Ernst Bergmann

Ernst Bergmann

Ernst Bergmann was born in Colditz, Germany, on 7th August 1881. He studied philosophy at the University of Leipzig and got his PhD in 1905. After further studies in Berlin he returned to Leipzig where he became Ausserordentlicher Professor. (1)

Bergmann held right-wing nationalist views and became a supporter of Adolf Hitler and in 1930 he joined the Nazi Party. He published several books including Knowledge and Mother Spirit (1932), The German National Church (1933), A National Socialist Philosophy of Culture (1933) and The German Religion (1934). (2)

In July 1933, Pastor Ludwig Müller, a long-term supporter of Hitler was elected as Reich Bishop. (3) His work was supported by Professor Bergmann, who in 1934 issued the Twenty-Five Points of the German Religion. This included the following: (i) The Jewish Old Testament as well as parts of the New Testament are not suitable for the new Germany. (ii) Christ was not Jewish but a Nordic martyr put to death by the Jews, a warrior whose death rescued the world from Jewish influence. (iii) Adolf Hitler is the new Messiah sent to earth to save the world from the Jews. (iv) The swastika succeeds the cross as the symbol of German Christianity. (v) German land, German blood, German soul, German art - these are the sacred assets of German Christians. (4)

Susan Ottaway has argued that many Protestants saw Bergmann's theories as "utter drivel". She points out: "The second point alone high-lights the inconsistency of the doctrine. If Christ's death rescued the world from Jewish influence, why did the Nazis find it necessary to persecute them? The entire document was complete nonsense and utterly at odds with any conventional view of Christianity. In spite of this it had its supporters, who became known as German Christians." (5)

The German Christians became a pressure group and movement within German Protestantism. Bergmann became the most important academic involved in the movement. The German Christians ardently supported the Nazi doctrines of race and the leadership principle. By the time Hitler came to power, the movement had some three thousand out of a total of seventeen thousand pastors, though their lay followers probably represented a larger percentage of churchgoers. (6)

The movement was popular with young pastors from lower-middle-class backgrounds or non-academic families. "Such men desired a Church whose members were soldiers from Jesus and the Fatherland, tough, hard and uncompromising. Muscular Christianity of this kind appealed particularly to young men who despised the feminization of religion through the involvement in charity, welfare and acts of compassion." (7)

Ernst Bergmann committed suicide in Leipzig on 16th April, 1945.

(i) The Jewish Old Testament as well as parts of the New Testament are not suitable for the new Germany.

(ii) Christ was not Jewish but a Nordic martyr put to death by the Jews, a warrior whose death rescued the world from Jewish influence.

(iii) Adolf Hitler is the new Messiah sent to earth to save the world from the Jews.

(iv) The swastika succeeds the cross as the symbol of German Christianity.

(v) German land, German blood, German soul, German art - these are the sacred assets of German Christians.

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(1) Yvonne Sherratt, Hitler's Philosophers (2013) page 282

(2) Chris McNab, The Third Reich (2009) page 182

(3) Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History (2001) page 258

(4) Ernst Bergmann, Twenty-Five Points of the German Religion (1934)

(5) Susan Ottaway, Hitler's Traitors, German Resistance to the Nazis (2003) page 79

(6) William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany (1959) page 293

(7) Richard Evans, The Third Reich in Power (2005) page 224


Ernst Bergmann

Ernst von Bergmann oli Ruhja pastori Richard von Bergmanni (1805–1878) ja Bertha Krügeri (1816–1877) poeg.

Ta lõpetas erakooli, õppis 1854–1859 Tartu Ülikoolis ja kaitses 1860 samas doktorikraadi. Ta oli 1863–1864 Tartus eradotsent, 1864–1871 dotsent, 1871–1878 professor, kirurgiakateedri juhataja ja I kirurgiakliiniku direktor. Ta läks 1878 kirurgiaprofessoriks Würzburgi Ülikooli ja sealt 1882 Berliini Charitésse. Ta oli Preisi-Austria (Balkanil, 1866), Saksa-Prantsuse (1870–1871) ja Vene-Türgi sõjas (1877–1878) välikirurg.

