on existing lines of metalworking tools, with a concentration on heavily used sander/grinders. The company rose to the challenge, and Milwaukee designers soon developed an easy to handle, single-horsepower sander/grinder that weighed only 15 pounds, but could stand up to any abuse it received in the field.
        • In response to the armed forces' increased demand for power tools during World War II, the Milwaukee Electric Tools Corporation began working even harder to develop tools that were more powerful than ever. Milwaukee Hole-Shooters became vital to the manufacture of military aircraft, and, pleased with the fact that tools were being built to their standards, the United States Navy placed a significant number of orders with the company.
        • In 1949, Milwaukee Tools took their line of sander/grinders to the next level by adding a spring clutch to them. This design update created a smoother-running tool with very little recoil, and was so successful that it was also added to the company's circular saws.
        • 1949 also saw Milwaukee's invention and introduction of the first 1/2" right-angle drill, which allowed plumbers and electricians to drill holes in wood and steel, even in very tight quarters.
        • Milwaukee yet again revolutionized the power tool industry in 1951, when they unveiled the Sawzall® Reciprocating Saw. The Sawzall®, still a defining Milwaukee tool to this day, was the first portable hacksaw to have a reciprocating mechanism. To meet their customers' demands for versatility, Milwaukee followed the Sawzall® up with a full line of blades for cutting all types of materials.

        Contents

        Name Edit

        The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" (compare Potawatomi: minwaking, Ojibwe: ominowakiing) or "gathering place [by the water]" (compare Potawatomi: manwaking, Ojibwe: omaniwakiing). [15] [16] The name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". [17]

        Native American Milwaukee Edit

        Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years. The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Fox, Mascouten, Sauk, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe (all Algic/Algonquian peoples) and Ho-Chunk (Winnebago, a Siouan people) Native American tribes. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay [18] before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact.

        In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far [Lake] Michigan" (i.e., the area from Milwaukee to Green Bay) joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. [19] In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. [20]

        After the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago [21] in retaliation against American expansion. This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. [22]

        Milwaukee since European settlement Edit

        Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac (now in Michigan) settled a trading post and is considered the first resident of European descent in the Milwaukee region. [23] Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Milwacky, Mahn-a-waukie, Milwarck, and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. In the 19th century, the populace of the eastern side of Milwaukee used the spelling "Milwaukie" while on the western side, "Milwaukee" was used until the modern-day spelling became accepted in the 1880s. [24]

        One story on the origin of Milwaukee's name says,

        [O]ne day during the thirties of the last century [1800s] a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, and Milwaukee it has remained until this day. [25]

        The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, Oregon, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. [26]

        Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, and George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818. He founded a town called Juneau's Side, or Juneautown, that began attracting more settlers. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River. He ensured the roads running toward the river did not join with those on the east side. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges that still exist in Milwaukee today. [27] Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable. The third prominent developer was George H. Walker. He claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area grew and became known as Walker's Point. [28]

        The first large wave of settlement to the areas that would later become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Council of Three Fires. Early that year it became known that Juneau and Kilbourn intended to lay out competing town-sites. By the year's end both had purchased their lands from the government and made their first sales. There were perhaps 100 new settlers in this year, mostly from New England and other Eastern states. On September 17, 1835, the first election was held in Milwaukee the number of votes cast was 39. [29]

        By 1840, the three towns had grown, along with their rivalries. There were intense battles between the towns, mainly Juneautown and Kilbourntown, which culminated with the Milwaukee Bridge War of 1845. Following the Bridge War, town leaders decided the best course of action was to officially unite the towns. So, on January 31, 1846, they combined to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee and elected Solomon Juneau as Milwaukee's first mayor. [30]

        Milwaukee began to grow as a city as high numbers of immigrants, mainly German, made their way to Wisconsin during the 1840s and 1850s. Scholars classify German immigration to the United States in three major waves, and Wisconsin received a significant number of immigrants from all three. The first wave from 1845 to 1855 consisted mainly of people from Southwestern Germany, the second wave from 1865 to 1873 concerned primarily Northwestern Germany, while the third wave from 1880 to 1893 came from Northeastern Germany. [31] In the 1840s, the number of people who left German-speaking lands was 385,434, in the 1850s it reached 976,072, and an all-time high of 1.4 million immigrated in the 1880s. In 1890, the 2.78 million first-generation German Americans represented the second-largest foreign-born group in the United States. Of all those who left the German lands between 1835 and 1910, 90 percent went to the United States, most of them traveling to the Mid-Atlantic states and the Midwest. [31]

        By 1900, 34 percent of Milwaukee's population was of German background. [31] The largest number of German immigrants to Milwaukee came from Prussia, followed by Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, and Hesse-Darmstadt. Milwaukee gained its reputation as the most German of American cities not just from the large number of German immigrants it received, but for the sense of community which the immigrants established here. [32]

        Most German immigrants came to Wisconsin in search of inexpensive farmland. [32] However, immigration began to change in character and size in the late 1840s and early 1850s, due to the 1848 revolutionary movements in Europe. [33] After 1848, hopes for a united Germany had failed, and revolutionary and radical Germans, known as the "Forty-Eighters", immigrated to the U.S. to avoid imprisonment and persecution by German authorities. [34]

        One of the most famous "liberal revolutionaries" of 1848 was Carl Schurz. He later explained in 1854 why he came to Milwaukee,

        "It is true, similar things [cultural events and societies] were done in other cities where the Forty-eighters [sic] had congregated. But so far as I know, nowhere did their influence so quickly impress itself upon the whole social atmosphere as in 'German Athens of America' as Milwaukee was called at the time." [35]

        Schurz was referring to the various clubs and societies Germans developed in Milwaukee. The pattern of German immigrants to settle near each other encouraged the continuation of the German lifestyle and customs. This resulted in German language organizations that encompassed all aspects of life for example, singing societies and gymnastics clubs. Germans also had a lasting influence on the American school system. Kindergarten was created as a pre-school for children, and sports programs of all levels, as well as music and art were incorporated as elements of the regular school curriculum. These ideas were first introduced by radical-democratic German groups, such as the Socialist Turner Societies, known today as the American Turners. Specifically in Milwaukee, the American Turners established its own Normal College for teachers of physical education and a German-English Academy. [36]

        Milwaukee's German element is still strongly present today. The city celebrates its German culture by annually hosting a German Fest in July [37] and an Oktoberfest in October. Milwaukee boasts a number of German restaurants, as well as a traditional German beer hall. A German language immersion school is offered for children in grades K-5. [38]

        Although the German presence in Milwaukee after the Civil War remained strong and their largest wave of immigrants had yet to land, other groups also made their way to the city. Foremost among these were Polish immigrants. The Poles had many reasons for leaving their homeland, mainly poverty and political oppression. Because Milwaukee offered the Polish immigrants an abundance of low-paying entry level jobs, it became one of the largest Polish settlements in the USA. [39]

        For many residents, Milwaukee's South Side is synonymous with the Polish community that developed here. The group maintained a high profile here for decades, and it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that families began to disperse to the southern suburbs. [40]

        By 1850, there were seventy-five Poles in Milwaukee County and the US Census shows they had a variety of occupations: grocers, blacksmiths, tavernkeepers, coopers, butchers, broommakers, shoemakers, draymen, laborers, and farmers. Three distinct Polish communities evolved in Milwaukee, with the majority settling in the area south of Greenfield Avenue. Milwaukee County's Polish population of 30,000 in 1890 rose to 100,000 by 1915. Poles historically have had a strong national cultural and social identity, often maintained through the Catholic Church. [41] A view of Milwaukee's South Side skyline is replete with the steeples of the many churches these immigrants built that are still vital centers of the community. [ citation needed ]

        St. Stanislaus Catholic Church and the surrounding neighborhood was the center of Polish life in Milwaukee. As the Polish community surrounding St. Stanislaus continued to grow, Mitchell Street became known as the "Polish Grand Avenue". As Mitchell Street grew more dense, the Polish population started moving south to the Lincoln Village neighborhood, home to the Basilica of St. Josaphat and Kosciuszko Park. Other Polish communities started on the east side of Milwaukee. Jones Island was a major commercial fishing center settled mostly by Kashubians and other Poles from around the Baltic Sea. [42]

        Milwaukee has the fifth-largest Polish population in the U.S. at 45,467, ranking behind New York City (211,203), Chicago (165,784), Los Angeles (60,316) and Philadelphia (52,648). [43] The city holds Polish Fest, an annual celebration of Polish culture and cuisine. [44]

        In addition to the Germans and Poles, Milwaukee received a large influx of other European immigrants from Lithuania, Italy, Ireland, France, Russia, Bohemia and Sweden, who included Jews, Lutherans, and Catholics. Italian Americans total 16,992 in the city, but in Milwaukee County, they number at 38,286. [43] The largest Italian-American festival in the area, Festa Italiana, is held in the city, while Irishfest is the largest Irish-American festival in southeast Wisconsin. [45] By 1910, Milwaukee shared the distinction with New York City of having the largest percentage of foreign-born residents in the United States. [46] In 1910, whites represented 99.7% of the city's total population of 373,857. [47] Milwaukee has a strong Greek Orthodox Community, many of whom attend the Greek Orthodox Church on Milwaukee's northwest side, designed by Wisconsin-born architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Milwaukee has a sizable Croatian population, with Croatian churches and their own historic and successful soccer club The Croatian Eagles at the 30-acre Croatian Park in Franklin, Wisconsin. [ citation needed ]

        Milwaukee also has a large Serbian population, who have developed Serbian restaurants, a Serbian K-8 School, and Serbian churches, along with an American Serb Hall. The American Serb Hall in Milwaukee is known for its Friday fish fries and popular events. Many U.S. presidents have visited Milwaukee's Serb Hall in the past. The Bosnian population is growing in Milwaukee as well due to late-20th century immigration after the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. [ citation needed ]

        During this time, a small community of African Americans migrated from the South in the Great Migration. They settled near each other, forming a community that came to be known as Bronzeville. As industry boomed, more migrants came and African-American influence grew in Milwaukee. [ citation needed ]

        By 1925, around 9,000 Mexicans lived in Milwaukee, but the Great Depression forced many of them to move back south. In the 1950s, the Hispanic community was beginning to emerge. They arrived for jobs, filling positions in the manufacturing and agricultural sectors. During this time there were labor shortages due to the immigration laws that had reduced immigration from eastern and southern Europe. Additionally, strikes contributed to the labor shortages. [48]

        In the mid-20th century African Americans from Chicago moved to the north side of Milwaukee. [ citation needed ] Milwaukee's east side has attracted a population of Russians and other Eastern Europeans who began migrating in the 1990s after the end of the Cold War. [ citation needed ] Many Hispanics of mostly Puerto Rican and Mexican heritage live on the south side of Milwaukee. [ citation needed ]

        During the first sixty years of the 20th century, Milwaukee was the major city in which the Socialist Party of America earned the highest votes. Milwaukee elected three mayors who ran on the ticket of the Socialist Party: Emil Seidel (1910–1912), Daniel Hoan (1916–1940), and Frank Zeidler (1948–1960). Often referred to as "Sewer Socialists", the Milwaukee Socialists were characterized by their practical approach to government and labor. [49]

        Historic neighborhoods Edit

        In 1892, Whitefish Bay, South Milwaukee, and Wauwatosa were incorporated. They were followed by Cudahy (1895), North Milwaukee (1897) and East Milwaukee, later known as Shorewood, in 1900. In the early 20th century West Allis (1902), and West Milwaukee (1906) were added, which completed the first generation of "inner-ring" suburbs.

        In the 1920s, Chicago gangster activity came north to Milwaukee during the Prohibition era. Al Capone, noted Chicago mobster, owned a home in the Milwaukee suburb Brookfield, where moonshine was made. The house still stands on a street named after Capone. [50]

        By 1960, Milwaukee had grown to become one of the largest cities in the United States. Its population peaked at 741,324. In 1960, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 91.1% white and 8.4% black. [51]

        By the late 1960s, Milwaukee's population had started to decline as people moved to suburbs, aided by federal subsidies of highways. They moved to take advantage of new housing and lower taxation. [52] Milwaukee had a population of 594,833 by 2010, while the population of the overall metropolitan area increased. Given its large immigrant population and historic neighborhoods, Milwaukee avoided the severe declines of some of its fellow "Rust Belt" cities.

