Mexico: Population and Facts

Mexico: Population and Facts

Mexico is a large, dynamic Spanish-speaking nation with a diverse landscape and a rich history that includes the temples of Chichen Itza, the Mexican Revolution, Cinco de Mayo and the Mexican-American War.


  • There&rsquos a yearly volleyball match at the Mexican-US border between residents in Naco in Arizona and residents from Naco in Mexico.
  • Caesar salad was invented in Mexico
  • There&rsquos a 3-foot tamale that weighs 150 pounds
  • Mexico has the world&rsquos smallest volcano
  • Artists can pay their taxes using artwork that they create
  • Mexico is home to jaguars, pumas, iguanas, manta rays, sea turtles, monkeys, parrots and many more animals
  • Chocolate originally comes from Mexico
  • Hot Chocolate was considered a sacred drink among the Aztecs
  • Xoloitzcuintli is the national dog
  • The colors of the Mexican flag are green, white and red

Geography

Location

North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates

Map references

total: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,389 km

border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km

Coastline

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

varies from tropical to desert

Terrain

high, rugged mountains low coastal plains high plateaus desert

Elevation

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

mean elevation: 1,111 m

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 54.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)

other: 11.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

Total renewable water resources

461.888 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 2: some of the world's most important food crops were first domesticated in Mexico the "Three Sisters" companion plants - winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans - served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America avocado, amaranth, and chili peppers also emanate from Mexico, as does vanilla, the world's most popular aroma and flavor spice although cherry tomatoes originated in Ecuador, their domestication in Mexico transformed them into the larger modern tomato

note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see "Geography - note" under United States)

note 4: the prominent Yucatan Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico) formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs


Contents

Historical population
YearPop. ±% p.a.
1865 8,259,080 [5]
1895 12,700,294+1.44%
1900 13,607,272+1.39%
1910 15,160,369+1.09%
1921 14,334,780−0.51%
1930 16,552,722+1.61%
1940 19,653,552+1.73%
1950 25,791,017+2.75%
1960 34,923,129+3.08%
1970 48,225,238+3.28%
1980 66,846,833+3.32%
1990 81,249,645+1.97%
2000 97,483,412+1.84%
2010 112,336,538+1.43%
2020 126,014,024+1.16%
Source: INEGI

In 1900, the Mexican population was 13.6 million. [6] During the period of economic prosperity that was dubbed by economists as the "Mexican Miracle", the government invested in efficient social programs that reduced the infant mortality rate and increased life expectancy. These measures jointly led to an intense demographic increase between 1930 and 1980. The population's annual growth rate has been reduced from a 3.5% peak in 1965 to 0.99% in 2005. While Mexico is now transitioning to the third phase of demographic transition, close to 50% of the population in 2009 was 25 years old or younger. [7] Fertility rates have also decreased from 5.7 children per woman in 1976 to 2.2 in 2006. [8]

The average annual population growth rate of Mexico City was the first in the country at 0.2%. The state with the lowest population growth rate over the same period was Michoacán (-0.1%), whereas the states with the highest population growth rates were Quintana Roo (4.7%) and Baja California Sur (3.4%), [9] both of which are two of the least populous states and the last to be admitted to the Union in the 1970s. The average annual net migration rate of Mexico City over the same period was negative and the lowest of all political divisions of Mexico, whereas the states with the highest net migration rate were Quintana Roo (2.7), Baja California (1.8) and Baja California Sur (1.6). [10] While the national annual growth rate was still positive (1.0%) in the early years of the 2000s, the national net migration rate was negative (-4.75/1000 inhabitants), given the former strong flow of immigrants to the United States an estimated 5.3 million undocumented Mexican immigrants lived in the United States in 2004 [11] and 18.2 million American citizens in the 2000 Census declared having Mexican ancestry. [12] However, as of recent years in the 2010s, the net migration rate reached 0, given the strong economy of Mexico, changes in US Immigration Policy & Enforcement, US Legislative and CFR-8 decisions, plus the (then) slowly recovering US economy, causing many of its former residents to return. The Mexican government projects [13] that the Mexican population will grow to about 123 million by 2042 and then start declining slowly. Assumptions underlying this projection include fertility stabilizing at 1.85 children per woman and continued high net emigration (slowly decreasing from 583,000 in 2005 to 393,000 in 2050).

The states and Mexico City that make up the Mexican federation are collectively called "federal entities". The five most populous federal entities in 2005 were the State of Mexico (14.4 million), Mexico City (8.7 million), Veracruz (7.1 million), Jalisco (6.7 million) and Puebla (5.4 million), which collectively contain 40.7% of the national population. Mexico City, being coextensive with the Mexico City, is the most populous city in the country, while Greater Mexico City, that includes the adjacent municipalities that comprise a metropolitan area, is estimated to be the second most populous in the world (after Tokyo), according to the UN Urbanization Report.

Intense population growth in the northern states, especially along the US-Mexican border, changed the country's demographic profile in the second half of the 20th century, as the 1967 US-Mexico maquiladora agreement through which all products manufactured in the border cities could be imported duty-free to the US. Since the adoption of NAFTA in 1994, however, which allows all products to be imported duty-free regardless of their place of origin within Mexico, the non-border maquiladora share of exports has increased while that of border cities has decreased,. [14] This has led to decentralization and rapid economic growth in Mexican states (and cities), such as Quintana Roo (Cancun), Baja California Sur (La Paz), Nuevo Leon (Monterrey), Querétaro, and Aguascalientes. The population of each of these five states grew by more than one-third from 2000-2015, while the whole of Mexico grew by 22.6% in this period.

UN estimates Edit

According to the 2012 revision of the World Population Prospects, the total population was 117,886,000 in 2010, compared to only 28,296,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 30%, 64% of the population was between 15 and 65 years of age, and 6% was 65 years or older. [15]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 28 296 42.5 54.1 3.5
1955 33 401 44.5 52.2 3.3
1960 38 677 45.9 50.8 3.4
1965 45 339 46.8 49.6 3.5
1970 52 988 46.6 49.7 3.7
1975 61 708 46.2 50.1 3.7
1980 70 353 44.7 51.5 3.8
1985 77 859 42.1 53.9 3.9
1990 86 077 38.5 57.2 4.3
1995 95 393 35.9 59.6 4.5
2000 103 874 34.1 61.0 4.9
2005 110 732 32.3 62.4 5.3
2010 117 886 30.0 64.0 6.0
2015 127 017 27.6 65.9 6.5
2020 134 837 25.6 66.9 7.6

Structure of the population Edit

Structure of the population (2020) (Census): [16]

Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 16 084 833 15 670 451 31 755 284 25,19
15-64 40 506 343 43 430 483 83 936 826 66,62
65+ 4 746 020 5 575 894 10 321 914 8,19
Male Female Total %
Total 61 473 390 64 540 634 126 014 024 100
0-4 5 077 482 4 969 883 10 047 365 7.97
5-9 5 453 091 5 311 288 10 764 379 8.54
10-14 5 554 260 5 389 280 10 943 540 8.68
15-19 5 462 150 5 344 540 10 806 690 8.57
20-24 5 165 884 5 256 211 10 422 095 8.27
25-29 4 861 404 5 131 597 9 993 001 7.93
30-34 4 527 726 4 893 101 9 420 827 7.47
35-39 4 331 530 4 668 746 9 020 276 7.15
40-44 4 062 304 4 441 282 8 503 586 6.74
45-49 3 812 344 4 130 069 7 942 413 6.30
50-54 3 332 163 3 705 360 7 037 532 5.58
55-59 2 692 976 3 002 982 5 695 958 4.52
60-64 2 257 862 2 563 200 4 821 062 3.82
65-69 1 706 850 1 938 227 3 645 077 2.89
70-74 1 233 492 1 413 848 2 647 340 2.10
75-79 847 898 966 684 1 814 582 1.43
80-84 523 812 651 552 1 175 364 0.93
85+ 433 968 605 583 1 039 551 0.82
unknown 136 194 137 192 273 386 0.21