Bergmann oli üks esimesi aseptika rakendajaid haavaravis, hakates steriliseerima kirurgiainstrumente. Ta avaldas 1870. aastal uurimuse leeprast ja selle ravist Liivimaal. Tema uurimistöö pani aluse leprosooriumide avamisele. Rahvusvahelise tuntuse tõid talle koljuvigastusi ja ajuhaigusi käsitlevad uurimused. Ta tegeles palju aastaid pahaloomuliste kasvajatega, mille tulemusena avaldas teose "Die gegenwärtigen Forschungen über den Ursprung des Krebses". Arstiteaduses on tuntud Bergmanni sündroom (valu kadumine kaksteistsõrmikuhaavandi korral pärast verejooksu algamist) ja Bergmanni meetod (hüdrotseele kirurgilises ravis).

Tema teeneks loetakse ka Tartu Toome kliiniku juurdeehitise rajamist (avati septembris 1875). Tänu soodsatele tingimustele sai uues haavakliinikus käsitleda operatiivkirurgiat mitte ainult üliõpilastega, vaid ka sõjaväearstidega, keda sageli saadeti Tartusse täiendkoolitustele.

Ta oli mitme käsiraamatu ja kirurgiaajakirja (Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie, Centralblatt für Chirurgie) toimetaja ja kaastööline.

Ta oli üks kolmest arstist, kes oli ravinud Friedrich III-l kõrivähki, enne kui too 1888. aastal sellesse suri.


The Renaissance

Denis Papin, a French physicist, invents the “Digester” (pressure cooker) in 1680. Pressure cookers work by creating a tight seal between pot and lid. This seal traps the air inside the pot as it gets heated. As the air gets heated, it expands but because it is trapped, pressure increases. As pressure increases, so does the boiling point of the water inside: An increase of about 15 pounds per square inch (psi) above standard atmospheric pressure (a typical pressure-cooker setting) boosts the water boiling point from its normal 212°F (100°C) to about 250°F (121°C). The superheated steam trapped in the cooker circulates around the items inside quickly penetrating them, or in the case of food, quickly cooking it.

In 1683, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch linen draper develops the microscope and proves the existence of microorganisms.

1758 – the earliest recorded instance of the use of surgical glove -Dr. Johann Julius Walbaum formed a glove from the intestines of a sheep and used it to deliver babies.

1795 – Nicholas Appert, a chef, invents canning by preserving meats and vegetables in jars sealed with pitch then boiling them. He wins the prize of 12,000 francs offered by Napoleon for a way to prevent military food supplies from spoiling.


[On the centennial of Ernst von Bergmann's death]

"dear aunt lina. i do not know any big letters yet, but i want to thank you in small letters for the beautiful pens. say hello to grandpa and to everybody. yours truly, ernst." These are the first surviving written words of Ernst von Bergmann. Between them and his last words about his suspected colon cancer on 25 March 1907 ("I diagnosed this 5 years ago, and now it has come to pass.") lie many years in a vigorous life characterised by untiring activity and creativity, self-discipline, and care for patients and his family. They were years of enormous success in surgery and private happiness but also of professional setbacks and tragic family loss. Ernst von Bergmann became a leading German surgeon not only because of his surgical and scientific achievements, particularly in the fields of asepsis and war surgery, but also due to his exemplary character, reliability, engaging personality, and commitment to medical training in various medical societies. Of these, the German Society of Surgery is most indebted to him. After assuming a chair in surgery in 1882, he continued to play a leading role in this society, not least as its five-time president from 1888 to 1890 and in 1896 and 1900. A worthy successor to Bernhard von Langenbeck, he was a full professor at the Berlin University Hospital for 25 years. He also taught at the Medical and Surgical Academy for the Military after being appointed there by Emperor Wilhelm I on 16 November 1882. This position was important to him and corresponded to his patriotic views.