        Since the 1980s, the city has begun to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Historic Third Ward, Lincoln Village, the East Side, and more recently Walker's Point and Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. These efforts have substantially slowed the population decline and have stabilized many parts of Milwaukee.

        Milwaukee's European history is evident today. Largely through its efforts to preserve its history, Milwaukee was named one of the "Dozen Distinctive Destinations" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 2006. [53]

        Historic Milwaukee walking tours provide a guided tour of Milwaukee's historic districts, including topics on Milwaukee's architectural heritage, its glass skywalk system, and the Milwaukee Riverwalk.

        Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic, and the Milwaukee. Smaller rivers, such as the Root River and Lincoln Creek, also flow through the city.

        Milwaukee's terrain is sculpted by the glacier path and includes steep bluffs along Lake Michigan that begin about a mile (1.6 km) north of downtown. In addition, 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Milwaukee is the Kettle Moraine and lake country that provides an industrial landscape combined with inland lakes.

        According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 96.80 square miles (250.71 km 2 ), of which, 96.12 square miles (248.95 km 2 ) is land and 0.68 square miles (1.76 km 2 ) is water. [54] The city is overwhelmingly (99.89% of its area) in Milwaukee County, but there are two tiny unpopulated parts of it that extend into neighboring counties. The part in Washington County is bordered by the southeast corner of Germantown, while the part in Waukesha County is bordered by the southeast corner of Menomonee Falls, north of the village of Butler. Both were annexations done for industrial concerns, with the Waukesha County portion containing a Cargill plant for Ambrosia Chocolate, and the Washington County portion containing a Waste Management facility.

        Cityscape Edit

        North–south streets are numbered, and east–west streets are named. However, north–south streets east of 1st Street are named, like east–west streets. The north–south numbering line is along the Menomonee River (east of Hawley Road) and Fairview Avenue/Golfview Parkway (west of Hawley Road), with the east–west numbering line defined along 1st Street (north of Oklahoma Avenue) and Chase/Howell Avenue (south of Oklahoma Avenue). This numbering system is also used to the north by Mequon in Ozaukee County, and by some Waukesha County communities.

        Milwaukee is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange. The Interstate 894 bypass (which as of May 2015 also contains Interstate 41) runs through portions of the city's southwest side, and Interstate 794 comes out of the Marquette interchange eastbound, bends south along the lakefront and crosses the harbor over the Hoan Bridge, then ends near the Bay View neighborhood and becomes the "Lake Parkway" (WIS-794).

        One of the distinctive traits of Milwaukee's residential areas are the neighborhoods full of so-called Polish flats. These are two-family homes with separate entrances, but with the units stacked one on top of another instead of side-by-side. This arrangement enables a family of limited means to purchase both a home and a modestly priced rental apartment unit. Since Polish-American immigrants to the area prized land ownership, this solution, which was prominent in their areas of settlement within the city, came to be associated with them. [55]

        The tallest building in the city is the U.S. Bank Center.

        Climate Edit

        Milwaukee's location in the Great Lakes Region often has rapidly changing weather, producing a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), with cold, snowy winters, and hot, humid summers. The warmest month of the year is July, when the 24-hour average is 71.8 °F (22.1 °C), while January is the coldest month, with a 24-hour average of 22.3 °F (−5.4 °C). [56]

        Because of Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan, a convection current forms around mid-afternoon in light wind, resulting in the so-called "lake breeze" – a smaller scale version of the more common sea breeze. The lake breeze is most common between the months of March and July. This onshore flow causes cooler temperatures to move inland usually 5 to 15 miles (8 to 24 km), with much warmer conditions persisting further inland. Because Milwaukee's official climate site, Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport, is only 3 miles (4.8 km) from the lake, seasonal temperature variations are less extreme than in many other locations of the Milwaukee metropolitan area.

        As the sun sets, the convection current reverses and an offshore flow ensues causing a land breeze. After a land breeze develops, warmer temperatures flow east toward the lakeshore, sometimes causing high temperatures during the late evening. The lake breeze is not a daily occurrence and will not usually form if a southwest, west, or northwest wind generally exceeds 15 mph (24 km/h). The lake moderates cold air outbreaks along the lakeshore during winter months.

        Aside from the lake's influence, overnight lows in downtown Milwaukee year-round are often much warmer than suburban locations because of the urban heat island effect. Onshore winds elevate daytime relative humidity levels in Milwaukee as compared to inland locations nearby.

        Thunderstorms in the region can be dangerous and damaging, bringing hail and high winds. In rare instances, they can bring a tornado. However, almost all summer rainfall in the city is brought by these storms. In spring and fall, longer events of prolonged, lighter rain bring most of the precipitation. A moderate snow cover can be seen on or linger for many winter days, but even during meteorological winter, on average, over 40% of days see less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) on the ground. [57]

        Milwaukee tends to experience highs that are 90 °F (32 °C) on or above seven days per year, and lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on six to seven nights. [57] Extremes range from 105 °F (41 °C) set on July 24, 1934 down to −26 °F (−32 °C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. [58] The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as −40 °F (−40 °C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16 km) to the north of Milwaukee.

        Climate data for Milwaukee (Mitchell International Airport), 1991–2020 normals, [a] extremes 1871–present [b]
        Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
        Record high °F (°C) 63
        (17)
        71
        (22)
        84
        (29)
        91
        (33)
        95
        (35)
        104
        (40)
        105
        (41)
        103
        (39)
        99
        (37)
        89
        (32)
        77
        (25)
        68
        (20)
        105
        (41)
        Mean maximum °F (°C) 50
        (10)
        53
        (12)
        67
        (19)
        79
        (26)
        86
        (30)
        92
        (33)
        93
        (34)
        92
        (33)
        88
        (31)
        80
        (27)
        66
        (19)
        53
        (12)
        95
        (35)
        Average high °F (°C) 30.9
        (−0.6)
        34.2
        (1.2)
        44.2
        (6.8)
        54.7
        (12.6)
        66.5
        (19.2)
        76.8
        (24.9)
        81.9
        (27.7)
        80.3
        (26.8)
        73.5
        (23.1)
        61.3
        (16.3)
        47.8
        (8.8)
        36.1
        (2.3)
        57.3
        (14.1)
        Daily mean °F (°C) 24.0
        (−4.4)
        27.1
        (−2.7)
        36.4
        (2.4)
        46.3
        (7.9)
        57.1
        (13.9)
        67.6
        (19.8)
        73.3
        (22.9)
        72.3
        (22.4)
        65.0
        (18.3)
        53.0
        (11.7)
        40.4
        (4.7)
        29.5
        (−1.4)
        49.3
        (9.6)
        Average low °F (°C) 17.2
        (−8.2)
        20.0
        (−6.7)
        28.7
        (−1.8)
        37.8
        (3.2)
        47.8
        (8.8)
        58.4
        (14.7)
        64.7
        (18.2)
        64.2
        (17.9)
        56.4
        (13.6)
        44.7
        (7.1)
        33.1
        (0.6)
        23.0
        (−5.0)
        41.3
        (5.2)
        Mean minimum °F (°C) −4
        (−20)
        1
        (−17)
        11
        (−12)
        26
        (−3)
        36
        (2)
        46
        (8)
        55
        (13)
        55
        (13)
        42
        (6)
        31
        (−1)
        18
        (−8)
        3
        (−16)
        −8
        (−22)
        Record low °F (°C) −26
        (−32)
        −26
        (−32)
        −10
        (−23)
        12
        (−11)
        21
        (−6)
        33
        (1)
        40
        (4)
        42
        (6)
        28
        (−2)
        15
        (−9)
        −14
        (−26)
        −22
        (−30)
        −26
        (−32)
        Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.79
        (45)
        1.69
        (43)
        2.20
        (56)
        3.86
        (98)
        3.54
        (90)
        4.38
        (111)
        3.40
        (86)
        3.65
        (93)
        3.16
        (80)
        2.78
        (71)
        2.24
        (57)
        1.88
        (48)
        34.57
        (878)
        Average snowfall inches (cm) 14.9
        (38)
        11.8
        (30)
        6.7
        (17)
        2.1
        (5.3)
        0.0
        (0.0)
        0.0
        (0.0)
        0.0
        (0.0)
        0.0
        (0.0)
        0.0
        (0.0)
        0.3
        (0.76)
        2.5
        (6.4)
        10.4
        (26)
        48.7
        (124)
        Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.4 10.0 10.7 12.2 11.7 11.1 9.5 9.5 8.6 10.3 10.2 10.3 125.5
        Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 10.0 8.1 5.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.6 7.3 35.1
        Average relative humidity (%) 72.3 71.9 71.4 68.5 68.5 69.7 71.5 74.9 75.4 72.5 74.5 75.9 72.3
        Average dew point °F (°C) 11.7
        (−11.3)
        15.4
        (−9.2)
        24.6
        (−4.1)
        33.6
        (0.9)
        43.7
        (6.5)
        54.3
        (12.4)
        60.6
        (15.9)
        60.4
        (15.8)
        53.4
        (11.9)
        41.4
        (5.2)
        30.4
        (−0.9)
        18.3
        (−7.6)
        37.3
        (3.0)
        Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.2 151.5 185.4 213.5 275.5 304.5 321.1 281.2 215.1 178.0 112.8 104.8 2,483.6
        Percent possible sunshine 48 51 50 53 61 66 69 65 57 52 38 37 56
        Average ultraviolet index 1 2 4 5 7 8 8 8 6 3 2 1 5
        Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990) [58] [59] [57] [60]
        Source 2: Weather Atlas [61]
        Climate data for Milwaukee
        Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
        Average sea temperature °F (°C) 37.5
        (3.0)
        36.0
        (2.2)
        36.2
        (2.4)
        38.2
        (3.4)
        40.8
        (4.9)
        53.3
        (11.8)
        67.9
        (19.9)
        71.9
        (22.2)
        66.9
        (19.4)
        54.9
        (12.8)
        46.9
        (8.3)
        40.1
        (4.5)
        49.2
        (9.6)
        Source: Weather Atlas [61]

        Climate change Edit

        According to the United States' Environmental Protection Agency, Milwaukee is threatened by ongoing climate change which is warming the planet. These risk include worsened heat waves because many of its residents do not possess air conditioners, concerns about the water quality of Lake Michigan, and increased chances of flooding from intense rainstorms. [62] In 2018, Milwaukee's mayor Tom Barrett announced that the city would uphold its obligations under the Paris Agreement, despite the United States' withdrawal, and set a goal moving a quarter of the city's electricity sources to renewable energy by 2025. These have included expansions in the city's solar power-generating capacity and a wind turbine's installation near the Port of Milwaukee. Other actions being taken include local incentives for energy-saving upgrades to homes and businesses. [63]

        Water Edit

        In the 1990s and 2000s, Lake Michigan experienced large algae blooms, which can threaten aquatic life. Responding to this problem, in 2009 the city became an "Innovating City" in the Global Compact Cities Program. The Milwaukee Water Council was also formed in 2009. [64] Its objectives were to "better understand the processes related to freshwater systems dynamics" and to develop "a policy and management program aimed at balancing the protection and utilization of freshwater". The strategy used the Circles of Sustainability method. Instead of treating the water quality problem as a single environmental issue, the Water Council draws on the Circles method to analyze the interconnection among ecological, economic, political and cultural factors. [65] This holistic water treatment helped Milwaukee win the US Water Alliance's 2012 US Water Prize. [66] In 2009 the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee also established the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee School of Freshwater Sciences, the first graduate school of limnology in the United States.

