Carthaginian Warrior, 264-146 BC, Nic Fields

Carthaginian Warrior, 264-146 BC, Nic Fields

Carthaginian Warrior, 264-146 BC, Nic Fields

Carthaginian Warrior, 264-146 BC, Nic Fields

Warrior 150

This entry in Osprey's Warrior series looks at the armies of Carthage during the long Punic Wars, a period that saw half a century of war between Rome and Carthage, as well as conflicts in Spain and a dangerous mercenary rebellion on Carthage's home ground.

Fields covers a wide range of topics, from the constitution of Carthage to the daily diet of her soldiers, and how they were recruits, trained and equipped.

Carthage fought a long series of wars against the Greeks of Sicily in which the citizens of Carthage played a major part, but by the start of the First Punic War and the period covered by this book Carthage's armies were almost entirely made up of mercenaries and allies, with strong contingents from Africa and Iberia. As a result this book has to cover quite a lot of ground, looking at some very different grounds of solders.

This book is probably best used as a companion piece to a book on the Punic Wars or other conflicts involving Carthage, providing the sort of background information that is often missing in narrative histories of the wars.

Chapters
Introduction
Chronology of Major Events
The Constitution of Carthage
The Armies of Carthage
Recruitment
Equipment and Appearance
On Campaign
Experience of Battle
Glossary

Author: Nic Fields
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 64
Publisher: Osprey
Year: 2010



CARTHAGINIAN WARRIOR 264-146 BC PDF

Carthaginian Warrior – BC has 13 ratings and 2 reviews. Michael said: Osprey has published a great many books of military history in a large number. CARTHAGINIAN WARRIOR BC ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND ILLUSTRATOR DR NIe FIELDS started his career as a biochemist before joining the Royal. Carthaginian Warrior BC by Nic Fields, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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A blow from a bullet on a helmet, for instance, could be pay fell into arrears Polybios, 5. Carthage’s Fight for Survival, to Here, we need to distinguish the citizens of Carthage itself from the Punic citizens of African and overseas cities. Jonathan marked it as to-read May 26, In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule.

This clever system carthaginixn a with shorter swords, the most respected of foes.

Though a levy, nature at least had designed our Iberian for a caetratus. While the navy of Carthage was very much a citizen Enee racontont aDidon warriot affair, as was to be expected from a maritime power malheurs de la ville de Troie, oil with a permanent pool of trained sailors to fight in painting by Baron Pierre- its naval wars, Carthaginian armies were generally Narcisse Guerin Colonial Encounters in Ancient Iberia: It was held by a carthaaginian handgrip, also metallic, and had a Whereas the call-up for Carthaginian citizens came at irregular intervals and shoulder strap by which carrthaginian probably affected only men above the age of 20, the levying of subject allies could be slung on the back.

Log In Sign Up. University of Texas Press. Nic is now a freelance author and researcher based in south-west France.

We can notify you when this item is back in stock. In BC, Dionysius had regained his strength and broke the peace treaty, striking at the Carthaginian stronghold of Motya. According to Aristotle Politics, a7if the sufetes This helmet pattern commonly had long, pointed cheek pieces. Whereas the sword was a weapon of military and political strength to a spearhead, increasing its effectiveness at piercing shields and elites, the spear was pretty much a common workaday weapon.

Javelins were made from a hardwood like cornel or a fine-grained elastic wood like yew.

The Romans, who had little experience in naval warfare prior to the First Punic War, managed to finally defeat Carthage with a combination of reverse-engineered, captured Carthaginian ships, recruitment of experienced Greek sailors from the ranks of its conquered cities, the unorthodox corvus device, and their superior numbers in marines and rowers. Rather than leave Sicily, they seized the city of Messana. The author includes archival photographs and vivid illustrations, plus specially commissioned full-color artwork depicting the soldiers, their equipment, uniforms and battle scenes.

