Endurance AM-435 - History

Endurance AM-435 - History

Endurance II

(AM-435: dp. 620, 1. 172', b. 36' dr. 10'; s. 16 k.;
cpl. 74; a. 1 40 mm.; cf. Agile)

The second Endurance (AM-435) was launched X August 1952 by J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash., sponsored by Miss Gerry A. Borovich and commissioned 19 May 1954, Lieutenant L. E. Martin in command. She was reclassified MSO-435 on 7 February 1955.

On 21 April 1954, Endurance arrived at Long Beach, Calif., her home port, and began training operations along the southern coast of California. In July 1955 she made a good will cruise to Acapulco, Mexico, returning to local duty on exercises, drills, and operations with ships of other types. Endurance made her first cruise to the Far East between August 1957 and February 1958, during which she exercised with ships of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force and the navy of the Republic of China. Her second tour of duty in the Far East, from January through July 1960, included minesweeping exercises at Okinawa, and another period of assistance to the Chinese navy in developing their modern mine warfare techniques. Arriving at Long Beach on 19 July, the remainder of the year was given to operations and ship overhaul.


WRBQ AM & FM - A History

WRBQ-AM 1380 St. Petersburg & WRBQ-FM 104.7 Tampa &ndash Southern Broadcasting (John G. Johnson, president) acquired Tampa beautiful music 104.7 WEZX-FM in the summer of 1973 and transformed it into the bay area&rsquos first stereo rock station, Q105 WRBQ-FM. It went on the air the following December from studios at 5510 Gray Street in Tampa. Power output was soon upgraded from 10.5 kilowatts to 100,000 watts.

About the only music on FM in the early 70&rsquos was either beautiful music or classical and, even though FM had been around for a good number of years, most people still listened to AM. Since most vehicles were equipped with only an AM radio, Q105 gave away FM converters to make the station available to listeners on the road.

When asked about the selection of call letters, chief engineer Ralph Beaver likes to say he tossed out the &lsquoRB&rsquo part (also his initials, by the way) when they were looking for a set of unique set of letters similar to Southern Broadcasting&rsquos WRVQ in Richmond, VA. &lsquoRB&rsquo was available (it sounded like &ldquoRV&rdquo) and everyone liked the idea, so WRBQ it was. The &lsquoQ&rsquo is said to refer to the &ldquoQ&rdquo radio format at KCBQ in San Diego. The dial position was called &lsquo105&rsquo because &lsquo104.7&rsquo looked like it was at &lsquo105&rsquo on an FM analog dial.

Q105&rsquos original jock lineup was John Griffith (&ldquoGriff in the Morning&rdquo 6-9am) Alan O&rsquoBrien (9 til noon) Bill Garcia (12-3pm/ PD 1973-78) Chuck Stevens (3-6pm) Tim Davisson (music director 6-10pm) Scott Stone (10pm-2am) and Uncle Johnny Walker (2-6am). The &ldquoQ Morning Zoo,&rdquo first conceptualized and founded by Cleveland Wheeler and Scott Shannon in 1980, came to enjoy market shares in the 20&rsquos, and was so highly rated that it was imitated at stations all across the country. At one point, the show was broadcast live on TV each morning (as the &ldquoQ Zoo Tube&rdquo) over the Home Shopping Network&rsquos flagship station in Tampa, WBHS-TV Channel 50. It later moved to Lakeland&rsquos WTMV Channel 32 (&ldquoV32&rdquo), and finally to St. Pete&rsquos WTTA-TV Channel 38.

In 1978 Southern Broadcasting sold Q105 to Harte-Hanks Southern Communications Group. The company also acquired WLCY-AM 1380 and, in 1981, flipped it to news/talk WNSI. Edens Broadcasting (former Southern Broadcasting and Harte-Hanks executive Gary Edens, president) bought the combo in 1983, switched AM-1380&rsquos calls to WRBQ-AM, and programmed a simulcast of Q105&rsquos contemporary hit music. A decade later, the pair were sold to Clear Channel. The AM flipped to urban adult contemporary (The Touch) and the FM, after 20 years as a contemporary top 40, went country (105 The Bee/Q105 Country). In 1999, WRBQ-AM was acquired by ABC and became Radio Disney WWMI and, a year later, Q105 was sold to Infinity (now CBS Radio) and switched to oldies.

In a multi-station swap, Q105 WRBQ-FM was acquired by the Beasley Broadcast Group from CBS in late 2014.

Other names from Q105 history are: Pete Schulte (GM 1973-1981), Dave Saint (1974), Mike Sutton (1974), Donna Kendall (sales manager-1975), Jon Powers (news director-1975), Kathy Tanner (promotions 1975 news), Don Wallis (1975-77), Kathy &ldquoThe Wild&rdquo West (1978-1981), Voncile Anderson (promotions 1978-85), Mason Dixon (PD-1979), Lynn Lotkowitcz (music director-1979), Ron &ldquoNight Train&rdquo Lane (1980&rsquos), Tramonte Watts (late nights-1980&rsquos), Pat Brooks (news-1980), Arch Deal (traffic reporter-1981), Nancy Alexander (traffic reporter-1981), Tedd Webb (1981-1983), Deputy Mike (1981), Roger P. Schulman (news-1981), Pat George (promotions director-1981), Terrence McKeever (Q Zoo-1983), Chuck Bear (mid-days 1983 traffic pilot 1986-88), Jon &ldquoRock N Roll&rdquo Anthony (1985 1994), Michael D. Osterhaut (GM-1986), Louis Albertini (general sales manager-1986), Randy Kabrich (PD-1986), Bobby Rich (music director-1986), Chary Southmayd (afternoon news-1988), Alicia Kaye (early 90&rsquos), Kristy Knight (1991), Dave Collins (afternoons), Johnny D, Hollywood Hamilton, Marvelous Marvin Boone (mid-days), Carrie Kirkland (news director), Cat Summers, Dave Mann (afternoons), Mike Horn (GM), Mike Reeves, Brian Thomas, Jack Miller, Shauna Stevens (overnights Q-Zoo), Brian Christopher (nights), JoJo Walker (morning show), Rich Anhorn (music director), Sarah Marx, Mike Elliott, Bill Connolly (morning show), Al Brock, John Clay (PD), Jon Berry, Marc Champion (sports), Kevin Grant (weekends), Becky Gordon, Jim Jackson (weekends), Alan Kabel, Shadow Logan, Bob McNeill (PD), Dick Crippen (Q Zoo sports), Jim Reihle (Q Zoo), Bo Reynolds, Lori Rubio (promotions), Joey Steele, Randy Stewart, Jay Taylor (PD), Kent Voss, and T.R. Campbell.

