Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII

Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII

I was curious if there was a difference between the V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during World War II. I have found a lot of information on V-12 program specifically but I haven't been able to find to much information on the V-5 navy training program. Was V-5 a subset of the V-12 program? I know Purdue, Notre Dame and many other schools had V-12 programs but haven't heard anything about V-5. Any insight would be very helpful!

EDIT: Finally found something:

Navy V-12, Volume 12 By Henry C. Herge

Looks as if the V-5 program was for naval aviation cadets that was later absorded into the V12 program and those students were given a special designation of (a) for Aviation.


While a senior in high school in Oklahoma in March 1943 I enlisted in the Navy in the Navy V-5 program. I was called to active duty on July 1, 1943. I was sent to Central Missouri State Teacher's College in Warrensburg, Missouri. My designation was changed from V-5 to V12A. I assume the "A" might have meant aviation. A semester was of 4 months duration. I was scheduled to attend 2 semesters and then be transferred to a navy pre-flight school. During my second semester, several of us were given a test and the option of going to pre-flight school or to a major university for NROTC. There were other students at Warrensburg that had the designation of V-12. They were to attend 4 semesters and then attend a navy midshipman school for 4 months and then be commissioned as Ensigns in the navy. My group of 12 were lined up alphabetically on a bench and called in one by one. The first 11 received orders to NROTC at UCLA. I was the last one called in and was told there were only 11 quotas for UCLA and that I would go to Notre Dame NROTC. I was at Notre Dame (still with a V-12 designation) for 5 semesters of 4 months each. We took 18-20 hours per semester and graduated afte 28 months (8 in V-12 plus 20 in NROTC). I was an Ensign and a college graduate at the age of 20. I remained in the navy (mostly submarine duty) until I retired in 1970 as a Captain. Hope this helps you understand the programs. Captain Robert Thomas U. S. Navy (Retired)


I enlisted in the USN V-5 program in May of 1945, two months before VJ day. I attended Minot, ND State Teachers College for one semester and then was transferred to Iowa State College in Ames,Iowa for one quarter, then to Lawrence, KS for one semester when we were told to find a school on my own to complete the pre-flight college requirements. As my parents were then living on the campus of UND (University of North Dakota)I completed my college pre-flight requirements there and waited for pre-flight training at Ottumwa, Iowa. By this time I was taking pre-med courses and planned a medical school education. " Given an option to opt out of the V-5 program, I did and finished my pre-med courses at UND as a civilian. After graduation I attended Boston University School of Medicine, graduated and interned nesxt door at Boston City Hospital for a year then movwed to Chicago to a residency in psychiatry at Michael a Reese Medical Center. In Chicago my draft board in Massachusetts decided that my V-5 time was "not avtive duty" and changed my classification to I-A. The Illinois Medical Board, however, determined that my V-5 training weas "active duty" and reclassified me back where I had been. It may not have been "fair" (I agreed with the draft board about that, but the law is the law and I wanted to complete my psychiatric training without interruption. I have felt a degree of responsibility toward the military since then and joined the USA Medical Corps Reserve program spending two weeks yearly at an Army Meical faciilty in Hawaii, which I did until age retirement.


I entered V12 program at Central Missouri State at Warrensburg in June 1945. The program was discontinued there after one four month semester. The unit was then sent to Brown University in Providence, R I. Before the semester ended at Brown, due to the surrender of Japan on Sept. 2, Some who were in the program were allowed to drop out and transfer to the Naval Reserve. We then were sent to Great Lakes for about a l month boot camp. The base there was rapidly downsizing also. Everything military was grinding to a halt. Staying in the V12 required an obligatory 4 years of active duty after completing college.


I enlisted in the navy in August, 1945 and while awaiting orders to boot camp I received a letter from the Office of Naval Officer Procurement in Los Angeles stating that the results of my general classification test indicated that I might be able to qualify for the V-12 or V-5 officer candidate program. The V-12 program led to a commission as a regular line officer and the V-5 to a commission in the aviation branch. I chose the latter and after testing I was sent from Long Beach, CA to Colgate Univ in NY. After one year attending in uniform as an apprentice seaman (AS-V5), the navy on-campus units in the US were closed and we were told to gain admission to another university for our second year attending as civilians and paid for by the navy. During the summer of 1946 the V-5 program was changed into the Holloway Plan providing completing 2 years of college, appointment as midshipman, 2 years of flight training, commission in the regular navy and one year in the fleet and 2 more years of college as a Lieut JG if retained or as civilian if not. I ended up flying fighters off carriers in 1949 and 1950 and I returned to school when my year was up. Google "Flying Midshipmen" or a book titled "Once a Jock… " for more information. One of my adventures is on pg. 62 in the book.


I found an old Chicago Tribune newspaper from 1942 where they interviewed my father as valedictorian of his high school. It states that he intended to enlist in the "NEW NAVY V5 PROGRAM" which provides flight training for high school graduates


United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School

The United States Navy Reserve Midshipmen's School was an expedited auxiliary naval officer training program instituted in June, 1940. [1] Its goal was to train a planned 36,000 Naval Reserve officers for commands in the vastly-expanding U.S. Navy fleet being built up in preparation for the United States' entry into World War II.

United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School
Active1940 - 1945
CountryUnited States
BranchUnited States Naval Reserve
TypeTraining
RolePost-college course for training U.S. Navy junior officers

To achieve this, several new Naval Reserve Midshipmen's Schools were established mainly on college campuses around the country. Between 1940 and 1945 their junior officer candidates, many alumni of the Navy's V-12 training, completed a 30-day indoctrination course before entering the midshipman school's 90-day V-7 Navy College Training Program. [2] After successful completion, graduates were commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Naval Reserve. The majority entered into active duty with the U.S. fleet [3] in the Pacific Theater during the war. [4]


Veterans and Military Services

Originally chartered in 1801 as South Carolina College , the modern University of South Carolina of today has a long history of military tradition and service.

Veterans Transform University and Student Population

South Carolina as an institution has been transformed by veteran students. In 1944, toward the end of World War II, the student body included 21 veterans. Between spring 1945 and fall 1947, enrollment ballooned from 1,420 students to 4,614 — a 225 percent increase in just 2 and a half years. In 1947, 66 percent of the student body was former military — including 44 women.

The university enrolled more World War II veterans than any other college in South Carolina. T he Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 — also called the GI Bill of Rights or GI Bill — made college accessible for many more South Carolinians.

Milestones in Military History

1860: South Carolina College closes during the Civil War.

1862: A ll students at the college volunteer for service on March 8, and c onfederate authorities take possession of college buildings and convert them into a hospital.

1865: The Union army takes possession of the college on May 24.

1866: The college reopens as a university.

1914-18: During World War I, the majority of students participated in the university's ROTC program, which later became the Student Army Training Corps. After the war, the corps and, later, the ROTC program disbanded.

1935: The World War Memorial Building is dedicated to the soldiers of South Carolina who served and died in World War I. It was paid for by private subscription and a federal grant from the Public Works Administration.

1940-1944: The university operates during World War II at full capacity after transforming into a Naval school including a V-5 Navy Flight Preparatory School, a Civil Aeronautics Administration-War Training Service program and a V-12 Navy College Training Program.