Ernst David Bergmann

Ernst David Bergmann (Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎ born October 1903 died April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist. He is often considered the father of the Israeli nuclear program.

Life and Education

Bergmann was born in Germany to rabbi Judah Bergmann. He studied at the University of Berlin under Wilhelm Schlenk, where he received his Ph.D. in 1927. Bergmann continued to work at the university, and with Schlenk, wrote Ausführliches Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie, which was published in two volumes 1932 and later in 1939 however, the fact that Bergmann was Jewish caused his name to be removed from the title page of the 1939 edition.

Bergmann left for London in 1933 soon after the Nazis came to power, and began work with chemist and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann. He turned down an offer of a position at Oxford from Sir Robert Robinson, an event that Sir Robinson recalled years later with anger. Bergmann left Europe less than a year later, and arrived in The British Mandate of Palestine on January 1, 1934, to work at the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. During World War II he left to work on defense projects for the French, English, and Americans. Just a year after the war, Bergmann returned to the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, Israel, and continued there through its expansion in 1949 into the Weizmann Institute of Science.

IAEC Career and Chairmanship

During the next several years Bergmann, who had become famous through his work and connection with Weizmann, became close friends with David Ben-Gurion, and was appointed to several prominent government positions: chief of the Israel Defense Forces' science department in August 1948, science adviser to minister of defense on July 15, 1951, and director of research of the Division of Research and Infrastructure of the Ministry of Defense in early 1952. In June 1952, he was appointed by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), where he played a crucial role in leading the Israel nuclear program with Ben-Gurion and Defense Minister Shimon Peres.

That same year, he left the Weizmann Institute to become the chair of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and worked with graduate students for the next two years at Technion in Haifa. Around this same time, Bergmann's friendship with Weizmann ended when Bergmann married Weizmann's secretary Hani Itin. Weizmann's wife Vera had been close friends with Bergmann's previous wife before she died, and the new marriage to Itin along with rumors of other affairs caused her and her husband to effectively end their relationship with him.

Bergmann's work at the IAEC was shrouded in secrecy, and the agency itself was unknown to the public until he revealed its existence in 1954. Bergmann offered to resign in June 1964 after Ben-Gurion had been replaced by Levi Eshkol, but was convinced to remain for two more years. He resigned as chair of the IAEC and the two defense ministry posts on April 1, 1966.

During his lifetime Bergmann published more than 500 peer reviewed scientific papers in international journals, and made critical contributions to fluorine chemistry.

In 1968, Bergmann was awarded the Israel Prize in life sciences.

Ernst David Bergmann (Hebrew: ארנסט דוד ברגמן‎ born 1903 died April 6, 1975) was an Israeli nuclear scientist and chemist. He is often considered the father of the Israeli nuclear program.

Contents [show] Life and Education[edit] Bergmann was born in Germany to rabbi Judah Bergmann. He studied at the University of Berlin under Wilhelm Schlenk, where he received his Ph.D. in 1927. Bergmann continued to work at the university, and with Schlenk, wrote Ausführliches Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie, which was published in two volumes 1932 and later in 1939 however, the fact that Bergmann was Jewish caused his name to be removed from the title page of the 1939 edition.

Bergmann left for London in 1933 soon after the Nazis came to power, and began work with chemist and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann. He turned down an offer of a position at Oxford from Sir Robert Robinson,[1] an event that Sir Robinson recalled years later with anger. Bergmann left Europe less than a year later, and arrived in The British Mandate of Palestine on January 1, 1934, to work at the Daniel Sieff Research Institute. During World War II he left to work on defense projects for the French, English, and Americans. Just a year after the war, Bergmann returned to the Sieff Institute in Rehovot, Israel, and continued there through its expansion in 1949 into the Weizmann Institute of Science.

IAEC Career and Chairmanship[edit] During the next several years Bergmann, who had become famous through his work and connection with Weizmann,[2] became close friends with David Ben-Gurion, and was appointed to several prominent government positions: chief of the Israel Defense Forces' science department in August 1948, science adviser to minister of defense on July 15, 1951, and director of research of the Division of Research and Infrastructure of the Ministry of Defense in early 1952.[3] In June 1952, he was appointed by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), where he played a crucial role in leading the Israel nuclear program with Ben-Gurion and Defense Minister Shimon Peres.