Sales staffers from 1984-1990 include Danita Kroll Cave, Debra Porte, Valerie Hawkins, Nancy Schneid, Ivan Blank, Rich Berube, Dan Carelli, Fran Knights, Susan Gerlich, and Jay Bowden.


Overview

The 2022 Lordstown Endurance sounds more like an English marathon than an electric pickup truck, but&mdashbelieve it or not&mdashit's the latter. As part of the onslaught of EV trucks currently on the horizon, the Endurance is being promoted as the first one to see the light of day and enter the U.S. market. However, that's according to Lordstown, who hasn't released most of the light-duty pickup's specs or given a glimpse of its interior. Still, the version that was revealed to the world looks ready for production, and it's not subject to the same hyperbolic claims as the Tesla Cybertruck. Instead, the 2022 Endurance is said to have a range of about 250 miles, produce 600 horsepower, tow up to 6000 pounds, and cost $52,500. While there's still a lot left to learn, here's what we know so far.


Sir Ernest Shackleton and Endurance

Sir Ernest Shackleton, the intrepid explorer, is best remembered for embarking on a fateful voyage aboard the Endurance in a bid to cross the Antarctic.

An Anglo-Irish adventurer, he became a pivotal figure in the era later characterised as the “Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration”, thanks to the laudable and ambitious efforts of Shackleton and others like him.

In August 1914, against a backdrop of war in Europe, Shackleton embarked on an expedition to the Antarctic which almost cost him his life.

His ability to survive and keep the rest of his crew safe whilst stranded for two years still remains a remarkable story celebrating his heroism and leadership.

Shackleton’s early life began in February 1874, born in County Kildare in Ireland, the second of ten children. His family soon uprooted and moved to London where Shackleton grew up.

Ernest Shackleton aged 16

Intent on following his own path, at the age of sixteen he joined the Merchant Navy, subverting his father’s wishes for him to attend medical school. By the age of eighteen he had already achieved the rank of First Mate and only six years later was a certified Master Mariner.

His time in the Navy proved to be an enlightening experience for an adventurous young man like Shackleton as he was able to explore and expand his horizons, ultimately spurring him on to achieve greater goals.

In 1901, he joined his first expedition to the Antarctic, led by the esteemed British naval officer Robert Falcon Scott. The journey involved a challenging trek to the South Pole and was a joint venture with the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society.

Referred to as the Discovery Expedition, named after the ship, Scott and his team embarked on their voyage on 6th August 1901 with much support from King Edward VIII.

Ernest Henry Shackleton, Captain Robert Falcon Scott and Dr. Edward Adrian Wilson on the Discovery Expedition, 2nd November 1902

The venture had various aims, some of which were scientific and motivated by the Royal Society’s involvement, whilst other goals were simply exploratory. Of the latter, a major accomplishment was about to follow as a trek to the South Pole took Scott, Shackleton and Wilson to a significant latitude, only around 500 miles away from the pole. This was a marvellous achievement, the first of its kind, however the journey back proved too much for Shackleton.

On the brink of physical exhaustion, his body could not take any more of the gruelling challenges and he was forced to leave the expedition early and return home.

When he returned to England, Shackleton made a major career move: after serving so long in the Navy, he decided to embrace a career in journalism instead.

In the space of a few years he also made an unsuccessful attempt to become a Member of Parliament as well as serving as part of the Scottish Geographical Society.

Whilst he pursued many different ventures, the expedition to succeed in reaching the South Pole was still very much on his mind.

In 1907 he made a second attempt to achieve this goal, this time reaching a location which took him almost within 100 miles of his target. Leading his own group on the ship “Nimrod”, Shackleton and his men were able to climb Mount Erebus before being halted due to poor conditions and forced to return.

Shackleton’s Hut at Cape Royds, 19 miles from McMurdo, 1908

As part of his expedition, important scientific data had been accumulated, earning Shackleton a knighthood on his return to England.

Nevertheless, only a few years later Shackleton was disappointed to discover that his dream of reaching the South Pole had already been accomplished by another, a Norwegian explorer by the name of Roald Amundsen.

This achievement was followed by his former commander, Robert Scott who also reached the South Pole but sadly lost his life on the return home.

Whilst this success proved to be a blow for Shackleton both professionally and personally, his desire to explore remained undeterred. Forced to rethink his aims, his new goal was even more ambitious: to cross the continent of Antarctica.

So the date was set in 1914 Shackleton made his third trip to the Antarctic as part of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition aboard the ship “Endurance”. The brainchild of Shackleton, his determination to create a lasting legacy of exploration was at the heart of this ambitious project to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic.

The task for Shackleton and his men was a daunting one and required a great deal of preparation. The plan was to sail to the Weddell Sea and land near Vahsel Bay where they would embark on a march across the continent via the South Pole.

Unable to achieve these goals in just one group, an additional party of men would set up a camp in McMurdo Sound from where a series of depot spots would be set up in order to ensure enough supplies to sustain the trekking party throughout their journey.

Two ships were used: Aurora, for the supply depot team and Endurance, a three mast sailing vessel for Shackleton and his intrepid voyagers. The ship was built and completed in 1912 in Sandefjord by the master shipbuilder Christian Jacobsen who would ensure that the ship was built for durability.

Map of the routes of the ships Endurance and Aurora, the support team route. Red: Voyage of Endurance. Yellow: Drift of Endurance in pack ice. Green: Sea ice drift after Endurance sinks. Dark Blue: Voyage of the lifeboat James Caird. Light Blue: Planned trans-Antarctic route. Orange: Voyage of Aurora to Antarctica. Pink: Retreat of Aurora. Brown: Supply depot route

On 1st August 1914, just as war loomed on the horizon, Shackleton and his twenty-seven man team departed from London and set sail on this intrepid trip to the South Pole and beyond.