        There are more than 3,000 water fountains in the Milwaukee Public School District, 183 had levels above 15 parts per billion (ppb). 15 ppb is the federal action level in which effort needs to be taken to lower these lead levels. [67] In Milwaukee, more than 10% of children test positive for dangerous lead levels in their blood. [68]

        Historical population
        Census Pop.
        18401,700
        185020,061 1,080.1%
        186045,246 125.5%
        187071,440 57.9%
        1880115,587 61.8%
        1890204,468 76.9%
        1900285,315 39.5%
        1910373,857 31.0%
        1920457,147 22.3%
        1930578,249 26.5%
        1940587,472 1.6%
        1950637,392 8.5%
        1960741,324 16.3%
        1970717,099 −3.3%
        1980636,212 −11.3%
        1990628,088 −1.3%
        2000596,974 −5.0%
        2010594,833 −0.4%
        2019 (est.)590,157 [2] −0.8%
        U.S. Decennial Census [69]
        2018 Estimate [70]

        According to the 2013 U.S. Census Estimate, 599,164 people were living in Milwaukee. [71] As of 2000, 135,133 families resided in 232,188 Milwaukee households. The population density was 2,399.5/km 2 (6,214.3 per square mile). There were 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km 2 (2,594.4 per square mile).

        Milwaukee is the 31st most populous city in the United States, and anchors the 39th most populous Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States. Its combined statistical area population makes it the 29th most populous Combined Statistical Area of the United States. In 2012, Milwaukee was listed as a gamma global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

        2010 Census Edit

        About 30.5% of households in 2000 had children under the age of 18 living with them. 32.2% of households were married couples living together, 21.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were single individuals, and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 people per household, with the average family size at 3.25 people per family.

        In 2000, the Census estimated at least 1,408 same-sex households in Milwaukee, or about 0.6% of all households in the city. [72] Gay-friendly communities have developed primarily in Walker's Point, but also in Bay View, Historic Third Ward, Washington Heights, Riverwest, and the East Side. In 2001, Milwaukee was named the #1 city for lesbians by Girlfriends magazine. [73]

        The city's population was spread out, with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males.

        The median income for a household in the city was $32,216, and the median income for a family was $37,879. Males had a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,181. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families were below the poverty line. In 2010, rent increased an averaged 3% for home renters in Milwaukee. [74] Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

        Ethnic groups Edit

        Racial composition 2010 2000 1990 1980
        White (Non-Hispanic) 37.0% 45.5% 60.8% 71.4%
        Black or African American 40.0% 36.9% 30.2% 22.9%
        Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 17.3% 12.0% 6.3% 4.2%
        Asian 3.5% 2.9% 1.8% 0.7%

        According to the 2010 Census, 44.8% of the population was White (37.0% non-Hispanic white), 40.0% was Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.5% Asian, 3.4% from two or more races. 17.3% of Milwaukee's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race) (11.7% Mexican, 4.1% Puerto Rican). [75]

        According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 38.3% of Milwaukee's residents reported having African American ancestry and 20.8% reported German ancestry. Other significant population groups include Polish (8.8%), Irish (6.5%), Italian (3.6%), English (2.8%), and French (1.7%). According to the 2010 United States Census, the largest Hispanic backgrounds in Milwaukee as of 2010 were: Mexican (69,680), Puerto Rican (24,672), Other Hispanic or Latino (3,808), Central American (1,962), South American (1,299), Cuban (866) and Dominican (720). [76]

        The Milwaukee metropolitan area was cited as being the most segregated in the U.S. in a Jet Magazine article in 2002. [77] The source of this information was a segregation index developed in the mid-1950s and used since 1964. In 2003, a non-peer reviewed study was conducted by hired researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee which claimed Milwaukee is not "hypersegregated" and instead ranks as the 43rd most integrated city in America. [78] According to research by demographer William H. Frey using the index of dissimilarity method and data from the 2010 United States Census, Milwaukee has the highest level of black-white segregation of any of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. [79] Through continued dialogue between Milwaukee's citizens, the city is trying to reduce racial tensions and the rate of segregation. [80] With demographic changes in the wake of white flight, segregation in metropolitan Milwaukee is primarily in the suburbs rather than the city as in the era of Father Groppi. [81] [82]

        In 2015, Milwaukee was rated as the "worst city for black Americans" based on disparities in employment and income levels. [83] The city's black population experiences high levels of incarceration and a severe educational achievement gap. [84]

        In 2013, Mark Pfeifer, the editor of the Hmong Studies Journal, stated Hmong in Milwaukee had recently been moving to the northwest side of Milwaukee they historically lived in the north and south areas of Milwaukee. [85] The Hmong American Peace Academy/International Peace Academy, a K-12 school system in Milwaukee centered on the Hmong community, opened in 2004. [85]

        Religion Edit

        As of 2010, approximately 51.8% of residents in the Milwaukee area said they regularly attended religious services. 24.6% of the Milwaukee area population identified as Catholic, 10.8% as Lutheran, 1.6% as Methodist, and 0.6% as Jewish. [86]

        The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milwaukee and the Episcopal Diocese of Milwaukee are headquartered in Milwaukee. The School Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis have their mother house in Milwaukee, and several other religious orders have a significant presence in the area, including the Jesuits and Franciscans. Milwaukee, where Father Josef Kentenich was exiled for 14 years from 1952 to 1965, is also the center for the Schoenstatt Movement in the United States. St. Joan of Arc Chapel, the oldest church in Milwaukee, is on the Marquette University campus. St. Josaphat Basilica was the first church to be given the Basilica honor in Wisconsin and the third in the United States. Holy Hill National Shrine of Mary, Help of Christians, northwest of Milwaukee, in Hubertus, Wisconsin, was also made a Basilica in 2006.

        Milwaukee is home for several Lutheran synods, including the Greater Milwaukee Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), which operates Concordia University Wisconsin in Mequon and Milwaukee Lutheran High School, the nation's oldest Lutheran high school and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), which was founded in 1850 in Milwaukee.

        The St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Cathedral is a landmark of the Serbian community in Milwaukee, located by the American Serb hall, which the congregation also operated until putting it up for sale in January 2021 due to financial challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. [87]

        The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a presence in the Milwaukee area. The Milwaukee area has two stakes, with fourteen wards and four branches among them. The closest temple is the Chicago Illinois Temple. The area is part of the Wisconsin Milwaukee Mission. [88]

        Early economy Edit

        Milwaukee's founding fathers had a vision for the city: they knew it was perfectly situated as a port city, a center for collecting and distributing produce. Many of the new immigrants who were pouring into the new state of Wisconsin during the middle of the 19th century were wheat farmers. By 1860, Wisconsin was the second ranked wheat-growing state in the country and Milwaukee shipped more wheat than any place in the world. Railroads were needed to transport all this grain from the wheat fields of Wisconsin to Milwaukee's harbor. Improvements in railways at the time made this possible.

        There was intense competition for markets with Chicago, and to a lesser degree, with Racine and Kenosha. Eventually Chicago won out due to its superior financial and transposition status, as well as being a hub on major railroad lines throughout the United States. Milwaukee did solidify its place as the commercial capital of Wisconsin and an important market in the Midwest. [89]

        Because of its easy access to Lake Michigan and other waterways, Milwaukee's Menomonee Valley has historically been home to manufacturing, stockyards, rendering plants, shipping, and other heavy industry. [90]

        Reshaping of the valley began with the railroads built by city co-founder Byron Kilbourn to bring product from Wisconsin's farm interior to the port. By 1862 Milwaukee was the largest shipper of wheat on the planet, and related industry developed. Grain elevators were built and, due to Milwaukee's dominant German immigrant population, breweries sprang up around the processing of barley and hops. A number of tanneries were constructed, of which the Pfister & Vogel tannery grew to become the largest in America.

        In 1843 George Burnham and his brother Jonathan opened a brickyard near 16th Street. When a durable and distinct cream-colored brick came out of the clay beds, other brickyards sprang up to take advantage of this resource. Because many of the city's buildings were built using this material it earned the nickname "Cream City", and consequently the brick was called Cream City brick. By 1881 the Burnham brickyard, which employed 200 men and peaked at 15 million bricks a year, was the largest in the world.

        Flour mills, packing plants, breweries, railways and tanneries further industrialized the valley. With the marshlands drained and the Kinnickinnic and Milwaukee Rivers dredged, attention turned to the valley.

        Along with the processing industries, bulk commodity storage and machining and manufacturing entered the scene. The valley was home to the Milwaukee Road, Falk Corporation, Cutler-Hammer, Harnischfeger Corporation, Chain Belt Company, Nordberg Manufacturing Company and other industry giants.

        Early in the 20th century, Milwaukee was home to several pioneer brass era automobile makers, including Ogren (1919–1922). [91]

        Brewing Edit

        Milwaukee became synonymous with Germans and beer beginning in the 1840s. The Germans had long enjoyed beer and set up breweries when they arrived in Milwaukee. By 1856, there were more than two dozen breweries in Milwaukee, most of them owned and operated by Germans. Besides making beer for the rest of the nation, Milwaukeeans enjoyed consuming the various beers produced in the city's breweries. As early as 1843, pioneer historian James Buck recorded 138 taverns in Milwaukee, an average of one per forty residents. Today, beer halls and taverns are abundant in the city, but only one of the major breweries—Miller—remains in Milwaukee. [89]

        Milwaukee was once the home to four of the world's largest beer breweries (Schlitz, Blatz, Pabst, and Miller), and was the number one beer producing city in the world for many years. As late as 1981, Milwaukee had the greatest brewing capacity in the world. [92] Despite the decline in its position as the world's leading beer producer after the loss of two of those breweries, Miller Brewing Company remains a key employer by employing over 2,200 of the city's workers. [93] Because of Miller's position as the second-largest beer-maker in the U.S., the city remains known as a beer town. The city and surrounding areas are seeing a resurgence in microbreweries, nanobreweries and brewpubs with the craft beer movement. [94]

        The historic Milwaukee Brewery in "Miller Valley" at 4000 West State Street, is the oldest functioning major brewery in the United States. In 2008, Coors beer also began to be brewed in Miller Valley. This created additional brewery jobs in Milwaukee, but the company's world headquarters moved from Milwaukee to Chicago.

        In addition to Miller and the heavily automated Leinenkugel's brewery in the old Blatz 10th Street plant, other stand-alone breweries in Milwaukee include Milwaukee Brewing Company, a microbrewery in Walker's Point neighborhood Lakefront Brewery, a microbrewery in Brewers Hill and Sprecher Brewery, a German brewery that also brews craft sodas. Since 2015, nearly two dozen craft brewing companies have been established in the city. [95] [96]

        Three beer brewers with Wisconsin operations made the 2009 list of the 50 largest beermakers in the United States, based on beer sales volume. Making the latest big-breweries list from Wisconsin is MillerCoors at No. 2. MillerCoors is a joint venture formed in 2008 by Milwaukee-based Miller Brewing Co. and Golden, Colorado-based Molson Coors Brewing Company. The Minhas Craft Brewery in Monroe, Wisconsin, which brews Huber, Rhinelander and Mountain Crest brands, ranked No. 14 and New Glarus Brewing Company, New Glarus, Wisconsin, whose brands include Spotted Cow, Fat Squirrel and Uff-da, ranked No. 32. [97]

        Present economy Edit

        Milwaukee is the home to the international headquarters of five Fortune 500 companies: Johnson Controls, Northwestern Mutual, Manpower, Rockwell Automation, and Harley-Davidson. [98] Other companies based in Milwaukee include Briggs & Stratton, Brady Corporation, Baird (investment bank), Alliance Federated Energy, Sensient Technologies, Marshall & Ilsley (acquired by BMO Harris Bank in 2010), [99] Hal Leonard, Direct Supply, Wisconsin Energy, Rite-Hite, the American Society for Quality, A. O. Smith, Rexnord, Master Lock, Marcus Corporation, REV Group, American Signal Corporation, [100] GE Healthcare Diagnostic Imaging and Clinical Systems and MGIC Investments. The Milwaukee metropolitan area ranks fifth in the United States in terms of the number of Fortune 500 company headquarters as a share of the population. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a number of publishing and printing companies.