And so Roman legionary equipment, when he says that ‘Carthaginians were not after a violent and savage onslaught launched amid a colossal din, the trained in throwing the javelin and carried only short spears for hand-to- individual warrior battered his way into the enemy’s ranks punching with hand fighting’ Marcellus, The Young Carthaginian by G.


Ancient Carthage

They admire a commander who is competent and bold. Dhali Kition Larnaca Lapathus Marion.

After the war with Sparta, for example, and forefinger of the same hand. Most in this line must have belonged to Mago’s mercenary army, and presumably some of the Balearic slingers aarrior, though they also may have included the 2, sent to Carthage by Mago in BC Livy, Whittaker 15 February Joseph Farand rated it liked it Nov 25, University of Chicago Press.

Africa-centred and Canaanite-Israelite Perspectives: Over a period of time this grit wore down the enamel of points out that the mutineers were bibulous beyond belief after their teeth, causing at best some discomfort and pain, and at worst, serious accustomed breakfast 1. According to Strabo enough to give the wearer concussion, if not a more serious injury Celsus, De protrusion, with a diameter the use of sling and stone were 5.

University of MichiganKelsey Museum of Archaeology. In shape they based as they were around heavily equipped infantry either in a phalanx or were often tall chopped ovals, or long rectangles with a legion, than the latter two did from each other.

En route to Sicily, however, Hamilcar suffered losses possibly severe due to poor weather. There is a clear correlation between the frequency of cremation and the well-being of the city. Strabo mentions the purple dye-works of Djerba [] as well carthhaginian those of the ancient city of Zouchis. Barley, unlike wheat, is normally husked and cannot be freed from its cover-glumes by ordinary threshing and is, therefore, roasted or parched prior 264-1446 use.

Carthaginian Warrior BC : Nic Fields :

Polybios, a group of mercenary captains, having talked things mercenaries could be trained and then hardened through the over, and convinced that the garrison would follow them, experience of battle, and they are in every sense of the word slipped out of carthaginizn city at night to parley with the Roman professionals.

The Sicilian-Greek Timaios lived in the 3rd century BC, a time when it was-still possible to draw directly on Punic sources for information, but the archaeological evidence is still short of this traditional foundation date, the earliest deposits found in the sanctuary of Tanit, the tutelary goddess of the city, belonging to BC or thereabouts.

Carthaginian trade-relations with the Iberians, and the naval might that enforced Carthage’s monopoly on this trade and the Atlantic tin trade, [] made it the sole significant broker of tin and maker of bronze in its day.


С самой низкой ценой, совершенно новый, неиспользованный, неоткрытый, неповрежденный товар в оригинальной упаковке (если товар поставляется в упаковке). Упаковка должна быть такой же, как упаковка этого товара в розничных магазинах, за исключением тех случаев, когда товар является изделием ручной работы или был упакован производителем в упаковку не для розничной продажи, например в коробку без маркировки или в пластиковый пакет. См. подробные сведения с дополнительным описанием товара

Это цена (за исключением сборов на обработку и доставку заказа), по которой такой же или почти идентичный товар выставляется на продажу в данный момент или выставлялся на продажу в недавно. Эту цену мог установить тот же продавец в другом месте или другой продавец. Сумма скидки и процентное отношение представляют собой подсчитанную разницу между ценами, указанными продавцом на eBay и в другом месте. Если у вас появятся вопросы относительно установления цен и/или скидки, предлагаемой в определенном объявлении, свяжитесь с продавцом, разместившим данное объявление.


OSPREY WARRIOR 150. CARTHAGINIAN WARRIOR 264 – 146 BC

An army could field up to several hundred of these animals, but on most reported occasions fewer than a hundred were deployed. This with a relatively short sword, was either the falcata, a curved single-bladed weapon derived required little space to perform from the Greek kopis, or the cut-and-thrust sword, which their swordplay, resulting in a was a straight-bladed, sharp-pointed earrior from which much tighter tactical formation.

Siege Warfare in the Roman World: There was a body known as the Tribunal of the Hundred and Fourwhich Aristotle compared to the Spartan ephors.