That same year, he left the Weizmann Institute to become the chair of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and worked with graduate students for the next two years at Technion in Haifa. Around this same time, Bergmann's friendship with Weizmann ended when Bergmann married Weizmann's secretary Hani Itin.[citation needed] Weizmann's wife Vera had been close friends with Bergmann's previous wife before she died, and the new marriage to Itin along with rumors of other affairs caused her and her husband to effectively end their relationship with him.[citation needed]

Bergmann's work at the IAEC was shrouded in secrecy, and the agency itself was unknown to the public until he revealed its existence in 1954.[4] Bergmann offered to resign in June 1964 after Ben-Gurion had been replaced by Levi Eshkol, but was convinced to remain for two more years. He resigned as chair of the IAEC and the two defense ministry posts on April 1, 1966.[3][4]

During his lifetime Bergmann published more than 500 peer reviewed scientific papers in international journals, and made critical contributions to fluorine chemistry.[5][6]

Awards[edit] In 1968, Bergmann was awarded the Israel Prize in life sciences.[7]


Contents

The original name of the kaserne was Kaserne "München-Freimann [1] ". The barracks were primarily used by the SS-Standarte 1 "Deutschland" until the end of World War II. After the war the UNRRA used the buildings as a displaced persons camp.

When the barracks were acquired by the U.S. forces in 1950, they were renamed to Warner Kaserne. The huge main building (earlier on number 1701 today number 1) was the second largest after the Pentagon, which was used by the U.S. Army. [2]

After the US returned the barracks to the Bundeswehr in 1968 it was rebuilt from 1973 to 1980. Since 1980 the main user has been the Bundeswehr Medical Academy. Disbanded users were the Medical Instruction Battalion 851, the Reserve Hospital Group 7609 and a branch of the former Military Hospital Amberg. The "Emil-von-Bering building" has served as a medical ambulance. Also the Bundeswehr Institutes of Radiobiology, of Microbiology, and of Pharmacology and Toxicology have been stationed in the barracks as well as the recruitment center for southern Germany Zentrum für Nachwuchsgewinnung Süd since the 1990s.


2. IAEC Career and Chairmanship

During the next several years Bergmann, who had become famous through his work and connection with Weizmann, became close friends with David Ben-Gurion, and was appointed to several prominent government positions: chief of the Israel Defense Forces science department in August 1948, science adviser to minister of defense on July 15, 1951, and director of research of the Division of Research and Infrastructure of the Ministry of Defense in early 1952. In June 1952, he was appointed by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission IAEC, where he played a crucial role in leading the Israel nuclear program with Ben-Gurion and Defense Minister Shimon Peres.

That same year, he left the Weizmann Institute to become the chair of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and worked with graduate students for the next two years at Technion in Haifa.

Bergmanns work at the IAEC was shrouded in secrecy, and the agency itself was unknown to the public until he revealed its existence in 1954. Bergmann offered to resign in June 1964 after Ben-Gurion had been replaced by Levi Eshkol, but was convinced to remain for two more years. He resigned as chair of the IAEC and the two defense ministry posts on April 1, 1966.

During his lifetime Bergmann published more than 500 peer reviewed scientific papers in international journals, and made critical contributions to fluorine chemistry.