        Service and managerial jobs are the fastest-growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and health care alone makes up 27% of the jobs in the city. [101]

        Milwaukee is a popular venue for Lake Michigan sailing, windsurfing, kitesurfing, ethnic dining, and cultural festivals. Often referred to as the City of Festivals, Milwaukee has various cultural events which take place throughout the summer at Henry Maier Festival Park, on the lake. Museums and cultural events, such as Jazz in the Park, occur weekly in downtown parks. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Milwaukee 15th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. [102] In 2018, the city was voted "The Coolest City in the Midwest" by Vogue. [103]

        Museums Edit

        Art Edit

        • The Milwaukee Art Museum is perhaps Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction especially its $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. [104] The museum includes a brise soleil, a moving sunscreen that unfolds similarly to the wing of a bird.
        • The Grohmann Museum, at Milwaukee School of Engineering contains the world's most comprehensive art collection dedicated to the evolution of human work. [105] It houses the Man at Work collection, which comprises more than 700 paintings and sculptures dating from 1580 to the present. The museum also features a rooftop sculpture garden. , on the Marquette University campus houses several classical masterpieces and is open to the public.
        • The Villa Terrace Decorative Arts Museum is the former home of Lloyd Smith, president of the A.O. Smith corporation, and has a terraced garden, an assortment of Renaissance art, and rotating exhibits. [106] , in the Tudor-style mansion of Charles Allis, hosts several changing exhibits every year in the building's original antique furnished setting.

        Science and natural history Edit

        • The Milwaukee Public Museum has been Milwaukee's primary natural history and human history museum for 125 years, with over 150,000 square feet (14,000 m 2 ) of permanent exhibits. [107] Exhibits feature Africa, Europe, the Arctic, Oceania, and South and Middle America, the ancient Western civilizations ("Crossroads of Civilization"), dinosaurs, the tropical rainforest, streets of Old Milwaukee, a European Village, live insects and arthropods ("Bugs Alive!") a Sampson Gorilla replica, the Puelicher Butterfly Wing, hands-on laboratories, and animatronics. The museum also contains an IMAX movie theater/planetarium. Milwaukee Public Museum owns the world's largest dinosaur skull. [108] , Milwaukee's largest museum dedicated to science, is just south of the Milwaukee Art Museum along the lake front. Visitors are drawn by its high-tech, hand-on exhibits, salt water and freshwater aquariums, as well as touch tanks and digital theaters. A double helix staircase wraps around the 40-foot (12 m) kinetic sculpture of a human genome. The S/V Dennis Sullivan Schooner Ship docked at Discovery World is the world's only re-creation of an 1880s-era three-masted vessel and the first schooner to be built in Milwaukee in over 100 years. It teaches visitors about the Great Lakes and Wisconsin's maritime history. [109] is geared toward children under ten years of age and is filled with hands-on exhibits and interactive programs, offering families a chance to learn together. Voted one of the top ten museums for children by Parents Magazine, it exemplifies the philosophy that constructive play nurtures the mind. (Mitchell Park Domes or, simply, the Domes) is a conservatory at Mitchell Park. It is owned and operated by the Milwaukee County Park System, and replaced the original Milwaukee Conservatory which stood from 1898 to 1955. The three domes display a large variety of plant and bird life. The conservatory includes the Tropical Dome, the Arid Dome and the Show Dome, which hosts four seasonal (cultural, literary, or historic) shows and one Christmas exhibit held annually in December for visitors to enjoy. The Domes are deteriorating rapidly "and the popular horticultural conservatory will close within a few years unless $30 million is found to do just basic repairs." [110]

        Social and cultural history Edit

          Built in 1892 by beer tycoon Frederick Pabst, this Flemish Renaissance Mansion was once considered the jewel of Milwaukee's famous avenue of mansions called the "Grand Avenue". Interior rooms have been restored with period furniture, to create an authentic replica of a Victorian Mansion. Nationally recognized as a house museum. features Milwaukee during the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. Housed within an architectural landmark, the Milwaukee's Historical Society features a panoramic painting of Milwaukee, firefighting equipment, period replicas of a pharmacy and a bank, and Children's world – an exhibit that includes vintage toys, clothes and school materials. The museum houses a research library, where scenes from the movie Public Enemies were shot. , [111] whose mission is to document and preserve the historical heritage of African descent in Wisconsin, exhibiting collecting and disseminating materials depicting this heritage. , founded by lynching survivor James Cameron, featured exhibits which chronicle the injustices suffered throughout history by African Americans in the United States. The museum first closed in July 2008 as a result of financial difficulties. [112] The museum reopened in 2012 as a virtual museum with the original building demolished. As of 2018 a new building housing the museum has opened. [113][114] , [115] is dedicated to preserving and presenting the history of the Jewish people in southeastern Wisconsin and celebrating the continuum of Jewish heritage and culture. , at Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee's aviation and historical enthusiasts experience the history of Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport with a visit to the Gallery of Flight. Exhibits include General Billy Mitchell replicas of past and present aircraft including the Lawson Airline, the first commercial airliner the Graf Zeppelin II, the sistership to the tragically legendary Hindenburg a 1911 Curtis Pusher, an airplane with the propeller in the rear of the plane and the present day giant of the sky, the 747. Other exhibits include commercial air memorabilia, early aviation engines and airport beacons. , opened in 2008, pays tribute to Harley-Davidson motorcycles and is the only museum of its type in the world. [citation needed]

        Arenas and performing arts Edit

        Performing arts groups and venues include:

        In 1984 ComedySportz was founded in Milwaukee by native Dick Chudnow and has since become a franchise, with numerous venues throughout the United States and England. In July 2009 the ComedySportz world championship returned to Milwaukee to coincide with its 25th anniversary.

        Public art and monuments Edit

        Milwaukee has some 75 sculptures to honor the many people and topics reflecting the city's history. [116] Among the more prominent monuments are:

        Additionally, Milwaukee has a burgeoning mural arts scene. Black Cat Alley is a well-known arts destination in a one-block alleyway in the East Side neighborhood of Milwaukee, recognized for its street art mural installations. It is behind the historic Oriental Theatre and includes both temporary and semi-permanent installations by a variety of artists and art groups. Another highly visible corridor of street art in Milwaukee is on the south side in the Walker's Point neighborhood, especially along 5th and 2nd streets.

        Festivals Edit

        The city hosts an annual lakefront music festival called Summerfest. Listed in the 1999 Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, in 2017 Summerfest attracted 831,769. [117] The adjacent city of West Allis has been the site of the Wisconsin State Fair for over a century.

        Milwaukee hosts a variety of primarily ethnically themed festivals throughout the summer. Held generally on the lakefront Summerfest grounds, these festivals span several days (typically Friday plus the weekend) and celebrate Milwaukee's history and diversity. Festivals for the LGBT (PrideFest) and Polish (Polish Fest) communities are typically held in June. Summerfest spans 11 days at the end of June and beginning of July. There are French (Bastille Days), Greek, Italian (Festa Italiana) and German (German Fest) festivals in July. The African, Arab, Irish (Irish Fest), Mexican, and American Indian events wrap it up from August through September. [118] Milwaukee is also home to Trainfest, the largest operating model railroad show in America, in November.

        Cuisine Edit

        Milwaukee's ethnic cuisines include German, Italian, Russian, Hmong, French, Serbian, Polish, Thai, Japanese, Chinese, Mexican, Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Turkish, Middle Eastern and Ethiopian.

        Famous Chef Julia Child visited Milwaukee and selected Milwaukee native chef Sanford D'Amato to cook for her 80th birthday. [119] D'Amato, trained in New York City, is the executive chef for Milwaukee's five-star restaurant Sanford. [119]

        Milwaukee County hosts the Zoo-A La Carte at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and various ethnic festivals like Summerfest, German Fest, and Festa Italiana to celebrate various types of cuisine in summer months.

        Music Edit

        Milwaukee has a long history of musical activity. The first organized musical society, called "Milwaukee Beethoven Society" formed in 1843, three years before the city was incorporated. [120]

        The large concentrations of German and other European immigrants contributed to the musical character of the city. Saengerfesten were held regularly. [121]

        In the early 20th century, guitarist Les Paul and pianist Liberace were some of the area's most famous musicians. Both Paul, born in Waukesha, and Liberace, born in West Allis, launched their careers in Milwaukee music venues. Paramount Records, primarily a jazz and blues record label, was founded in Grafton, a northern suburb of Milwaukee, in the 1920s and 1930s. Hal Leonard Corporation, founded in 1947 is one of the world's largest music print publishers, and is headquartered in Milwaukee. [122] More recently, Milwaukee has a history of rock, hip hop, jazz, soul, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, electronica, world music, and pop music bands.

        Milwaukee's most famous music venue is Summerfest. Founded in 1968, Summerfest features 700-800 live musical acts across 12 stages during 11 days over a 12-day period beginning in late June while the dates adjust each year, Summerfest always includes July 4. On the Summerfest grounds, the largest venue is the American Family Insurance Amphitheater with a 23,000 person capacity. Adjacent is the BMO Harris Pavilion, which has a capacity of roughly 10,000. The BMO Harris Pavilion also hosts numerous concerts and events outside of Summerfest other stages are also used during the numerous other festivals held on the grounds.

        Venues such as Pabst Theater, Marcus Center for Performing Arts, the Helene Zelazo Center for the Performing Arts, Marcus Amphitheater (Summerfest Grounds), Riverside Theater, the Northern Lights Theater, and The Rave frequently bring internationally known acts to Milwaukee. 'Jazz in the Park', a weekly jazz show held at downtown Cathedral Square Park, has become a summer tradition free, public performances with a picnic environment. [123] Nearby Pere Marquette Park hosts "River Rhythms" on Wednesday nights.

        The Milwaukee area is known for producing national talents such as Steve Miller (rock), Wladziu Valentino Liberace (piano), Al Jarreau (jazz), Eric Benet (neo-soul), Speech (hip hop), Daryl Stuermer (rock), Streetz-n-Young Deuces (Hip-Hop), BoDeans (rock), Les Paul (jazz), the Violent Femmes (alternative), Coo Coo Cal (rap), Die Kreuzen (punk), Andy Hurley of Fall Out Boy (punk), Eyes To The Sky (hardcore), Rico Love (R&B), Andrew 'The Butcher' Mrotek of The Academy Is. (alt-rock), Showoff (pop-punk), The Promise Ring (indie), Lights Out Asia (post-rock), the Gufs (alt rock), Brief Candles (rock), IshDARR (rap) and Decibully (indie).

        Municipal wireless Edit

        Through its Milwaukee Wireless Initiative, the city has contracted with Midwest Fiber Networks to invest US$20 million in setting up a municipal wireless network city-wide. Under the plan, the city will designate numerous government and public service websites for free access, and city residents will be able to access unlimited content for a monthly fee. Full wireless coverage was expected by March 2008, [124] but delays have been reported. [125]

        The city had previously established free wireless networks in two downtown city parks: Cathedral Square and Pere Marquette Park. [126] [127] [128]

        Currently, Milwaukee's sports teams include:

        Club Sport Founded Current League Stadium
        Milwaukee Bavarians Soccer 1929 [129] United Premier Soccer League Heartland Value Fund Stadium
        Milwaukee Bucks Basketball 1968 Eastern and Central (NBA) Fiserv Forum
        Milwaukee Brewers Baseball 1970 National League (MLB) American Family Field
        Marquette Golden Eagles Basketball 1916 Big East Conference (NCAA) Fiserv Forum
        Milwaukee Panthers Basketball 1956 Horizon League (NCAA) UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena
        Milwaukee Admirals Hockey 1970 American Hockey League UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena
        Milwaukee Wave Indoor soccer 1984 Major Arena Soccer League UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena
        Brewcity Bruisers Roller Derby 2006 WFTDA UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena
        Milwaukee Milkmen Baseball 2018 American Association of Independent Professional Baseball Franklin Field

        The city currently has no NFL or NHL team, two of the Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. For NFL, Milwaukee was supported by the Milwaukee Badgers in the 1920s, but Milwaukee is considered a home market for the Green Bay Packers. [130] The team split its home schedule between Green Bay and Milwaukee from 1933 to 1994, with the majority of the Milwaukee games being played at County Stadium. [131] Former season ticketholders for the Milwaukee games continue to receive preference for one pre-season and the second and fifth regular season games at Lambeau Field each season, along with playoff games through a lottery under the "Gold Package" plan. [132] The Packers' longtime flagship station is Milwaukee-based WTMJ AM 620. [133]

        Milwaukee has a rich history of involvement in professional and nonprofessional sports, since the 19th century. Abraham Lincoln watched cricket in Milwaukee in 1849 when he attended a game between Chicago and Milwaukee. In 1854, the Milwaukee Cricket Club had 150 members. [134]

        Milwaukee was also the host city of the International Cycling Classic, which included the men's and women's Superweek Pro Tour races, featuring professional and amateur cyclists and teams from across the U.S. and more than 20 foreign countries.