1947: With more than 4,500 students, enrollment has ballooned, and there are more veterans at South Carolina than students before the war. Veteran enrollment peaked postwar at 2,743.

Mid-1950s: A second wave of veteran enrollment begins after the Korean War.

1972: The university's on-base Fort Jackson Program begins.

2012: The Student Veterans Association forms.

2014: South Carolina earns the first of many Military Friendly School designations by Victory Media Inc.

2016: The Veterans Alumni Council forms.

2018: Thirteen of an original group of 28 markers honoring university students and alumni who died during World War I and the Mexican border dispute are relocated to the front lawn of the War Memorial Building. Additional markers will be reproduced and installed later.

2019: The University of South Carolina School of Law establishes the Veterans Law Clinic.


Muhlenberg College World War II Navy V-12 and V-5 Collection: About the Collection

On July 1, 1943, the V-12 Navy College Training Program was implemented on college campuses across the United States. Designed to supplement the officer ranks of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps with college-educated men, this program offered mutual benefit to colleges and universities whose student bodies had been dramatically thinned by military service. By the end of the war, 131 college and universities had participated.

The V-12 was an accelerated program: colleges would operate for three four-month semesters each year, allowing students to complete a baccalaureate degree in two years. Once they had received their degrees, the Navy men would report to Midshipman&rsquos School, and after four months of additional training, they would be commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Navy Reserve. Marine candidates would proceed to boot camp and Officer&rsquos Candidate School, after which they would be commissioned as second lieutenants.

Muhlenberg&rsquos first cohort of sailors and marines arrived on July 1 st , and comprised 260 &ldquobluejackets&rdquo and 200 Marines. The number of civilian students during the two years of the Naval programs fluctuated between 110 and 150 each term.

&ldquoBy sundown on Saturday, 3 July, every member of the unit had taken his physical examination, his swimming test, his strength test, had been inoculated, and had been registered for his academic schedule. As a result classes started regularly at 0800 on the morning of Monday 5 July, and Muhlenberg was the only V-12 College in the country that made this record.&rdquo

-- Naval History of the Navy V-12 Unit: Muhlenberg College

The collection comprises photographs, class lists, course schedules, promotional brochures, and correspondence pertaining to the implementation of the V-12 and V-5 programs, covering the period from 1942-1946.


In 1908 at Fort Myer, Virginia, a demonstration of an early "heavier-than-air" craft was flown by a pair of inventors named Orville and Wilbur Wright. Two navy officers observing the demonstration were inspired to push for the navy to acquire aircraft of their own. In May, 1911 the navy purchased their first aircraft. From 1911 to 1914 the navy received free flying lessons from aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss at North Island, San Diego, California.

In 1911, the navy began training its first pilots at the newly founded Aviation Camp at Annapolis, Maryland. In 1914, the navy opened Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, dubbed the "Annapolis of the air", to train its first naval aviators. Candidates had to have served at least two years of sea duty and training was for 12 months. In 1917, the navy's program became part of the Flying Officer Training Program. Demand for pilots, however, still exceeded supply. The navy organized an unfunded naval militia in 1915 encouraging formation of ten state-run militia units of aviation enthusiasts. The Naval Appropriations Act of 29 August 1916 included funds for both a Naval Flying Corps (NFC) and a Naval Reserve Flying Corps. Students at several Ivy League colleges organized flying units and began pilot training at their own expenses. The NFC mustered 42 navy officers, six United States Marine Corps officers, and 239 enlisted men when the United States declared war on 6 April 1917. These men recruited and organized qualified members from the various state naval militia and college flying units into the Naval Reserve Flying Corps. [1]

To meet the demand for aviators the Navy created a cadet program similar to the Flight Officer Program used by the Army.

Naval Aviation Cadet Act (1935) Edit

On April 15, 1935, Congress passed the Naval Aviation Cadet Act. This set up the volunteer naval reserve class V-5 Naval Aviation Cadet (NavCad) program to send civilian and enlisted candidates to train as aviation cadets. Candidates had to be between the ages of 19 and 25, have an associate degree or at least two years of college, and had to complete a bachelor's degree within six years after graduation to keep their commission. Training was for 18 months and candidates had to agree to not marry during training and to serve for at least three more years of active duty service. [2]

Civilian candidates who had graduated or dropped out of college were classified as volunteer reserve class V-1 and held the rank of ordinary seaman in the organized reserve. Candidates who had not yet completed a four-year degree had a set time limit after training to complete it. Those that did not, lost their rank and received a transfer to volunteer reserve class V-6. Candidates who volunteered while still in college were enrolled in the Accredited College Program and were classified as volunteer reserve class V-1 (ACP).

Candidates who were not already in the navy were evaluated and processed at one of 13 naval reserve air bases across the country, each one representing one of the eligible naval districts. They consisted of the 1st and 3rd through 13th naval districts (representing the 48 states of the continental United States) and the 14th Naval District (comprising America's Pacific territories and headquartered at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii).

Candidates who were selected went on to Naval Flight Preparatory School. This was a course in physical training (to get the cadets in shape and weed out the unfit), military skills (marching, standing in formation, and performing the manual of arms), and naval customs and etiquette (as a naval officer was considered a gentleman). Pre-flight school was a refresher course in mathematics and physics with practical applications of these skills in flight. This was followed by a short preliminary flight training module in which the cadets did 10 hours in a simulator followed by a one-hour test flight with an instructor. Those that passed received V-5 flight badges (gold-metal aviator's wings with the V-5 badge set in the center). They were sent on to primary and basic flight training at NAS Pensacola and advanced flight training at another naval air station.

Graduates became naval aviators with the rank of aviation cadet, which was considered senior to the rank of chief petty officer but below the rank of warrant officer. As members of the volunteer reserve, they received the same pay as an ordinary seaman ($75 a month during training or duty ashore, $125 a month when on active sea duty, and $30 mess allowance). After three years of active service they were reviewed and could be promoted to the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) in the naval reserve and receive a $1,500 bonus.

Cadets who washed out of the V-5 program were assigned to volunteer reserve class V-6 with the rank of ordinary seaman. [3] This was a holding category that allowed the navy to evaluate the candidate for either reassignment to another part of the volunteer reserve or reassignment to the general service branches of the navy or naval reserve. They were exempt from being drafted by the army in wartime but were considered reservists in the navy and could be called to active service at any time.

Naval Aviation Reserve Act (1939) Edit

Due to poor pay and slow promotion, many naval aviation cadets left the service to work for the growing commercial aviation and airline industries. On April 11, 1939, Congress passed the Naval Aviation Reserve Act, which expanded the parameters of the earlier Aviation Cadet Act. Training was for 12 months. Graduates received commissions in the Naval Reserve as an ensign or the Marine Corps Reserve as a 2nd lieutenant, and served an additional seven years on active duty.

Uniforms and insignia Edit

During basic and ground school their duty uniforms from 1935 to 1943 were green surplus Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) fatigue uniforms. Naval aviation cadets wore the same dress uniforms as naval officers once they completed primary.