The History of Northern Africa. The bow was more effective at Thracian cap. Ogilvie 29 March Sicily by this time had become an obsession for Carthage. Tyler Deren rated it liked it Apr 15, The power of this city waned following numerous sieges by Babylonia[24] [25] and then its later voluntary submission to the Persian king Cambyses and incorporation within the Persian empire.

Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. The addition of a midrib gave greater longitudinal Collection. There were three streets ascending from the agora to this fortress [the ByrsaJ.

While the navy of Carthage was very much a citizen Enee racontont aDidon les affair, as was to be expected from a maritime power malheurs de la ville de Troie, oil with a permanent pool of trained sailors to fight in painting by Baron Pierre- its naval wars, Carthaginian armies were generally Narcisse Guerin When it came to the actual business of levying, it seemed Carthage laid down some sort of quota on the basis of tribal population figures.

After a successful siege there was always looting, even though this was conventionally permitted only if the defenders had refused to surrender in its initial stages.

Carthaginian Warrior – BC by Steve Noon

Backed up by detailed reference to historical sources, this book examines the life of a Carthaginian warrior, following his experiences from initial recruitment to final battle, and focusing on what he ate, the equipment he carried and the tactics he used on the battlefield.

Whatever his reasons for from a 2nd-century BC Numidian prince’s tomb at el-Soumaa. He then sent them to persuade their men The fundamental problem with citizen armies, as Jason fully appreciates, to bide by their contracts. A spirit in the form of the messenger god, Mercurysent by Jupiterreminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido, but to sail to Warripr to found Rome.

Cambridge, Gsell, S. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.


The Ancient Carthaginian Army: 10 Things You Should Know

Carthaginian elephants vs. Roman soldiers. Illustration by Angus McBride

From humble beginnings as just another Phoenician colony in a ‘distant part’ of the world, Carthage or Kart-hadasht (Phoenician – ‘new city’) – known as Karchedon by the Greeks and Carthago by the Romans , emerged as one of the greatest Mediterranean powers that challenged the might of both Syracuse and Rome. Located in what is now Tunisia, in North Africa, the city by late 4th century BC flaunted both its commercial and military significance after the original Phoenician city-states in the Levant were politically sidelined due to Alexander’s invasion.

In essence, Carthage took over the remnants of many of the various Phoenician colonies, especially along the western Mediterranean, ranging from North Africa, Sicily to Iberia (Spain and Portugal), thus establishing itself as the predominant maritime power in this part of the world – borne by commercial colonies, military outposts, and charismatic generals (including the great Hannibal Barca). So, without further ado, let us take a gander at ten things you should know about ancient Carthage and its ‘multifarious’ Carthaginian army.

1) The Figurative ‘Leash’ –

Hannibal Barca and his Carthaginian warriors. Illustration by Guiseppe Rava.

It is known that by 6th century BC, Carthage was governed by an oligarchic system headed by two chief magistrates (initially one) known as sufetes , who presided over a council of possibly 104 men, simply called ‘the hundred’ by Aristotle. And while this body resembled the senate of the later Romans (albeit in a smaller form), Carthaginians made a distinction when it came to electing such civilian councilors and choosing or employing military generals. Simply put, such offices were kept separate (as opposed to other Mediterranean power-centers like Greece and Rome), with ‘the hundred’ given the executive power to judge and scrutinize the actions of the employed military generals.

Now it should be noted that Carthaginian army commanders, in general, were given full autonomy to conduct their campaigns and military maneuvers. However, the magistrates could interfere and pass their judgments in cases where the commander failed to achieve his objective or more importantly transgressed his authority. Pertaining to the latter, the system sort of acted as a counterbalance to the perceived rising power of the generals who could have usurped the civilian administration of Carthage – with similar episodes happening in both contemporary Greece and Rome.