        Milwaukee County is known for its well-developed Parks of Milwaukee park system. [135] The "Grand Necklace of Parks", designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of New York's Central Park, includes Lake Park, River Park (now Riverside Park), and West Park (now Washington Park). Milwaukee County Parks offer facilities for sunbathing, picnics, grilling, disc golf, and ice skating. [136] Milwaukee has over 140 parks with over 15,000 acres (6,100 ha) of parks and parkways. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported Milwaukee had the 19th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. [137]

        Parks and nature centers Edit

        Milwaukee's parks are home to several nature centers. The Urban Ecology Center offers programming for adults and children from its three branches located in Riverside Park, Washington Park, and the Menomonee Valley (near Three Bridges Park). [138] The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources operates a nature center at Havenwoods State Forest. [139] The city is also served by two nearby suburban nature centers. Wehr Nature Center is operated by Milwaukee County in Whitnall Park, located in Franklin, Wisconsin. Admission is free, and parking costs $4 per vehicle. [140] The Schlitz Audubon Nature Center in Bayside, Wisconsin charges admittance fees for visitors.

        The Monarch Trail, on the Milwaukee County Grounds in Wauwatosa, is a 1.25-mile (2 km) trail that highlights the fall migration of the monarch butterflies. [141]

        During the summer months, Cathedral Park in Downtown Milwaukee hosts "Jazz in the Park" on Thursday nights. [142] Nearby Pere Marquette Park hosts "River Rhythms" on Wednesday nights.

        Milwaukee County public markets Edit

        Milwaukee Public Market, in the Third Ward neighborhood, is an indoor market that sells produce, seafood, meats, cheeses, vegetables, candies, and flowers from local businesses.

        Milwaukee County Farmers Markets, held in season, sell fresh produce, meats, cheeses, jams, jellies, preserves and syrups, and plants. Farmers markets also feature artists and craftspeople. Locations include: Aur Farmers Market, Brown Deer Farmers Market, Cudahy Farmers Market, East Town Farm Market, Enderis Park Farmers Market, Fondy Farmers Market, Mitchell Street Market, Riverwest Gardeners' Market, Silver Spring Farmers Market, South Milwaukee Farmers Market, South Shore Farmers Market, Uptown Farmers Market, Wauwatosa Farmers Market, West Allis Farmers Market, and Westown Market on the Park.

        Milwaukee has a mayor-council form of government. With the election of Mayor John O. Norquist in 1988, the city adopted a cabinet form of government with the mayor appointing department heads not otherwise elected or appointed—notably the Fire and Police Chiefs. While this gave the mayor greater control of the city's day-to-day operations, the Common Council retains almost complete control over the city's finances and the mayor, with the exception of his proposed annual budget, cannot directly introduce legislation. The Common Council consists of 15 members, one from each district in the city. Milwaukee has a history of giving long tenures to its mayors from Frank Zeidler to current mayor Tom Barrett, the city has had only four mayors in the last 60 years. When 28-year incumbent Henry Maier retired in 1988, he held the record for longest term of service for a city of Milwaukee's size.

        In addition to the election of a Mayor and Common Council on the city level, Milwaukee residents elect county representatives to the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors, as well as a Milwaukee County Executive. The current County Executive is David Crowley.

        Milwaukee has been a Democratic stronghold for more than a century at the federal level. [143] At the local level, Socialists often won the mayorship and (for briefer periods) other city and county offices during much of the first sixty years of the 20th century. The city is split between seven state Senate districts, each of which is made up of three Assembly districts. All but four state legislators representing the city are Democrats the four Republicans—two in the State Assembly and two in the State Senate—represent outer portions of the city that are part of districts dominated by heavily Republican suburban counties. In 2008, Barack Obama won Milwaukee with 77% of the vote. [144] Tim Carpenter (D), Lena Taylor (D), Robyn Vining (R), LaTonya Johnson (D), Chris Larson (D), Alberta Darling (R), and Mary Lazich (R) represent Milwaukee in the Wisconsin State Senate, and Daniel Riemer (D), JoCasta Zamarripa (D), Marisabel Cabrera (D), David Bowen (D), Jason Fields (D), LaKeshia Myers (D), Rob Hutton (R), Dale P. Kooyenga (R), Kalan Haywood (D), David Crowley (D), Evan Goyke (D), Jonathan Brostoff (D), Christine Sinicki (D), Janel Brandtjen (R), and Mike Kuglitsch (R) represent Milwaukee in the Wisconsin State Assembly.

        Milwaukee makes up the overwhelming majority of Wisconsin's 4th congressional district. The district is heavily Democratic, with victory in the Democratic primary often being considered tantamount to election. [145] The district is currently represented by Democrat Gwen Moore. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of Milwaukee in Congress since Charles J. Kersten lost his seat in the 5th district in 1954 to Democrat Henry S. Reuss. The small portions of the city extending into Waukesha and Washington counties are part of the 5th District, represented by Republican Jim Sensenbrenner.

        Milwaukee's Mexican Consultate serves 65 counties in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. [146]

        Crime Edit

        For several years, Milwaukee ranked among the ten most dangerous large cities in the United States. [147] [148] Despite its improvement since then, Milwaukee still fares worse when comparing specific crime types to the national average (e.g., homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault) [149] [150] The Milwaukee Police Department's Gang Unit was reactivated in 2004 after Nannette Hegerty was sworn in as chief. In 2006, 4,000 charges were brought against suspects through Milwaukee's Gang Unit. [151] In 2013 there were 105 murders in Milwaukee and 87 homicides the following year. [152] In 2015, 146 people were killed in the city. [153] In 2018, Milwaukee was ranked the eighth most dangerous city in the US. [154]

        In 2020, Milwaukee recorded 189 homicides, [155] exceeding the all-time homicide record of 174 which was set in 1993. [156]

        Poverty Edit

        As of 2016 [update] , Milwaukee currently ranks as the second poorest U.S. city with over 500,000 residents, falling behind only Detroit. [157] In 2013, a Point-In-Time survey estimated 1,500 people were homeless on Milwaukee's streets each night. [158] The city's homeless and poor are aided by several local nonprofits, including the Milwaukee Rescue Mission.

        Election results Edit

        Milwaukee city vote
        by party in presidential elections
        Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
        2020 [159] 78.83% 194,661 19.60% 48,414 1.57% 3,875
        2016 [160] 76.55% 188,657 18.43% 45,411 5.02% 12,377
        2012 [161] 79.27% 227,384 19.72% 56,553 1.01% 2,896
        2008 [162] 77.82% 213,436 21.03% 57,665 1.15% 3,152
        2004 [163] 71.83% 198,907 27.35% 75,746 0.82% 2,268

        Primary and secondary education Edit

        Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) is the largest school district in Wisconsin and thirty third in the nation. As of 2007, it had an enrollment of 89,912 students [164] and as of 2006 employed 11,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 323 schools. Milwaukee Public Schools operate as magnet schools, with individualized specialty areas for interests in academics or the arts. Washington High School, Riverside University High School, Rufus King High School, Ronald Wilson Reagan College Preparatory High School, Samuel Morse Middle School for the Gifted and Talented, Golda Meir School, Milwaukee High School of the Arts, and Lynde & Harry Bradley Technology and Trade School are some of the magnet schools in Milwaukee. In 2007, 17 MPS high schools appeared on a national list of "dropout factories" – schools where fewer than 60% of freshmen graduate on time. [165]

        Milwaukee is also home to over two dozen private or parochial high schools, such as Marquette University High School, and many private and parochial middle and elementary schools.

        Of persons in Milwaukee aged 25 and above, 86.9% have a high school diploma, and 29.7% have a bachelor's degree or higher. (2012) [166]

        Higher education Edit

        Milwaukee area universities and colleges:

        Milwaukee's daily newspaper is the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel which was formed when the morning paper the Milwaukee Sentinel merged with the afternoon paper Milwaukee Journal. The city has two free distribution alternative publications, Shepherd Express and Wisconsin Gazette. Other local newspapers, city guides and magazines with large distributions include M Magazine, Milwaukee Magazine, The Bay View Compass, Riverwest Currents, The Milwaukee Courier and Milwaukee Community Journal. OnMilwaukee.com is an online magazine providing news and events. The UWM Post is the independent, student-run weekly at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.

        Milwaukee's major network television affiliates are WTMJ 4 (NBC), WITI 6 (Fox), WISN 12 (ABC), WVTV 18 (CW), WVTV-DT2 24 (MyNetworkTV), and WDJT 58 (CBS). Spanish-language programming is on WTSJ-LD 38 (Azteca America) and WYTU-LD 63 (Telemundo). Milwaukee's public broadcasting stations are WMVS 10 and WMVT 36.

        Other television stations in the Milwaukee market include WMKE-CD 7 (Quest), WVCY 30 (FN), WBME-CD 41 (Me-TV), WMLW-TV 49 (Independent), WWRS 52 (TBN), Sportsman Channel, and WPXE 55 (ION)

        There are numerous radio stations throughout Milwaukee and the surrounding area.

        There are two cable PEG channels in Milwaukee: channels 13 and 25.

        Until 2015, Journal Communications (a NYSE-traded corporation) published the Journal Sentinel and well over a dozen local weekly newspapers in the metropolitan area. At that time, Journal was split into the Journal Media Group for publishing, while the television and radio stations went to the E. W. Scripps Company (Journal founded WTMJ-TV, along with WTMJ and WKTI). As a result, it was criticized for having a near-monopoly in local news coverage. [167] [168] Journal Media Group merged with Gannett in 2017, while Scripps sold the radio stations in 2018 to Good Karma Brands, effectively splitting off the monopoly completely.

        Health care Edit

        Milwaukee's health care industry includes several health systems. The Milwaukee Regional Medical Complex, between 8700 and 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, is on the Milwaukee County grounds. This area includes the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Froedtert Hospital, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, the Ronald McDonald House, Curative Rehabilitation, and the Medical College of Wisconsin. Aurora Health Care includes St. Luke's Medical Center, Aurora Sinai Medical Center, Aurora West Allis Medical Center, and St. Luke's SouthShore. Wheaton Franciscan Healthcare includes St. Joseph's Hospital, St. Francis Hospital, The Wisconsin Heart Hospital, Elmbrook Memorial (Brookfield), and other outpatient clinics in the Milwaukee area. Columbia St. Mary's Hospital is on Milwaukee's lakeshore and has established affiliations with Froedtert Hospital and the Medical College of Wisconsin. The Medical College of Wisconsin is one of two medical schools in Wisconsin and the only one in Milwaukee.

        Other health care non-profit organizations in Milwaukee include national headquarters of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology and the Endometriosis Association.

        Transportation Edit

        Airports Edit

        Milwaukee has two airports: Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport (KMKE) on the southern edge of the city, which handles the region's commercial traffic, and Lawrence J. Timmerman Airport (KMWC), known locally as Timmerman Field, on the northwest side along Appleton Avenue.

        Mitchell is served by twelve airlines, [169] which offer roughly 240 daily departures and 245 daily arrivals. Approximately 90 cities are served nonstop or direct from Mitchell International. It is the largest airport in Wisconsin and the 34th largest in the nation. [170] The airport terminal is open 24 hours a day. Since 2005, Mitchell International Airport has been connected by the Amtrak Hiawatha train service, which provides airport access via train to Chicago and downtown Milwaukee. Southwest, Frontier Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Air Canada, and Delta Air Lines are among the carriers using Milwaukee's Mitchell International Airport gates. [169] In July 2015, it served 610,271 passengers. [171]

        Intercity rail and bus Edit

        Milwaukee's Amtrak station was renovated in 2007 to create Milwaukee Intermodal Station near downtown Milwaukee and the Third Ward to provide Amtrak riders access to Greyhound Lines, Jefferson Lines, 24 hour Megabus service, and other intercity bus operators. Milwaukee is served by Amtrak's Hiawatha Service passenger train up to seven times daily between Milwaukee Intermodal Station and Chicago Union Station, including a stop at the Milwaukee Airport Railroad Station, Sturtevant, Wisconsin, and Glenview, Illinois. Amtrak's Empire Builder stops at Milwaukee Intermodal Station and connects to Chicago and the Pacific Northwest, with several stops along the way.