Cadets wore a different insignia than army aviation cadets: a yellow shield with a blue chief with the word "navy" in yellow letters, a pair of naval aviator wings bordered and decorated in blue across the middle, and the letter-number "V-5" in blue in the base. The insignia was in enameled sterling silver for wear on the breast pocket of dress uniform jackets and cloth patch form for wear on uniforms. Graduates received gold-metal naval aviator's wings rather than the silver-metal wings awarded to army aviators.

1940–1945 Edit

During World War II, the USN pilot training program started to ramp up. It had the same stages as the army aviation program (pre-flight, primary, basic, and advanced), except basic flight added a carrier landing stage for fighter and torpedo- or dive-bomber pilots.

In 1940 it was modified to be more like the navy reserve's V-7 program. Candidates had to attend two 4-month semesters (or 10-week "quarters") of college before attending pre-flight. Pre-flight was divided into flight preparatory school, pre-Midshipman School, and Midshipman School. Flight Preparatory School was a four-week "boot camp" that taught discipline and drill, etiquette and protocol (as an officer was expected to be a gentleman), and ethics (as an officer was expected to be honorable) graduates became Seamen Second Class. Pre-Midshipman School was four months of accelerated academic coursework in science, math and physics for those candidates between the ages of 17 and 20 who did not have the educational requirements to attend Midshipman School graduates became midshipmen. Midshipman School (nicknamed "Pre-Ensign") was three months of seamanship (swimming and boat-handling), navigation, ordnance, telegraphy, engineering, leadership, and naval military history graduates became commissioned as Ensigns in the US Naval Reserve. Those that washed out were placed in the general V-6 pool as Seamen Second Class in the Naval Reserve.

In early 1943, flight preparatory schools were established at 17 colleges and universities. [4] [5]

In July, 1943 the V-5 and V-7 programs were merged into the new V-12 program. V-5 students were reclassified as V-12A (with the A standing for Aviation). Candidates had to attend four 4-month semesters (or 10-week "quarters") of college before attending Pre-Flight or could opt to transfer to the NROTC. The V-12 program differed in that it was focused on college education and it eliminated the Naval Flight Preparatory School and War Training Services stages. [6] [7]

Primary Flight School was at NAS Pensacola and it taught basic flying and landing. It used the NAF N3N or Stearman N2S Primary trainers, dubbed "Yellow Perils" from their bright yellow paintscheme (and the inexperience of the student pilots). Basic Flight School was broken into two parts: part one taught instrument flying and night flying and part two taught formation flying and gunnery an additional part three stage for single-engined aircraft pilots taught carrier landing. They used the North American SNJ Basic trainer. Advanced Flight Training qualified the pilot on either a single-engined fighter, dive-bomber or torpedo bomber or a multiple-engined transport, patrol plane or bomber graduates were classed as Naval Aviators and received gold Naval Aviator wings. Each graduate had around 600 total flight hours, with approximately 200 flight hours on front-line Navy aircraft. Pilots who washed out were assigned as regular ensigns.

Enlisted Naval Aviation cadets were paid $50 / month for the first month of training (as an Apprentice Seaman in "Boot Camp") and $75 / month for the second through eighth months (as a Seamen Second Class or midshipman attending training). Commissioned Naval Aviation students (NavCad Ensigns or commissioned officers attending Flight School) were paid $245 / month (the same pay as an ensign attending training).

In 1942 alone the program graduated 10,869 aviators, almost twice as many as had completed the program in the previous 8 years. In 1943 there were 20,842 graduates in 1944, 21,067 and in 1945 there were 8,880. Thus in the period 1942 to 1945, the U.S. Navy produced 61,658 pilots – more than 2.5 times the number of pilots as the Imperial Japanese Navy. [8] [ failed verification ]

1946–1950 Edit

Under the Holloway Plan the NavCad Program was replaced with the seven-year Naval Aviation College Program (NACP). Candidates would attend college for two years as non-rated seamen. Then they would go to flight training as a midshipman and serve on active flight duty for a total of three years. After their first two years in rank as midshipmen they would be promoted to ensign. They would then get assigned stateside to finish up their college education for the final two years so they could keep their commission.

1950–1955 Edit

The NavCad program was restored in 1950 and existed until 1968. It was later restarted from 1986 to 1991.

1955–1968 Edit

The Navy program separated in 1955, forming the Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) at NAS Pensacola. All Aviation Officer Candidates (AOCs) were 4 year college or university graduates instructed by Navy personnel and trained by Marine Corps Drill Instructors.

NavCads continued to be integrated into AOCS. The principal distinction was that AOCs, with their bachelor's degrees, were already commissioned as Ensigns in the Naval Reserve on graduation. They attended flight school as commissioned officers on par with their USNA, NROTC, Marine Corps OCS and PLC, USCGA and Coast Guard OCS classmates. In contrast, NavCads, who had some college, but typically lacked a bachelor's degree, attended their entire flight school program as non-commissioned candidates. They did not receive their commissions as Ensigns until they completed flight training and received their wings as Naval Aviators. These former NavCads, commissioned officers without bachelor's degrees, would complete their initial fleet squadron tour. They would then be sent to the Naval Postgraduate School or a civilian college or university as Ensigns on their first shore duty assignment in order to finish their baccalaureate degree. AOCS stopped taking NavCad civilian and enlisted candidates in 1966, thus ending the NavCad program for a time.

Single-engined pilots trained on the T-28 Trojan. [9] Pilot carrier landing training was performed on the USS Antietam [10] from 1957 to 1962 and the USS Lexington from 1962 to 1991. At NAS Memphis, they transitioned to the T2V SeaStar (1957-1970s) or T2 Buckeye (1959–2004) jet trainer. [11]

1968–1986 Edit

AOCS remained in operation with both the traditional AOCS pipeline for 4-year college and university and graduates, and the Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) pipeline which typically enrolled college and university students while they were college sophomores or juniors. AVROC students would then attend the first half of AOCS between their junior and senior year, returning for the second half of the program following their graduation and attainment of a BA or BS degree. For this reason, AVROC classes were clustered in the summer and fall months, typically interspersed between two traditional AOCS classes.

During this period, AOCS continued to produce prospective Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers (known as Naval Aviation Observers prior to 1966), and a smaller cohort of non-flying Air Intelligence Officers and Aircraft Maintenance Duty Officers. The length of the AOCS program was shortened by a few weeks in 1976 with the elimination of pre-commissioning training in the T-34B Mentor aircraft for Student Naval Aviators in the former Training Squadron ONE (VT-1) at the former NAS Saufley Field and a similar length pre-commissioning syllabus at Training Squadron TEN (VT-10) for Student Naval Flight Officers at NAS Pensacola / Sherman Field.

The AOCS program was all male until 1976 when the first female AOCs were inducted into the program.

1986–1993 Edit

NavCad was temporarily reopened in March 1986 to meet the demands of the expanding Navy of the Reagan presidential administration and was integrated back into the Aviation Officer Candidate School program. Candidates had to have either an associate degree or 60 semester hours of college study. Like their predecessors decades before, these NavCads would complete flight training as cadets, receive their commissions once they received their wings as Naval Aviators, and would later be afforded time to attend college to complete their degree on their first shore duty assignment. The NavCad program was shut down again following the end of the Cold War, a commensurate reduction in U.S. naval aviation force structure and a service personnel decision to return to limiting naval flight training to commissioned officer college graduates. The last civilian NavCad applicants were accepted in 1992 and the NavCad program finally canceled on October 1, 1993.