On occasions, such transgressions were possibly dealt harshly, including the death penalty by crucifixion – as was the gruesome fate of Bomilcar, who according to Diodorus , wanted to make himself the tyrant of Carthage in circa 308 BC. However, at the same time, the seemingly equitable system was sometimes abused by members of ‘the hundred’ who wanted to keep their figurative ‘leash’ on the successful commanders, so as to consolidate their own power and political mileage.

2) The Privatization of War –

The Carthaginian Citizen Militia. Illustration by Steve Noon

It was not only this civilian-military hierarchy that differentiated Carthage from other Mediterranean powers. The core divergence also was mirrored by the ancient Carthaginian army, borne by the inherent situations faced by the city-state. To that end, the state made a distinction between its native subjects and the free citizens of Carthage (basically the native ‘Punic’ Carthaginians – of Phoenician ancestry). The former were required to serve in the military while the latter was not obligated to do so – partly because their numbers were not sufficient for regular martial services.

This logistical ‘void’, coupled with the commercial might and network of Carthage, led to the unique military scope of the ancient Carthaginian army employing entire mercenary contingents from near and distant lands. Initially, many of these mercenaries were sourced from the western Mediterranean realms (including Greece). Over time, Carthage began to induct warriors and even soldiers of fortune from the Iberian peninsula (comprising Spain and Portugal), Campania (in southern Italy), and the northern Celtic lands – so much so that by 3rd century BC, native Carthaginians stopped serving in the army with the exception of high-ranking positions.

In contrast, the Carthaginian navy continued to employ free citizens of the state, thus providing this military arm with a small yet consistent number of better trained marine soldiers and officers – many of whom had commercial interests in overseas colonies and trading posts.

3) The ‘Sacred Band’ of the Carthaginian army –

Image Source: Taleworld Forums

It should be however be noted that Carthaginian (Punic) citizens could be called to arms during times of emergency, with one pertinent example relating to the momentous Battle of Zama (circa 202 BC), fought between Hannibal Barca and Scipio Africanus. Furthermore, in the earlier centuries, the Carthaginian army did have an elite corps of citizen soldiers, known as the Sacred Band (or heiros lochos in Greek), and they were instrumental in fighting against the Greeks of Sicily.

According to Plutarch, the members of the Sacred Band (not be confused with the Sacred Band of Thebes) were picked noble citizen-soldiers who flaunted their magnificent armor and best equipment. Diodorus further added how these citizens soldiers were distinguished by their “valor and reputation as well as their wealth”. In essence, this elite regiment only inducted Punic members, with 2,500 of the core troops being recruited directly from Carthage.

There is also a possibility that an additional 7,500 men served in the unit (or at least in an extended version of the corps), and these men, armed with their characteristic white shields, may have been recruited from the Punic populace in the nearby African cities and colonies. In any case, the Sacred Band was probably all but destroyed in the 4th century BC, after their heavy defeat at the Battle of the Crimissus (circa 341 or 339 BC), at the hands of a Syracusan army led by the Greek general Timoleon.

4) Libyans and Numidians –

Libyan spear infantrymen on the left and a Liby-Phoenician infantryman in the middle (with chain mail) flanked by a Carthaginian officer on the right. Illustration by Johnny Shumate.

So as the citizenry militia and army were gradually being phased out by the Carthaginian army, Carthage made use of its commercial enterprises and territorial possessions to bolster its armed forces. Pertaining to the latter, one of the major sources of conscripting troops came from the ancient Libyans who served as subject levies. Many of these Libyans were probably simple peasants who worked in the fields of massive Carthaginian estates. When levied, they were trained as spearmen to hold the line, much like the relatively light-armored theureophoroi of the Greeks, thus serving as the hardy backbone of the field army.

Curiously enough, Carthage also relied on a certain segment of the populace known as the Liby-Phoenicians for its military needs. As their name suggests, the particular group had mixed ancestry (of native and colonial blood), and as such, tended to have better rights than their Libyan brethren. Coming from merchant and artisan backgrounds, these men were mostly found in various Carthaginian colonies in Africa and later even Iberia. Mirroring the proverbial ‘middle class’, they were possibly equipped in relatively better armor and fought as heavy hoplites.