        In 2010, $800 million in federal funds were allocated to the creation of high-speed rail links from Milwaukee to Chicago and Madison, [172] but the funds were rejected by the then newly elected Governor of Wisconsin Scott Walker. [173] and the trains were sold to Michigan. In 2016, WisDOT and IDOT conducted studies to upgrade service on the Amtrak Hiawatha line from seven to ten times daily between downtown Milwaukee and downtown Chicago. [174] [175]

        Transit Edit

        Highways Edit

        Three of Wisconsin's Interstate highways intersect in Milwaukee. Interstate 94 (I-94) comes north from Chicago to enter Milwaukee and continues west to Madison. The stretch of I-94 from Seven Mile Rd. to the Marquette Interchange in Downtown Milwaukee is known as the North-South Freeway. I-94 from Downtown Milwaukee west to Wisconsin 16 is known as the East-West Freeway.

        I-43 enters Milwaukee from Beloit in the southwest and continues north along Lake Michigan to Green Bay via Sheboygan and Manitowoc. I-43 southwest of I-41/I-894/US 41/US 45 Hale Interchange is known as the Rock Freeway. I-43 is cosigned with I-894 East and I-41/US 41 South to I-94 is known as the Airport Freeway. At I-94, I-43 follows I-94 to the Marquette Interchange. I-43 continues north known as the North-South Freeway to Wisconsin Highway 57 near Port Washington.

        Approved in 2015, Interstate 41 follows I-94 north from the state line before turning west at the Mitchell Interchange to the Hale Interchange and then north to Green Bay via Fond du Lac, Oshkosh and Appleton. I-41/US 41/US 45 from the Hale Interchange to Wisconsin Hwy 145 is known as the Zoo Freeway.

        Milwaukee has two auxiliary Interstate Highways, I-894 and I-794. I-894 bypasses Downtown Milwaukee on the west and south sides of the city from the Zoo Interchange to the Mitchell Interchange. I-894 is part of the Zoo Freeway and the Airport Freeway. I-794 extends east from the Marquette Interchange to Lake Michigan before turning south over the Hoan Bridge toward Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport, turning into Highway 794 along the way. This is known as the Lake Freeway.

        Milwaukee is also served by three US Highways. U.S. Highway 18 (US 18) provides a link from Downtown to points west heading to Waukesha along Wells St, 17th/16th Sts, Highland Ave, 35th St, Wisconsin Ave and Blue Mound Rd. US 41 and US 45 both provide north–south freeway transportation on the western side of the city. The freeway system in Milwaukee carries roughly 25% of all travel in Wisconsin. [180]

        Milwaukee County is also served by several Wisconsin highways. These include the following:

          (Forest Home Ave.) (Chicago Ave., College Ave., S. Lake Dr., Howard Ave., Kinnickinnic Ave., 1st St., Pittsburgh Ave., Milwaukee St., State St., Prospect Ave. NB/Farwell Ave. SB, Bradford Ave., N. Lake Dr., Brown Deer Rd.) (Loomis Rd.) (Howell Ave., Chase Ave., 6th St.) (27th St., Highland Ave., 20th St., Capitol Dr., Green Bay Ave.) (Greenfield Ave./National Ave.) (Ryan Rd., Lovers Lane Rd., 108th St., Mayfair Rd., Brown Deer Rd.) (Airport Spur) (Fond du Lac Ave, Fond du Lac Freeway) (Appleton Ave., Lisbon Ave., Stadium Freeway) (84th St., Glenview Ave., Wauwatosa Ave., 76th St.) (Capitol Dr.) (27th St.) (Lake Pkwy.)

        In 2010, the Milwaukee area was ranked the 4th best city for commuters by Forbes. [181]

        Water Edit

        Milwaukee's main port, Port of Milwaukee, handled 2.4 million metric tons of cargo through its municipal port in 2014. [182] Steel and salt are handled at the port.

        Milwaukee connects with Muskegon, Michigan through the Lake Express high-speed auto and passenger ferry. The Lake Express travels across Lake Michigan from late spring to the fall of each year.

        Bicycle Edit

        Milwaukee has over 105 miles (169 km) of bicycle lanes and trails, most of which run alongside or near its rivers and Lake Michigan. The Oak Leaf Trail, a multi-use recreational trail, provides bicycle trails throughout the city and county. Still pending are the creation of bicycle lanes along major commuting routes, such as the Hoan Bridge connector between downtown and the suburbs to the south. The city has also identified over 250 miles (400 km) of streets on which bike lanes will fit. It has created a plan labeling 145 miles (233 km) of those as high priority for receiving bike lanes. [183] As part of the city's Bicycle and Pedestrian Task Force's mission to "make Milwaukee more bicycle and pedestrian friendly", over 700 bike racks have been installed throughout the city. [184] The Bicycle Federation of Wisconsin [185] holds an annual Bike to Work Week. The event, held in May each year, has frequently featured a commuter race between a car, a bus, and a bike and also a morning ride into work with the mayor. In 2006, Milwaukee obtained bronze-level status from the League of American Bicyclists, [186] a rarity for a city its size. [187]

        In 2009, the Milwaukee County Transit System began installing bicycle racks to the front of county buses. [188] This "green" effort was part of a settlement of an asbestos lawsuit leveled by the state at the county in 2006. [189] The lawsuit cites the release of asbestos into the environment when the Courthouse Annex was demolished. [190]

        In August 2014, Milwaukee debuted a bicycle sharing system called Bublr Bikes, which is a partnership between the City of Milwaukee and a local non-profit Midwest Bike Share (dba Bublr Bikes). [191] [192] As of September 2016, the system operates 39 stations throughout downtown, the East Side, and the UW-Milwaukee campus area and near downtown neighborhoods. The City of Milwaukee installed another ten Bublr Bikes stations in October 2016, and the adjacent suburb of Wauwatosa installed eight stations in September 2016, which will bring the system size to 58 stations by the end of 2016. More stations are scheduled for installation in the Village of Shorewood and the City of West Allis in 2017. Future system expansion in the City of Milwaukee is also expected as the City was awarded a second federal Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality (CMAQ) program grant ($1.9 million) to add more stations starting in 2018. [193]

        Walkability Edit

        A 2015 study by Walk Score ranked Milwaukee as the 15th most walkable out of the 50 largest U.S. cities. [194] As a whole, the city has a score of 62 out of 100. However, several of the more densely populated neighborhoods have much higher scores: Juneautown has a score of 95 the Lower East Side has a score of 91 Yankee Hill scored 91 and the Marquette and Murray Hill neighborhoods both scored 89 each. [195] Those ratings range from "A Walker's Paradise" to "Very Walkable."

        Modal characteristics Edit

        According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 71% of working city of Milwaukee residents commuted by driving alone, 10.4% carpooled, 8.2% used public transportation, and 4.9% walked. About 2% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 3.4% of working city of Milwaukee residents worked at home. [196] In 2015, 17.9% of city of Milwaukee households were without a car, which increased to 18.7% in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Milwaukee averaged 1.3 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household. [197]

        City development Edit

        On February 10, 2015, a streetcar connecting the Milwaukee Intermodal Station with the city's lower east side was approved by the Common Council, bringing if not to a halt then at least to a pause, decades of sometimes acrimonious debate. On a 9–6 vote, the council approved a measure that established the project's $124 million capital budget, its estimated $3.2 million operating and maintenance budget and its 2.5-mile (4.0 km) route, which includes a lakefront spur connecting the line to the proposed $122 million, 44-story Couture. Construction on the Milwaukee Streetcar began March 2017, with initial operation by mid-2018. [178] [198] The Lakefront service is expected to start operation by 2019. [178]

        Northwestern Mutual Tower and Commons stands 550 feet (170 m) tall and has 32 stories, making it the second tallest building in Milwaukee. [199] [200]

        Fiserv Forum, a new multipurpose arena at 1111 Vel R. Phillips Avenue, has been built to accommodate the Milwaukee Bucks and Marquette Golden Eagles, as well as college and professional ice hockey games. Construction on the $524 million project began in November 2015 and opened to the public on August 26, 2018. [201] The arena is intended to be the focal point of a "live block" zone that includes public space surrounded by both commercial and residential developments. The arena has a transparent facade and a curved roof and side that is meant to evoke the water forms of nearby Lake Michigan and the Milwaukee River. [202]

        Happy Days and Laverne and Shirley, two sitcoms that aired on ABC in the 1970s and 1980s, were set in Milwaukee, and often used the Milwaukee breweries as a backdrop for the storyline. [ citation needed ]

        • Bomet, Kenya
        • Daegu, South Korea
        • Galway, Ireland
        • Irpin, Ukraine
        • King Cetshwayo, South Africa
        • Medan, Indonesia
        • Tarime District, Tanzania
        • Zadar, Croatia

        Friendship cities Edit

        Officials from Milwaukee and Ningbo have signed an agreement to promote business and cultural ties between the two cities and their respective nations. [204]

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        2. ^ Records kept January 1871 to February 1941 at the Weather Bureau Office and at General Mitchell Int'l since March 1941. For more information, see Threadex
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        Powering a Revolution Through Lithium Ion

        Milwaukee Tool achieved a major step forward in the industry when we invented the technology that enabled the use of lithium-ion in power tools. It was an achievement that marked a turning point for every trade in the industry and spurred the question, “Are battery-powered tools the future of the jobsite?” At the time no one believed in this technology more than our team. We knew that the cordless jobsite wasn’t just a fad – it was the future.

        So, we started our journey.


        Native Milwaukee

        The Indigenous Peoples of North America have always claimed Milwaukee as their own. Known as the “gathering place by the waters,” the “good earth” (or good land), or simply the “gathering place,” Indigenous groups such as the Potawatomi, Ojibwe, Odawa (Ottawa), Fox, Ho-Chunk, Menominee, Sauk, and Oneida have all called Milwaukee their home at some point in the last three centuries.[1] This does not include the many other Native populations in Milwaukee today, ranging from Wisconsin groups like the Stockbridge-Munsee and Brothertown Nation, to outer-Wisconsin peoples like the Lakota and Dakota (Sioux), First Nations, Creek, Chickasaw, Sac, Meskwaki, Miami, Kickapoo, Micmac, and Cherokee, among others. According to the 2010 census, over 7,000 people in Milwaukee County identified as American Indian or Alaska Native, making Milwaukee the largest concentration of Native Peoples statewide.[2] Milwaukee, then, is—and has always been—a Native place, home to a diverse number of Indigenous Americans.

        Native Milwaukee’s Creation Story is thousands of years old, when the Mound Builders civilizations, also known as the Adena, Hopewell, Woodlands, and Mississippian cultures, flourished in the Great Lakes, Ohio River Valley, and Mississippi River Valley between 500 BCE to 1200 CE (some scholars even suggest 1500 CE).[3] It is estimated the Mound-Builder civilization spread to southeastern Wisconsin in the Early Woodland Era, sometime between 800 and 500 BCE, and flourished during the Middle Woodland Era (100 BCE to 500 CE). For thousands of years, the Mound Builders occupied southeastern Wisconsin and erected conical earthworks and effigy mounds that are still visible today, like the Aztalan mounds in Jefferson County. These civilizations were semi-sedentary, mixing the cultivation of corn, squash, and beans with hunting, gathering, and fishing along the western banks of Lake Michigan. The Mound Builders also established elaborate exchange networks penetrating as far south as the Gulf of Mexico and as far east to the Hudson Valley, navigating waterways like the Mississippi, Illinois, and Wabash Rivers to trade with other Indigenous groups.[4] The mounds themselves were a central part of these peoples’ lives, as physical and totemic representations of their spiritual worldviews and practices, burial sites, ceremonial grounds, and territorial boundary markers. These mounds remain visible testaments to the Indigenous occupation of southeastern Wisconsin for thousands of years.

        While little is known about what became of the Mound Builders, it is assumed that they dispersed to other parts of North America or were incorporated into other Indigenous groups that relocated to southeastern Wisconsin between 1200 and 1600 CE. Foremost among those who took the place of the Mound Builders were the Ho-Chunk (Siouan language family) and Menominee (Algonquian language family), who similarly practiced a mix of agriculture, hunting, gathering, and fishing in semi-sedentary communities during the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. The Ho-Chunk and Menominee traded and at times occasionally warred with the nearby Sauk, Fox, Mascouten, Iowa, Santee Sioux, and Illinois peoples, who also lived or moved about southeastern Wisconsin and northern Illinois.[5] By the seventeenth-century, though, groups of Algonquian (Anishinaabe) peoples, such as the Ojibwe, Potawatomi, and Odawa, relocated from eastern North America to the Great Lakes, due to their internecine warfare with the Iroquois. The arrival of these Algonquian migrants created further conflict with the Ho-Chunk and Menominee, which ultimately prompted the majority of Ho-Chunk peoples to remove to western Wisconsin while the Menominee largely migrated to northern Wisconsin.[6] By the turn of the eighteenth-century, Milwaukee was mainly an Anishinaabe space, occupied predominately by the Potawatomi, who together with the Ojibwe and Odawa formed the Council of Three Fires (Niswi-mishkodewin), an alliance of Algonquian peoples encompassing the Great Lakes.[7] Like those before them, the Potawatomi and other Native peoples in southeastern Wisconsin constructed seasonal, semi-sedentary settlements at Milwaukee, where they mixed the cultivation of corn, beans, and squash with hunting, gathering, and fishing.

        The arrival of Jean Nicolet and the French at Green Bay in 1634 dramatically changed the landscape of Native Milwaukee. The French partnered with the Indigenous Peoples of Milwaukee in the fur trade, which brought Native groups into conflict with France’s rivals, the Dutch, and their Iroquois allies. In addition, contact with the French exposed Native Milwaukee to epidemic diseases like smallpox, which reduced the population of groups like the Ho-Chunk by as much as 90%.[8] To cope with the threat posed by European trade, warfare, and germs during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Potawatomi, Ojibwe, and Odawa of Milwaukee welcomed and incorporated migrants from the Ho-Chunk, Menominee, Sauk, Fox, Mascouten, Miami, Huron, Kickapoo, and Illinois into their societies. These groups flocked to southeastern Milwaukee for access to European trade—using waterways that linked to the Great Lakes and upper Wisconsin—or sought refuge from Dutch-Iroquois raids or epidemic diseases. By the mid-1700s, the entire Great Lakes region was a convergence point for the Algonquian, Siouan, and Iroquoian peoples of North America.[9]

        Native Milwaukee emerged as one of many way stations for the fur trade in the eighteenth-century, due to its strategic location along the waterways of southeastern Wisconsin, facilitating Native-French exchange between Green Bay and Chicago. While some scholars suggest that the French established a trading post at Milwaukee in 1742-1743, it is more likely that French coureur de bois simply migrated to southeastern Wisconsin and were incorporated into Native societies, serving as go-betweens in the fur trade.[10] Intermarriage between Native Peoples and the French provided the basis for what historian Richard White calls the “Middle Ground,” in which kinship ties and ritual rules of reciprocity maintained the alliances and trade relations between Indigenous Peoples and the French. It was within this “Middle Ground” that Milwaukee evolved into one of the sites for the fur trade, part of an expansive exchange network that stretched all the way from Montreal down to New Orleans, and across the Atlantic to Europe.[11]

        On account of the alliances and trade with the French, southeastern Wisconsin was drawn into conflicts with the English, most notably in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763). As British traders penetrated the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley by mid-century, the Potawatomi, Odawa, Ojibwe, and other Native groups mobilized in support of the French.[12] Although France was eventually defeated by the British and forced to withdraw from the Great Lakes in 1763, the peoples of southeastern Wisconsin continued to oppose the British advance. Indigenous groups gravitated toward Neolin, the Delaware Prophet, who—in a vision from the Master of Life—advocated for Native Peoples to return to their ceremonial traditions and ways of life, divesting themselves of European attachments, and expelling European settlers from their lands. Neolin’s message sparked a pan-Indian resistance movement in the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley from 1763-1765, led by the Odawa headman, Pontiac, who enjoyed support from the Potawatomi and Ojibwe of Milwaukee.[13] The resulting conflict, known as Pontiac’s War, forced the British to reevaluate their policy toward the Indigenous Peoples of North America, and conform to the “Middle Grounds” that characterized interactions in the Great Lakes. Between 1765 and 1776, the fur trade reemerged as the defining feature of southeastern Wisconsin, and as fur-bearing animals migrated south during the late eighteenth century, increasing numbers of Potawatomi, Ojibwe, Odawa, Sac, and Fox peoples congregated at Milwaukee.[14]

        With the onset of the American Revolution, the peoples of Native Milwaukee were once again forced to choose sides in a war not of their own making. While groups like the Menominee and Ojibwe largely supported the British, the Potawatomi of Milwaukee—led by Siggenauk (also known as Blackbird and Le Tourneau) —allied themselves with the Americans, despite other Potawatomi communities in Michigan and Wisconsin mobilizing for the British.[15] When George Rogers Clark and his expeditionary force reached northern Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin in 1779, it was Siggenauk and the Potawatomi of Milwaukee who provided logistical and military support for the Americans. In retaliation, the British sloop Felicity was sent to western Lake Michigan to try and seize Siggenauk, which not only failed, but encouraged other Potawatomi, Odawa, and Ojibwe peoples to besiege the British fortification at St. Joseph (Michigan).[16]

        It was in the aftermath of the Revolutionary War that Native Milwaukee first experienced permanent European settlement. In 1785, French trader Alexis Laframboise erected a trade post in Milwaukee, and this was followed by a second store established by Jacques Vieau in 1795, on behalf of the Northwest Fur Company.[17] For the most part, Laframboise and Vieau adhered to the dictates of kinship and reciprocity that defined the “Middle Ground” of the Great Lakes. Vieau himself married Angelique, a Potawatomi woman, and conducted trade through her relations. Eventually, Vieau’s own daughter, Josette, married a French-Canadian trader for the American Fur Company, Solomon Juneau, who inherited Vieau’s store in 1825. And in 1846, Juneau founded and served as the first mayor of Milwaukee.[18] Throughout this time, the Potawatomi, Ojibwe, Odawa, Menominee, and other Native peoples continued to facilitate the fur trade in southeastern Wisconsin, although the trade itself declined significantly in the 1830s as fur-bearing animals migrated away from southeastern Wisconsin. It was at this point that Euro-Americans poured into the new city during the 1840s-1850s and forever transformed Native Milwaukee.[19]

        The Indigenous communities of southeastern Wisconsin were not passive victims to the changes in the area. The Potawatomi, Ojibwe, and Odawa all joined the Western Confederacy, a pan-Indian coalition from the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley, that resisted American expansion, famously forcing the surrender of two U.S. armies in 1790 and 1791.[20] In 1795, the Potawatomi of Milwaukee attacked a local settlement—Belleville (Wisconsin) —which precipitated retaliatory violence between Native Peoples and local whites throughout the 1790s and 1800s.[21] When the Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa, and his brother, Tecumseh, spearheaded a second resistance movement in the late 1800s and early 1810s, the Potawatomi of Milwaukee, along with other Ojibwe, Odawa, and Menominee peoples in southeastern Wisconsin, mobilized in support.[22] In June 1812, on the eve of war between the U.S. and Britain, Indigenous groups from Wisconsin, Michigan, and Illinois descended upon Milwaukee to determine a course of action in the conflict, where it was decided to join the British, and they afterward besieged Fort Dearborn (Chicago).[23] Despite such support for the British and Tecumseh’s confederacy, the American victory in the War of 1812 opened the floodgates to a Euro-American settler invasion of Wisconsin.

        Between 1815 and 1833, the United States negotiated treaties and land cessions with the Native Peoples of Wisconsin—the Potawatomi alone signed twelve treaties in seventeen years—to pave the way for expansion into the Great Lakes.[24] While the peoples of Native Milwaukee refused to take part in the negotiations at Prairie du Chien in 1825, the Potawatomi and other groups in southeastern Wisconsin faced incessant pressure by U.S. negotiators to cede their lands. By 1833, the accumulated factors of local white hostility, debts from the declining fur trade, and factional divisions in Native leadership cultivated by U.S. agents, prompted the Potawatomi to agree to the Treaty of Chicago (1833), thereby signing away their remaining lands including Milwaukee.[25] This occurred against the backdrop of the Black Hawk War (1832-1833), which further fueled local resentment toward the Native Peoples of southeastern Wisconsin. By 1836, the territorial census counted over 11,000 settlers living in Wisconsin, from other parts of the United States, and Europe, particularly Germany, Ireland, Belgium, Scandinavia, and Netherlands. That census did not count the Native American population, which has been estimated to be twice as large at the time.[26] As Potawatomi headman, Metea, reflected on this development, “The plowshare is driven through our tents before we have time to carry out our goods and seek another habitation.”[27] To compound matters, the U.S. forcefully removed the Potawatomi to Missouri, Iowa, and Kansas in 1838, which the Potawatomi to this day call the Trail of Death. However, several families managed to escape removal and fled to Canada, Mexico, Michigan, Indiana, and—specific to the Forest County Potawatomi—northern Wisconsin.[28] By 1865, the residents of Milwaukee had largely purged the city of its Indigenous origins.

        For the remainder of the nineteenth-century, the Native Peoples of Wisconsin continued to grapple with treaties of dispossession and removal, confinement to reservations, allotment and sale of reservation lands, and endured the trauma of boarding schools. For instance, treaties in 1837, 1842, and 1854 divided the Ojibwe into different bands and reservations: Lac Courte Oreilles, Bad River, Lac du Flambeau, Red Cliff, St. Croix, and Sokaogon (Mole Lake), not to mention groups in Minnesota, Michigan, and Canada.[29] The Ojibwe faced their own removal crisis in 1850, when the United States attempted to lure the Ojibwe to Minnesota with annuity payments to Minnesota, which resulted in hundreds of Ojibwe deaths, and to this day is called the Sandy Lake Tragedy.[30] Meanwhile, Native migrants from New England and New York, composed primarily of Oneida but also Stockbridge, Munsee (Delaware), and Brothertown Indians, were pressured by the federal government to relocate to Wisconsin in the 1820s and 1830s, a product of fraudulent treaties negotiated with the Iroquois.[31]

        Following the Civil War (1861-1865), the Native Peoples of Wisconsin faced renewed attempts by the United States to further reduce their land base, using the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 to divide up reservations into 160-acre plats assigned to male heads of households, with all remaining “surplus” lands open to purchase by non-Indians. To make matters worse, the federal government partnered with Catholic and Protestant institutions to create boarding schools, where Native children were taken from their families, stripped of their language, religion, and culture, forced to adapt to Western standards of education, and subjected to a violence and sexual abuse that continues to haunt Indigenous communities today. Boarding schools in Wisconsin included the Oneida Indian School, Tomah Indian Industrial School, Wittenberg Indian School, Hayward Indian School, and Lac du Flambeau Indian School, among others.[32]

        Native communities in Wisconsin remained resilient, though, and during the early to mid-twentieth century reasserted a presence in Milwaukee. In contrast to the poverty and disparity of reservations, urban centers like Milwaukee offered economic opportunities, particularly when it came to the tourism industry and employment in defense industries during the World Wars. As early as 1904, a group of Ojibwe from Lac Courte Oreilles constructed a mock “Indian” village at the Wisconsin State Fair, where they “played Indian” by performing dances and other musical demonstrations to paying customers. The Menominee replicated such labors in 1906. Afterward, the “Indian” village and annual “Indian Pageant” became recurrent attractions at the West Allis fairgrounds in the early to mid-twentieth century.[33] By the 1930s, Native Peoples—especially the Oneida—increasingly relocated to Milwaukee and established organizations like the Council Fire of American Indians and Consolidated Tribes of American Indians, which emerged as vehicles for mutual aid and social activity.[34] These organizations provided a sense of identity and community for Native Peoples in Milwaukee, and fostered inter-tribal fellowship, cultural engagement, and reservation-to-urban connections.