1994–Present Edit

In 1994, the Navy's Officer Candidate School (OCS) program moved from the Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) at Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island, to NAS Pensacola and was merged with AOCS. In July 2007, this merged OCS program relocated back to Newport. Today, prospective Naval Aviator, Naval Flight Officer, Naval Intelligence and Naval Aircraft Maintenance Duty officer candidates now attend the general OCS at NETC Newport. Following completion of the OCS program, graduates designated as Student Naval Aviators (SNA) and Student Naval Flight Officers (SNFO) proceed to Naval Aviation Schools Command at NAS Pensacola for Aviation Preflight Indoctrination with their SNA and SNFO counterparts commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy, NROTC, Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class-Air (PLC-Air), Marine Corps Officer Candidate Class, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and Coast Guard OCS.

This was a program to train Enlisted pilots in the Navy to fly large or multi-engined aircraft or pilot airships, since pilot officers were assigned to fly fighters and fighter/bombers.

1916–1917 Edit

A training program for enlisted pilots was begun on January 1, 1916, and consisted of seven Petty Officers and two Marine Sergeants. A second class was started on March 21, 1917, that consisted of nine Petty Officers (one of which was rolled over from the previous class).

1917–1918 Edit

Once the United States entered World War One, all pilot training at Pensacola was suspended. Naval Aviator candidates were sent to be trained in Europe after passing Ground School and the enlisted aviator program was suspended. Two hundred Landsmen (100 Quartermaster (Aviation) Landsmen and 100 Machinist (Aviation) Landsmen) were trained to act as ground crew.

To expand the number of available pilots, the US Navy sent 33 Quartermaster (Aviation) Petty Officers to pilot training schools in France and Italy. Graduates received military aviator's wings. Two Petty Officers (Harold H. "Kiddy" Karr and Clarence Woods) received both French and Italian pilot's wings. Thirteen became warrant officers or commissioned officers and twenty remained as petty officers. The enlisted aviators were used as Ferry Pilots. Ferry Pilots flew jury-rigged damaged planes to rear-area depots for extensive repairs that couldn't be done in the field. They would then fly repaired or new planes back to the forward airfields at the front.

1919–1940 Edit

After the war, the Navy decided that the dreary task of flying transport planes or dirigibles should fall to enlisted men. In 1921 the specialties were seaplane (scout aircraft with pontoon landing gear), ship-plane (scout aircraft designed to be catapulted from a ship), and airship (lighter-than-air craft).

1941–1948 Edit

During World War Two, the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps produced Naval Aviation Pilots to meet the demands of the expanding Naval Aviation force.

The Navy produced 2,208 NAPs during the war and trained ? NAPs between 1945 and 1948. To meet the demand of the Korean War, 5 NAPs were created in 1950 before the program was closed.

The Coast Guard produced 179 NAPs during the war and later trained 37 NAPs between 1945 and 1948.

The Marine Corps produced 480 NAPs during the war.

1949–1981 Edit

After 1948, the NAP rating was officially ended. However, the NAPs were still in service, either reverting to their enlisted rank and position or continuing as pilots.

The last enlisted Marine Corps NAPs (Master Gunnery Sergeants Joseph A. Conroy, Leslie T. Ericson, Robert M. Lurie and Patrick J. O'Neil), simultaneously retired on February 1, 1973. The last Marine Corps NAP (Chief Warrant Officer 4 Henry "Bud" Wildfang) retired on May 31, 1978.

The last enlisted Coast Guard NAP (Master Chief Petty Officer/ADCMAP John P. Greathouse) retired in 1979.

The last enlisted Navy NAP (Master Chief Petty Officer/ACCM Robert K. "NAP" Jones) retired on January 31, 1981.

Known as the "Holloway Plan", after its creator Rear Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr., the Naval Aviation College Program (NACP) was created by an act of Congress (Public Law 729) on August 13, 1946. It was designed to meet the perceived potential shortfall in Naval Aviators once the enlistments of the currently-serving veteran pre-war and wartime aviators expired.

The Naval Aviation College Program granted high school graduates between the ages of 17 and 24 a subsidized college education in a scientific or technical major for two years in exchange for enlistment as Apprentice Seaman (AS), USNR, and a commitment to serve in the navy for 5 years. Students received free tuition, fees and book costs and $50 per month for expenses. After completing pilot training within two years, they then had to serve on active duty for at least one year, for a total of three years. They then had to return to school to finish their remaining education within the remaining two years or lose their commission.

It also offered the remaining aviation cadets still in training and newly graduated Naval Aviators the chance to serve as full-time active duty pilots rather than be discharged or serve stateside and part-time in the Reserves. However, they would not receive the education benefits of the full aviation midshipmen, nor would they receive the starting rank of ensign like the aviation cadets. In January, 1947 the aviation cadet program was ended and only aviation midshipmen would be accepted for training.

The aviation midshipmen (dubbed "Holloway's Hooligans") had Regular Navy commissions rather than the Naval Reserve commissions granted the aviation cadets. However, they were not allowed to marry until they fulfilled their 3-year service commitment and could not be commissioned as ensigns until two years after their date of rank (the date they received their midshipman's warrant). They also had to live on meager pay ($132 a month $88 base pay plus $44 Flight Status pay) while having to pay for mess fees and uniforms.

Later, the midshipmen were informed that their two years spent in training and active service as a pilot didn't count towards seniority, longevity pay or retirement benefits. This was not rectified until an Act of Congress was passed in 1974. Even then it only affected the less than 100 officers still in service.

Training (1946–1950) Edit

After attending their first two years of school, the students attended around two years of pilot training. (Quick learners could qualify as Naval Aviators earlier than this and flew in fleet operational squadrons as aviation midshipmen). At the end of the two year appointment as aviation midshipmen, the newly designated Naval Aviators were commissioned as ensigns, USN.

First they attended a four-week Officer Candidate Training Course at NAS Pensacola. The students were drilled by navy petty officers. Graduates were promoted to aviation midshipmen fourth class and wore a khaki uniform with black dress shoes they had no collar insignia badge. They were not allowed to drink and had restrictions on leave.

Pre-flight training was a refresher in math and science coursework and taught military skills like transmitting and receiving Morse Code. The candidates were drilled by Marine sergeants and were placed under a stricter regimen of discipline. Graduates of pre-flight were promoted to midshipmen third class they wore a single gold fouled anchor badge on their right collar.

Primary Flight Training was at Whiting Field, where the midshipmen were taught basic flying. The wartime SNJ Texan (1935-1950s) primary trainer was used it was later gradually replaced by the T-28 Trojan (used from 1950 to the early 1980s). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen Second Class, who had gold fouled anchor badges on each collar.