Quite intriguingly, by late 3rd century BC, many of the Liby-Phoenicians (along with some of their Libyan compatriots) serving in Iberia, under the military umbrella of the famed Barcid family (the lineage of Hannibal Barca), might have been trained to fight with Iberian style cut-and-thrust swords and the scutum shields. This, in turn, may have allowed the members of Hannibal’s African contingent to re-equip themselves with the weapons and armor captured as booty from the Romans during the Second Punic War (as mentioned by Polybius), and yet maintain their original fighting cohesion and style.

And since we brought up Hannibal Barca, very few units showcased their on-field efficacy against the tightly packed Romans as the general’s Numidian riders armed with only javelins. Espousing daredevilry on horseback, they probably rode without reins – instead of using just a rope around the horse’s neck and a small stick to give it commands. In many cases (like at the Battle of Trebbia), Hannibal utilized their nigh-perfected mobility and zig-zag maneuvering ability to draw the attention (and ire) of the Romans.

Such skirmishing tactics, often mixed with vocal insults, in turn, forced the roused Roman to give battle even when they were under-prepared. However, when it came to their recruitment, unlike the Libyans and Liby-Phoenicians, it is more probable that the Numidians were drawn from allied states of Carthage (as opposed to subjects). Simply put, these expert horsemen were probably supplied by the Numidian princes on friendly terms with the Carthaginian empire, thus bridging the gap between allies and actual mercenaries.

5) The Motley of Mercenaries –

Iberian, Gaulish, and African mercenaries in the Carthaginian army. Illustration by Johnny Shumate.

Reverting to the military scope of employing mercenaries en masse, the system of ‘foreign’ troops serving in the Carthaginian army was already adopted by early 5th century BC. For example, in 480 BC (as mentioned by both Herodotus and Diodorus), in a war against the Greeks of Sicily, one Hamilcar recruited his soldiers from Italy, Liguria, Sardinia, Corsica, Iberia, and Gaul.

Almost two centuries later, by circa late 4th century BC, the tradition clearly continued, with Carthage employing warriors from distant Etruria, the Balearic Islands, and even contingents of Greek auxiliaries. Hannibal Barca’s renowned army (that invaded Italy after bypassing the Alps) was described by Livy as “a hotchpotch of the riff-raff of all nationalities” – comprising his core African contingent, complemented by Numidians, Iberians, and Celts.

However, it should be noted that over time, some of the ‘distant lands’ were gradually transformed (either annexed or acquired) into overseas territories or client states of Carthage. In essence, while the troops recruited from these regions were initially perceived as mercenaries, in the later centuries, many of these ‘foreigners’ were simply levied subjects who were obligated to serve in the Carthaginian army.

One pertinent example would relate to the caetrati , the lightly armored yet highly effective Iberian skirmishers who mostly served as levies in the armies of the Barcid family (that maintained its grip in Hispania). On the other hand, the heavier armored scutarii (known for carrying their bigger scutum shields) were possibly employed as valued mercenaries – thus fulfilling their roles as the crack troops tasked with holding the battle lines in strenuous scenarios.

6) Carthage and the Greek Inspiration –

Heavy Carthaginian spearmen inspired by the Greek hoplite. Source: Pinterest

It should be noted that before the influence of the Barcid family on ancient Carthage and its military colonies (especially in Hispania, in the Iberian peninsula), the Carthaginian army was thoroughly inspired by their Greek counterparts. Part of it probably had to do with their heavy defeat at the hands of the Greek hoplites during the aforementioned Battle of the Crimissus (circa 341 BC).

In essence, the encounter proved to be a watershed moment for the Carthaginian military, after which they tended to ‘phase out’ the citizen army (including the Sacred Band) in favor of hiring even more mercenaries and foreigner Greeks – many of whom possibly fought in the hoplite phalanx formation. To that end, it is highly probable that Carthage also trained some of its own subject levies (like Libyans) to fight in a roughly hoplite style, at least in the time period preceding the Second Punic War.

The question may arise – what exactly is this hoplite style? Well, Xenophon talked about the tactical side of a hoplite phalanx, which was more than just a closely-packed mass of armored spearmen. He drew comparison to the construction of a well-built house (in Memorabilia ) – “just as stones, bricks, timber and tiles flung together anyhow are useless, whereas when the materials that neither rot nor decay, that is, the stones and tiles, are placed at the bottom and the top, and the bricks and timber are put together in the middle, as in building, the result is something of great value, a house, in fact.”

Similarly, in the case of a phalanx of Greek hoplites, the Greek historian talked about how the best men should be placed both in front and rear of the ranks. With this ‘modified’ formation, the men in the middle (with presumably lesser m orale and physical prowess) would be inspired by the front-placed men while also being ‘physically’ driven forth by the rear-placed men.

7) The Professional Soldier –

The heavy Iberian scutarus. Illustration by Johnny Shumate.

With all the talk of Carthage employing mostly mercenaries instead of opting for citizen armies (like Athens, Sparta, and Rome), a credible query can be put forth – was there any particular advantage to this system or was it just a way of the Carthaginian army compensating for its ‘native’ military shortcomings? Well, the answer is – both. Pertaining to the first part, there is no question about the military proficiency of mercenaries, since they could be trained and ‘hardened’ through the rigorous passage of battles after battles.

In contrast, most citizen militias were dispersed after major engagements since they needed to tend to their agricultural fields. Simply put, a mercenary could be viewed as a professional soldier who was drilled in the art of war, as opposed to an ordinary citizen who was more accustomed to the rigors of agriculture and domestic affairs. Of course, there were exceptions to this scope, like the ‘citizen’ Spartans and their warrior culture.

As for the second part, as we fleetingly mentioned before, there were simply not enough number of Punic citizens in North Africa that could have accounted for a formidable force. The situation was rather exacerbated by the lack of enthusiasm of many high-ranking noble and mercantile families to take part in martial activities. Now when viewed through the lens of practicality, hiring mercenaries had its fair share of burdens and troubles, especially when the said group was not paid in accordance with the agreements.

One pertinent example would relate to the devastating Mercenary War (or Libyan War), fought from circa 240 – 238 BC, which was instigated by the mercenaries of the First Punic War whose payments were delayed, simply because Carthage faced crippling blows to its economy following their defeat at the hands of the Romans. Furthermore, a citizen-soldier could be ‘motivated’ by the prospect of gaining more lands or at least defending his homeland, while mercenaries were prone to be driven by the allure of payments and plunder.

8) Recruiting Far and Wide –

Balearic slingers recruited by Carthaginian officers. Illustration by Steve Noon

Till now we have talked about the military effect of mercenaries. But what about their scope of recruitment? Well, to that end, the Carthaginian army mainly employed three processes to procure foreign fighters. The first of these entailed the relatively straightforward treaties and pacts that allowed for a specific quota of warriors from foreign or neighboring states (that were mostly allied to Carthage) to take part in Carthaginian campaigns. Many Sicilians and Numidians were possibly sourced by this method.

The second process involved a more complex method wherein specially appointed military officers were sent far and wide (ranging from Iberia, southern Gaul to Italy and Greece) to recruit their quota of mercenaries. Provided with a lump sum amount of money, these men had to maintain their ‘channels’ and make contact with the mercenary captains.

The contract was then negotiated and penned, and subsequently, the mercenary band, commanded by their local captains, marched (albeit temporarily) under the banner of Carthage. A famous example would pertain to the employment of Xanthippus, the famed Spartan mercenary general who led the Carthaginian army to score a rare victory (at the Battle of Tunis) during the First Punic War.

The third process basically boiled down to rampant bidding wars and outright reversal in numbers of ‘enemy’ mercenaries. To that end, ancient Carthage, often by virtue of its commercial might (at least before the advent of the First Punic War), was sometimes able to lure mercenaries serving in the enemy camp by promises of higher payments and rewards. In that regard, there are examples of both Greek and Celtic mercenaries leaving their former paymasters to join Carthaginian ranks.

9) The Importance of Shield –

Caetratus Iberian skirmisher. Illustration by Steve Noon

Given the wide multitude of foreign warriors who fought for Carthage and the variety of arms and accouterment they brought to the field, it is indeed a complex task to focus on the equipment and armor preferred by individual groups. To that end, in our previous articles, we have already discussed the ancient Celtic warrior, Greek hoplite, Italic fighter, and even the Republican Roman soldier (many of whose armor were possibly adopted by Hannibal’s crack force in Italy).

In any case, when it came to offensive weapons, the melee spectrum mainly ranged from the trusty spear, a secondary sword to a complementary dagger. On the missile front, ancient troops around the Mediterranean tended to use bows, javelins or smaller spears (the trademark of both light Iberian skirmishers and frontline Roman soldiers), and slings (with some form of expertise brought forth by the Balearic regiments).

But the sense of self-preservation far outweighed the will to kill, and thus individual soldiers – whether he be a citizen militia or a hardened mercenary, mostly preferred better defensive equipment. In essence, the societal position of a warrior often mirrored this psychological attribute, with lowly troops being offered little-to-no body armor, while nobles draped themselves in exquisite metallic cuirasses and breastplates. However, almost all soldiers of the time endeavored to protect their heads by wearing various types of helmets, ranging from intricate Corinthian models (or their pilos variants) to the modest conical caps made of boiled leather ( cuir bouilli ).

The other ‘ubiquitous’ defensive equipment pertained to the shield. And like in the case of the helmets, the size and heaviness of the shield rather defined the role (and sometimes status) of the soldier in the battlefield. For example, the caetrati Iberian skirmishers (pictured above) derived their name from the caetra , a small round buckler made of hardwood and reinforced with a central metal boss and fittings. On the other hand, some of their Iberian brethren also carried the heavier rectangular scutum shield, and thus these scutarii formed the heavy infantry contingents in Hannibal’s Carthaginian army.

10) A Profile of a Carthaginian Veteran –

The heavy African infantry veteran in Hannibal’s army. Source: Pinterest

Battles were the crucibles where experience, killer-instinct, martial skill, and discipline were forged. Simply put, the longer a soldier survived in these bloody encounters, the greater became his capacity to establish his martial nature and ruthlessness mixed with a paradoxical dash of self-confidence and fatalistic attitude. The former came from familiarity in such brutal scenarios and the latter emerged from the acceptance of the proverbial ‘dance of death’.

The Carthaginian army veteran, possibly a member of Hannibal’s crack African infantry (pictured above) or a mercenary of various wars, must have matched up with this character profile. In essence, the mark of a true soldier didn’t come from his impetuous (but fleeting) courage in battles, but his ability to react calmly and swiftly in strenuous scenarios.

This was coupled by his willingness to take orders and be subordinate to the commanding officer – thus establishing clear boundaries where groups functioned as a whole (as opposed to individuals) to dictate the course of the encounter. Furthermore, the veteran, by virtue of his greater martial prowess, also tended to showcase better physical aptitude and agility – qualities that were paramount to surviving in bloody scenarios, especially when the war was one’s trade.

Book References: Carthaginian Warrior 264-146 BC (By Nic Fields) / Pride of Carthage (By David Anthony Durham)

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Carthaginian Warrior 264–146 BC

Omong-omong, apakah KPG sudah berhenti menyadur dan menerbitkan buku-buku serial Osprey? Tapi. mungkin peminat yang gemar membeli dan membaca serial ini sepertiku tidak banyak di Indonesia ya.