In just a couple of months, the ship reached South Georgia in the southern Atlantic which, unbeknown to Shackleton and his crew, would be their last time on dry land for almost five hundred days.

On 5th December 1914, they continued on their scheduled journey, however their strategy of reaching their next base was thrown up in the air when they became trapped by pack ice in the Weddell Sea before they had a chance to reach their intended station at Vahsel Bay.

As the situation worsened, the ship was crushed by the ice and began to drift in a northerly direction.

Endurance trapped in the ice

As the ship began to sink, Shackleton and his crew were forced to accept their fate, stranded on a sheet of ice in the brutal Antarctic winter of 1915.

With the ship eventually sinking into the depths, Shackleton and his crew now set up in camps on precarious sheets of ice.

After months of surviving in such unimaginable circumstances, in April 1916 Shackleton embarked on a mission to escape and reach land. A dangerous and risky endeavour, he led his men with a resolute bravery despite all the obvious obstacles to their survival.

The crew embarked on this voyage, leaving the ice sheets and crowding into three small boats in order to reach the intended destination of Elephant Island, a mountainous island in the outer reaches of the South Shetland Islands.

Eventually, after seven treacherous days at sea, the crew arrived safely at their destination. Whilst thankful to be stepping on firm ground, they were still no closer to being rescued on such a remote and uninhabited island, far away from any other human life.

Ernest Shackleton

With little prospect of surviving on the island, Shackleton took matters into his own hands and set out once more in one of his small lifeboat vessels with five of his men in order to find help.

Miraculously, the vessel and its occupants managed to navigate back towards South Georgia and in sixteen days reached the island in order to ask for assistance.

Now closer than ever to having a rescue mission come to the aide of his men, Shackleton made one final trip across the South Georgia island to where he knew a whaling station was positioned.

From this new location and with help now in tow, Shackleton did not let his men down and launched a successful rescue mission to Elephant Island where the rest of his crew were waiting.

Rather remarkably, none of the twenty-seven man team or Shackleton died in these treacherous circumstances. In August 1916 a rescue mission recovered the “Endurance” men from Elephant Island and all were safely returned home.

As for the rest of the Trans-Continental team, the supply depot party had also run into trouble with the ship Aurora but continued to lay the supplies nonetheless. Eventually, needing rescue, the party of men sadly lost three lives in the process.

Whilst the trans-continental trek was not achieved, Shackleton had accomplished a feat perhaps even more impressive. The ability to save and protect his men, living on ice sheets for months, sailing in a small boat for sixteen days across an ocean and trekking across an island to organise a rescue, the success story was their survival.

In 1919 Shackleton recorded the accounts of this remarkable endeavour in his book “South” which documented the unbelievable and astonishing story.

Living for seventeen months on ice, fending off disease, escaping predators and ensuring the survival of the entire crew was destined to be the legacy left behind by Shackleton.

In 1921, once again he set off to accomplish his dreams of exploration: sadly, this fourth expedition was to be his last as he died of a heart attack in January 1922.

Whilst Shackleton did not fulfil his ultimate goal, his successful rescue mission was much more epic than anyone, including himself, could have ever imagined.

Jessica Brain is a freelance writer specialising in history. Based in Kent and a lover of all things historical.


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History

AASHTO designated the Kansas City beltway as I-435 on June 23, 1969. The route appears on the Missouri Official Highway Map by 1964, but only as an east side bypass between I-35 near Lenexa, Kansas and I-35 at Claycomo, Missouri. Opened to traffic by 1967, the initial section of freeway ran east from I-35 to U.S. 69 in Overland Park, Kansas. The freeway north and east to Missouri Route 78 (East 23rd Street) at Blue Summit was completed by 1970.

The original I-435 alignment east of I-35 was finished by 1975, with a full cloverleaf interchange at the west end with a local road tieing it into Pflumm Road to the south, and a semi directional-T interchange at Claycomo to the north. 1 U.S. 50 was relocated to follow I-435 west from Lee’s Summit, Missouri to Overland Park, Kansas as conditionally approved by AASHTO on June 29, 1978.

An east-west section of I-435 parallel to Missouri Route 291 between Exits 36 and 41A/B was opened by 1983. Interstate 435 in Kansas and Missouri was fully open to traffic in December 1986 with the completion of the Missouri River Bridge. 1

The Grandview Triangle Interchange, where I-49, I-435, I-470 and U.S. 50 and U.S. 71 come together, was upgraded during roadwork from Fall 2000 to May 2008. $300-million in construction focused on expanding the U.S. 71 mainline by three lanes per direction, adding two lanes for the continuation of I-435 east, and shifting the left side ramp from I-435 east to I-49 and U.S. 71 south, and I-470 east to the right. Interchanges were also revamped along I-49/U.S. 71 to the south at Blue Ridge Boulevard, Red Bridge Road and Longview Road.

Work on the freeway mainlines was formally completed during a ceremony held on December 14, 2007. Officials buried a steel triangle that day to symbolize a new era of transportation as the old Grandview Triangle Interchange days were over. The junction was renamed by the Missouri General Assembly in 2005 as the “Three Trails Crossing Memorial Highway”. The Three Trails name is derived from the trails, Santa Fe, Oregon and California, that historically ran through the area. 2

The $600-million Johnson County Gateway project focused on upgrading Interstate 435 between West 87th Street and U.S. 69 in the Overland Park area. Phase 2 of construction rebuilt the beltway from K-10 eastward.

Work commenced on the $288-million Phase 2 of the Johnson County Gateway project in May 2014. Construction altered the three-wye interchange with the K-10 freeway to incorporate it with new collector distributor roadways leading east to Lackman Road and the cloverstack interchange with Interstate 35. Subsequent work replaced the loop ramp from I-35 north to I-435 west with a new flyover while extending the c/d roadway system north from K-10 to 95th Street. Road construction for Phase 2 wrapped up in January 2017, with finishing work including landscaping, signing and painting was completed by late April 2017. 3


Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (25 May 1889–26 October 1972)

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky, 1914. Sikorsky is wearing the cross of the Imperial Order of St. Vladimir. (Karl Karlovich Bulla)

25 May 1889: Ігор Іванович Сікорськи й (Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky) was born at Kiev, Ukraine, Russian Empire, the fifth of five children of Professor Ivan Alexeevich Sikorsky and Doctor Mariya Stefanovich Sikorskaya.