  • Ernst Bergmann may refer to: Ernst David Bergmann 1903 1975 father of the Israeli nuclear program Ernst Bergmann philosopher 1881 1945 German
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  • The Bergmann - built cars proved expensive in Britain, thanks to tariffs. Metallurgique cars were also made from 1909 under licence by Bergmann in Berlin
  • Benz Michael Berenbaum Werner Bergmann Randolph L. Braham Martin Broszat Christopher Browning Barbara Stern Burstin David Cesarani Phyllis Chesler Detlev
  • Anscombe George Edward Moore Gilbert Ryle Gottlob Frege Gricean maxims Gustav Bergmann Hans Hahn Hans Reichenbach Hans Sluga Harvey Brown philosopher Herbert
  • confessed to the following: Barbara Ernst 59, on 12 April 1981 Martha Lorenz, 67, on 26 January 1983 Maria Bergmann 70, on 27 October 1984 Kunigunda Thoss
  • and Ph.D. from Hebrew University in 1961, where he studied under Ernst David Bergmann After post - doctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley
  • Eotvos Lorand, Jozsef Kurschak, Constantin Caratheodory, David Hilbert, Felix Christian Klein and Ernst Zermelo. During years of the secondary school, he collaborated
  • scientific publications. IIBR was founded in 1952 by Professor Ernst David Bergmann Prime Minister David Ben - Gurion s science adviser and the head of R D at the
  • Luca Martin, Monte Jaffe, Ulrich Neuweiler, Maja Tabatadze, Nikolaus Bergmann Bielefeld Opera Chorus, Bielefeld Philharmonic Orchestra, Geoffrey Moull
  • yeshivas. See: List of Karaite Jews. Felix Adler Hugo Bergmann born in Prague Max Bodenheimer David Cassel Ismar Elbogen Emil Ludwig Fackenheim Jonas Frankel
  • Empirismus logical positivism or neopositivism. It was influenced by Ernst Mach, David Hilbert, French conventionalism Henri Poincare and Pierre Duhem
  • The following persons held the position of scientific director: Ernst David Bergmann 1949 1951 Amos de - Shalit 1960 1961 and 1966 1968 Shneior Lifson
  • the gaps Great chain of being Greedy reductionism Gunther Stent Gustav Bergmann Hans Hahn Hans Reichenbach Harvey Brown philosopher Helen Longino Henri
  • the realist s camp. Gustav Bergmann Logic and Reality, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964 Gustav Bergmann Realism: A Critique of Brentano
  • conjecture, inverse scattering transform solution generating methods Peter G. Bergmann constrained Hamiltonian dynamics Bruno Bertotti Bertotti - Robinson electrovacuum
  • Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner Barthel Beham Wilfried Behre Hans Bellmer Ella Bergmann - Michel Joseph Beuys Anna and Bernhard Blume Barbel Bohley Eberhard Bosslet
  • C. Becker Hugo Adam Bedau Nuel Belnap Paul Benacerraf Gustav Bergmann Michael Bergmann Arnold Berleant Marshall Berman Andrew Bernstein Mark Bernstein
  • manufacturing city of Suhl, Thuringia. The submachine guns of Theodor Bergmann are closely connected with its name recognition and weapons production
  • different fields in space time to replace the one gravitational field. Ernst David Bergmann Prize for Science Israel in 1977 Landau Prize for Research in Physics
  • Vallenilla Ernst Barthel Ernst Bergmann philosopher Ernst Bloch Ernst Cassirer Ernst Christian Gottlieb Reinhold Ernst Ehrlich Ernst Friedrich Apelt Ernst Gombrich
  • applies with exceptions to many mammals and birds. It was named after Carl Bergmann who described it in 1847. Cope s rule states that animal population lineages

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History

The original name of the kaserne was Kaserne "München-Freimann [ 1 ] ". The barracks were primarily used by the SS-Standarte 1 "Deutschland" until the end of World War II. After the war the UNESCO used the buildings to accommodate dispersed persons.

When the barracks were acquired by the U.S. forces in 1950, they were renamed to Warner Kaserne. The huge main building (earlier on number 1701 today number 1) was the second largest after the Pentagon, which was used by the U.S. Army. [ 2 ]

After the US returned the barracks to the Bundeswehr in 1968 it was rebuilt from 1973 to 1980. Since 1980 the main user has been the Bundeswehr Medical Academy . Disbanded users were the Medical Instruction Battalion 851, the Reserve Hospital Group 7609 and a branch of the former Military Hospital Amberg. The "Emil-von-Bering building" has served as a medical ambulance. Also the Bundeswehr Institutes of Radiobiology, of Microbiology, and of Pharmacology and Toxicology have been stationed in the barracks as well as the recruitment center for southern Germany Zentrum für Nachwuchsgewinnung Süd since the 1990s.