Osprey has published a great many books of military history in a large number of series, none of which runs more than 96 pages (many are half that length), and they’ve been mostly successful in providing generally well-written overviews of individual battles or campaigns, or military units. Fields (who is new to me) is an ex-Royal Marine and biochemist who did a Ph.D. in ancient history and later was involved with the British School at Athens, taught at the University of Edinburgh, and is now a Osprey has published a great many books of military history in a large number of series, none of which runs more than 96 pages (many are half that length), and they’ve been mostly successful in providing generally well-written overviews of individual battles or campaigns, or military units. Fields (who is new to me) is an ex-Royal Marine and biochemist who did a Ph.D. in ancient history and later was involved with the British School at Athens, taught at the University of Edinburgh, and is now a freelance author -- quite a varied career. And he seems to have done a pretty good job here.

Carthage, the Phoenician city on the coast of what is now Tunisia, was the superpower of its day, controlling an empire that spread over most of the Mediterranean. Rome, the up-and-coming empire-builders, ran into them in a serious way when they first tried to expand into Sicily, and the result was a series of three hard-fought wars spread over more than a century that ended with the utter defeat and destruction of Carthage.

This volume is better organized than many earlier ones, with sections on the political organization of Carthage itself, the Carthaginian military structure (based, like the Roman republican army, on the Greek system) and how it was recruited and equipped, how it campaigned, and the events of the Punic Wars themselves (though that’s somewhat skimped, being covered in detail elsewhere among Osprey’s publications.). The Carthaginians depended not only on conscripts at home but also on Iberian cavalrymen, slingers from the Balearic Islands, and mercenary commanders like Xanthippos (whom Fields describes as Spartan, and whom artist Steve Noon paints as such, though all that is known for sure is that he was Greek), and all this is well covered. Fields is, in fact, a fluent and interesting writer. It’s also nice that the photos in the more recent Osprey volumes are all in color, in a resolution far superior to the older volumes. There’s even a decent basic bibliography for further reading.
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A good brief examination of Carthaginian forces from 264-146 BC. Carthage used many mercenaries in its armed forces, and the book speaks to that. It begins with a nice chronology of events over the time period covered (pages 7-12), even going back to the very founding of Carthage itself (814 BC).

Subjects covered include the Constitution of Carthage, its armies (mercenaries as well as citizen warriors), recruitment and training of the troops, weapons used, salary and food, and the experience of b A good brief examination of Carthaginian forces from 264-146 BC. Carthage used many mercenaries in its armed forces, and the book speaks to that. It begins with a nice chronology of events over the time period covered (pages 7-12), even going back to the very founding of Carthage itself (814 BC).

Subjects covered include the Constitution of Carthage, its armies (mercenaries as well as citizen warriors), recruitment and training of the troops, weapons used, salary and food, and the experience of battle.

This book covers a fair amount of territory. Sometimes coverage is a bit thin, but--overall--a fine addition to the Osprey "Warrior" series. . more


Carthaginian Warrior 264-146 BC

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Fundation of Carthage

Carthaginian warfare existed as long as there was a city funded in the area of what is today Tunis. Carthage or "Kart-Hadast" meaning "New City" in semitic Phoenician. The Phoenicians were, before the Greeks, the first merchant maritme Empire, before the Greeks. They invented modern shipbuilding techniques and the concept of Emporios or merchant ports, dotting the Mediterranan with a solid network of trading routes and support. First great seafarers, the Phoenicians established trade routes as far as the Equatorial African coast (see Hanno's trips) and possibly modern Wales or southern Ireland, the "copper islands", Cassiteride country. Their epire stretched from their original hopland in modern palestine and Lebanon, especially around the three great city-states of Tyre, Biblos and Sidon, which were the exit gateway or end point of middle-eastern trade roads like the ancestor of the incense and sild roads, running through Persia up to India and China. This merchant Empire (which probably inspired Athens) was the first of its kind and Carthage, funded in 814 BC (with the associated legend of goddess Dido) was just one of the Emporios or merchant colony. But its strategic location, right at the hinge between eastern and western mediterranean, made it quite suitable to create a sub-empire of its own, on the both african coast, now encompassing Maghreb or Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.


Carthaginian Warrior 264-146 BC by Nic Fields (Paperback, 2010)

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