Registered births and deaths Edit

Average population [19] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1936 786,388
1937 820,469
1938 822,586 43.5
1939 857,951 44.6
1940 19,763,000 875,471 44.3
1941 20,208,000 878,935 43.5
1942 20,657,000 940,067 45.5
1943 21,165,000 963,317 45.5
1944 21,674,000 958,119 44.2
1945 22,233,000 999,093 44.9
1946 22,779,000 994,838 442,935 551,903 43.7 19.4 24.3
1947 23,440,000 1,079,816 390,087 689,729 46.1 16.6 29.5
1948 24,129,000 1,090,867 407,708 683,159 44.7 16.9 27.8
1949 24,833,000 1,109,446 438,970 670,476 46.0 17.7 28.3
1950 28,296,000 1,174,947 418,430 756,517 41.5 14.8 26.7
1951 29,110,000 1,183,788 458,238 725,550 40.7 15.7 24.9
1952 29,980,000 1,195,209 408,823 786,386 39.9 13.6 26.2
1953 30,904,000 1,261,775 446,127 815,648 40.8 14.4 26.4
1954 31,880,000 1,339,837 378,752 961,085 42.0 11.9 30.1
1955 32,906,000 1,377,917 407,522 970,395 41.9 12.4 29.5
1956 33,978,000 1,427,722 368,740 1,058,982 42.0 10.9 31.2
1957 35,095,000 1,485,202 414,545 1,070,657 42.3 11.8 30.5
1958 36,253,000 1,447,578 404,529 1,043,049 39.9 11.2 28.8
1959 37,448,000 1,589,606 396,924 1,192,682 42.4 10.6 31.8
1960 38,677,000 1,608,174 402,545 1,205,629 41.6 10.4 31.2
1961 39,939,000 1,647,006 388,857 1,258,149 41.2 9.7 31.5
1962 41,234,000 1,705,481 403,046 1,302,435 41.4 9.8 31.6
1963 42,564,000 1,756,624 412,834 1,343,790 41.3 9.7 31.6
1964 43,931,000 1,849,408 408,275 1,441,133 42.1 9.3 32.8
1965 45,339,000 1,888,171 404,163 1,484,008 41.6 8.9 32.7
1966 46,784,000 1,954,340 424,141 1,530,199 41.8 9.1 32.7
1967 48 264 000 1,981,363 420,298 1,561,065 41.1 8.7 32.3
1968 49,788,000 2,058,251 452,910 1,605,341 41.3 9.1 32.2
1969 51,361,000 2,037,561 458,886 1,578,675 39.7 8.9 30.7
1970 52,988,000 2,132,630 485,656 1,646,974 40.2 9.2 31.1
1971 54,669,000 2,231,399 458,323 1,773,076 40.8 8.4 32.4
1972 56,396,000 2,346,002 476,206 1,869,796 41.6 8.4 33.2
1973 58,156,000 2,572,287 458,915 2,113,372 44.2 7.9 36.3
1974 59,931,000 2,522,580 433,104 2,089,476 42.1 7.2 34.9
1975 61,708,000 2,254,497 435,888 1,818,609 36.5 7.1 29.5
1976 63,486,000 2,366,305 455,660 1,910,645 37.3 7.2 30.1 5.7
1977 65,261,000 2,379,327 450,454 1,928,873 36.5 6.9 29.6
1978 67,013,000 2,346,862 418,381 1,928,481 35.0 6.2 28.8
1979 68,715,000 2,274,267 428,217 1,846,050 33.1 6.2 26.9
1980 70,353,000 2,446,238 434,465 2,011,773 34.8 6.2 28.6
1981 71,916,000 2,530,662 424,274 2,106,388 35.2 5.9 29.3 4.6
1982 73,416,000 2,392,849 412,345 1,980,504 32.6 5.6 27.0
1983 74,880,000 2,609,088 413,403 2,195,685 34.8 5.5 29.3
1984 76,351,000 2,511,894 410,550 2,101,344 32.9 5.4 27.5
1985 77,859,000 2,655,671 414,003 2,241,668 34.1 5.3 28.8
1986 79,410,000 2,577,045 400,079 2,176,966 32.5 5.0 27.4
1987 80,999,000 2,794,390 400,280 2,394,110 34.5 4.9 29.6 3.8
1988 82,635,000 2,622,031 412,987 2,209,044 31.7 5.0 26.7
1989 84,327,000 2,620,262 423,304 2,196,958 31.1 5.0 26.1
1990 86,077,000 2,735,312 422,803 2,312,509 31.8 4.9 26.9 3.47
1991 87,890,000 2,756,447 411,131 2,345,316 31.4 4.7 26.7 3.37
1992 89,758,000 2,797,397 409,814 2,387,583 31.2 4.6 26.6 3.27
1993 91,654,000 2,839,686 416,335 2,423,351 31.0 4.5 26.4 3.18
1994 93,542,000 2,904,389 419,074 2,485,315 31.0 4.5 26.6 3.10
1995 95,393,000 2,750,444 430,278 2,320,166 28.8 4.5 24.3 3.02
1996 97,202,000 2,707,718 436,321 2,271,397 27.9 4.5 23.4 2.95
1997 98,969,000 2,698,425 440,437 2,257,988 27.3 4.5 22.8 2.88
1998 100,679,000 2,668,429 444,665 2,223,764 26.5 4.4 22.1 2.82
1999 102,317,000 2,769,089 443,950 2,325,139 27.1 4.3 22.7 2.77
2000 103,874,000 2,798,339 437,667 2,360,672 26.9 4.2 22.7 2.72
2001 105,340,000 2,767,610 443,127 2,324,483 26.3 4.2 22.1 2.67
2002 106,724,000 2,699,084 459,687 2,239,397 25.3 4.3 21.0 2.62
2003 108,056,000 2,655,894 472,140 2,183,754 24.6 4.4 20.2 2.58
2004 109,382,000 2,625,056 473,417 2,151,639 24.0 4.3 19.7 2.54
2005 110,732,000 2,567,906 495,240 2,072,666 23.2 4.5 18.7 2.50
2006 112,117,000 2,505,939 494,471 2,011,468 22.4 4.4 17.9 2.46
2007 113 530 000 2,655,083 514,420 2,140,663 23.4 4.5 18.9 2.42
2008 114,968,000 2,636,110 539,530 2,096,580 22.9 4.7 18.2 2.39
2009 116,423,000 2,577,214 564,673 2,012,541 22.1 4.9 17.3 2.36
2010 114,255,000 2,643,908 592,018 2,051,890 23.1 5.2 17.9 2.34
2011 115,683,000 2,586,287 590,693 1,995,594 22.3 5.1 17.2 2.32
2012 117,054,000 2,498,880 602,354 1,896,526 21.3 5.1 16.2 2.29
2013 118,395,000 2,478,889 623,599 1,855,290 20.9 5.3 15.6 2.27
2014 119,713,000 2,463,420 633,641 1,829,779 20.5 5.3 15.2 2.24
2015 121,005,000 2,353,596 655,694 1,697,902 19.4 5.4 14.0 2.22
2016 122,298,000 2,293,708 685,763 1,607,945 18.8 5.6 13.2 2.19
2017 123,415,000 2,234,039 703,047 1,530,992 18.1 5.8 12.3 2.17
2018 124,738,000 2,162,535 722,611 1,439,924 17.3 5.8 11.5 2.14
2019 125,930,000 2,092,214 747,784 1,344,430 16.5 5.9 10.6 2.09
2020 126,014,024 1,006,153 8.0

Estimates Edit

The following estimates were prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía:

Crude birth rate (per 1000) [20] Crude death rate (per 1000) [21] Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate [22]
1976 5.7
1981 4.4
1987 3.8
1990 27.9 5.6 22.3 3.4
1991 27.5 5.5 22.0 3.3
1992 27.1 5.4 21.7 3.2
1993 26.8 5.3 21.5 3.1
1994 26.3 5.2 21.1 3.0
1995 25.9 5.2 20.7 3.0
1996 25.4 5.1 20.3 2.9
1997 24.8 5.1 19.7 2.8
1998 24.3 5.1 19.2 2.8
1999 23.9 5.1 18.8 2.7
2000 23.4 5.1 18.3 2.6
2001 23.0 5.1 17.9 2.6
2002 22.6 5.1 17.5 2.6
2003 22.2 5.2 17.0 2.5
2004 21.8 5.2 16.6 2.5
2005 21.5 5.2 16.3 2.5
2006 21.1 5.3 15.8 2.4
2007 20.8 5.3 15.5 2.4
2008 20.4 5.4 15.0 2.3
2009 20.1 5.5 14.6 2.3
2010 19.7 5.6 14.1 2.3
2011 19.4 5.6 13.8 2.3
2012 19.2 5.7 13.5 2.2
2013 19.0 5.7 13.3 2.2
2014 18.7 5.7 13.0 2.2
2015 18.5 5.7 12.8 2.2
2016 18.3 5.8 12.5 2.2

Life expectancy from 1893 to 1950 Edit

Life expectancy in Mexico from 1893 to 1950. Source: Our World In Data

Years 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 [23]
Life expectancy in Mexico 23.3 26.6 29.5 28.8 26.2 27.0 25.0 25.0 26.7 28.4 28.7 29.1 26.8 27.8 28.0 28.7 29.2 28.0
Years 1920 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 [23]
Life expectancy in Mexico 34.0 32.6 33.5 32.8 32.1 34.2 40.3 34.5 35.4 34.0
Years 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 [23]
Life expectancy in Mexico 37.7 38.4 37.3 38.2 40.4 38.3 36.8 39.4 45.5 39.0
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 [23]
Life expectancy in Mexico 42.6 39.8 42.8 43.2 44.2 44.8 46.3 48.3 45.8 50.7

UN estimates Edit

The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [15]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950–1955 1 469 000 509 000 959 000 48.3 16.7 31.6 6.75 121 50.7 48.9 52.5
1955–1960 1 675 000 483 000 1 193 000 46.6 13.5 33.1 6.78 102 55.3 53.3 57.3
1960–1965 1 878 000 481 000 1 397 000 44.6 11.5 33.1 6.75 88 58.5 56.4 60.6
1965–1970 2 147 000 510 000 1 637 000 43.6 10.4 33.2 6.75 80 60.3 58.2 62.5
1970–1975 2 434 000 521 000 1 913 000 43.7 9.2 34.5 6.71 69 62.6 60.1 65.2
1975–1980 2 406 000 490 000 1 916 000 37.2 7.5 29.7 5.40 57 65.3 62.2 68.6
1980–1985 2 352 000 470 000 1 882 000 32.3 6.3 26.0 4.37 47 67.7 64.4 71.2
1985–1990 2 385 000 466 000 1 919 000 29.7 5.7 24.0 3.75 40 69.8 66.8 73.0
1990–1995 2 493 000 470 000 2 022 000 27.4 5.2 22.3 3.23 33 71.8 69.0 74.6
1995–2000 2 535 000 471 000 2 064 000 25.2 4.8 20.5 2.85 28 73.3 71.3 76.1
2000–2005 2 449 000 492 000 1 958 000 23.0 4.6 18.4 2.61 21 75.1 72.4 77.4
2005–2010 2 355 000 513 000 1 841 000 20.7 4.6 16.1 2.40 17 75.1 73.7 78.6
2010–2015 2 353 000 579 000 1 774 000 19.4 4.8 14.6 2.29 74.9
2015–2020 2 291 000 635 000 1 656 000 17.6 4.9 12.7 2.14 74.9
2020–2025 2 206 000 699 000 1 507 000 16.0 5.1 11.0 2.00
2025–2030 2 105 000 773 000 1 332 000 14.6 5.4 9.2 1.89
2030–2035 2 014 000 860 000 1 154 000 13.4 5.7 7.7 1.81
2035–2040 1 936 000 960 000 976 000 12.5 6.2 6.3 1.76
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000) CDR = crude death rate (per 1000) NC = natural change (per 1000) IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Immigration to Mexico Edit

Place Foreign-born population in Mexico 2020
1 United States 797,266
2 Guatemala 56,810
3 Venezuela 52,948
4 Colombia 36,234
5 Honduras 35,361
6 Cuba 25,976
7 Spain 20,763
8 El Salvador 19,736
9 Argentina 18,693
10 Canada 12,439
11 China 10,547
12 France 9,080
13 Brazil 8,689
14 Peru 8,670
15 Germany 6,860
16 Italy 6,619
17 Chile 6,532
18 Haiti 5,895
19 Nicaragua 5,731
20 Japan 5,539
21 South Korea 5,339
22 United Kingdom 4,030
23 Ecuador 3,995
24 Costa Rica 3,803
25 Dominican Republic 2,849
26 Belize 2,813
27 Uruguay 2,706
28 India 2,656
29 Bolivia 2,505
30 Russia 2,321
31 Panama 1,916
32 Switzerland 1,439
Other countries 25,492
TOTAL 1,212,252
Source: INEGI (2020) [24]

Aside from the original Spanish colonists, many Europeans immigrated to Mexico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Non-Spanish immigrant groups included British, Irish, Italian, German, French and Dutch. [25] Large numbers of Middle Eastern immigrants arrived in Mexico during the same period, mostly from Syria and Lebanon. [26] Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese, some via the United States, settled in northern Mexico, whereas Koreans settled in central Mexico. [27]

During the 1970s and 1980s Mexico opened its doors to immigrants from Latin America, mainly political refugees from Chile, Cuba, Peru, Colombia and Central America. The PRI governments, in power for most of the 20th century, had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. A second wave of immigrants has come to Mexico as a result of the economic crises experienced by some countries in the region. The Argentine community is quite significant estimated to be somewhere between 11,000 and 30,000. [28] [29]

Due to the 2008 Financial Crisis and the resulting economic decline and high unemployment in Spain, many Spaniards have been emigrating to Mexico to seek new opportunities. [30] For example, during the last quarter of 2012, a number of 7,630 work permits were granted to Spaniards. [31]

Mexico is also the country where the largest number of American citizens live abroad, with Mexico City playing host to the largest number of American citizens abroad in the world. The American Citizens Abroad Association estimated in 1999 that a little more than one million Americans live in Mexico (which represent 1% of the population in Mexico and 25% of all American citizens living abroad). [32] This immigration phenomenon could well be explained by the interaction of both countries under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), but also by the fact that Mexico has become a popular destination for retirees, especially the small towns: just in the State of Guanajuato, in San Miguel de Allende and its surroundings, 10,000 Americans have their residence. [33]

Discrepancies between the figures of official legal aliens and all foreign-born residents is quite large. The official figure for foreign-born residents in Mexico in 2000 was 493,000, [34] with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (except Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). The six states with the most immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Mexico City (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). [34]

Emigration from Mexico Edit

The national net migration rate of Mexico is negative, estimated at -1.8 migrants per 1,000 population as of 2017 [update] . [36] The great majority of Mexican emigrants have moved to the United States of America. This migration phenomenon is not new, but it has been a defining feature in the relationship of both countries for most of the 20th century. [37] During World Wars I and II, the United States government approved the recruitment of Mexican workers in their territory, and tolerated unauthorized migration in order to obtain additional farm- and industrial-workers to fill the necessary spots vacated by the population in war, and to supply the increase in the demand for labor. Nonetheless, the United States unilaterally ended the wartime programs - in part as a result of arguments from labor and from civil-rights groups. [38]

In spite of that, emigration of Mexicans continued throughout the rest of the 20th century at varying rates. It grew significantly during the 1990s and continued to do so in the first years of the 2000s. In fact, it has been estimated that 37% of all Mexican immigrants to the United States in the 20th century arrived during the 1990s. [37] In 2000 approximately 20 million American residents identified themselves as either Mexican, Mexican-Americans or of Mexican origin, making "Mexican" the sixth-most cited ancestry of all US residents. [39]

In 2000 the INEGI estimated that about eight million Mexican-born people, which then was equivalent to 8.7% of the population of Mexico itself, lived in the United States of America. [40] In that year, the Mexican states sending the greatest numbers of emigrants to the United States were Jalisco (170,793), Michoacán (165,502), and Guanajuato (163,338) the total number of Mexican emigrants to the United States in 2000, both legal and illegal, was estimated at 1,569,157 the great majority of these were men. [41] Approximately 30% of emigrants come from rural communities. [42] In 2000, 260,650 emigrants returned to Mexico. [43] According to the Pew Hispanic Center in 2006, an estimated ten percent of all Mexican citizens lived in the United States. [44] The population of Mexican immigrants residing illegally in the United States fell from around seven million in 2007 to about 6.1 million in 2011. [45] This trajectory has been linked [ by whom? ] to the economic downturn which started in 2008 and which reduced available jobs, and to the introduction of stricter immigration laws in many States. [46] [47] [48] [49] According to the Pew Hispanic Center the total number of Mexican-born people had stagnated in 2010 and then began to fall. [50]

After the Mexican-American community, Mexican Canadians are the second-largest group of emigrant Mexicans, with a population of over 50,000. [51] A significant but unknown number of mestizos of Mexican descent migrated to the Philippines during the era of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, when the Philippines was a territory under the rule of Mexico city. [52] Mexicans live throughout Latin America as well as in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Arab Emirates.

Emigration list from Mexico [53]
Mexican residents in the world by countries
Country Population Position Continent
United States 36,300,000 [54] 1 North America
Spain 56,757 [55] 2 Europe
Canada 36,225 [56] 3 North America
Guatemala 14,481 [57] 4 North America
Bolivia 13,377 [58] 5 South America
Germany 8,848 [59] 6 Europe
Argentina 6,750 [60] 7 South America
United Kingdom 5,125 [61] 8 Europe
Australia 4,872 [62] 9 Oceania
France 4,601 [63] 10 Europe
Israel 4,252 [64] 11 Asia
Netherlands 3,758 [65] 12 Europe
Italy 3,485 [65] 13 Europe
Venezuela 3,075 [66] 14 South America
Sweden 2,794 [67] 15 Europe
Belize 2,349 [68] 16 North America
Costa Rica 2,327 [69] 17 North America
Panama 2,299 [70] 18 North America
Colombia 2,286 [71] 19 South America
Chile 1,874 [72] 20 South America
Paraguay 1,778 [73] 21 South America
The list includes also temporary residents (1–3 years' stay)

Settlements, cities and municipalities Edit

Most populated municipalities
Municipality of Guadalajara
Municipality Pop. (2005)
Ecatepec de Morelos 1,688,258
Guadalajara 1,600,940
Puebla 1,485,941
Tijuana 1,410,700
León 1.325.210
Juárez 1,313,338

In 2005 Mexico had 187,938 localidades (lit. "localities" or "settlements"), which are census-designated places, which could be defined as a small town, a large city, or simply as a single unit housing in a rural area whether situated remotely or close to an urban area. A city is defined to be a settlement with more than 2,500 inhabitants. In 2005 there were 2,640 cities with a population between 2,500 and 15,000 inhabitants, 427 with a population between 15,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, 112 with a population between 100,000 and one million, and 11 with a population of more than one million. [74] All cities are considered "urban areas" and represent 76.5% of total population. Settlements with less than 2,500 inhabitants are considered "rural communities" (in fact, more than 80,000 of those settlements have only one or two housing units). Rural population in Mexico is 22.2% of total population. [74]

Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) and boroughs (delegaciones in Spanish) are incorporated places in Mexico, that is, second or third-level political divisions with internal autonomy, legally prescribed limits, powers and functions. In terms of second-level political divisions there are 2,438 municipalities and Mexico and 16 semi-autonomous boroughs (all within the Federal District). A municipality can be constituted by one or more cities one of which is the cabecera municipal (municipal seat). Cities are usually contained within the limits of a single municipality, with a few exceptions in which small areas of one city may extend to other adjacent municipalities without incorporating the city which serves as the municipal seat of the adjacent municipality. Some municipalities or cities within municipalities are further divided into delegaciones or boroughs. However, unlike the boroughs of the Federal District, these are third-level administrative divisions they have very limited autonomy and no elective representatives.

Municipalities in central Mexico are usually very small in area and thus coextensive with cities (as is the case of Guadalajara, Puebla and León), whereas municipalities in northern and southeastern Mexico are much larger and usually contain more than one city or town that may not necessarily conform a single urban agglomeration (as is the case of Tijuana).

Metropolitan areas Edit

A metropolitan area in Mexico is defined to be the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city. [75] In 2004, a joint effort between CONAPO, INEGI and the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) agreed to define metropolitan areas as either: [75]

  • the group of two or more municipalities in which a city with a population of at least 50,000 is located whose urban area extends over the limit of the municipality that originally contained the core city incorporating either physically or under its area of direct influence other adjacent predominantly urban municipalities all of which have a high degree of social and economic integration or are relevant for urban politics and administration or
  • a single municipality in which a city of a population of at least one million is located and fully contained, (that is, it does not transcend the limits of a single municipality) or
  • a city with a population of at least 250,000 which forms a conurbation with other cities in the United States of America.

In 2004 there were 55 metropolitan areas in Mexico, in which close to 53% of the country's population lives. The most populous metropolitan area in Mexico is the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, or Greater Mexico City, which in 2005 had a population of 19.23 million, or 19% of the nation's population. The next four largest metropolitan areas in Mexico are Greater Guadalajara (4.1 million), Greater Monterrey (3.7 million), Greater Puebla (2.1 million) and Greater Toluca (1.6 million), [76] whose added population, along with Greater Mexico City, is equivalent to 30% of the nation's population. Greater Mexico City was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the country since the 1930s until the late 1980s. Since then, the country has slowly become economically and demographically less centralized. From 2000 to 2005 the average annual growth rate of Greater Mexico City was the lowest of the five largest metropolitan areas, whereas the fastest growing metropolitan area was Puebla (2.0%) followed by Monterrey (1.9%), Toluca (1.8%) and Guadalajara (1.8%). [76]

Largest metropolitan areas in Mexico by population (2015)


Mexico City

Guadalajara

Monterrey
Rank Metropolitan area Largest city State Metro area population

Puebla

Toluca

Tijuana
1 Greater Mexico City Mexico City Mexico City 20,892,724
2 Guadalajara metropolitan area Guadalajara Jalisco 4,887,383
3 Monterrey metropolitan area Monterrey Nuevo León 4,689,601
4 Puebla metropolitan area Puebla Puebla 2,941,988
5 Greater Toluca Toluca México 2,202,886
6 Tijuana Tijuana Baja California 1,840,710
7 León metropolitan area León Guanajuato 1,768,193
8 Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez Chihuahua 1,391,180
9 La Laguna metropolitan area Torreón Coahuila 1,342,195
10 Querétaro Querétaro Querétaro 1,323,640
11 Greater San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí 1,159,807
12 Mérida Mérida Yucatán 1,143,041
Source: INEGI [77]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review. [80]

  • One birth every 14 seconds
  • One death every 41 seconds
  • One net migrant every 9 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 23 seconds

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. [81]

Population 125,959,205 (July 2018 est.)

  • 21% Indigenous Mexicans (Native American)
  • 25% Mestizo (indigenous+European)
  • 47% Light skinned-Mexican or white-Mexicans ("castizo"mostly european or "white"european descendent)
  • 1% Asian-mexicans (mostly asian or asian descendent)
  • 0.1% Afro-mexicans (mostly black or black descendent)
  • 1% Not classified.
  • 18% blond hair
  • 2% red hair
  • 80% black hair or dark brown
  • 28% light-colored eyes
  • 72% dark- or mixed eyes

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)

total population: 94.9% male: 95.8% female: 94% (2016 est.) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 14 years male: 14 years female: 14 years (2016) Unemployment, youth ages 15–24 total: 6.9%. Country comparison to the world: 157th male: 6.5% female: 7.6% (2018 est.) Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mexico is ethnically diverse. The second article of the Mexican Constitution defines the country to be a pluricultural state originally based on its indigenous peoples.

Mestizo Edit

A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a Spanish cultural heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating elements from both indigenous and Spanish traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje [mestiˈsaxe] . Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity upon this concept. [83] [84]

Since the Mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, a good number of phenotypically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered Mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due to the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones. [85] A similar situation occurs regarding the distinctions between Indigenous peoples and Mestizos: while the term Mestizo is sometimes used in English with the meaning of a person with mixed indigenous and European blood, In Mexican society an indigenous person can be considered mestizo. [86] and a person with none or a very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage. [87] [88] [89] In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo has a different meaning, with it being to refer to the Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as Mestizos. [90] In Chiapas the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo. [91]

Given that the word Mestizo has different meanings in Mexico, estimates of the Mexican Mestizo population vary widely. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, which uses a biology-based approach, between one half and two thirds of the Mexican population is Mestizo [92] whereas a culture-based criteria estimates a percentage as high as 90%. [93] Recent research based on self-identification nonetheless, has observed that many Mexicans do not identify as mestizos [94] and would not agree to be labeled as such, [95] with "static" racial labels such as White, Indian, Black etc. being more commonly used. [96]

The use of variated methods and criteria to quantify the number of Mestizos in Mexico is not new: Since several decades ago, many authors have analyzed colonial censuses data and have made different conjectures respecting the ethnic composition of the population of colonial Mexico/New Spain. There are Historians such as Gonzalo Aguirre-Beltrán who claimed in 1972 that practically the totality of New Spain's population, in reality, were Mestizos, using to back up his claims arguments such as that affairs of Spaniards with non-Europeans due to the alleged absence of female European immigrants were widespread as well as there being a huge desire of Mestizos to "pass" as Spaniards, this because Spanishness was seen as a symbol of high status. [97] [98] Other historians however, point that Aguirre-Beltran numbers tend to have inconsistencies and take too much liberties (it is pointed out in the book Ensayos sobre historia de la población. México y el Caribe 2 published in 1998 that on 1646, when according to historic registers the mestizo population was of 1% he estimates it to be 16.6% already, with this being attributed to him interpreting the data in a way convenient for a historic narrative), [99] [100] often omitting data of New Spain's northern and western provinces. [101] His self-made classifications thus, although could be plausible, are not useful for precise statistical analysis. [102] According 21st-century historians, Aguirre Beltran also disregards facts such as the population dynamics of New Spain being different depending of the region at hand (i.e. miscegenation couldn't happen in a significative amount in regions on which the native population was openly hostile until early 20th century, such as most of New Spain's internal provinces, which nowadays are the northern and western regions of Mexico), [100] or that historic accounts made by investigators at the time consistently observed that New Spain's European population was notoriously concerned with preserving their European heritage, with practices such as inviting relatives and friends directly from Spain or favouring Europeans for marriage even if they were from a lower socioeconomic level than them being common. [103] [99] [100] Newer publications that do cite Aguirre-Beltran's work take those factors into consideration, stating that the Spaniard/Euromestizo/Criollo ethnic label was composed on its majority by descendants of Europeans albeit the category may have included people with some non-European ancestry. [104]

Indigenous peoples Edit

Prior to contact with Europeans the indigenous people of Mexico had not had any kind of shared identity. [105] Indigenous identity was constructed by the dominant Euro-Mestizo majority and imposed upon the indigenous people as a negatively defined identity, characterized by the lack of assimilation into modern Mexico. Indigenous identity therefore became socially stigmatizing. [106] Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to help indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the rest of society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to Mestizo Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into mestizo communities. [107]

The category of "indigena" (indigenous) in Mexico has been defined based on different criteria through history, this means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied. It can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak an Indigenous language, based on this criteria approximately 6.1% of the population is Indigenous. [1] [108] Nonetheless, activists for the rights of indigenous peoples have referred to the usage of this criteria for census purposes as "statistical genocide" [109] [110]
Other surveys made by the Mexican government do count as Indigenous all persons who speak an indigenous language and people who do not speak indigenous languages nor live in indigenous communities but self-identifies as Indigenous.

According to this criteria, the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography), state that there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico of many different ethnic groups, [111] which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country. [112]
Finally, according to the latest intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government in 2015, Indigenous people make up 21.5% of Mexico's population. In this occasion, people who self-identified as "Indigenous" and people who self-identified as "partially Indigenous" were classified in the "Indigenous" category altogether. [113]

Largest indigenous peoples
Mayas in Chiapas
Group Number
Nahua peoples (Nawatlaka) 2,445,969
Maya (Maaya) 1,475,575
Zapotec (Binizaa) 777,253
Mixtec (Ñuu sávi) 726,601
Otomí (Hñähñü) 646,875
Totonac (Tachihuiin) 411,266
Source: CDI (2000) [7]

The Mexican constitution not only recognizes the 62 indigenous peoples living in Mexican territory but also grants them autonomy and protects their culture and languages. This protection and autonomy is extended to those Amerindian ethnic groups which have migrated from the United States — like the Cherokees and Kickapoos — and Guatemala during the 19th and 20th centuries. Municipalities in which indigenous peoples are located can keep their normative traditional systems in relation to the election of their municipal authorities. This system is known as Usos y Costumbres, roughly translated as "customs and traditions".

According to official statistics —as reported by the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples or CDI— Amerindians make up 10-14% [114] of the country's population, more than half of them (5.4% of total population) speak an indigenous language and a tenth (1.2% of total population) do not speak Spanish. [115] Official statistics of the CDI [116] report that the states with the greatest percentage of people who speak an Amerindian language or identify as Amerindian are Yucatán (59%), Oaxaca (48%), Quintana Roo (39%), Chiapas (28%), Campeche (27%), Hidalgo (24%), Puebla (19%), Guerrero (17%), San Luis Potosí (15%) and Veracruz (15%). Oaxaca is the state with the greatest number of distinct indigenous peoples and languages in the country.

White Mexicans Edit

White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of full or majority European descent. [117] This ethnic group contrasts with the Afro-Mexican and Indigenous Mexican groups in the fact that phenotype (hair color, skin color etc.) is often used as the main criteria to delineate it. [118] [119] [120] Spaniards and other Europeans began arriving in Mexico during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and continued immigrating to the country during colonial and independent Mexico. According to 20th- and 21st-century academics, large scale intermixing between the European immigrants and the native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of the Mexican revolution. [121] However, according to church registers from the colonial times, the majority (73%) of Spanish men married with Spanish women. Said registers also put in question other narratives held by contemporary academics, such as European immigrants who arrived to Mexico being almost exclusively men or that "pure Spanish" people were all part of a small powerful elite as Spaniards were often the most numerous ethnic group in the colonial cities [122] [123] as there were menial workers and people in poverty who were of complete Spanish origin. [124]

Estimates of Mexico's white population differ greatly in both, methodology and percentages given, extra-official sources such as The World Factbook and Encyclopedia Britannica, which use the 1921 census results as the base of their estimations calculate Mexico's White population as only 9% [125] or between one tenth to one fifth [126] (the results of the 1921 census, however, have been contested by various historians and deemed inaccurate). [127] Surveys that account for phenotypical traits and have performed actual field research suggest rather higher percentages: using the presence of blond hair as reference to classify a Mexican as white, the Metropolitan Autonomous University of Mexico calculated the percentage of said ethnic group at 23%. [128] With a similar methodology, the American Sociological Association obtained a percentage of 18.8% having its higher frequency on the North region (22.3%–23.9%) followed by the Center region (18.4%–21.3%) and the South region (11.9%). [129]

Another study made by the University College London in collaboration with Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History found that the frequencies of blond hair and light eyes in Mexicans are of 18% and 28% respectively, [79] surveys that use as reference skin color such as those made by Mexico's National Council to Prevent Discrimination and Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography reported a percentages of 47% in 2010 [130] [131] [132] and 49% in 2017 [133] [134] respectively. A study performed in hospitals of Mexico City reported that an average 51.8% of Mexican newborns presented the congenital skin birthmark known as the Mongolian spot. [135] The Mongolian spot appears with a very high frequency (85-95%) in Asian, Native American, and African children. [136] The skin lesion reportedly almost always appears on South American [137] and Mexican children who are racially Mestizos, [138] while having a very low frequency (5–10%) in Caucasian children. [139] According to the Mexican Social Security Institute (shortened as IMSS) nationwide, around half of Mexican babies have the Mongolian spot. [140]

Mexico's northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European population, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards. [141] In the north and west of Mexico, the indigenous tribes were substantially smaller than those found in central and southern Mexico, and also much less organized, thus they remained isolated from the rest of the population or even in some cases were hostile towards Mexican colonists. The northeast region, in which the indigenous population was eliminated by early European settlers, became the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period. However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, its demographic trends. [ citation needed ]

While the majority of European immigration to Mexico has been Spanish with the first wave starting with the colonization of America and the last one being a consequence of the Spanish Civil War of 1937, [142] immigrants from other European countries have arrived to Mexico as well: during the Second Mexican Empire the immigration was mostly French, and during the late 19th and early 20th centuries spurred by government policies of Porfirio Díaz, migrants mainly from Italy, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Germany followed taking advantage of the liberal policies then valid in Mexico and went into merchant, industrial and educational ventures while others arrived with no or limited capital, as employees or farmers. [143] Most settled in Mexico City, Veracruz, Yucatán, and Puebla. Significant numbers of German immigrants also arrived during and after the First and Second World Wars.. [25] [144] Additionally small numbers of White Americans, Croats, Greeks, Poles, Romanians, Russians and Ashkenazi Jews came. [144] The European Jewish immigrants joined the Sephardic community that lived in Mexico since colonial times, though many lived as Crypto-Jews, mostly in the northern states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. [145] Some communities of European immigrants have remained isolated from the rest of the general population since their arrival, among them the German-speaking Mennonites from Russia of Chihuahua and Durango, [146] and the Venetos of Chipilo, Puebla, which have retained their original languages. [147]

Afro-Mexicans Edit

Afro-Mexicans are an ethnic group that predominate in certain areas of Mexico, such as the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and the Costa Chica of Guerrero, Veracruz (e.g. Yanga) and in some towns in northern Mexico. The existence of black people in Mexico is often unknown, denied or diminished both in Mexico and abroad for different reasons: their small numbers, continuous intermarriage and assimilation with non-African populations over various generations, as was often the case in Spanish territories and Mexico's tradition of defining itself as a "mestizaje" or mixing of European and indigenous. Mexico did have an active slave trade during the colonial period but wasn't as prominent as the one seen elsewhere in the Americas, which led to the number of free blacks eventually surpassing that of enslaved ones. The institution was already in decay by the late 1700s and by the 19th century slavery and ethnic categorization at birth (see casta) have been abolished with the Mexican independence. After this the creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past, actively or passively eliminating its African one from popular consciousness.

The majority of Mexico's native Afro-descendants are Afromestizos. Individuals with significantly high amounts of African ancestry make up a very low percentage of the total Mexican population, the majority being recent black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere in the Americas. According to the Intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government, Afro-Mexicans make up 2.4% of Mexico's population, [1] the Afro-Mexican category in the Intercensal survey includes people who self-identified solely as African and people who self-identified as partially African. The survey also states that 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous, with 9.3% being speakers of indigenous languages. [113]

A number of black Mexicans descend from recent immigrants from Haiti as well as Garifuna populations from Central America.

Middle Eastern Mexicans Edit

An Arab Mexican is a Mexican citizen of Arabic-speaking origin who can be of various ancestral origins. The vast majority of Mexico's 1.1 million Arabs are from either Lebanese, Syrian, Iraqi, or Palestinian background. [26]

The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Mexico shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language. Today, the most common Arabic surnames in Mexico include Nader, Hayek, Ali, Haddad, Nasser, Malik, Abed, Mansoor, Harb and Elias.

Arab immigration to Mexico started in the 19th and early 20th centuries. [149] Roughly 100,000 Arabic-speakers settled in Mexico during this time period. They came mostly from Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Iraq and settled in significant numbers in Nayarit, Puebla, Mexico City and the Northern part of the country (mainly in the states of Baja California, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Durango, as well as the city of Tampico and Guadalajara. The term "Arab Mexican" may include ethnic groups that do not in fact identify as Arab.

During the Israel-Lebanon war in 1948 and during the Six-Day War, thousands of Lebanese left Lebanon and went to Mexico. They first arrived in Veracruz. Although Arabs made up less than 5% of the total immigrant population in Mexico during the 1930s, they constituted half of the immigrant economic activity. [26]

Immigration of Arabs in Mexico has influenced Mexican culture, in particular food, where they have introduced Kibbeh, Tabbouleh and even created recipes such as Tacos Árabes. By 1765, [ citation needed ] Dates, which originated from the Middle East, were introduced into Mexico by the Spaniards. The fusion between Arab and Mexican food has highly influenced the Yucatecan cuisine. [150]

Another concentration of Arab-Mexicans is in Baja California facing the U.S.-Mexican border, esp. in cities of Mexicali in the Imperial Valley U.S./Mexico, and Tijuana across from San Diego with a large Arab American community (about 280,000), some of whose families have relatives in Mexico. 45% of Arab Mexicans are of Lebanese descent.

The majority of Arab-Mexicans are Christians who belong to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches. [151] A scant number are Muslims and Jews of Middle Eastern origins. There are also around 50,000 Roma gypsies in Mexico. [152] who immigrated mainly from Spain.

Asian Mexicans Edit

Although Asian Mexicans make up less than 1% of the total population of modern Mexico, they are nonetheless a notable minority. Due to the historical and contemporary perception in Mexican society of what constitutes Asian culture (associated with the Far East rather than the Near East), Asian Mexicans are of East, South and Southeast Asian descent and Mexicans of West Asian descent are not considered to be part of the group. For more info, see the Middle Eastern Mexicans section.

Asian immigration began with the arrival of Filipinos to Mexico during the Spanish period. For two and a half centuries, between 1565 and 1815, many Filipinos and Mexicans sailed to and from Mexico and the Philippines as sailors, crews, slaves, prisoners, adventurers and soldiers in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon assisting Spain in its trade between Asia and the Americas. Also on these voyages, thousands of Asian individuals (mostly males) were brought to Mexico as slaves and were called "Chino", [153] which means Chinese, although in reality they were of diverse origins, including Koreans, Japanese, Malays, Filipinos, Javanese, Cambodians, Timorese, and people from Bengal, India, Ceylon, Makassar, Tidore, Terenate, and China. [154] [155] [156] A notable example is the story of Catarina de San Juan (Mirra), an Indian girl captured by the Portuguese and sold into slavery in Manila. She arrived in New Spain and eventually she gave rise to the "China Poblana".

These early individuals are not very apparent in modern Mexico for two main reasons: the widespread mestizaje of Mexico during the Spanish period and the common practice of Chino slaves to "pass" as Indios (the indigenous people of Mexico) in order to attain freedom. As had occurred with a large portion of Mexico's black population, over generations the Asian populace was absorbed into the general Mestizo population. Facilitating this miscegenation was the assimilation of Asians into the indigenous population. The indigenous people were legally protected from chattel slavery, and by being recognized as part of this group, Asian slaves could claim they were wrongly enslaved.

Asians, predominantly Chinese, became Mexico's fastest-growing immigrant group from the 1880s to the 1920s, exploding from about 1,500 in 1895 to more than 20,000 in 1910. [157]

Official censuses Edit

Historically, population studies and censuses have never been up to the standards that a population as diverse and numerous such as Mexico's require: the first racial census was made in 1793, being also Mexico's (then known as New Spain) first ever nationwide population census. Since only part of its original datasets survive, most of what is known of it comes from essays made by researchers who back in the day used the census' findings as reference for their own works. More than a century would pass until the Mexican government conducted a new racial census in 1921 (some sources assert that the census of 1895 included a comprehensive racial classification [121] however, according to the historic archives of Mexico's National Institute of Statistics, that was not the case). [82] While the 1921 census was the last time the Mexican government conducted a census that included a comprehensive racial classification, in recent years it has conducted nationwide surveys to quantify most of the ethnic groups who inhabit the country as well as the social dynamics and inequalities between them.

1793 census Edit

Also known as the "Revillagigedo census" from the name of the Count who ordered that it be conducted, this census was the first nationwide population census of Mexico (then known as the Viceroyalty of New Spain). Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, so most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works, such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt. Each author gives different estimations for each racial group in the country although they don't vary greatly, with Europeans ranging from 18% to 22% of New Spain's population, Mestizos from 21% to 25%, Indians from 51% to 61%, and Africans from 6,000 and 10,000. The estimations given for the total population range from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354. It is concluded then, that across nearly three centuries of colonization, the population growth trends of whites and mestizos were even, while the total percentage of the indigenous population decreased at a rate of 13%–17% per century. The authors assert that rather than whites and mestizos having higher birthrates, the reason for the indigenous population's numbers decreasing lies in their suffering higher mortality rates due to living in remote locations rather than in cities and towns founded by the Spanish colonists or in being at war with them. For the same reasons, the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greatest variation range between publications, as in some cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others. [158]

Europeans are included within the Mestizo category.

Regardless of the possible inaccuracies related to the counting of Indigenous peoples living outside of the colonized areas, the effort that New Spain's authorities put into considering them as subjects is worth mentioning, as censuses made by other colonial or post-colonial countries did not consider American Indians to be citizens or subjects for example, the censuses made by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata would only count the inhabitants of the colonized settlements. [159] Another example is the censuses made by the United States, which did not include Indigenous peoples living among the general population until 1860, and indigenous peoples as a whole until 1900. [160]

1921 census Edit

Made right after the consummation of the Mexican revolution, the social context in which this census was conducted makes it particularly unique, as the government of the time was in the process of rebuilding the country and was looking to unite all Mexicans in a single national identity. The 1921 census' final results in regards to race, which assert that 59.3% of the Mexican population self-identified as Mestizo, 29.1% as Indigenous, and only 9.8% as White, were then essential in cementing the mestizaje ideology (which asserts that the Mexican population as a whole is product of the admixture of all races), which shaped Mexican identity and culture through the 20th century and remains prominent nowadays, with extraofficial international publications such as The World Factbook and Encyclopædia Britannica using the 1921 census as a reference to estimate Mexico's racial composition up to this day. [161] [92]

Nonetheless in recent times, the census' results have been subjected to scrutiny by historians, academics and social activists alike, who assert that such drastic alterations on demographic trends with respect to the 1793 census are impossible and cite, among other statistics, the relatively low frequency of marriages between people of different continental ancestries in colonial and early independent Mexico. [162] It is claimed that the mestizaje process sponsored by the state was more "cultural than biological", which resulted in the numbers of the Mestizo Mexican group being inflated at the expense of the identity of other races. [163] Controversies aside, this census constituted the last time the Mexican Government conducted a comprehensive racial census with the breakdown by states being the following (foreigners and people who answered "other" not included): [164]

Federative Units Mestizo Population (%) Amerindian Population (%) White Population (%)
Aguascalientes 66.12% 16.70% 16.77%
Baja California
(Distrito Norte)
72.50% 07.72% 00.35%
Baja California
(Distrito Sur)
59.61% 06.06% 33.40%
Campeche 41.45% 43.41% 14.17%
Coahuila 77.88% 11.38% 10.13%
Colima 68.54% 26.00% 04.50%
Chiapas 36.27% 47.64% 11.82%
Chihuahua 50.09% 12.76% 36.33%
Durango 89.85% 09.99% 00.01%
Guanajuato 96.33% 02.96% 00.54%
Guerrero 54.05% 43.84% 02.07%
Hidalgo 51.47% 39.49% 08.83%
Jalisco 75.83% 16.76% 07.31%
Mexico City 54.78% 18.75% 22.79%
State of Mexico 47.71% 42.13% 10.02%
Michoacán 70.95% 21.04% 06.94%
Morelos 61.24% 34.93% 03.59%
Nayarit 73.45% 20.38% 05.83%
Nuevo León 75.47% 05.14% 19.23%
Oaxaca 28.15% 69.17% 01.43%
Puebla 39.34% 54.73% 05.66%
Querétaro 80.15% 19.40% 00.30%
Quintana Roo 42.35% 20.59% 15.16%
San Luis Potosí 61.88% 30.60% 05.41%
Sinaloa 98.30% 00.93% 00.19%
Sonora 41.04% 14.00% 42.54%
Tabasco 53.67% 18.50% 27.56%
Tamaulipas 69.77% 13.89% 13.62%
Tlaxcala 42.44% 54.70% 02.53%
Veracruz 50.09% 36.60% 10.28%
Yucatán 33.83% 43.31% 21.85%
Zacatecas 86.10% 08.54% 05.26%

When the 1921 census' results are compared with the results of Mexico's recent censuses [113] as well as with modern genetic research, [165] there is high consistency with respect to the distribution of Indigenous Mexicans across the country, with states located in south and south-eastern Mexico having both the highest percentages of population who self-identify as Indigenous and the highest percentages of Amerindian genetic ancestry. However, this is not the case when it comes to European Mexicans, as there are instances in which states that have been shown through scientific research to have a considerably high European ancestry are reported to have very small white populations in the 1921 census, with the most extreme case being that of the state of Durango, where the aforementioned census asserts that only 0.01% of the state's population (33 persons) self-identified as "white" while modern scientific research shows that the population of Durango has similar genetic frequencies to those found on European peoples (with the state's Indigenous population showing almost no foreign admixture either). [166] Various authors theorize that the reason for these inconsistencies may lie in the Mestizo identity promoted by the Mexican government, which reportedly led to people who are not biologically Mestizos to identify themselves as such. [85] [167]

The present day Edit

The following table is a compilation of (when possible) official nationwide surveys conducted by the Mexican government who have attempted to quantify different Mexican ethnic groups. Given that for the most part each ethnic group was estimated by different surveys, with different methodologies and years apart rather than on a single comprehensive racial census, some groups could overlap with others and be overestimated or underestimated.

Race or ethnicity Population (est.) Percentage (est.) Year
Indigenous 26,000,000 21.5% 2015 [113]
Black 1,400,000 1.2% 2015 [113]
White 56,000,000 47.0% 2010 [130] [131] [132]
Foreigners residing in Mexico (of any race) 1,010,000 <1.0% 2015 [168]
East Asian 1,000,000 <1.0% 2010 [169]
Middle Eastern 400,000 <1.0% 2010 [170]
Jewish 68,000 <1.0% 2010 [171]
Muslim 4,000 <1.0% 2015 [172]
Unclassified (most likely Mestizos) 37,300,000 30.0% -
Total 123,500,000 100% 2017 [173]

Of all the ethnic groups that have been surveyed, Mestizos are notably absent, which is likely due to the label's fluid and subjective definition, which complicates its precise quantification. However it can be safely assumed that Mestizos make up at least the remaining 30% unassessed percentage of Mexico's population with possibilities of increasing if the methodologies of the extant surveys are considered. As example the 2015 intercensal survey considered as Indigenous Mexicans and Afro-Mexicans altogether individuals who self-identified as "part Indigenous" or "part African" thus, said people technically would be Mestizos. Similarly, White Mexicans were quantified based on physical traits and appearance, thus technically a Mestizo with a percentage of Indigenous ancestry that was low enough to not affect his or her primarily European phenotype was considered to be white. Finally the remaining ethnicities, for being of a rather low number or being faiths have more permissive classification criteria, therefore a Mestizo could claim to belong to one of them by practicing the faith, or by having an ancestor who belonged to said ethnicities. Nonetheless, contemporary sociologists and historians agree that, given that the concept of "race" has a psychological foundation rather than a biological one and to society's eyes a Mestizo with a high percentage of European ancestry is considered "white" and a Mestizo with a high percentage of Indigenous ancestry is considered "Indian", a person that identifies with a given ethnic group should be allowed to, even if biologically it doesn't completely belong to that group. [174]


Mexico Population

Mexico is a North American country consisting of 31 states, plus the Federal District. With a rich history and culture, Mexico is the third largest country in Latin America and is home to over 128 million people. Officially called the Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States), the country faces many of the typical challenges of a developing nation but still maintains its position as the chief economic and political force in Latin America.

The country is bordered by Guatemala on one end and the United States on the other and has long stretches of shoreline on both the Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean. A warm country, the climate is tropical with a rainy and a dry season. Its mountainous regions experience cooler temperatures and dryer climates, though most areas of Mexico receive about 40 inches of rain per year.

A divided society

Despite having the 15th largest GDP in the world, Mexico’s society is deeply divided when it comes to wealth. It is characterized by extremes of wealth and poverty with a sliver of a middle class. While 42% of Mexico’s population lives below the poverty line, with 9% living in extreme poverty, elite landowners and investors control most of the country’s wealth. For example, Carlos Slim—Mexico’s wealthiest man and the sixth richest person on earth—is worth almost 5% of the entire country’s GDP. The unevenly divided wealth is a complex issue influenced by economic and political agendas that favour the wealthy and leave millions behind.

A dangerous drug war

Mexican drug cartels have continued to expand their power since the fall of the Colombian drug cartels in the 1990s. They are now responsible for up to 90% of the cocaine entering the United States. The Mexican War on Drugs has created violent ongoing clashes between the Mexican Government, the drug cartels, and the United States government, which has resulted in many deaths for the Mexican people. While it’s difficult to accurately gauge, it’s estimated that around 127,000 Mexican people have died as a direct result of the drug war, with 27,000 more listed as missing.

A steady birth rate

While Mexico’s birth rate has decline significantly since the 1960s, it is still generous enough to replenish the population at its current level of 2.08. However, as the population ages and the country continues to urbanize, the birth rate is predicted to drop and the death rate to rise. Currently, the death rate is 6.15, but is predicted to rise to 8.63 by 2050, with the birth rate dropping from the current 17.01 to 11.31.

Rising life expectancy

As Mexico continues to develop, its life expectancy is rising as well. In the 1960s, the average person in Mexico only lived until around 57 years old. Since then, the life expectancy in the country has risen by almost 20 years to 75 years old. As is typical, women live a bit longer with an average of 77 years, while men live until about 72. There is also a large discrepancy between the life expectancy in different parts of the country, with Mexico City boasting the highest life expectancy and Guerrero having the lowest. While the life expectancy is still below that of most developed countries, Mexico’s life expectancy rate continues to rise and is predicted to hit 80 by 2050.

An expanding elderly population

The median age is Mexico is currently at around 21, but that’s set to rise. Adults over 60 years of age will almost triple to 23% by 2050. While most of Mexico’s aging population is independent and highly functional, an aging population will force the country to examine its health industry and the looming social and economic burden that an aging population places on on a country.


Facts and stats about Mexico

Mexico or the United Mexican States is composed of 31 states and a single federal district. The country is governed by the federal republic under a centralized government. The President is the head of state and the executive branch. The other two branches are the legislative and judicial. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 deputies elected during free elections every three years. 300 of them are elected in so-called single seat constituencies while the other 200 are voted according to the principle of proportional representation. Mexico has always remained neutral during global conflicts. However, there were political parties that have made proposals for the amendment of the constitution so the Mexican armed forces can cooperate with the United Nations for international peacekeeping missions. The nation is also one of the founders of international organizations like the United Nations, Organization of American States and Organization of Ibero-American States.

  • Agriculture 209
  • Background 10
  • Conflict 5
  • Cost of living 55
  • Crime 120
  • Culture 35
  • Disasters 6
  • Economy 3433
  • Education 731
  • Energy 1301
  • Environment 255
  • Geography 89
  • Government 206
  • Health 357
  • Import 5
  • Industry 92
  • Labor 303
  • Language 6
  • Lifestyle 51
  • Media 299
  • Military 110
  • People 784
  • Religion 53
  • Sports 244
  • Terrorism 26
  • Transport 373
  • Travel 6
  • Weather 4

Borders

Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km
Largest city Mexico City - 8,735,400
Capital city Mexico City - 8,735,400
Major language Spanish
Major religion Christianity
Monetary unit Mexican peso
Alternative names ma*axico, Mexico, Estados Unidos Mexicanos, United Mexican States
Groups Group object, Group object, Group object, Group object, Group object, Group object, Group object

Mexico ranks highly for:
Mexico ranks low for:

Interesting observations about Mexico

Mexico or the United Mexican States is composed of 31 states and a single federal district. The country is governed by the federal republic under a centralized government. The President is the head of state and the executive branch. The other two branches are the legislative and judicial. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 deputies elected during free elections every three years. 300 of them are elected in so-called single seat constituencies while the other 200 are voted according to the principle of proportional representation. Mexico has always remained neutral during global conflicts. However, there were political parties that have made proposals for the amendment of the constitution so the Mexican armed forces can cooperate with the United Nations for international peacekeeping missions. The nation is also one of the founders of international organizations like the United Nations, Organization of American States and Organization of Ibero-American States.

Mexico or the United Mexican States is composed of 31 states and a single federal district. The country is governed by the federal republic under a centralized government. The President is the head of state and the executive branch. The other two branches are the legislative and judicial. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 deputies elected during free elections every three years. 300 of them are elected in so-called single seat constituencies while the other 200 are voted according to the principle of proportional representation. Mexico has always remained neutral during global conflicts. However, there were political parties that have made proposals for the amendment of the constitution so the Mexican armed forces can cooperate with the United Nations for international peacekeeping missions. The nation is also one of the founders of international organizations like the United Nations, Organization of American States and Organization of Ibero-American States.

<p>The terms first second and <a href=/encyclopedia/Third-world>third world</a> became commonly used during the cold war era. At that time the "first world" referred to the United States and its allies. The term "second world" referred to the communist bloc countries (although this term was seldom used) and the term "third world referred to those countries which were not aligned with the capitalist or communist powers.</p>

<p>Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the term 'second world' ceased to be used, The term 'first world' referred to all developed nations and 'third world' referred to countries with poor infrastructure. Third world countries typically have high <a href=/graph/peo_bir_rat&int=-1>birth rates</a>, low <a href=/graph/hea_lif_exp_at_bir_tot_pop&int=-1>life expectency</a> low per capita <a href=/graph/eco_gdp_cap>GDP</a>and a low level of development on the <a href=/graph/eco_hum_dev_ind&int=-1>human development index</a>. Some analysts also use the term 'fourth world' to refer to the very poorest of the third world countries.
</p>

Edria Murray, Staff Editor

Suchita Vemuri, Staff Editor

Part 3 of a Series on the Mexican racial hierarchy and its implications for America
By Steve Sailor

After almost twenty generations of intermarriage between whites and Indians, Mexico has ended up with an almost wholly white elite, a vast mixed race (mestizo) working class, and at least 10 million extremely impoverished pure Indians who have never assimilated into Hispanic culture. And the ruling class is becoming ever whiter. How did this happen? And what does it portend for America's dream of colorblind equality?

The first column in this series described the corruption of Mexico's white rulers. The second outlined race in Mexico. This will explain the mechanism through which Latin America's seemingly anti-racist freedom to marry across color lines produces such racially hierarchical societies - and what this implies for the U.S.

In Mexico, white conquistadors interbred with Indian women to produce mestizos. Let's assume that in 1519 the Spaniards and the Mexican Indians were equal in IQ and other significantly heritable traits that aid economic success. I'll follow Jared Diamond (Guns, Germs & Steel: The Fates of Human Societies) in stipulating that the conquistadors won solely because by luck they had the guns, germs, and steel on their side, and that the only reason they had superior technology was because Spain was less isolated than Mexico.

Now, imagine a conquistador and his Indian woman have two sons in the 1520s. These two mestizo brothers grow up and go out in the world to seek their fortunes. One is smarter, and he strikes it rich. The other wasn't so lucky in the genetic lottery, and he becomes poor. The rich son has a wide variety of potential wives to choose from. Like most men, and like almost all Mexican men, he is more attracted to blonde women, and thus marries one. (If you aren't familiar with the depths of Mexico's blonde obsession, try watching Spanish-language TV shows. Almost all the women on Mexican TV look like Finns.) His impoverished brother, in contrast, cannot attract a blonde wife. So he marries an Indian girl.

Then, the brothers have children. On average, the smarter, richer brother's kids, who are 3/4 white, are smarter than their underprivileged 1/4 white cousins. They're smarter not because they are whiter, but because their father had more smartness genes than their uncle. This trend continues: in both families, the smartest, most energetic, and most ruthless sons marry the blondest wives, while the blondest daughters marry the husbands with the most Right Stuff. Repeat for another dozen and a half generations. By 2000, this pattern could lead to the most European-looking people being the most naturally formidable, even if they weren't when they arrived in 1519.

Now, in Mexico every century or so, there is a massive upheaval like the Revolution of 1910. The white monopoly is fractured. Up through the cracks come the most talented mestizos and Indians. They start dynasties that persist to this day … but their grandsons and great-grandsons are notably whiter than they were, since the men of the family have been exploiting their social ascendancy to marry white women. (Of course, many rich Mexican men father second families with their lower-ranking mistresses. But these kids seldom get the breaks in life that the legitimate children do.)

The ruling class today is not restricted solely to the legitimate heirs of the current magnates, however. It continues to recruit smart young men from the lower orders. For example, President Ernesto Zedillo, who has a doctorate from Yale in economics, is from a quite poor background. Yet, he looks pure white (and acts that way, too -- his aides used to call him "El Nerd" behind his back). His mother was a medical student who dropped out for obscure reasons. There is some uncertainty about whether he really is the biological son of the obscure Mexicali electrician who raised him, or of a Finance Ministry official.

President Zedillo is the classic manifestation of Mexico's "technocrat" trend. Extremely well-educated young men with state-of-the-art managerial skills shove aside the old guard "dinosaurs." The great majority of these bright young things are all or almost all white. In the U.S., we see an IQ gap of roughly half of a standard deviation between non-Hispanic whites and Mexican-American mestizos, and something like that probably holds true in Mexico too, after all this assortative mating.

Why does the Mexican government need so many technocrats? After all, Chicago's similar one-party machine clanks along just fine under the guidance of endearingly mediocre minds. Mexico's Left, however, demanded the intrusion of the state into the business world, such as the nationalization of the oil business in 1938 by the sainted President Cardenas (father of the leftist candidate for President in 2000). Ironically, nationalizing industries started the need for technocrats in government, which turned out to mean more whites at the top.

Mexico has in some ways become an IQ meritocracy rather like Imperial China. Enormous prestige and power have gone to graduates of American Ivy League universities. (Or at least to people who claim to have graduated from these universities -- quite a number of cabinet officials were recently found to have failed to complete the degrees on their official resumes.) Still, the educational levels of top government officials is radically higher than in the past, and may even be higher than in the U.S.

The technocratic ascendancy, though, has not decreased corruption or brought more justice to Mexico. Nepotism and cronyism remain rampant. The leaders became less in touch with their subjects, and less sympathetic to their needs, than at any time since the Revolution. Having a lot of Ivy League PhD’s run a semi-literate country where maybe only 2% or 3% of the population subscribe to newspapers is not necessarily a recipe for good government. In a political culture where the current President personally picked the next President, this IQ stratification meant that Presidents increasingly picked their own elitist technocrat aides, many of whom had never won an election before, rather than traditional slap-on-the-back politicians who were more in tune with the masses.

The technocrats have some successes to their names, such as Mexico's highly rational process of developing new tourist destinations. But after several decades of hideous corruption and mismanagement, the average Mexican is sick of technocrats. So the PRI made sure to nominate a presidential candidate this year who only had a bachelor's degree.

Whites have also dominated even Leftist Guerilla movements. For example, Subcommandante Marcos, who led the Chiapas Guerilla uprising in 1994, is a white college professor from Mexico City. The reason he calls himself a Subcommandante instead of a Commandant is because he supposedly answers to the real Commandants, who are all Mayan Indians. In fact, Marcos was not originally the spokesman for the rebels -- a Mayan named Commandant Felipe made the initial statements to the press on January 1, 1994. But he proved insufficiently charismatic and articulate in Spanish, so Marcos elbowed him aside a few hours later. But of course, Marcos is today the real Supercommandane and the Indians do what he says.

What does all this portend for America as we become more genetically and culturally Mexican?

Interracial marriage between whites and East Asians in California has indeed worked largely as advertised, bringing these two races quite close together. Since Asians tend to have slightly higher IQ's and significantly better work ethics than whites, white-Asian weddings have contributed to racial equality. The trend toward white-Asian couples, however, has benefited Asian women and hurt Asian men, since only 28% of white-Asian couples feature an Asian husband. (See my ever-controversial article "Is Love Colorblind?" [http://www.isteve.com/IsLoveColorblind.htm])

On the other hand, a new class system based on color is also growing more visible in Southern California. Although the men of LA are less prejudiced about women's hair and skin color than the men of Mexico, in LA, like most places, the blonde remains queen. As Hugh Hefner has pointed out, for 85 years Hollywood has pulled in the most beautiful blondes from all over the world, which is why native-born California women are so attractive. For generations to come, the blondes will keep arriving from all over America, Canada, and Europe, and they'll continue to marry the hardest charging, most successful men. This will keep LA's hereditary overclass blonder than is expected by today's Tiger Woods-bedazzled conventional wisdom.

Likewise, the Hispanic influx into California seems to be simply recreating the racial hierarchy of Latin America - rather like the freed slaves who went to Liberia set up an imitation Southern slave-owning society there. America's leading Latino politicians tend to marry Anglo (for example, the last two Latino Cabinet officers, the head of the Hispanic Congressional Caucus, and the last two presidents of the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund [MALDEF]). Thus, the Mexican-American elite is likely to become even whiter over the generations.


35 Interesting Mexico Facts You Should Know

Seeking some new facts about Mexico? Mexico is an extraordinary country in North America that offers extensive coastlines, unique culture, and world class food.

Many people visit Mexico for its warm weather and beautiful beaches, but don’t know many Mexico facts – yet! There are so many unique things to know about Mexico from its currency, to long history, and even information about its holidays!

Let’s dig in to some interesting Mexico facts!


Challenges to Mexico's Economy

The biggest challenge to Mexico's economy is getting rid of the drug cartels. During his time in office, President Peña Nieto sought to combat this problem by shifting away from his militarized approach.

Peña Nieto replaced President Felipe Calderón-Hinojosa. His controversial crackdown on organized crime created an all-out war. The cartels retaliated against civilians, who blamed Calderon for the increased violence.

Calderon had reason to be concerned. After Colombia's crackdown, many of its cocaine operations simply moved to Mexico. Without stringent controls, the cartels took over local governments. Calderon cracked down to improve Mexico's economic competitiveness but unleashed a harsh war in the process.  


Mexico’s Sales Tax Rates

Sales tax in Mexico is known as IVA Impuesto al Valor Agregado , or Value Added Tax (VAT). The rate is 16% for most of the country with a lower 8% rate in the 25 km (16 mile) deep ‘economic free zone’ corridor along the US-Mexico border.

Most goods and services, including financial service charges and commissions (and also includes interest on unsecured debts) have the VAT rate applied to them. Notable items exempt from the IVA include staple foods, and medicines.


  • About 16% of U.S. Hispanics ages 25 and older have obtained at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 12% of Mexicans.
  • Among Mexicans ages 25 and older, the U.S. born are more likely than the foreign born to have a bachelor’s degree or higher (17% vs. 7%).
  • Among U.S. Hispanics and Mexicans, the median annual personal earnings for those ages 16 and older was $25,000.
  • Looking at full-time, year-round workers, U.S. Hispanics earned $34,000, while Mexicans earned $32,000.