Il est le fils d'un pasteur évangélique, Ernst Albin Bergmann. Il va au lycée fédéral saxon de Saint Afra puis au Königliches Gymnasium Dresden-Neustadt. En 1902, il étudie la philosophie et la philologie à l'université de Leipzig puis à Berlin. Après le doctorat, il enseigne comme privat-docent à l'université de Leipzig. Il s'engage volontairement pour participer à la Première Guerre mondiale. Bergmann s'écrase en 1916 lors d'une mission à l'école de l'aéroport de Leipzig-Mockau (de) et est renvoyé de l'armée à cause de ses blessures. Puis il reçoit en 1916 un poste de professeur non officiel non inscrit à l'université de Leipzig, qu'il occupe jusqu'à sa mort.

Bergmann a un premier mariage de 1917 à 1921 avec la fille d'un avocat juif, avec qui il a un fils Peter. En 1927, il épousa la fille d'un éditeur de Leipzig. À ce moment, sa pensée antidémocratique se mêle à une attitude antichrétienne, qui s'exprime aussi dans ses écrits. Bergmann est devenu membre du NSDAP en juillet 1930 et en juillet 1931 du NSLB. En 1932, il se sépare de l'église protestante. Il s'efforce de renouveler la religiosité allemande en créant une « religion allemande » au sens national-socialiste. Il devient membre du conseil d'administration de l'Association des Travailleurs du Mouvement de la foi allemande fondée à Eisenach fin de juillet 1933 .

Bergmann écrit une nécrologie autobiographique en l'honneur de son fils, mort sur le front occidental, dans laquelle il cache que son fils est à moitié juif. Après la prise de Leipzig par les Alliés, Bergmann s'est probablement suicidé.

Le jeune Bergmann est fortement influencé par Friedrich Nietzsche, surtout par son immoralisme. L'une de ses premières publications de 1912 à 1914 est la publication des travaux de Jean-Marie Guyau en six volumes. À cette époque, il travaille également sur un autre Français, Julien Offray de La Mettrie.

En 1933, Bergmann écrit une soi-disant Confessio Germanica, qu'il appelle aussi Deutschapostolikum, comme un substitut au Symbole des Apôtres qu'il rejette : « Je crois au Dieu de la Religion Allemande, qui travaille dans la nature, dans le grand esprit humain et dans la puissance de son peuple. Et à l'aide du Christ, qui se bat pour la noblesse de l'âme humaine. Et à l'Allemagne, la terre éducative de la nouvelle humanité. » Au lieu du christianisme, il appelle au retour à un mysticisme populaire qui triomphe du christianisme juif.

Il est un grand partisan de l'eugénisme. Son idée du rôle des femmes correspond aussi parfaitement à l'idéologie nazie.

Deux de ses livres, Deutsche Nationalkirche publié en 1934 und Die natürliche Geistlehre. Eine deutsch-nordische Weltsinndeutung en 1937, sont mis à l'Index librorum prohibitorum par le pape Pie XI, en même temps que Le Mythe du vingtième siècle d'Alfred Rosenberg. Le livre Erkenntnisgeist und Muttergeist est aussi critiqué par des nazis.


Biografie [ modificare | modificare sursă ]

S-a născut la Riga, într-o familie baltică.

În 1860 obține doctoratul prin absolvirea cursurilor de medicină în cadrul Universității din orașul Dorpat, care a devenit Tartu după 1918. În perioada 1871 - 1878, este profesor de chirurgie la această prestigioasă universitate.

După câțiva ani ca profesor la Würzburg, în 1882 se mută la Universitatea de la Berlin. Aici, doi dintre asistenții săi sunt: Curt Schimmelbusch (1860-1895) și Friedrich Gustav von Bramann (1854-1913).


Watch the video: Logistik im Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann