HMS Ocean

HMS Ocean

HMS Ocean

HMS Ocean was a Canopus class pre-dreadnought battleship lost during the naval attempt to force the Dardanelles on 18 March 1915. At the start of the First World War the Canopus class ships were formed into the 8th Battle Squadron, part of the Channel Fleet. There they helped to protect the BEF on its journey across the channel.

Towards the end of August the Admiralty began to believe that the Germans might be planned to use their battlecruisers as commerce raiders. A number of older battleships were sent to overseas stations to support the light cruiser squadrons. HMS Ocean was sent to Queenstown in southern Ireland.

In early September she was sent to Cape St. Vincent to replaced HMS Albion, and was then diverted to the East Indies station to help protect the Indian Army as it moved to the Middle East. The entry of Turkey into the war left the British oil supply vulnerable. The main refinery and oil terminal was at Abadan, at the head of the Persian Gulf. It was decided to send the VI Indian Division to the gulf to capture the oil terminal. HMS Ocean was selected to escort the troop convoy. She met up with the convoy on 18 October and left with her detachment. They arrived at Bahrain on 23 October. The Ocean was unable to take part in the final stage of the attack, as she was unable to cross the bar at the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab.

The Albion was then posted to Egypt, to protect the Suez Canal, entering the canal on 29 December. Captain Hayes-Sadler was appointed Senior Naval Officer in the canal. She was present during the Turkish attack on the canal. She was posted in the southern part of the canal, where she helped to fight off the southern Turkish attack at El Kubri.

In February 1915 she was placed on standby to join Admiral Carden at the Dardanelles. She had joined his fleet in time to take part in the 1 March attack on the Turkish forts and the 4 March bombardment and landings. Captain Hayes-Sadler was given command of one of the landings because of his experience in the gulf. On 6 March she was used to cover HMS Queen Elizabeth when that much more valuable ship took part in another bombardment.

On 18 March the Ocean was part of the 3rd Sub-Division of the Second Division of the fleet (Ocean, Irresistible, Albion and Vengeance), the British contribution to the force that attempted to force its way through the narrows. At 6.05pm, while that force was pulling out of the straits, the Ocean hit a Turkish mine. Her helm jammed hard a-port and a coal bunker and a number of passages were flooded. A Turkish shell then hit the same part of the ship, flooding the tiller-room and the starboard steering engine-room. She was now out of control and Captain Hayes-Sadler ordered the destroyers Colne, Jed and Chelmer to evacute her crew. She was still floating, and was in a current flowing out of the straits, so Captain Hayes-Sadler remained nearby in the hope that she might float to safety. After dark, he returned to his ship to rescue four men who had been left behind earlier, but at 7.30pm contact with the ship was lost. According to Turkish reports she sank in Morto Bay at around 10.30pm.

Displacement (loaded)

14,300t

Top Speed

18kts

Armour – belt

6in

- bulkheads

10-6in

- barbettes

12in

- gun houses

8in

- casemates

6in

- conning tower

12in

- deck

2in-1in

Length

421ft 6in

Armaments

Four 12in guns
Twelve 6in quick firing guns
Ten 12pdr quick firing guns
Six 3pdr guns
Four 18in torpedo tubes, four submerged

Crew complement

682

Launched

5 July 1898

Completed

February 1900

Captains

A. Hayes-Sadler (1914, 1915)

Mined

18 March 1915

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


HMS Ocean

HMS Ocean is the only active helicopter assualt ship in the Royal Navy. She is fully equipped with helicopters and landing craft and golf buggies for a full-scale, amphibious landing force. This would be ideal if, say, a British colonial island somewhere in the Caribbean experienced a tropical storm. Combined with all the other landing assault ships in the Royal Naval fleet (to-wit: the HMS Bulwark), a total assault force could number 800 men with 20 helicopters, more than enough to dispatch the whole might of the Chinese military.


HMS Cerberus: Early History

The Cerberus was involved in numerous events (and people) of historical significance, most occurring in North America. At the commencement of the British attack on Quebec (1758 to 1759), a pivotal event during the French and Indian War (1754 to 1763), Cerberus brought General James Wolfe, the commander of British forces, across the Atlantic to Quebec. The British attack was successful and Quebec fell under British control, but Wolfe was killed in action. The Cerberus then transported the deceased general&rsquos body back to England. Between the end of the French and Indian War and the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the Cerberus made a number of trans-Atlantic voyages.

Cerberus also played a meaningful role in the War for American Independence. Dropping anchor in Boston Harbor on May 25, 1775, Cerberus became the first British warship to arrive in the North America, following the outbreak of American revolutionary hostilities. Her captain, John Chads, brought not only the Parliamentary Acts, which increased tension between the Americans and the British, but also three important generals &mdash William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne. These figures would help mastermind Britain&rsquos war effort. The local press, playing on the origin of the name Cerberus &ndash the three-headed dog with a snake&rsquos tail that guarded the gates to hell in Greek mythology &ndash printed the following:

Behold the Cerberus the Atlantic plough,
Her precious cargo, Burgoyne, Clinton, Howe.
Bow, wow, wow!

Within three days of her arrival, the Cerberus was called into action. She played a crucial role in the first amphibious assault of the war, the so-called Battle of Noddle&rsquos Island. Then on June 17 and 18, British warships, including Cerberus, supported General Howe&rsquos attack on rebel entrenchments on Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. On June 27, the Cerberus set sail for England. Her captain, John Chads, carried correspondence and news of the worsening situation in America and the hard-fought British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill.

Towards the end of 1775, George III authorized his commanders in North America to adopt a more aggressive strategy. Under new commander John Symonds, the Cerberus and four other warships followed orders to &ldquolay waste, burn and destroy&rdquo rebellious seaport towns of New England, and they harassed the village of Falmouth, Maine. The fearful population called on General George Washington for assistance, but within a few days the British warships set sail for southern New England waters. News of the attacks and harassment of Falmouth spread, strengthening the resolve of rebellious colonists to resist British imperial rule.

In December 1775, the Continental Congress requisitioned several armed merchantmen and created a navy. The appointed commander in chief was a Rhode Islander named Esek Hopkins, who from his base at the northern end of Narragansett Bay, harassed British ships and shipping efforts. Outside the bay and at the entrance to Long Island Sound, Cerberus took up station, protecting British shipping and attacking rebel warships. In April 1776, the Cerberus was off Block Island, where she captured many American vessels suspected of illegal activities.

In June 1776, the Cerberus sparred with armed rebel vessels, including the Rhode Island-based sloop Providence, which at that time was commanded by John Paul Jones, the famous American Revolutionary War hero. The Providence was protecting the sloop Fly, which was transporting cannons to General Washington in New York.

In December 1776, Cerberus was part of the British expeditionary force that, under General Henry Clinton and Commodore William Hotham, occupied Newport, Rhode Island. In the coming months, the Cerberus would also patrol Long Island Sound and anchor near New London, Connecticut.

In August 1777, David Bushnell, an American patriot and pioneer in undersea warfare (who also developed the first successful submarine, the Turtle), saw the Cerberus&rsquo Connecticut anchoring as an opportunity. Bushnell targeted the Cerberus with one of the world&rsquos earliest underwater explosive mines. The planned method of attack was to send the two floating barrels, loaded with explosive and connected by a line, on the prevailing currents in such a way that the line between them snagged the Cerberus. The barrels would then swing around and touch the hull, and a wheel mechanism on the barrel&rsquos side would detonate the explosives.

The attack on Cerberus, however, was only partially successful. On the morning of August 14, 1777, four crew members on board a schooner tied behind Cerberus noticed what appeared to be fishing line. As they pulled it in, they noticed a barrel. As they hauled the barrel on board to examine their good fortune, it exploded, killing three men and wounding a fourth. Cerberus&rsquo captain, John Symonds, recorded one of the earliest instances in mine warfare in his log and reported it to his superiors.


Contents

HMS Ocean was 273 feet 1 inch (83.2 m) long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 58 feet 5 inches (17.8 m). The ship had a draught of 24 feet 5 inches (7.4 m) forward and 27 feet 6 inches (8.4 m) aft. She displaced 6,832 long tons (6,942 t). Ώ]

Ocean had a metacentric height of 6.01 feet (1.83 m) which meant that she rolled a lot and was an unsteady gun platform. ΐ] Her hull was sheathed with Muntz metal to reduce biofouling. Her crew consisted of 605 officers and enlisted men. Α]

Propulsion [ edit | edit source ]

Ocean had a simple horizontal 2-cylinder horizontal return connecting-rod steam engine driving a single propeller shaft Β] using steam was provided by eight rectangular boilers. Γ] The engine produced 4,244 indicated horsepower (3,165 kW) during the ship's sea trials in June 1864 which gave the ship a maximum speed of 12.9 knots (23.9 km/h 14.8 mph). Ocean carried a maximum of 570 long tons (580 t) of coal, Δ] enough to steam 2,000 nautical miles (3,700 km 2,300 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h 5.8 mph). She was barque-rigged with three masts and had a sail area of 25,000 square feet (2,300 m 2 ). Her best speed with the propeller disconnected and under sail alone was 11.5 knots (21.3 km/h 13.2 mph). Ε] Yards were added to the ship's mizzenmast by 1866 and Ocean was given a full ship rig which she retained for the rest of her career. Ζ]

Armament [ edit | edit source ]

Ocean was initially armed with twenty-four seven-inch (178 mm) rifled muzzle-loading guns. Four of these guns were mounted on the upper deck as chase guns, two each fore and aft. Η] The 16-calibre seven-inch gun weighed 6.5 long tons (6.6 t) and fired a 112-pound (50.8 kg) shell. It was credited with the ability to penetrate 7.7 inches (196 mm) of armour. ⎖] In 1867 four of these guns were replaced by eight-inch (203 mm) rifled muzzle-loaders. Η] The shell of the 15-calibre eight-inch gun weighed 175 pounds (79.4 kg) while the gun itself weighed nine long tons (9.1 t). It had a muzzle velocity of 1,410 ft/s (430 m/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 9.6 inches (244 mm) of wrought iron armour at the muzzle. ⎖]

Armour [ edit | edit source ]

The entire side of the Prince Consort-class ships, from the upper-deck level downwards, was protected by wrought iron armour that tapered from 3 inches (76 mm) at the ends to 4.5 inches (114 mm) amidships. The armour extended 5 feet 6 inches (1.7 m) below the waterline. One small conning tower was fitted on each side of the upper deck amidships, but these proved to be untenable when the ship's guns were fired. The armour was backed by the sides of the ship which were 29.5 inches (749 mm) thick. ⎗]


Is Greyhound based on a true story?

In short, no. As the film’s trailer states, Greyhound is “inspired by,” rather than directly based on, actual events. Hanks, who stars as United States Navy Commander Ernest Krause, adapted the screenplay from C.S. Forester’s 1955 novel, The Good Shepherd (not to be confused with the 2006 film The Good Shepherd about the founding of the CIA). Though fictional, the Forester book is deeply researched and noted for its accurate depiction of naval warfare.

Set in the winter of 1942, Greyhound—a nod to the nickname of the U.S.S. Keeling, a destroyer under Krause’s command—features Hanks as a newly promoted officer tasked with leading his first transatlantic convoy through a swath of water known as the “Black Pit.” Per the movie’s official description, Krause must protect his fleet from Nazi U-boats over a five-day period without air cover. In true cinematic fashion, the captain ultimately battles not only a military enemy, but his own personal demons and self-doubt.

“What you did yesterday got us to today,” a crew member tells Krause in the trailer.

“It’s not enough,” The captain replies. “Not nearly enough.”

Hanks portrays a newly promoted captain tasked with leading a convoy across the Atlantic. (Sony Pictures)


The Third Fleet at Milford Haven, 1913-14

The anniversaries of the outbreak and early battles of World War I have led to a number of poignant commemorations throughout the length and breadth of the United Kingdom, including Wales. They have also led to a considerable amount of new research being undertaken on the lives of those who fought in and lived through the war, and on the war’s impact on local communities. But there are still many untold, or very sketchily told, stories of the last days of peace and first days of war, and one of those is the story of the brief period in 1913-14 when Milford Haven served as an operational base for several of the Royal Navy’s battleships.

The decision to station warships at Milford followed the reorganisation of the navy in home waters in 1912, which saw the creation of First, Second and Third fleets. A number of old pre-Dreadnought battleships were allocated to the Third Fleet, and in 1913 several of these were deployed to Milford Haven as part of a plan to redistribute the ships in reserve. (It is possible that basing them in west Wales was at least partly intended as a response to potential future trouble in Ireland, where the Home Rule campaign, and Ulster’s opposition to it, were becoming increasingly problematic however, this is speculation on my part, as I have found no firm evidence to support this contention.) The Goliath, which arrived on 30 April, became the senior ship, and by September the Third Fleet component at Milford comprised the battleships Goliath, Jupiter, Ocean, Canopus . and Albion, along with the large armoured cruiser Terrible, all moored at buoys in Scotch Bay.

Life aboard must have been distinctly dull. The surviving ships’ logs reveal an endless round of divisions, painting ship, PT drills, scrubbing the decks, making and mending clothes, and all the other humdrum activities of peacetime naval life, with boats ferrying men and stores back and forth between the ships and Milford, Neyland or Pembroke Dock. However, the skeleton crews of the ships (just over a hundred men on each of the battleships) swiftly entered into the life of the local area, and became important parts of the community. In August 1913 the ships entered crews in the Milford Haven regatta, held annually to commemorate Nelson’s visit to the town in 1802: Goliath won the whaler races for both seamen and Marines. The crews played football against local sides. In January 1914, for example, HMS Goliath‘s team, ‘the Gollies’, beat Narberth 4-1, while HMS Canopus drew 1-1 with Pembroke Dock St Patrick’s. The two teams played each other in March, but Canopus was hamstrung by being able to field only nine players, and the Gollies won 7-1. The men also contributed to the area in other ways: as one local newspaper put it in June 1914, ‘the presence of the officers and men has been welcomed from a business and social point of view, and everybody would be sorry now to part company with “Jack” who is now part of the life of the place’.

HMS Terrible: probably most famous for her part in the Boer War, when the heroics of her crew established the Royal Navy’s field gun races.

By coincidence, a full-scale mobilisation of the Third Fleet was scheduled for July 1914, with planning for this having begun in the autumn of 1913, long before war clouds threatened the peace of Europe. Thus the orders for the full-scale manning of the ships at Milford had already gone out when the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo. On 15 July, the Haverfordwest and Milford Haven Telegraph reported that

At Milford Haven reservists began to arrive on Monday and were conveyed from Pembroke Dock to the battleships Goliath, Ocean and Albion so that on Tuesday, these ships which have been only manned by about 100 men each, have now a complement aggregating over 2000 men of all ranks. Rear Admiral Loftus Tottenham has hoisted his flag as senior admiral on the Albion, and Rear Admiral Phipps Hornby on the Ocean. On Tuesday the cruisers Gibraltar and Royal Arthur arrived and anchored off Newton Noyes pier, whilst two other cruisers went up to Pembroke Dock. These ships have crews of 100 men each, so that the entire fleet has nearly 1000 men aboard. The fleet leaves Milford Haven tomorrow (Thursday) morning for Spithead, and will be absent until July 21 or 25. It is not definitely known if the Albion will return with the Goliath and Ocean, as she is due at Devonport on August 1st for refit. It is hoped, however, that the Canopus , which has been away under refit for three months, will come back to the base.

However, it appears that a decision had already been taken to abandon Milford Haven as a base for Third Fleet ships, despite Winston Churchill (First Lord of the Admiralty) denying this in a statement he made in June. Both the Jupiter (2 December 1913) and Canopus (31 March 1914) had already left, both for refit at Devonport, and the Terrible was destined for scrap. The Ocean sailed on 16 July 1914. On the twenty-third, the Cambrian Daily Leader reported that

Last week the three remaining vessels of the Third Fleet stationed at Miiford Haven, the Goliath, Albion and Vesper, left for the mobilisation at Spithead, and we understand that they will not return to Milford Haven. They are under orders to proceed to the Humber. where they will be stationed. Up to the present nothing is known of any vessel coming to Miiford Haven to replace them, and it appears that the idea of using the Haven as a naval base for large warships has been abandoned. Some months ago, when first the Jupiter and the Canopus left, rumours went round that they would not come back, and when the Admiralty decided to sell the Terrible, there was considerable anxiety in Pembroke Dock and Milford Haven with regard to the matter.

In the event, of course, all such speculation was swiftly rendered entirely academic by events. Less than a fortnight later, World War I broke out, and the ships that had lain in Milford Haven never returned to either there or the Humber. The Canopus was involved in the battles of Coronel and the Falkland Islands in November/December 1914, while both the Ocean and Goliath were sunk during the Gallipoli campaign. As I observed in Britannia’s Dragon, Goliath in particular had a relatively substantial Welsh component in her crew, and her strong connection with Milford Haven ensured that she and her men were deeply mourned in Wales.

Milford Haven’s time as a fleet base was brief, but the presence in Welsh waters of a substantial part of the Third Fleet, and of some of the most poignant British naval losses of World War I, is an interesting episode in Welsh naval history which deserves to be better known.

[Sources: The National Archives, Kew, extant log books of Third Fleet ships Welsh Newspapers Online]


Sisällysluettelo

Alus tilattiin Alexander Stephen and Sonsilta Glasgowista, missä köli laskettiin 8. marraskuuta 1942 telakkanumerolla 598. Vaikka telakalla oli jatkuva pula osaavista työntekijöistä ja tarvikkeista, alus kyettiin laskemaan vesille lauantaina 8. heinäkuuta 1944 nousuveden ollessa korkeimmillaan. Aluksen pituus ylitti suurimpana mahdollisena pidetyn noin 182,88 metriä lähes 30,48 metrillä. Rajoittavana tekijänä pidettiin Clyde-joen leveyttä, mutta sotatilan vaatimuksesta näin suuri alus otettiin valmistettavaksi. Kaikki käytettävissä olleet hinaajat kytkettiin vesille laskettavaan alukseen hidastamaan sen liukua, jolloin kaikkia meni niin kuin pitikin ja alus saatiin kytkettyä varustettavaksi. Aluksen kummina oli Lady Olive Willis, joka sen lisäksi, että oli toisen merilordin vara-amiraali Sir Algernon Williksen puoliso oli myös St John's Ambulance Servicen johtaja. [2]