15 year-old Midshipman Igor Ivanovich Sikorksky, Imperial Naval Academy, at lower right, with his sisters Olga, Lydia and Elena, and brother Sergei, 1904. (Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company)

He studied at the Imperial Naval Academy, St. Petersburg, from 1903 until 1906, when he left to study engineering, first in Paris, and then at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute.

Pilot Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky with a passenger, circa 1914. (RIA Novosti)

Flying an airplane of his own design, the S-5, on 18 April 1911, he received a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale pilot’s license from L’Aéro-Club Imperial de Russie (Imperial Russian Aero Club).

Igor I. Sikorsky’s FAI pilot’s license. (Sikorsky Historical Archives)

He was chief aircraft engineer for Russko-Baltiisky Vagonny Zavod at St. Petersburg and continued to develop airplanes. In 1913, he flew the twin engine S-21 Le Grand, to which he added two more engines, and it became the Russky Vityaz.

Igor Sikorsky with one of his early biplanes. Sikorsky’s S-21 in flight, 1913

Igor Sikorsky married Olga Fyodorovna Simkovich. They had a daughter, Tania. The couple soon divorced, however.

Compagnie Générale Transatlantique liner, S.S. La Lorraine, 11,146 gross tons.

Following the October Revolution, Sikorsky emigrated to the United States. Departing Le Havre, France, aboard S.S. La Lorraine, he arrived at New York on 31 March 1919. With financial backing from composer and conductor Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff, he founded the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Company at Long Island, New York, in 1924, and continued designing and building airplanes.

In 1924, Sikorsky married Elisabeth Semion, who was also born in Russia, in 1903. They would have four children. In 1928, he became a citizen of the United States of America.

Sikorsky S-39 amphibian NC54V (Civil Air Patrol)

Beginning in 1934, Sikorsky Aircraft produced the S-42 flying boat for Pan American Airways at a new plant at Stratford, Connecticut.

U.S. Navy RS-1 (Sikorsky S-41) (National Museum of Naval Aviation) Pan American Airways Sikorsky S-42, NC16734, moored at Honolulu, Territory of the Hawaiian Islands. (hawaii.gov/hawaiiaviation)

Interested in helicopters since the age of 9, he directed his creative effort toward the development of a practical “direct-lift” aircraft. The first successful design was the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300. Using a single main rotor, the VS-300 went through a series of configurations before arriving at the single anti-torque tail rotor design, the VS-316A. This was put into production for the U.S. military as the Sikorsky R-4.

The prototype VS-300 helicopter clears the ground for the first time, 14 September 1939. Igor Sikorsky is at the controls. His right foot rests on the anti-torque pedal. (Sikorsky Historical Archives) Igor Sikorsky hovers the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300A. (Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company) On behalf of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the National Aeronautic Association of the United States issued Helicopter Pilot Certificate No. 1 to Igor I. Sikorsky, 10 December 1940. (Sikorsky Historical Archives) Igor Sikorsky in the cockpit of a Sikorsky S-48 (R-5) helicopter. (Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum)

The company which Igor Sikorsky founded has continued as one of the world’s biggest helicopter manufacturers. Recently acquired by Lockheed Martin, Sikorsky continues to produce the UH-60-series of Blackhawk medium helicopters, the large CH-53K King Stallion, and the civil S-76D and S-92. A variant of the S-92 has been selected as the next helicopter for the U.S. presidential air fleet, the VH-92A. This helicopter is planned to be operational by 2020.

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky died at Easton, Connecticut, 26 October 1972 at the age of 83 years.

Igor Sikorsky piloting his pontoon-equipped VS-300, 17 April 1941. (Sikorsky Historical Archives) Les Morris at the controls of the Vought-Sikorsky XR-4, 41-18874 (VS-316A), on its first flight at Stratford, Connecticut, 14 January 1942. (Sikorsky Historical Archives) Lt. Carter Harman hovering in ground effect with Sikorsky YR-4B Hoverfly 43-28247 at Lalaghat, India, March 1944. This is the helicopter with which he made the first combat rescue, 21-25 April 1944. (U.S. Air Force) U.S. Army R-5 (Sikorsky S-48) flown by Jimmy Viner with Captain Jack Beighle, lifts a crewman from Texaco Barge No. 397, aground on Penfield Reef, 29 November 1945. (Sikorsky Historical Archive) U.S. Air Force H-5 (Sikorsky S-51) lifts off during the Korean War. (U.S. Air Force) U.S. Coast Guard HOS-1 (Sikorsky S-49), with Igor Sikorsky as a passenger, over the Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, 17 December 1947—the 44th annivesary of the Wright Brothers first controlled, powered airplane flight. (Sikorsky Historical Archives) U.S. Army YH-18A 49-2889 (Sikorsky S-52-2) (Ed Coates Collection) U.S. Air Force SH-19A Chickasaw 51-3850 (Sikorsky S-55), Air Rescue Service. (U.S. Air Force) U.S. Army H-34A-SI Choctaw (Sikorsky S-58) 57-1743 hovers in ground effect. Later registered as a civilian aircraft, N47246). (U.S. Army) U.S. Marine Corps CH-37 Mojave (Sikorsky S-56) heavy-lift helicopter U.S. Navy SH-3A Sea King (Sikorsky S-61), Bu. No. 149867, near Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, 5 April 1976. (PH2 (AC) Westhusing, U.S. Navy) U.S. Air Force HH-3E Jolly Green Giant (Sikorsky S-61R), 66-13290, of the 37th ARRS, hovering in ground effect at Da Nang, 1968. (U.S. Air Force) A U.S. Air Force Sikorsky HH-53C Super Jolly Green Giant hovers to hoist a pararescueman with one downed pilot, while a second waits on the ground, 16 June 1967. The blade tip vortices are visible because of the high humidity. (National Archives at College Park) U.S. Army CH-54A Tarhe 68-18448 (Sikorsky S-64) heavy-lift helicopter, Nevada National Guard, 16 November 1989. (Mike Freer/Wikipedia) U.S. Air Force MH-53M Pave Low IV 68-8424 (Sikorsky S-65), prepares for its last combat mission, Iraq, 27 September 2008. (A1C Jason Epley, U.S. Air Force) U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers dismount a Sikorsky UH-60 Blackhawk, Zabul Province, Afghanistan, 21 January 2010. (Detail from photograph by Staff Sergeant Aubree Clute, U.S. Army) U.S. Air Force HH-60G Pave Hawk (Sikorsky S-70) 89-26212, Kunar Province, Afghanistan. (Captain Erick Saks, U.S. Air Force) British Airways’ Sikorsky S-61N Sea King G-BEON, 1982. An Erickson Air-Crane, Inc., Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane drops water on a forest fire. (Sikorsky Archives) A Los Angeles County Fire Department Sikorsky S-70A Firehawk, N160LA, during a rescue near Palmdale, California, 27 March 2004. (Alan Radecki/Wikipedia) A Queen’s Helicopter Flight Sikorsky S-76C, s/n 760753, G-XXEB (Russell Lee/Wikipedia) Cougar Helicopters’ Sikorsky S-92A C-GKKN landing at Ilulissat Airport, Greenland, 5 August 2010. (Algkalv/Wikipedia) The prototype Sikorsky CH-53K King Stallion (Sikorsky, A Lockheed Martin Company)