Basic Flight Training was split into two parts. Flying by instruments and night flying were taught at Corry Field and formation flying and gunnery were taught at Saufley Field. Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) was held at Barin Field. Carrier Qualification (CarQual) testing was first held aboard the USS Saipan (CVL-48) from September 1946 to April 1947 later it was held aboard the USS Wright (CVL-49) (1947 to 1952) or USS Cabot (CVL-28) (1948 to 1955). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen First Class and got to wear gold fouled anchor badges with eagles perched on them on each collar. The student could now wear a Naval Aviator's green duty uniform and brown aviator's boots and restrictions on drinking and leaves were lifted.

Advanced Flight Training took place at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. There the midshipmen were sorted into single-engine (fighters and fighter-bombers) and multiple-engine (transport, reconnaissance, and bomber) pilots. Although there were jet aircraft in service, Advanced training was on soon-to-be-obsolescent propeller driven aircraft like the F6F Hellcat (USS Saipan) and AD-4 Skyraider (USS Wright and USS Cabot).

Problems Edit

From 1948 to 1950 the program was subject to cost-cutting due to post-war budget restructuring that favored the Air Force over the Navy. This impaired training and discouraged retention of its students and graduates. Midshipmen were being offered a release from their service commitment or a place in the Naval Reserve rather than a Regular Navy commission.

From June to September, 1948 the number of students at Pensacola expanded to five training battalions, swamping the facilities. Graduates of Pre-Flight in November and December 1948 were assigned to the USS Wright (CVL-49) to do maintenance and guard duty until a slot opened up for them at Whiting Field to begin Basic. In June, 1949 students in Basic and Advanced Flight Training were sent on leave for a month because Pensacola and Corpus Christi had used up their monthly aviation gasoline allotment and there was no funding for more.

On May 19, 1950, the Navy announced that the program was ending and that aviators would be drawn from Annapolis and Navy ROTC or OCS programs. Less than 40 members of the latest graduating class of 450 midshipmen would be retained and the rest (including the midshipmen still in training) would be let go by the end of June. The dawn of the Korean War on June 25 saved the remainder but they were told they were only authorized until July 31 (later extended to a 12-month period). In the fall of 1950 they were told that they could remain on active duty "indefinitely" (i.e., until the end of hostilities), but pre-war limits on promotion and pay would still be in force.

Dismissed Midshipmen were given a deal. They would be given enough free tuition, fees and book costs for two years to finish their college education this deal would be revoked if they failed out. They also received a $100 cash stipend for expenses, twice what they received before.

Results Edit

Around 3,600 students entered the program an estimated 58% (around 2,100) of the aviation midshipmen graduated to become naval aviators. [12] The graduates went on to become extremely influential: fifteen became Admirals [13] and two (Neil Armstrong and Jim Lovell) became astronauts. [14]

Famous "Flying Midshipmen" Edit

In 1946, Richard C. "Jake" Jacobi, one of the many aviation cadets who transferred to the program, became the first aviation midshipman to complete flight training.

Aviation Midshipman Joe Louis Akagi became the first Japanese-American Naval Aviator. He served in the Korean War with squadron VF-194 ("Red Lightning"). He received the Distinguished Flying Cross in June 1954. [15] for his valorous actions on July 26, 1953, in which he bombed a railroad tunnel, severed three railroad bridges, cut rail lines in two places, and knocked out two anti-aircraft positions.

In October 1948, Aviation Midshipman Jesse L. Brown was commissioned as an ensign and became the first African-American Naval Aviator. He served during the Korean War with VF-32 ("Fighting Swordsmen") flying the F4U Corsair, dying in combat on December 4, 1950. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. [16] The frigate USS Jesse L. Brown was named in his honor.

In May 1949, Norman Gerhart became the last aviation midshipman to complete the regular flight training program under the Holloway Plan.

On April 8, 1950, Ensign Thomas Lee Burgess of Patrol Squadron 26 (VP-26, the "Tridents"), became the first aviation midshipman to die while on active service. Burgess' PB4Y-2 Privateer, based at NAS Port Lyautey, Morocco, was shot down over the western Baltic Sea in international waters by the Soviet Air Force. The Soviets claimed they thought it was a B-29 bomber, that it had violated Latvian airspace, and that it had fired on planes sent to intercept it. No crewmen were recovered. [1] [ permanent dead link ]

On August 16, 1950, Aviation Midshipman Neil Armstrong was qualified as a Naval Aviator he was commissioned as an ensign in June 1951. He served during the Korean War with Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51, the "Screaming Eagles"). He later became a NACA test pilot, a NASA astronaut, and was the first man to walk on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

Although he finished his education at United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Jim Lovell began as a midshipman cadet at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He flew F2H Banshee night fighters from 1954 to 1956 and qualified and taught transition flying in the McDonnell F3H Demon fighter in 1957. In 1958 he became a test pilot – later transitioning to being an astronaut. He was involved with Project Mercury and the Gemini and Apollo programs, was the command module pilot and navigator for the Apollo 8 mission and commanded the Apollo 13 mission. He was the first astronaut to travel in space four times and is one of only 24 men to orbit the moon. Afterwards he continued to serve in the US Navy, retiring at the rank of captain in 1973.

In 1982, Admiral George "Gus" Kinnear, the first Flying Midshipman to reach the rank of 4-star admiral, retired.

On August 1, 1984 Rear Admiral William A. Gureck, the last Regular Navy "Flying Midshipman", retired.

The Marine Corps developed programs to meet demand for pilots beginning in this time frame. Prior to this time, the Marine Corps simply relied on garnering its pilots from among Navy trainees. One hurdle was a three-year minimum service requirement after completing flight training, which caused hesitation among potential officer candidates. It was a five-year commitment because flight training was approximately two years.

In 1955, a special Platoon Leader's Course (PLC) variant called PLC (Aviation) was created. It was like PLC, but it sent officer candidates directly to the Navy's Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) rather than Basic School. Its advantage was that if the candidate changed his mind, he could still go on to Basic. An Aviation Officer Candidate Course (AOCC) followed in 1963 to train dedicated Marine pilot officer candidates that went straight to AOCS.

Marine Cadet Program (MarCad) Edit

Since this still did not meet the demand, the Marine Aviation Cadet (MarCad) program was created in July 1959 to take in enlisted Marines and civilians with at least two years of college. Many but not all candidates attended "Boot Camp" and the School of Infantry before entering flight training. Early in the program flight training was deferred because the Naval Air Training Command at Pensacola did not yet have the capacity to absorb a growing number of trainees. [17] In the early 1960s the MarCad program expanded to meet the needs in Vietnam, while not lowering the bar to qualify as a Naval Aviator. All Navy pilot trainees, whether Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, had to meet the same standards to become a Naval Aviator. Likewise, MarCads were eligible for the same training pipelines as all other trainees: jets, multi-engine, or helicopters. With helicopter requirement looming large for Vietnam, MarCads shifted from flying the T-28C after carrier qualification to multi-engine training in the SNB (C-45), in which they obtained an instrument rating. [18] With few multi-engine billets in the Marine Corps, many MarCads transitioned to helicopters at Ellyson Field, [19] flying the Sikorsky H-34 (used 1960–1968) [20] or Bell TH-57A Sea Rangers (used 1968–1989) [21] [http://www.helis.com/database/sqd/509/.