Lähes valmiin aluksen ensimmäinen päällikkö Caspar John otti aluksensa vastaan toukokuussa 1945. Alus otettiin palvelukseen muutamaa viikkoa myöhemmin lauantaina 30. kesäkuuta, jolloin sillä oli ainoastaan etukomennuskunta. Aluksen miehistön pääosa 58 upseeria ja 346 miestä saapuivat junalla Chathamista vielä samana päivänä. Vaikeasta miehistötilanteesta johtuen aluksen miehistö oli supistettu minimiin. Seuraavina päivinä aluksen miehistöä täydennettiin mahdollisuuksien mukaan. [2]

Aluksella pidettiin telakan työntekijöille sunnuntaina 1. heinäkuuta avoimien ovien päivät. Se irrotti ensimmäisen kerran köytensä laiturista 4. heinäkuuta, jolloin alus lähti neljän hinaajan avustamana Linthousesta King George V:n telakalle odottamaan seuraavan päivän nousuvettä. Seuraavana aamuna köydet irrotettiin, minkä jälkeen alus neljän hinaajan avustamana purjehti alavirtaan. Paria tuntia myöhemmin alus kiinnittyi Amiraliteetin kelluvaan telakkaan Helensburghissa, missä aluksen vedenalaiset osat puhdistettiin ja maalattiin. [2]

Alus poistui 16. heinäkuuta telakalta ankkuroituen Greenockin edustalle. Se aloitti 19. heinäkuuta koeajot palaten illalla Greenockin edustalle ankkuriin. Seuraavina päivinä alukselle nostettiin kaksi Fairey Fireflytä sekä kaksi Grumman Hellcatiä, jotta lentokoneiden käsittelykoulutus saatiin käyntiin. Alus pysyi kuitenkin ankkurissa 1. elokuuta saakka, jolloin se lähti merelle kolmen tunnin nopeuskokeisiin. Se teki maksiminopeuskokeen 5. elokuuta Arranin mitatulla merimaililla, jolloin sen nopeudeksi saatiin 25,78 solmua. [2]

Lentotoiminnan testaus Oceanilla aloitettiin 7. elokuuta ja aluksella suoritettiin lentotoimintaharjoitus ensimmäisen kerran vielä samana päivänä. Alukselle laskeutui ensimmäisenä koneena Fairey Barracuda, joka myös nousi kannelta katapultin avustamana. Aluksella aloitettiin konetyyppien testaukset 11. elokuuta, jolloin eri konetyypit laskeutuivat kannelle ja nousivat siltä. Alus vietti sunnuntain 12. elokuuta ankkurissa Greenockin edustalla, jolloin sen varastojen täydentäminen aloitettiin. Se lähti 14. elokuuta Clydestä etelään Mersey-joen suuhun, jonne se ankkuroitui seuraavana päivänä. [3]

Alus kiinnittyi 17. elokuuta Bootle's Gladstone Dockin pohjoisseinälle, jossa alukselle asennettiin pääturbiiniin uusi roottori sekä viimeisimmät tutkajärjestelmät marraskuun ensimmäiseen viikkoon mennessä. Töiden lähestyessä loppuaan 2. marraskuuta alukselle nousi merijalkaväenosasto ja laivaston piispa siunasi kaksi päivää myöhemmin aluksen kappelin. Alus palasi palvelukseen 6. marraskuuta, kun 158 miestä oli saapunut täydennyksenä. Aluksen miehistö oli täydennyksen jälkeen ensimmäisen kerran täysi. [4]

Alus lähti 16. marraskuuta Gladstone Dockilta pitkin Mersey-jokea aloittaen matkansa pohjoiseen Clydenlahteen ja illalla alus ankkuroitui Greenockin edustalle. Aluksen kansimiehistön ja 892 laivueen Barracuda ja Hellcat lentäjien kahdeksan päivän koulutus alkoi 21. marraskuuta. Alus oli ensimmäiset viisi päivää Clydenlahdella saattajanaan hävittäjä HMS Anthony ja ankkuroitui iltaisin Brodickinlahteen. Tuolloin alukselta nousi myös viimeisen kerran Fairey Swordfish. Alus lähti 26. marraskuuta Irlannin merta etelään lentokoulutuksen jatkuessa. Seuraavana päivänä alus ankkuroitui Land's Endin edustalle ja kymmenen 892 laivueen Hellcatia siirrettiin maihin. Tuolloin tapahtui ensimmäinen kuolemaan johtanut onnettomuus aluksella yhden lentokoneen tuhoutuessa ja kansimiehistöön kuuluneen CPO J. H. Bayntonin saadessa surmansa. [4]

Seuraavana päivänä alus jatkoi matkaansa pitkin Kanaalia ja Start Pointin edustalla alus ohitti taistelulaiva HMS Rodneyn. Koelentojen päätyttyä onnistuneesti alus ankkuroitui 29. marraskuuta Spitheadiin, minkä jälkeen aluksen miehistö sai lomaa. [5]

Alukselle nousi vieraita kuten de Havilland Aircraft Companyn pääsuunnittelija, hallituksen ministereitä ja laivaston lentolaitteista vastannut amiraali Sir Denis Boyd, joiden saavuttua alus nosti ankkurin maanantaina 3. joulukuuta kello 09.00 aloittaen matkan Kanaalissa. Kello 10.05 alus aloitti valmistautui lentokoneiden vastaanottoon. Tuntia myöhemmin RNAS Fordista nousi de Havilland Vampiren prototyyppi ohjaajanaan Eric M. Brown, joka laskeutui Oceanille kello 11.27. Laskeutuminen oli maailman ensimmäinen suihkukoneella tehty laskeutuminen lentotukialukselle. [6]

Seuraavana päivänä Brown teki vielä joitakin nousuja ja laskeutumisia lentotukialukselle. Koelennot saatiin päätökseen iltapäivällä 6. joulukuuta, jolloin Brown lensi takaisin maatukikohtaan. Ocean jatkoi lentotoimintaharjoituksia aina 12. joulukuuta saakka, jolloin se ankkuroitui Greenockiin. Alus vastaanotti 892 laivueen Hellcatit miehistöineen ja varusteineen. [6]

Alus lähti 15. joulukuuta Gibraltarille, jonne se saapui viikkoa myöhemmin. Joulujuhlien jälkeen alus lähti 27. joulukuuta uudelleen merelle lentotoimintaharjoitukseen läntiselle Välimerelle. Se palasi Gibraltarille kaksi päivää myöhemmin ja lähti uuden vuoden aattona Maltalle saattajanaan HMS Maywell. Alus saapui Vallettaan 4. tammikuuta 1946 ollen satamassa viikonlopun palaten merelle 7. tammikuuta. [6]

Alus palasi 18. tammikuuta Maltalle, missä se siirrettiin telakalle, missä se oli 18 päivää. Alus palasi 5. helmikuuta merelle lentotoimintaharjoituksiin ja torpedokoulutukseen saattajanaan hävittäjät Childers ja Cheviot. Kuukauden lopulla alus osallistui yötoimintaharjoitukseen yhdessä HMS Siriuksen, Maywellin, HMS Peacockin ja HMS Wigtown Bayn kanssa, kunnes se palasi Vallettaan 22. helmikuuta. Alus lähti 25. helmikuuta Maywellin saattamana Aleksandriaan. [6]

Heinäkuun lopulla 1948 Ocean siirrettiin Devonportin telakalle huoltoon, mistä se vapautui 12. elokuuta aloittaen matkan Portsmouthiin. Alus oli viikonlopun ankkurissa ennen kuin lähti maanantaina 16. elokuuta Bangorinlahdelle, missä se vastaanotti uudet lentolaivueet 812 ja 804 NAS. [7]

B. E. W. Logan vastaanotti aluksen päällikkyyden 4. joulukuuta 1952. Seuraavien päivien kuluessa aluksella vastaanotettiin 807 ja 810 NAS. Alus lähti 9. joulukuuta Marsaxlokkin lahdelle, missä lentolaivueet siirretiin maihin koulutettavaksi. Koulutus keskeytyi 11 vuorokauden joululoman ajaksi, mutta se jatkui 29. joulukuuta. Alus saapui 31. joulukuuta Vallettan satamaan, missä se osallistui uudenvuoden juhlintaan. [8]

Omin koneine aluksen viimeinen matka alkoi 2. joulukuuta, kun se lähti helikopterilentäjien kouluttamiseksi Portsmouthista Isle of Wightiin. Alus palasi Devonportiin. Alus ankkuroitui 4. joulukuuta Cowsandinlahteen ja seuraavana päivänä aluksella nostettiin palveluksesta poistamisviiri, minkä nostettuaan alus purjehti hiilestyslaituriin viimeisen kerran. [9]


The HMS Challenger Expedition

The 1870s voyage of HMS Challenger lasted 1,000 days and covered more than 68,000 nautical miles. Many consider it to be the first true oceanographic expedition because it yielded a wealth of information about the marine environment. Those aboard identified many organisms then new to science, and they gathered data at 362 oceanographic stations on temperature, currents, water chemistry, and ocean floor deposits. The scientific results of the voyage were published in a 50-volume, 29,500-page report that took 23 years to compile. Specialists in numerous scientific disciplines studied the collections and data, and helped produce the reports. Also, the reports written by members of the Challenger expedition provided rich descriptions of the flora, fauna and cultures of the lands visited. Photography—new at the time—was highlighted as well, along with scientific illustration.

A representation of the HMS Challenger. Although the former warship had a steam engine, its sails were used most often during the expedition to allow for frequent stops. Click image for larger view.

The HMS Challenger originally was designed as a British warship—a steam corvette in the Royal Navy—outfitted with 17 guns and an engine capable of over 1,200 horsepower. The 200-foot ship was three-masted, square-rigged, and built of wood.

In 1870, Dr. C. Wyville Thomson suggested that the Royal Society of London ask the British government for the use of one of its ships for an extended research cruise. The government agreed, and the HMS Challenger was modified to conduct oceanic research. Ammunition and 15 of the guns were removed from the ship and replaced with laboratories, workrooms, and storage space. The HMS Challenger used sails rather than the steam engine most of the time to allow for frequent stops when collecting data. The steam engine was used only during dredging operations to collect samples from the depths of the ocean floor.

The science and ship crew of the HMS Challenger in 1874. The original crew of 216 had dwindled to 144 by the end of the long expedition. Click image for larger view.

The science and ship crew consisted of six civilian/scientific staff, led by Dr. C. Wyville Thomson. It also included 21 naval officers, including Captain George Nares (replaced by Captain Frank Thomson in 1875), and approximately 216 crew. When the voyage ended in 1876, only 144 crew remained on the ship. Seven people had died, five left when Captain Nares did, 26 were left in hospitals or were unable to continue the journey, and several had deserted at the various ports of call.


Indholdsfortegnelse

I februar 1992 blev der der lagt et udbud ud på bygningen af et nyt helikopterhangarskib [1] I februar 1993 rapporterede The Times at anskaffelsen af skibet muligvis ville blive annuleret på grund af budgetproblemer. [2] På cirka samme tid blev britiske styrker dog engageret i operationer på Balkan, hvorved man var nød til at benytte Royal Fleet Auxiliarys flytræningsskib RFA Argus (A135) som et LPH. Argus viste sig at være fuldstændigt utilstrækkeligt i forhold til de faciliteter og indkvarteringsmuligheder man havde behov for når der var et større Royal Marines-kontigent om bord. Disse utilstrækkeligheder understegede behovet for et skib der var blevet bygget til formålet. [3] Den 29. marts 1993 udtalte ministeren for forsvarsanskaffelser at anskaffelsen af et nyt LPH skred frem efter planen. [4]

To værfter konkurrerede om kontrakten – Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd. (VSEL) og Swan Hunter. Den 11. maj 1993 annoncerede regeringen at VSEL havde vundet kontrakten. [5] Bygningen af skibet ville foregå efter civile standarder, hvorved omkostningerne til vill blive væsentlig reduceret. Dette betød at skibet konstruktionsomkostninger endte på £154 million £, hvilket kan sammenlignes med prisen for en Duke-klasse fregat. VSEL, der bygger krigsskibe, udliciterede opgaven til det kommercielle værft Kværner i Govan, Glasgow.

Det faktum at VSEL's tilbud var 71 million pund lavere end Swan Hunter's gav anledning til politisk diskussion og førte til sidst til at den britiske rigsrevision foretog en undersøgelse af affæren for at konkludere hvorvidt kontrakten blev vundet på hæderlig vis. Rapporten, der blev offentliggjort den 29. juli 1993, fastslog at forsvarsministeriet ikke begik en fejl ved at give kontrakten til VSEL. Det blev anført at VSEL's tilbud var med subsidier, men at disse var så små at den store prisforskel mellem de to bud ikke gjorde den store forskel VSEL's bud var på 139,5 mio pund, hvorimod Swan Hunters tilbud lå på 210,6millioner pund. The Times mente desuden at vide at subsidierne ikke udgjorde mere end 10 mio pund. [6] Op til udgivelsen af redegørelsen fra rigsrevisionen beskrev Financial Times de firmaernes forskellige bygningsfilosofier Mens Swan Hunter betragtede projektet som et rent militært projekt anså VSEL designet som et reelt handelsskib med militært isenkram boltet fast. VSEL's beslutning og at udlicitere byggefasen til et værft med speciale i civile skibe betød skibene kunne bygges hurtigere og billigere da man brugte de mange erfaringer og konkurrencemæssige fordele et civilt værft kunne bruge. [7]

Søsætningen foregik den 11. oktober 1995, hvor skibet blev navngivet af Elizabeth II af Storbritannien den 20. februar 1998, før leveringen til Royal Navy.

Under søprøverne nåede skibet en topfart på 20,6 knob, men skibets normale topfart er dog 18 knob efterhånden som skibet er blevet fuldt udstyret med sit militære isenkram. [8]

Under Ocean's klimaprøver støttede skibet de humanitære operationer i Honduras efter orkanen Mitch.

I 2000 støttede Ocean Operation Palliser i Sierra Leone, hvor skibet mødtes med HMS Illustrious med at undertrykke oprørsaktivitet med sit eget marineinfanteri og samtidigt støttede hærens bataljon på land.

Den 17. februar 2002, kom en Royal Marines enhed fra Ocean ved en fejl til at gå i land på en spansk strand ved byen La Línea de la Concepción tæt Gibraltar, der var det tilsigtede mål. Dette resulterede en en mindre diplomatisk krise, da flere medier rapporterede om "invasionen". [9]

Ocean var en del af en Royal Navy task force der var på vej mod Operation Telic, det britiske bidrag til invasionen af Irak 2003. Skibet var optimeret til helikopteroperationer og sejlede sammen med HMS Ark Royal.

I sommeren 2006, deltog hun i en stor amerikansk øvelse på den amerikanske østkyst.

I 2007, undergik Ocean sit første længere værftsophold. Dette fandt sted ved flådestationen i Plymouth og varede omkring et år. Under denne periode overtog Ark Royal skibets pligter og beredskab. HMS Ocean sejlede fra Plymouth onsdag den 24. september 2008 på søprøver efter den lange vedligeholdelses- og opgraderingsperiode i dok og langs kaj. [10] En del af opgraderingen var en PyTEC incinerator, hvor restvarmen kunne udnyttes til skibets varmeforsyning. [11]

Den 18. februar 2009, afsejlede Ocean fra Devonport som en del af Taurus 09 togtet underlagt chefen for den britiske amfibietask force Flotilleadmiral Peter Hudson. Denne task force bestod af HMS Bulwark (L15) (Hudson's flagskib), Type 23 fregatterne HMS Argyll (F231) og HMS Somerset (F82) samt fire skibe fra Royal Fleet Auxiliary. [12]

Luftfartsproblemerne efter Eyjafjallajökulls vulkanudbrud 2010 betød at Premierminister Gordon Brown beordrede Ocean og et antal andre skibe til at redde strandede rejsende og militærpersonel over den engelske kanal i en operation der blev navngivet Operation Cunningham efter admiralen fra 2. verdenskrig Andrew Cunningham. [13]

I 2010 sejlede skibet igen på togt, første stop var øvelsen Auriga på den amerikanske østkyst. [14] Derefter sejlede skibet til Brasilien for at træne med Marinha do Brasil mens man underskrev en militær samarbejdsaftale om bord. [15] Derefter krydsede Ocean Atlanterhavet på vej til Nigeria for at deltage i en flådeparade og deltage i kapacitetsopbygning med den nigerianske flåde som en del af African partnership-programmet. [16] [17]

Ocean blev designet til at give en amfibielandgangskapacitet, lignende det Albion-klassen kan tilbyde. Skibet kan medbringe omkring en bataljon marineinfanteri fra 3. Commando Brigade støttet af helikoptere og landgangsfartøjer.

Ocean har desuden mulighed for at udføre antiubådskrigsførelse ved hjælp af sine helikoptere. Desuden kan skibet udgøre udgangspunktet for antiterrorenheder, specialstyrkeoperationer og som en træningsplatform for disse.

Landgangsfartøjer Rediger

4 LCVP er permanent om bord og bemandet af Royal Marines. [18]

HMS Ocean vil stryge kommando i marts 2018 som et led i en spareplan hvor der ikke forventes at komme en erstatning for skibet. [19] [20] [21]

I 2017 blev det offentliggjort at Brasilien var interesseret i at købe Ocean som en erstatning for hangarskibet A12 São Paulo som udgik fra brasiliansk tjeneste i 2017 efter adskillige mekaniske defekter. Royal Navy offentliggjorde en salgspris på 80,3 mio pund. [22] I november 2017 indledte det brasilianske forsvarsministerium anskaffelsesforhandlinger med Storbritannien. [23]

I december 2017, bekræftede brasiliens flåde købet af Ocean for 84,6 mio britiske pund. Skibet stryger kommando i marts 2018 efterfulgt af en vedligeholdelsesperode og forventes at ankomme til Rio de Janeiro inden udgangen af 2018. Skibet forventes at være i aktiv brasiliansk tjeneste i 2020. [24] [25] [26] Brazilian defence officials confirmed the purchase, [27] [28] as well as officials from the UK MoD, as of 17 February 2018. [29] [30] [31]