        This resurgence of Native Milwaukee continued into the 1950s-1960s, despite the federal government’s efforts to eliminate tribal sovereignty through a policy of “Termination,” as well as dismantling reservations by relocating Native Peoples to urban centers like Milwaukee. For those Potawatomi, Oneida, Menominee, Stockbridge-Munsee, Ojibwe, Ho-Chunk, and other Native families who relocated to the city, the decision was often motivated by economic incentives, job opportunities, or kinship ties to relatives already living in Milwaukee. However, the experience of getting to the city and finding housing or work proved frustrating for most Native households, often forced to live in substandard housing, without any federal assistance—despite promises to the contrary—employed in menial low-wage jobs, and disconnected from the reservation and family.[35] Such experiences, though, motivated these new arrivals to seek community and support with those already established in the city, frequenting taverns like Indian John’s and Thunderbird Tap to solicit help, find housing and employment, and enjoy one another’s company.[36] They also joined the Consolidated Tribes of American Indians and a new organization, United Indians of Milwaukee, which promoted a fledgling powwow culture that evolved into the Annual Greater Milwaukee Area Powwow. By 1953, the population of Native Milwaukee topped a thousand, which then increased to nearly three thousand by 1960, and in 1973 numbered more than four thousand people, the majority of whom lived on the north and south sides of the city.[37]

        During the late 1960s and 1970s, Native Milwaukee mobilized in support of civil rights, tribal sovereignty, and Indigenous self-determination. New organizations such as the American Indian Information & Actions Group (a local chapter of the National Indian Youth Council), the Milwaukee branch of the American Indian Movement (AIM), Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Stakeholders (DRUMS), and the Native American Student Movement were at the forefront of the Red Power movement in Milwaukee staging protests, rallies, marches, and occupations of the Milwaukee County War Memorial Center, First Wisconsin Trust Building, Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee Area Technical College, among others.[38] The most well-known demonstration by these organizations was Milwaukee AIM’s 1971 occupation of the McKinley Park Coast Guard Station (1600 N. Lincoln Memorial Drive), in their demands citing the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) that stipulated abandoned federal property reverted to the control of the original inhabitants. The station thereafter became the site of the Indian Community School (ICS), which is today located in Franklin, Wisconsin.[39] Other successes of the Red Power movement in Milwaukee were the creation of American Indian Studies (AIS) educational programs at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC), revitalizing interest in language preservation projects, establishing the Milwaukee Indian Health Center and Indian Urban Affairs Council to provide health and social services, founding a Milwaukee Area American Indian Manpower Council Inc. for employment and job training, among others.[40]

        Native Milwaukee continued to grow with the advent of gaming and state-tribal compacts in the late 1980s and 1990s. Based on their historical occupancy in Milwaukee, the Forest County Potawatomi secured rights to build a bingo hall in the Menomonee Valley, which later evolved into the Potawatomi Hotel & Casino (1721 W. Canal St.). In addition to diversifying the Potawatomi economy—with investments in a heavy equipment excavation firm, a construction company, a logging cooperative, convenience stores, and gas stations—the casino invested in the expansion of the Indian Community School and the Gerald L. Ignace Indian Health Center Today it provides housing support as well as medical, dental, and mental health insurance to Potawatomi members, as well as hosting an annual intertribal gathering—the Hunting Moon Pow Wow—along with language and cultural revitalization efforts.[41] The Oneida were also one of the first to sign gaming compacts with the state and used the revenue to invest in the Nation’s infrastructure. This includes a convention center, convenience stores and gas stations, business park and electronics firm, as well as housing, utility, and health services for Oneida members. As importantly, the Oneida use casino monies to support Oneida Nation schools, a public museum and library, programs for elders and language, the reconstruction of a longhouse for ceremonial purposes, and repurchasing nearly 11,000 acres of land allotted away from the Nation by the state and federal governments. And to support those Oneida living in Milwaukee, the Nation established the Southeastern Oneida Tribal Services (SEOTS) office, located at 5233 W. Morgan Avenue.[42]

        Today, there are a wealth of organizations and institutions dedicated to serving Native Milwaukee. In addition to the AIS program at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, there exist the American Indian Student Services department and the Electa Quinney Institute for American Indian Education. Similarly, MATC sponsors several Native-centered initiatives to support recruiting and retention among Indigenous students. And because Native students have very high dropout rates in Milwaukee (K-12), additional educational enterprises include the Milwaukee Public Schools’ First Nations Studies program, Spotted Eagle High School (closed in 2012), and Indian Community School. In terms of health and social services, the Gerald L. Ignace Indian Health Center (930 W. Historic Mitchell St.) opened in 1999, succeeding the Indian Health Center founded in the 1970s. As for Native Peoples who practice a blend of traditional ceremonial practices and Catholicism, the Archdiocese of Milwaukee supported the formation of the Congregation of the Great Spirit (1000 W. Lapham Boulevard). Other community organizations that support the needs of Native Milwaukee are the American Indian Chamber of Commerce, Native American Literary Cooperative, Spotted Eagle Inc. Workforce Development (930 W. Historic Mitchell St.), Indian Council of the Elderly, United Indians of Milwaukee Inc. (3126 W. Kilbourn Avenue), First Nation Women’s Professional Leadership Group, Milwaukee First Nations Health Coalition, among many others. Yet the defining characteristic of Native Milwaukee—one that embodies the diversity and resiliency of the city’s Indigenous communities—is the Indian Summer Festival, held annually on the Summerfest grounds, one of the largest intertribal gatherings in the United States. This resurgent Native community is why the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) hosted its 74 th Annual Convention in Milwaukee in October 2017, a testament to the vitality of Native Milwaukee today.[43]

        Footnotes [+]

          Antonio J. Doxtator and Renee J. Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Press, 2011), 9. “American Indians in Wisconsin—Overview,” Wisconsin Department of Health Services, December 27, 2016. Patty Loew, Indians Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal (Madison, WI: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2001), 6. Robert A. Birmingham and Leslie E. Eisenberg, Indian Mounds of Wisconsin (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000), 86-87, 92, 98, 100-104. Robert E. Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 1600-1960: A Study of Tradition and Change (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995), 21, 37 Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 14, 42. Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 3, 14. Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 84 William W. Warren, History of the Ojibway People (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1984), 82. Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 14. Michael A. McDonnell, Masters of Empire: Great Lakes Indians and the Making of America (New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 2015), 115 White, The Middle Ground, 11-13. Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 70. White, The Middle Ground, 212 Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 15. Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 19 R. David Edmunds, The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), 54. White, The Middle Ground, 275, 284-285. McDonnell, Masters of Empire, 120, 245-246 Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 90 Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 84, 87-88. Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 10 Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 24. Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 101-102, 107, 111. Fanny S. Stone, ed. Racine, Belle City of the Lakes, and Racine County, Wisconsin: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement, Volume I (Chicago, IL: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1916), 495 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 12. Ibid. McDonnell, Masters of Empire, 321 Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 130, 154. Lowe, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 90 Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 174. Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 134. White, The Middle Ground, 511, 513, 516 Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 158 Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 188. Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 245. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 27, 90 Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 232 Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 172. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 90. Edmunds, The Potawatomis, 274 Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 93-94. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 63. See Ronald N. Satz, Chippewa Treaty Rights: The Reserved Rights of Wisconsin’s Chippewa Indians in Historical Perspective (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997). Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 128-129 Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 26, 106-107, 113, 121. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 65-66. Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 13-15. For “Playing Indian,” see Philip J. Deloria, Playing Indian (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998). Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 49. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 80, 95, 110-111, 122 Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 4, 208-209 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 8, 43-44. Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 46. Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 27, 67. Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 6-7 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 8, 67, 72, 79-80. Bieder, Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 6-7. See also the Indian Community School website, http://ics-edu.org/, last accessed October 8, 2018. Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 74-75, 78-80. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 97-98 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 84. Loew, Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 111-112 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 8, 96. Kristine Hansen, “Milwaukee Is Indian Country,” Shepherd Express, June 10, 2014, last accessed October 8, 2018 Doxtator and Zakhar, American Indians in Milwaukee, 87, 91, 94, 96, 108, 113, 117, 122, 126 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee American Indian Student Services, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee website, last accessed October 8, 2018 Electa Quinney Institute for American Indian Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee website, last accessed October 8, 2018 MATC American Indian Student Service Office, Milwaukee Area Technical College website, last accessed October 8, 2018 MPS First Nations Studies Program, Milwaukee Public Schools website, last accessed October 8, 2018 Spotted Eagle High School, Spotted Eagle Inc. website, last accessed December 27, 2018 Indian Community School website, last accessed October 8, 2018 Gerald L. Ignace Indian Health Center website, last accessed October 8, 2018 David Schuyler, “Central City Clinics Return from the Brink,” Milwaukee Business Journal, October 3, 1999, accessed July 6, 2018 Congregation of the Great Spirit website, last accessed October 8, 2018 American Indian Chamber of Commerce of Wisconsin website, last accessed October 8, 2018 Milwaukee Native American Literary Cooperative Facebook page, last accessed October 8, 2018 Milwaukee Indian Education Committee Inc. Facebook page, last accessed December 27, 2018 Spotted Eagle Inc. website, last accessed October 8, 2018 Indian Council of the Elderly Facebook page, last accessed October 8, 2018 United Indians of Milwaukee Inc., last accessed December 27, 2018 “New Milwaukee Group Supports Native American Women,” Indian Country Today, May 20, 2013 Milwaukee First Nations Health Coalition Facebook page, last accessed December 27, 2018 Indian Summer Festival website, last accessed December 27, 2018 NCAI 74 th Annual Convention and Marketplace, National Congress of American Indians website, last accessed December 27, 2018.

        For Further Reading

        Bieder, Robert E. Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 1600-1960: A Study of Tradition and Change. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995.

        Doxtator, Antonio J. and Renee J. Zakhar. American Indians in Milwaukee. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2011.

        Loew, Patty. Indians Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2001.

        White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

        See Also

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        The History of the Major League Brewers Baseball Team

        #13 – Bernie Brewer: The Man Behind the Mascot

        The official mascot of the Brewers’ is Bernie Brewer, but did you know that this mascot was modeled off one of the team’s most famous fans? Milt Mason sat perched on top of the scoreboard until the attendance hit 40,000. He was up there for over a month! Talk about a stakeout. Thus, the mascot Bernie Brewer was styled in his honor.

        #14 – Secret Stadium Sauce

        While Secret Stadium Sauce might sound a bit like “mojo,” it’s a literal sauce. The Milwaukee Brewers’ stadium is called Miller Park it’s the only place in the world to find “Secret Stadium Sauce.” Apparently, it was invented in the 1970s when one vendor ran out of ketchup and had to improvise. Some people say the proof is in the pudding Brewers’ fans say the secret is in the sauce!

        #15 – A Designer’s Eye

        The Brewers’ retro logo has been touted as one of baseball’s most well-designed logos as it’s a sort of optical illusion. The mitt actually consists of an “M” and a “B!” Interestingly, their logo used to be the Beer Barrel Man!


        One thought on &ldquoCity Streets: Gordon Place is Rich with Milwaukee History&rdquo

        Thanks for this fascinating information… I live in the Charles Whitnall birtplace in Whitnall Knoll. I did what I felt was diligent research on the Whitnalls while taking a local history course at UWM in the 1980s. The info I found referred to Gordon Park area as the Gordon Farm in earlier days. I was concentrating on the Whitnalls and due to laziness/dumbness I never dug into the Gordon story. The local history course was taught by the then head of the Milwaukee County Historical Society and we felt that we had done some good research…Thank you for setting me straight. Kurt R Holzhauer 1208 E Locust street Milw., WI 53212

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        Historic Photo Collection

        This collection consists of thousands of photos from Milwaukee&rsquos history, ranging in date from the late 19th century through the latter part of the 20th century. Because of the large numbers of photos, the collection has been divided up into subject headings with sub-headings. The subject headings deal with the overall focus of that part of the collection, and the sub-headings detail the specific contents.

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        Watch the video: Τo SPORT24 στην αποθέωση του Αντετοκούνμπο: Το Μιλγουόκι καίγεται στην παρέλαση των Μπακς