Graduates were designated Naval Aviators and commissioned 2nd Lieutenants in the Marine Corps Reserve. The MarCad program was closed to new applicants in 1967, the last trainee graduating in 1968. Most MarCads signed a contract to remain on active duty for three years after the completion of flight training in this time period. MarCads who did not complete flight training but had an active duty obligation remaining, would return to duty in the Marine Corps at a grade commensurate with their skills. Between 1959 and 1968 the program produced 1,296 Naval Aviators.

Famous MarCads Edit

In February 1961 Second Lieutenant Clyde O. Childress USMC became the first MarCad to be commissioned. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on July 18, 1966, for his valorous actions supporting Marine ground forces near Dong Ha, Vietnam during Operation Hastings. Childress retired in 1977 with the rank of Major.

On October 6, 1962, First Lieutenant Michael J. Tunney USMC not only became the first MarCad to die in combat, but did so in the first fatal Marine Corps helicopter crash in Vietnam. While serving with Marine Medium-Lift Helicopter Company HMM-163 ("Ridge Runners") in South Vietnam during Operation SHUFLY (Task Force 79.5), the UH-34D Seahorse helicopter Tunney was co-piloting crashed and burned due to mechanical failure. The badly-injured pilot, 1st Lieutenant William T. Sinnott USMC, was the only survivor. Sinnott had to be evacuated by helicopter through the thick jungle canopy. The body of door-gunner Sergeant Richard E. Hamilton USMC fell out during the crash and was found intact and otherwise unharmed. The burnt bodies of Flight Surgeon Lieutenant Gerald C. Griffin USN, Hospital Corpsman HM2 Gerald O. Norton USN, [22] and technicians Sergeant Jerald W. Pendell USMC and Lance Corporal Miguel A. Valentin USMC were recovered from the wreckage. The body of Crew Chief Corporal Thomas E. Anderson USMC was never found. [23]

On March 22, 1968, Second Lieutenant Larry D. "Moon" Mullins USMC was the last MarCad to be commissioned.

Brigadier-General Wayne T. Adams USMC (MarCad Class 14-62) was the highest-ranked MarCad, retiring with the rank of Brigadier-General in 1991. He was a fighter jet pilot (F8 Crusader) (), helicopter pilot (CH-46), and attack jet pilot (A-6 Intruder).


A Simple Twist of Fate Saved Paul Newman’s Life During his WWII Service

Paul Newman was born in 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio, the second son of Arthur and Theresa Newman, according to IMDb. His father, who was of Jewish descent, ran a sporting goods store.

His mother was a Christian Scientist from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and she had a love of the creative arts which she passed down to young Paul. He began acting in plays in elementary school and never really stopped.

Newman in his first film, The Silver Chalice (1954)

He’s best known for his acting career, and he played in about 60 films in the course of his 50 years in the business.

Despite his incredible body of work, Newman remained very humble about his accomplishments and always believed himself to be lucky to get to do what he did.

Those beliefs had their genesis in a time before he became a big Hollywood actor. They had their roots in the period when he served his country during World War II.

U.S. Navy portrait of Paul Newman

Newman enlisted in the Navy right after he completed high school, joining the V-12 program at Yale, with hopes of becoming a pilot. Unfortunately Newman was found to be color-blind, which made him ineligible to fly.

Instead, he was shipped off to basic training and ended up becoming a gunner and rear-seat radioman for torpedo bombers.

He was sent to Barber’s Point in 1944 where he was part of the operation of torpedo bomber squadrons meant to train replacement pilots for the war effort. After that, he was sent to an aircraft carrier, where he was a turret gunner for an Avenger torpedo bomber.

Gate at Naval Air Station Barber’s Point as it appeared in December 1958

According to Newman’s Own Foundation, one event occurred during his time in the navy that deeply affected his beliefs about humility and luck.

When his squadron was in Saipan, attached to USS Bunker Hill, the pilot of the plane Newman was assigned to picked up an ear infection. As a result, the plane was grounded and didn’t go when the rest of the squadron was deployed with the Bunker Hill.

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) at sea in 1945

Several days after the deployment, the ship was hit by kamikazes and crippled. Around 400 of the crew died, the few survivors managed to keep the ship afloat and the badly damaged Bunker Hill was decommissioned in 1947. That one simple twist of fate – the pilot’s ear infection – meant the difference between his life and death. It was a fact he remained aware of his whole life. Newman certainly did see some combat during his time in the Pacific, though, and was decorated for it.

During his Navy years, he was awarded a Combat Action Ribbon and also Combat Aircrew Wings for his work as a gunner and radioman. His other honors included the American Area Campaign Medal, a Good Conduct Medal, and a World War II Victory Medal.

Take a closer look with this video:

After the Japanese surrender, he spent the last few months of his active duty service in Seattle, as part of a land-based support unit, and was discharged from the Navy in 1946.

Paul Newman on a water taxi in Venice in 1963 Photo by Lmattozz -CC BY-SA 4.0

He used the GI Bill to enroll in Kenyon College in Ohio and received BAs in both Drama and Economics. Later, he spent a year at the Yale School of Drama before heading to New York and studying at the Actor’s Studio.

The rest of his life is much better known – his prolific acting career, his love of, and involvement with, auto racing, his family life, and his “Newman’s Own” line of salad dressings and pasta sauce.

Newman And Woodward
American actor Paul Newman (1925 – 2008) with his wife, actress Joanne Woodward, circa 1963. (Photo by Fotos International/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

Of the latter, Newman’s Own has earned well over $100 million – more than he earned in his acting career – and he donated all of it to various charities.

In 2005, he also created the Newman’s Own Foundation, with the purpose of supporting military personnel, veterans, and their families.

Since 2010, the foundation and Newman’s Own, Inc. have donated over $18.6 million to help the men and women who serve.

The foundation has given grants to a wide range of nonprofits who offer services to Veterans and military personnel including education services, entrepreneurship, and other services as well.

It’s all part and parcel of Newman’s unfailing awareness both of his own blessings in life and the power of a little bit of luck in transforming lives.


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

Henry Curtis Herge (1907-2003) was the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, known as the V-12.

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education during wartime in general.

Extent: 2.5 and 5 Language: Material in English

Background

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training and higher education during wartime in general. The first series, Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program, includes correspondence belonging to Herge and other Wesleyan figures regarding V-12 at Wesleyan student publications and other student guides and programs articles about Wesleyan's V-12 program published in campus publications a report assessing Wesleyan's program and a list of people involved in the V-12 at Wesleyan. The second series, Research and Writings, includes writings by Herge as well as research reports and other data used in his writings. Most of the writings are undated but seem to date from the mid- to late-1940s and are mostly in a draft, typescript format. Topics of the writing and research are higher education during wartime and wartime training. The third series, Other Publications, consists of journals, pamphlets, and other published materials that belonged to Herge. The subjects include wartime naval training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education in general.

Series 1: Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program

Series 2: Research and Writings

Series 3: Other Publications

The following is an obituary note submitted to Wesleyan University following Herge's death in 2003.

Henry Curtis Herge, 97, who served as Dean of the Rutgers University Graduate School of Education in New Brunswick, New Jersey from 1953 to 1964, died March 8, 2003 of pneumonia. He lived in Fleet Landing, a retirement community in Atlantic Beach, Florida, but he had a home in Middletown, Connecticut from 1943 to 1945.

Dr. Herge began his long career in domestic and international education in 1928 as an English instructor, school principal, and school supervisor in public school systems on Long Island, New York. During World War II, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy and, subsequently, became the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, which graduated 6,000 Navy and Marine Corps officers between 1943 and 1945. Just after V-J Day, he became Associate Director of the American Council on Education in Washington, D.C. and in 1946, he became State Director of Higher Education and Teacher Certification in the Connecticut State Department of Education in Hartford, Connecticut.

In 1953, Dr. Herge accepted the invitation of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, to become Dean and professor of the Graduate School of Education, in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Among his other achievements, Dean Herge spearheaded the funding, design and construction of the building which today houses the Graduate School of Education. He left Rutgers in 1964 for a series of appointments with the Agency for International Development and the Organization of American States in Paraguay, Jamaica, Zambia, Malawi, and Italy, where he assisted in developing teacher training and school management curricula and programs. He returned to Rutgers as a professor in the Graduate School of Education and as the Associate Director of the Rutgers Center for International Studies. He retired in 1975.

Born in Brooklyn, New York, Dr. Herge was the recipient of three degrees at New York University, a Ph.D. at Yale University, and an honorary degree at Wesleyan University. He was the author of Wartime College Training Programs of the Armed Services (1948) The College Teacher (1966) and A Taut and Salty Ship, The V-12 at Wesleyan (1991) and was the author of numerous articles in professional journals. He also served as an adjunct professor of education at Hartford University and Fairfield University, in Connecticut, and at the University of Southern California.

Survivors include his wife of twenty-six years, Alice Wolfgram Herge, of Atlantic Beach, Florida two sons, J. Curtis Herge, of Potomac Falls, Virginia, and H. Curtis Herge, Jr., of Pittsford, New York six grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Dr. Herge's first wife, Josephine Breen Herge, died in 1975.

Acquisition information: Given by Henry Curtis Herge in 1988, 1990, and 1995. Physical location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult Special Collections & Archives staff. Rules or conventions: Finding aid was prepared using DACS

Related

Navy V-5 and V-12 Training Unit Records, Special Collections & Archives, Wesleyan University


College Life During World War II Based on Country's Military Needs

On December 8, 1941, James B. Conant, then President of the University, spoke before a large audience in Sanders Theatre. "The United States is now at war . . . . We are here tonight to testify that each one of us stands ready to do his part in insuring that a speedy and complete victory is ours. To this end I pledge all the resources of Harvard University," he said.

Few Civilian Students

The Government was not slow to accept Conant's offer. By the fall of 1942 over 3,000 Armed Forces personnel were already taking courses at the University. As the number of civilian students continued to decline, it became increasingly clear that a wartime Harvard education was going to differ markedly in its external trappings, if not in its scholastic content, from that offered in peacetime.

For those planning to study at the University as civilians, Provost Paul H. Buck made this difference quite explicit. The wartime educational philosophy of the University was enunciated when Buck addressed the incoming class of '46." . . . Obviously your first responsibility is to prepare yourself for usefulness in the war effort. College men need not be told again that they have no right to be in college unless they have planned their program in the light of participation in the war . . . . We firmly believe that every physically qualified man of college age should be trained for the Armed Services unless specifically assigned to other work by an appropriate federal agency." he stated.

Summer vacations had already gone the way of other peacetime pleasures. With regular instruction established on a year-round basis, a third 12-week summer term was added to the normal two-semester system.

Freshmen Dominate

The freshman class soon dominated undergraduate life. Most of the other students had succumbed to the draft. Squeezed into a few Houses they tried to grab what education they could before turning 18. While the Yard was given over to the military, Kirkland and Eliot Houses became the headquaters for a new Navy program, V-12. The Army took over control of Leverett and Winthrop Houses, filling them with a counterpart to V-12, ASTP. Adams, Lowell, and Dunster remained the only civilian sanctuaries, but the latter could not survive past June of 1944 when the Army Air Force took over.

V-12 and ASTP members, however, doubled as undergraduate students besides being in the military. They received their degrees and commisions at the same time, and were kept quite busy in the process. A typical day in Eliot House began at 0600 (6 a.m.) with a two mile run and calisthentics. By 0710 the future naval officers had swabbed the decks, cleaned themselves and their rooms, and stood inspection. Classes started at 0800, continuing through the morning. Physical drill followed dinner. Buglers sounded taps at 2315.

With such a schedule, life became just another almost forgotten peace-time amusement. As for college pranks, "the students were too damned frightened," according to Arthur Darby Nock, Frothingham Professor of the History of Religion and a resident of Eliot all through the war. "It was like a ship on shore. The boys probably knew that the least bit of jibbery pokery, and they were back in the ranks," he says.

Society Eats Horsemeat

In such an atmosphere student opinion came to a standstill, even among civilians. The CRIMSON was replaced by the twice weekly Service News, a paper which did not run an editorial until Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1945. The Student Council also showed an amazing lack of energy. It could find little more than the quality of food to discuss. Nock recalls that "the college kitchens kept up their functions although one time at the Society of Fellows they fed us horsemeat."

But while the Dewey-Roosevelt presidential election passed by almost unnoticed, war events did stir up interest. When the Allies landed in Normandy on June 6, 1944, thoughts immediately turned toward victory. On the other hand, Nock remembers that the air was charged with "a quite astonishing gloom when the Bastogne Battle began."

Through it all, however, University life continued almost as if there were nothing abnormal happening. Uniforms became common-place and so did Radcliffe girls in Harvard lecture halls. Undergraduates who had never experienced the pre-war Harvard found nothing unusual about metal trays or double decker beds. While about 500 of the teaching staff took leaves of absence, 1600 stayed. These were assisted by professors who came out of retirement.

Although many liberal arts courses were dropped from the catalogue, the staples remained and were taught by the best men in their respective fields. Some academic changes were evident, of course. Science fields were stressed, and most of the labs became top secret war research centers. Many students received intensive training in languages definitely foreign from the normal Germanic and Romantic peace time studies. The Armed Services needed men proficient in Japanese, Chinese, and Russian. Harvard training helped supply these people.

Churchill Arrives

There were also other and more spectacular abnormalities. One day in the fall of '43 gunboats glided up the Charles River and took positions in the Harvard bend. Motorized police barred off Cambridge streets and thousands of uniformed figures appeared in the Yard. Ever smiling, ever cigar-smoking Winston Churchill was to receive a Doctor of Laws degree in a traditional ceremony at Sanders Theatre. Those who saw and heard the British Prime Minister speak cheered wildly for the man regarded as the greatest figure of the times. After he left in the afternoon both gunboats and police slipped quietly away.

Yale Dropped for B.C.

Meanwhile the summer contingent of the freshman class struggled with such courses as English A, History 1, and Government 1. An informal football team stumbled through an informal football season, meeting and tying Boston College instead of Yale in "The Game." When the summer term came to an6The class of '46 looked like many of Harvard's past classes as it sat down to register for the first time. Within a few short months, however, nearly all of its members were in uniform.</C

Want to keep up with breaking news? Subscribe to our email newsletter.


Veteran Memorials

Since its foundation in 1905, thousands of service men and women have called Northwest Missouri State University "home," if only temporarily. Some enlisted after coming to Maryville as a student or employee, while others enrolled or worked for the University after serving their country. Starting in 1918, students, alumni, employees, and community members donated several memorials honoring United States service men and women.

In 1919 the Nodaway County Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution planted trees and raised money for brick pillars and plaques to display names of 46 soldiers who died in the First World War. In the 1970s, the pillars were removed during a street renovation project. They were later reinstalled and formally dedicated on November 10, 2006. The Memorial Plaza lies just west of B.D. Owens Library, on the corner of College Park Avenue and Memorial Drive.

The class of 1948 gifted Northwest with a memorial bronze bell in honor of all soldiers who fought and died during World War II, especially those fallen soldiers who attended Northwest or who once lived in northwest Missouri. The bronze bell has since heralded Northwest achievements and celebrations and mournfully chimed to honor the passing of students. The Bell of '48 is located near the Memorial Bell Tower and is in the direct line of sight of the Administration Building. 

"Roll of Honor" Administration Building, Third Floor

A large display cabinet on the Administration Building's third floor features a number of memorial plaques honoring service men and women from the First World War, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. During the First World War a service flag was displayed outside the Administration Building. Starting in July 1917, the student newspaper, The Green and White Courier, encouraged readers to submit names of any students involved in the war effort and published weekly additions to the "Roll of Honor." A star was added to the flag for each submitted name. After the war, a bronze memorial plaque was displayed in the Administration Building with the names of five students who lost their lives in the First World War.

The tradition of a Roll of Honor continued during World War II. Students and staff created a temporary memorial using an Administration Building bulletin board and encouraged anyone to submit additions. Names were added throughout the 1950s as veterans came to Northwest after the war. The current World War II Roll of Honor displays 1,094 names. The roll includes 35 names with gold stars. The gold star indicates the serviceman died in service.

Korean and Vietnam War veterans were also honored with plaques from student groups. The later wars influenced Northwest enrollment numbers as more veterans sought to further their education under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, better known as the G.I. Bill. From 1945 to 1955, Northwest enrollment numbers tripled. By 1970, Northwest enrollment grew to 5,000 students.

Navy V-5/V-12 Combat Information Center, Bearcat Stadium Room 109

From 1943 to 1945, Northwest served as a Naval Shore Station for the U.S. Navy. The V-12 program trained deck officers and the V-5 program trained Navy pilots, the programs were administered by Naval officers and taught by Northwest faculty. The program changed the look of Northwest for two years. Residence halls converted to house navy personnel, Naval officers set up temporary offices in the library (now Wells Hall), and Navy recruits joined the Northwest football team. In October 2003, the Combat Information Center classroom was completed thanks to donations from a number of Northwest alumni, including Ned and Margie (Campbell) Bishop. The classroom is in remembrance of those who prepared for combat duty in the Navy at Northwest.

Centrally located on the Northwest campus, the open-air Memorial Bell Tower is an iconic structure that was completed in 1971 to memorialize students, faculty and others who had served the country, including the military. Constructed using pre-cast concrete, the Bell Tower stands 100 feet tall and measures 25 feet in diameter. It also features brass memorial plaques and an electronic carillon that plays at morning, noon and night. University President Robert Foster announced his plan to build the Bell Tower in 1965 and it was completed entirely with funds donated by University alumni and friends. In 2004, the Bell Tower underwent an extensive renovation that included structural repairs and improved handicapped accessibility.

Persian Gulf War Memorial

Donated by the Class of 1991, an outdoor memorial stone lies next to the sidewalk between the J.W. Jones Student Union and the Administration Building. In 1990-1991, two Northwest students in the ROTC program were called into active duty and others had family members called into service. Student organizations and community members held a number of events in support of troops involved in Operation Desert Storm, including a yellow ribbon ceremony at the Bell Tower. KDLX, the student radio station, was selected to send weekly, five-minute broadcasts covering local events to the Armed Forces Radio Network in Saudi Arabia.

For questions or inquiries about Northwest Missouri State University's veteran memorials, please contact the University Archives: 660.562.1974, [email protected]

Northwest Missouri State University
800 University Drive
Maryville, MO 64468 USA


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps was established in 1926 to offer certain college students the necessary Naval Science courses required to qualify them for commissions in the Naval Reserve. NROTC Units were initially established at six universities. The initial program was highly successful, and during the years preceding World War II, it was expanded to include additional universities and colleges. During World War II, the U.S. Navy expanded from a manpower force of 100,000 officers and men in 1938 to over three and one-half million in 1945. The U.S. Navy became the world's leading sea power, and the requirement for a larger regular career officer corps became apparent. As a result of through study by distinguished naval officers, civilian educators, and members of congress, the mission of the NROTC was greatly increased in 1946 to encompass a new program, the Scholarship NROTC. This program, like the U.S. Naval Academy, leads to a commission in the Navy or Marine Corps. The NROTC program is offered at numerous leading universities and colleges throughout the country.

The NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas has a long and proud history, originating from two Navy educational programs developed and implemented in the early to mid-1940's. During World War II, the Navy had a need to provide technical education to many of its personnel. The first group in a series of machinist mates arrived on Mt. Oread on 1 July 1942. On July 1 1943, the Navy formally established both the V-5 Program and the V-12 Program on campus. The V-5 Program was designed to train enlisted personnel in specialized and technical areas such as electrician and machinist mate. The V-12 Program was designed to prepare large numbers of men for the Navy's officer Candidate Schools and to increase the war-depleted students bodies of many campuses. The V-5 Program remained on campus until August of 1944 and the V-12 Program continued until 1 November 1945.

The Department of the Navy's decision to approve the application request for a NROTC Unit at KU was probably the result of the University's reputation for one of the most successful V-5 and V-12 Programs in the country. A bronze commemorative award, engraved with the Secretary of the Navy's name and presented to the University for its commendable performance in training young men during W.W.II, is still on display in the NROTC Unit. Additionally, KU's nationally recognized Engineering Department, including studies in the relatively new field of nuclear energy, influenced the Navy's decision.

The initial letter requesting an NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas was originally signed and dated December 1940 by KU President Deane W. Malott. The application outlined the support to be provided by the Navy Department if the establishment of the Unit were to be approved. The first request was not acted upon, and a second letter, again requesting establishment of an NROTC Unit at KU, was signed by President Malott on 29 March 1945. Finally, on 1 May 1945, the continuing efforts of many Navy and University officials was rewarded when the University Chancellor was notified that KU had been selected as the new home for another NROTC Unit. After a period of transition during the Fall of 1945 and the Spring of 1946, the NROTC Unit became officially operational on 1 July 1946 under the recently approved "Holloway Plan". The five-year delay between the first and second letters was due to indecisiveness by Congress on whether to expand the Naval Academy or enlarge the NROTC program. Their decision to expand the NROTC program came in large measure as a result of Admiral James L. Holloway (Ret.), former Chief of Naval Personnel and "Father" of the Scholarship NROTC Program.