History 101- Introduction- From the Beginning to the 1950's

This Course is part of The Scholar Program. You are welcome to purchase this course individually, but if you purchase The Scholar Program membership for $29/month you will gain access to every program in the HPW Academy of Scholarship. You can find more details on The Scholar Program here.

What can you expect from History 101?

Why should we learn how Olympians did in 1890? Because training evolves in an almost natural selection type way. We ebb and flow between speed and endurance, bouncing back and forth as we go. We keep what works, ditch what doesn't seem to. But it's not a perfect system, sometimes we discard ideas that are too far ahead of their time, other times we venture too far in one direction. This course is designed to provide you a deep understanding of how training started. Where did intervals, fartleks, and base training come from? They started in the early 1900's and they might not look exactly like their modern incarnations, but understanding where they started allows us to know where they might evolve to.

  • The evolution of training- the natural ebb and flow of volume versus intensity.
  • What did training look like in 1900?
  • The invention of the fartlek.
  • What Paavo Nurmi can teach us about the mix of speed and endurance.
  • A history of interval training
  • How we progressed from an all or nothing approach of training.
  • What Bannister, Landy, and the quest for the 4-minute mile can teach us about the evolution of training.
  • How some coaches were decades ahead of others and how we can do the same.
  • How training functions via natural selection, keeping what works and ditching what doesn't.

How will this course be delivered?

Through a combination of video lectures, readings, powerpoint presentations, podcast style audio recordings, and more. We attack teaching from multiple directions in order to help the student absorb the material best.

What we guarantee:

We will continue to develop and curate content that we think is valuable for the coaching community. We promise to continually update this content so that it is the best coaching resource on the planet. You'll be the first to hear about our lessons in coaching high school, college, and elite runners.


The Flight Endurance World Record

There are a lot of world records related to flight. They can be in either a manned or unmanned aircraft, re-fueled or un-refueled, and cover areas such as flight distance, speed, or altitude. One of the most interesting and sought after of all flight records is for refueled, manned flight endurance. The current record of 64 days, 22 hours, and 19 minutes was set in 1958, by Robert Timm and John Cook. The story of this pair of Las Vegas pilots, and their record breaking flight is incredible, often funny, and always a little unbelievable. But to help put their story in the proper context, and give it a little additional weight, let’s start by defining flight endurance, and providing a little history.

Flight Endurance and the Early Years of Aviation

Flight endurance is defined as the longest amount of time an aircraft in a specific category can spend in continuous flight without landing. In manned flight endurance, flying can be handled by one pilot, though this is not the recommended method. The flying can be handled by multiple pilots, as long as all pilots remain in the aircraft for the duration of the flight. In the early days of aviation, flight endurance time was limited by how much fuel a plane could carry. But this was all about to change with the introduction of aerial refueling, something which would vastly increase the amount of time an airplane could stay in the air.

The first mid air refueling between two planes took place on June 27, 1923. The planes were Airco DH-4B Biplanes in the US Army Air Service. A mere two months later, the first refueled endurance record that beat the current un-refueled endurance record 1 was set by three DH-4Bs, a receiving plane and two tankers. The receiving plane managed to stay aloft for more than 37 hours. During that time, it had 9 mid-air refuelings that pumped 687 gallons of gas, and 38 gallons of oil into its tanks. Over the years since that time, the refueled, manned endurance record has been broken on at least a dozen occasions. In 1929 alone, the record was broken and re-set five times!

In 1949, Bob Woodhouse and Woody Jongeward flew an Aeronca Sedan for 46 days and 9 hours before landing. These former Navy pilots were part of an effort to convince the government to reopen the Yuma Army Airfield, to help bolster the sagging Yuma economy. They were ultimately successful in their bid, also setting an impressive new endurance record that stood for almost a decade.

Fast forward 9 years to 1958. It’s two years after the release of the Cessna 172, which has become quite popular. Literally thousands have been built. Jim Heth and Bill Burkhart decide that this is just the plane to help them set a new flight endurance record. So, using a modified Cessna 172 called ‘The Old Scotchman‘, they took to the air in August 1958. 50 days (1200 hours) later, they landed, handily breaking the 1949 record. They were to enjoy this record for only a couple short months, however, as another group was finally ready to take flight in the deserts of Las Vegas.

Sin City and Flight Endurance

In 1956, Doc Bailey, an enterprising businessman, had built the first family oriented hotel and casino in Las Vegas, the 265 room ‘Hacienda‘. However, due to its (then) undesirable location at the far southern end of the strip, and its catering to families, locals, and those considered to be ‘low rollers’, the Hacienda had a reputation problem. It needs good publicity, and stat! Bailey tried many tactics, like hiring pretty women to hand out coupons to truckers, but he was soon convinced to engage in something much more ambitious.

Bailey, known for listening to and considering ideas no matter where they came from, was approached by one of his slot machine mechanics, Robert Timm. Timm, who at 240 lbs was described as a ‘bear’ of a man, was a WW2 bomber pilot, and an experienced aviator with a passion for flying. Timm convinced Doc that backing and publicizing an attempt to break the manned flight endurance world record was just the ticket. And with the name ‘Hacienda Hotel’ featured prominently on the side of the aircraft, it was sure to draw many eyes to the business.

To avoid the appearance of this flight merely being a publicity stunt for the hotel, Doc came up with an inspired idea. The flight would be a fundraiser, in support of the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. And anyone who wanted to guess how long the plane would stay in the air could send in their guess with a monetary contribution to the foundation. This would also qualify them for a chance to earn $10,000 if their guess was closest to the actual time the plane stayed in the air. Apparently, gambling is a-OK when it’s in support of a noble cause.

So, with Doc committed to backing the flight with $100,000, and Timm serving as the primary pilot, they needed two more things: a co-pilot, and an aircraft.

Modifying a Cessna 172 to Break the Flight Endurance Record

The aircraft came first. Tim reached out to his friend Irv Kuenzi, a mechanic at Alamo Aviation in Las Vegas. “He told me about this project he was going to get involved in and wanted to know if I’d be interested in helping him. I told him ‘sure.’” Kuenzi and Timm selected N9217B, a Cessna 172 with 1500 hours total time on the airframe. Kuenzi was familiar with this particular aircraft, and had already worked on it before. The plane’s avionics included a Narco Omnigator Mk II and a Mitchell autopilot, but Timm and Kuenzi spent almost a year modifying the Cessna 172 to be mission appropriate.

To start, they installed a 95 gallon Sorenson belly tank on the plane to supplement the 47 gallons of fuel the wing tanks could carry. They then outfitted this belly tank with an electric pump so it could transfer fuel to the airplane’s wing tanks. The planes oil lines were re-plumbed, allowing for the changing of engine oil and oil filters without shutting down the engine. The current interior furnishings, except for the pilot’s seat, were then completely removed. The co-pilot’s side door was also removed, and replaced with a folding, accordion style door. A small platform was designed that could be lowered out this door to provide more footing during refueling operations. In place of the co-pilot’s seat, they installed a four foot by four foot, four inch thick foam pad. And in the rear, they installed a small, stainless steel sink for the purpose of washing and shaving during the flight.

With these modifications in place, Timm and Kuenzi decided they also wanted to replace the plane’s current 450 hour-since-new engine with a brand new one. So Timm contacted Continental Motors (the manufacturer of the current six cylinder, 145 hp engine), explained to them his plan, and got them to agree to supply a new engine for the plane. Timm requested a special engine be built specifically for this attempt, and surprisingly, Continental agreed. It wasn’t until years later that Kuenzi found out exactly how they prepared the ‘special‘ engine. The sales manager for Continental came up with a simple solution, probably sensing that if the Hacienda was successful in breaking the flight endurance record using a special motor, everyone would soon be requesting special motors. The sales manager told a female co-worker to go down to the production line and pick the new 145 she liked the best. This ‘special‘ engine was then provided to Timm and Kuenzi.

Timm, also a certified airplane mechanic, had one additional modification he wanted to make to the airplane. He had Kuenzi install a primer-like system he had designed that would squirt alcohol into the combustion chamber of each of the engine’s six cylinders. It was Timm’s belief that this alcohol injection system would help prevent the buildup of carbon in the combustion chambers. Kuenzi did not agree, and fought Timm on this. However, he eventually conceded. Kuenzi removed the 450-hour-since-new engine from the Cessna 172, installed the brand new ‘special‘ engine from Continental, and hooked up Timm’s alcohol-injection system.

The First Attempts to Break the Flight Endurance Record

Finally, with all the modifications in place, it was time to take to the skies. The last thing Timm needed was a co-pilot. Sadly, the name of his first of two co-pilots seems to have been relegated to the dust-bin of history. I have been unable to find more than a few cursory sentences regarding this co-pilot’s role in the early attempts, and no identifying information. Timm and co-pilot A took to the skies twice in an attempt to break the endurance record, but each flight was cut short by mechanical problems.

Hoping that the third time would be a charm, they again took to the skies. Timm, who kept a diary during the flights, noted that at 4 AM one morning ‘the entire sky lit up.‘ Timm would later find out that he had witnessed one of the 57 above ground atomic bomb detonations set off during 1958 in the Nevada testing area 2 65 miles to the northwest of Las Vegas. The third flight was also cut short by mechanical problems. This time, it was due to burned exhaust valves in the ‘special‘ engine.

None of these three flight lasted longer than 17 days. This was still enough time, however, for Timm to decide he was not getting along with co-pilot A. Timm dismissed this first co-pilot, and the search began for a new one. Timm was also becoming frustrated with the continued mechanical problems, and the delays they were causing. To add to his stress, Heth and Burkhart had just landed ‘The Old Scotchman,‘ breaking the previous record. They now would need at least 50 days in the air!

It Turns Out John Wayne Was at the Alamo

It turns out that Timm didn’t need to look very far to find his new co-pilot. He settled on John Wayne Cook, a lanky, single, 33 year old airplane mechanic with experience flying for the airlines. Cook was also employed at Alamo Aviation. As it turned out, Cook had also spent time working on N9217B, the Cessna 172 now dubbed ‘Hacienda‘. When Timm asked Cook if he’d join him on this fourth attempt, Cook simply replied ‘Sure, I’ll try.

While Timm searched for a new co-pilot, Kuenzi worked on the aircraft engine. He removed the damaged ‘special‘ engine, and reinstalled the old 450-hour-since-new engine. Acting on a hunch, and without telling Timm, Kuenzi also disconnected Timm’s alcohol-injection system. He rerouted it so that the alcohol would now be pumped out the bottom of the lower cowling. This hunch turned out to be spot on, and the used engine ended up working for over 2,000 hours of operation (1,559 continuous hours) by the end of the flight.

Finally, it was time to try once more. With slightly less fanfare than Bailey desired (this was their fourth attempt, after all) on 4 December 1958, at 3:52 PM, Timm and Cook lifted off from McCarran Field in Las Vegas. They were operating the aircraft at well above the maximum takeoff weight, but they had been granted a waiver by the FAA, allowing them to operate the aircraft with an additional 350-400 pounds of weight. After take-off, Timm and Cook made a pass on the airfield to allow a chase car to paint white stripes on the aircraft’s tires. This was to ensure that Timm and Cook didn’t attempt to cheat and secretly land the plane at some remote airport when no one was looking.

Tim and Cook flew ‘Hacienda‘ close to the Las Vegas area for the first couple of days. They wanted to make sure they had worked out any bugs or problems. After they were satisfied with the Hacienda’s flying, they made their way south towards Blythe, which had lower and less mountainous terrain. They spent most of their time flying over the deserts in the Blythe, California and Yuma, Arizona areas. However, on occasion, they would venture farther west to Van Nuys or Los Angeles to take part in promotional radio and TV opportunities.

Keeping the Hacienda and its Pilots Fueled for the Flight Endurance Record

A Ford (as has been pointed out by a couple of astute, sharp eyed readers, the truck is actually a GMC) truck, graciously donated to the cause by Cashman Auto in Las Vegas, served as the primary support vehicle. The truck was outfitted with a fuel tank, pump, and other support items. Twice a day, the truck would rendezvous with the aircraft over a stretch of straight highway the Government had closed off. Hacienda would fly roughly 20 feet off the ground, and use an electric winch to lower a hook, and snag the refueling hose. Timm or Cook, standing on the platform that was lowered out the co-pilot’s door, would then insert the hose into the belly tank so the necessary fuel could be pumped up. It took roughly three minutes to fill the belly tank.


(Photo courtesy Howard W. Cannon Aviation Museum)
Sometimes, weather or other glitches would interrupt the schedule, and they’d quickly need to plan a new meeting time or location for refueling. They also had to deal with a non-functioning fuel pump. During these occasions, they would haul up a series of five gallon fuel cans using a rope. Over the course of the flight, this refueling process was repeated 128 times.

Oil, food, water for washing, towels, and other supplies were also passed up to the aircraft during these refueling runs. So, what exactly did the pilots eat? Doc Bailey instructed his chefs at the Hacienda that they were to feed the crew healthy meals, made only from the freshest and finest ingredients. These gourmet meals were prepared, but to get them up to the pilots in the plane, the meals had to be chopped up and stuffed into thermos jugs.

The Pilot’s Flight Endurance Routine

Timm and Cook worked out a schedule which had them flying in four hour shifts. When they weren’t flying, they would try to sleep as much as they could. And when not sleeping, they would attend to a variety of small chores to keep the plane flying, eat, flip through comics, perform what limited exercises they could, and brush their teethe and bathe. According to Cook’s diary, ‘We got a quart of bath water, a large towel, and soap every other day.‘ Hygienic activities in particular would prove occasionally awkward.

On one occasion, after finishing the refueling and other necessary chores related to flying, Timm preprared for his daily hygiene. He removed his clothes, lowered the platform out the co-pilot’s door, stepped out, and began brushing his teeth. Suddenly, Cook realized that they were a little low, and if the platform wasn’t pulled back into the plane, they would not be able to clear an upcoming ridge. He frantically yelled to Timm to get back in the plane, and pull in the platform. Later, Cook would tell about this experience, watching a bare naked 240 pound Timm struggle to pull in the platform with a toothbrush sticking out of the corner of his mouth and toothpaste streaming down his cheeks. They safely cleared the ridge, but this experience taught Timm and Cook to wait for flatter terrain to start their hygenic routines.

This also inevitably leads one to the question: how did they use the bathroom? Well, because the Cessna 172 doesn’t come standard with a toilet, and there was no room to install a permanent one, Timm and Cook had to rig their own system. This took the form of a folding camp toilet and plastic bags. Once they had been used, the plastic bags were then disposed of over unpopulated areas in the desert around Blythe. According to Mark Hall-Patton, the administrator of the Clark County Museum system in Las Vegas, “I once asked John’s widow if they handed down the waste during refueling runs. She said, ‘No. That’s why it’s so green around Blythe.’ ”

The first few weeks went by with fairly smooth sailing. On Christmas day, as they flew over the airfield, Timm and Cook dropped presents fitted with parachutes from the airplane, much to the delight of Timm’s two sons. Greg Timm, six years old at the time, recalls the incident fondly. “They flew by, in the airplane in the daytime, and tossed out of the airplane candy cane stockings with little parachutes. As they floated down my brother and I tried to snatch them before they hit the ground.

Though the first few weeks passed without much incident, entries in Cook’s journal began to reflect the hardships of the flight. The lack of sustained physical activity, constant engine noise, and daily chores were wearing on both men. And though they rotated flying duties every four hours, it was difficult for either man to get much sleep, especially during the day. On January 9th, day thirty six of their flight, lack of sleep brought them dangerously close to a tragic end.

Timm was in the pilot seat, and dozed off at 2:55 AM as they flew over the Blythe airport. It was just minutes before Timm was scheduled to wake Cook to take over piloting. Timm dozed for just over an hour, waking up at 4 AM. The Mitchell autopilot had kept them in the air, and they were now flying due south through a canyon, halfway to Yuma. ‘I flew for two hours before I recognized any lights or the cities. I made a vow to myself that I would never tell John what had happened,’ Timm later disclosed to a reporter. It appears that Cook noticed, however, judging from this entry in his log:

… it was 2:55 AM and he [Timm] was fighting sleeplessness. On auto pilot fell asleep 4000 FT over Blythe Airport found himself ½ way to Yuma Ariz 4000 ft. Very lucky. We must sleep more in the day time.

Soaring By the Flight Endurance Record

A few days after the auto pilot saved their (probably fairly greasy) bacon, the generator on the Hacienda failed. This meant that 39 days into their trip, they were now without heat, lights, and the electric pump that transferred gas from the belly tank to the wing tanks. A wind generator was passed up and installed on one strut, but it provided very limited output. To combat the cold, Tim and Cook wrapped themselves in blankets. To push back the dark, they had flashlights and a string of Christmas lights powered by the wind generator. And in order to get gas from the belly tank to the wings, they now had to use a hand pump. Cook summed up these miserable new circumstances in his log:

Hard to stay awake in dark place – can’t use radio – can’t use electric fuel pump. Pump all gasoline by hand, using minimum lights… Don’t realize how necessary this power until all of a sudden – sitting in the dark – no lights in panel to fly by – flashlight burning out – can’t see to fix the trouble if you could fix at all.

Shortly after this, they encountered one of the things they had feared the most: a night refueling. It was mid-January, and there was no moon that night. Cook taped his flashlight onto the hook, and lowered it down to the fuel truck as Timm held position mere feet above. The ground crew, thankfully, had planned ahead. A pathfinder truck was deployed roughly 300 feet ahead of the fuel truck to give the crew a visual reference. Cook noted in his log that it was ‘as black a night as I’ve ever seen.

As they neared the fifty day mark, Timm and Cook began to carefully check each other’s work. They were determined not to let human error bring them down in their quest to break the flight endurance record. They carefully considered and discussed each new move and decision. Finally, on January 23rd, they broke the existing record set just months previous by Heth, Burkhart and ‘The Old Scotchman.’ Though they had accomplished their goal, and could finally land, they decided not to. Instead, they decided to keep flying for as long as they could, to ensure they held onto the record they had fought so hard to set.

We had lost the generator, tachometer, autopilot, cabin heater, landing and taxi lights, belly tank fuel gauge, electrical fuel pump, and winch,” Cook wrote in his log. But in spite of these losses, they pressed on. By the beginning of February, the spark plugs and engine combustion chambers had become loaded with carbon. This greatly reduced the engine’s power, making it difficult to climb after refueling with a full load.

What Goes Up…

Finally, they decided to land on February 7th, 1959. Shortly before landing, the white paint on the tires was checked, and no scuff marks were found. They landed at McCarran Field after being in the air for 64 days, 22 hours, and 19 minutes. They had flown a little over 150,000 miles through the air, which was roughly equivalent to six times around the Earth. Timm and Cook were helped from the Hacienda, and Cook was quoted later as saying “There sure seemed to be a lot of fuss over a flight with one takeoff and one landing.” Their extra effort appears to have paid off, however, as their record still stands today.

After the flight, Timm returned to work at the Hacienda, and Cook continued a career as a pilot. The Hacienda (the aircraft) was displayed inside the Hacienda (the casino) for a few years, before being sold to a Canadian aviator. Before his death in 1978 (Cook died much later, in 1995), Timm would often reminisce about his days in the pilot’s seat, and expressed to his sons a desire to know what happened to N9217B.

Eventually, Steve Timm launched a search, and found the Cessna 172 on a farm in Carrot River, in Saskatchewan, Canada. He was able to bring it back to Las Vegas in 1988, where it eventually was acquired by the McCarran Aviation Heritage Museum 3 and restored to its pre-flight condition. After spending some time at the museum, it was eventually moved to McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas, where it now hangs from the ceiling above the baggage claim area.

Some Final Thoughts

Steve Timm, years after the historic flight, had this to say: “Staying in the air for 65 days in a little plane the size of a Toyota, not landing. The noise, the danger, flying at night, all the various things that could have gone wrong that didn’t. My dad was in his early 30s and it almost killed him. My dad and John Cook were very lucky to have survived that, let alone break the record.” And while luck may indeed have played a large part, I feel that skill and no small amount of determination on the part of Timm and Cook also helped see the flight through to a record-setting end.

Some time after the flight, Cook was asked by a reporter if he would ever try to replicate the stunt, to which he replied: “Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I’m going to lock myself in a garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running, and have Bob serve me T-bone steaks chopped up in a thermos bottle. That is, until my psychiatrist opens for business in the morning.

1 – As a sidenote, the un-refueled, manned record of 84 hours and 32 minutes, set in 1932, stood for over half a century. That record, however, was smashed in 1986 by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeger (no relation to Chuck). They flew 9 days (216 hours) without stopping or refueling, circumnavigating the globe in the Rutan Voyager, a plane designed by Dick, Jeana, and Burt Rutan.

2 – As it turned out, this would be one of the last test detonations. The Government suspended above ground nuclear testing on October 28th, 1958.


Racing Into The Present

After a number of major auto manufacturers withdrew from the running of the Le Mans in the 1990s, leaving only Cadillac and Audi. From 2000 – 2010, Audi dominated the race, winning 8 of 10 races. At the beginning of the new millennium, the American Le Mans circuit began, and Audi destroyed the competition in those races, too. All told, throughout the decade Audi won nine American Le Mans Series championships between 2000 and 2008 and two World Endurance Championships. Audi continued its dominance in the 2010s, winning the first five of the decade, too. But since then, we have seen a slow return by many of the legacy car brands to the circuit. It has also seen a shift in fashion to electric cars with the last 6 victories going to hybrid cars. Porsche won in 2015, 2016 and 2017 with its Porsche 919 Hybrid, and last month, Toyota claimed victory for the first time with its TS050 Hybrid.

Toyota Notches First Win In 2018: This year, Toyota claimed victory for the first time in 20 attempts. Toyota has previously entered 47 cars at Le Mans, finishing in the top 3 six times. After years of near misses, the Toyota team finally won the epic endurance race. Following Mazda in 󈨟, Toyota became the second Japanese car manufacturer to ever win at Le Mans. Their victory came one year after their 2017 entry broke down while in the lead and with just minutes left in the race. Though they may not have been opposed by Audi and Porsche (who both withdrew in 2018), their victory was still incredibly meaningful for a car manufacturer that had long sought to cement its name in racing history, and now has.

Ranked: 15 Best Car Chases In Movie History

The 24 Hours of Le Mans has a certain cinematic thrill to it – after all, it was depicted quite excitingly in the 1971 movie of the same name. Does the world’s most real car chase compare to those in the movies – or vice versa? Does Steve McQueen riding the Porsche 917 make the cut? Check out this list of the best movie car chase scenes and find out.

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