U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.
Peter Gamble was born on 5 November 1793 in Bordentown, New Jersey. He was appointed midshipman on 16 January 1809 and served on Thomas Macdonough's flagship USS Saratoga in the Battle of Lake Champlain. He was killed in action while in the act of sighting his gun on 11 September 1814. Macdonough deplored Gamble's loss and commended his gallantry in action.
John M. Gamble was the brother of Peter Gamble and achieved the rank of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Marine Corps.
Gamble was launched 11 May 1918 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Virginia, sponsored by Miss Evelyn H. Jackson, a relative of Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels. The ship was commissioned at Norfolk on 29 November 1918.
After shakedown training out of the Virginia Capes, Gamble sailed from New York City on 13 January 1919 to take part in maneuvers off Cuba Key West, Florida and the New England seaboard until June 1919. Following overhaul at Norfolk, she joined the Pacific Fleet at San Diego 7 August 1919 and operated along the Pacific coast until placed in reserve status in the Mare Island Navy Yard 1 December 1919. In October 1920, she came out of reserve and assisted the flotilla in torpedo practice maneuvered with the Battle Force and cruised along the California coast as a training ship for reservists. She decommissioned at San Diego on 17 June 1922.
Gamble recommissioned on 24 May 1930 was reclassified (DM-15) on 13 June, and converted into a light minelayer at the Mare Island Navy Yard. Arriving at Pearl Harbor from the West Coast, she became flagship of Mine Squadron 2 in July 1930 and later served as flagship of Mine Division 1, Mine Squadron 1. She patrolled Hawaiian waters instructing naval reservists in mine warfare and acted as plane guard and radio tracker for seaplanes, each year participating in fleet readiness and fleet problems until she returned to San Diego where she decommissioned on 22 December 1937. Recommissioning on 25 September 1939 as Europe was plunged into World War II, she joined Mine Division 5 in patrol and schoolship duties out of San Francisco. In April 1941, she proceeded to Pearl Harbor for war readiness patrol in Hawaiian waters as a unit of Mine Division 2.
World War II Edit
On 7 December 1941, Gamble had returned from offshore patrol, when her peaceful routine was broken by the first of the Japanese carrier-based planes which attacked American ships in the harbor. Gamble ' s gunners joined the fire of other warships and saw one enemy plane fall into the water on her port beam. After the attack she took antisubmarine patrol station in the screen of the aircraft carrier Enterprise, and later guarded the approaches to Pearl Harbor. In mid-February 1942, she headed south in the escort for a convoy to Pago Pago, Samoa, then joined Ramsay in laying a protective minefield off Tutuila. At the end of March the two minelayers shifted to the Fiji Islands, to lay a minefield in Nadi waters from 7–14 April. Returning to Pearl Harbor for heavier armament, Gamble helped safeguard convoys to Midway during the time of that crucial and historic battle, then headed south with Breese and Tracy to lay a defensive minefield off the entrance to Second Channel, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides Islands.
On 27 August 1942, Gamble joined a task unit headed to Guadalcanal. Although designated a destroyer-minelayer, the old vessel still carried antisubmarine gear. On the morning of 29 August, when her lookouts spotted a large enemy submarine, she immediately went into action. After several depth charge attacks, Gamble ran through large oil slicks, found deck planking, and observed a large air bubble break the surface. Later her victim was identified as I-123, whose dying radio had signaled "under heavy enemy attack." That afternoon she proceeded at full speed to Nura Island where she rescued four stranded aviators from the aircraft carrier Saratoga. Continuing to aid in the struggle for Guadalcanal, she transported 158 Marines to the island on 31 August, patrolled off Lunga Roads, then on 5 September assisted in freeing William Ward Burrows and escorted her to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides Islands. Her patrol, escort, and transport duty continued as the drive for Guadalcanal pressed on to victory.
Five minutes after midnight on 6 May 1943, Gamble, with Preble and Breese, turned simultaneously in rain squalls which broke at times to disclose each to the other in perfect formation. Making 15 knots (28 km/h), each ship dropped a mine every 12 seconds, planting over 250 mines in 17 minutes across Blackett Strait, the western entrance to Kula Gulf and directly in the favorite route of the Japanese "Tokyo Express." The ships then sped north to join the protective screen of Rear Admiral Walden L. Ainsworth's cruiser-destroyer force before refueling at Tulagi. On the night of 7/8 May, four Japanese destroyers entered the mined waters. One, Kuroshio, went down, two others, Oyashio and Kagerō, were badly damaged and sent out calls for help that brought Michishio to the scene. Aircraft, alerted by a coastwatcher, intercepted the rescue operation, sinking the two destroyers and sending Michishio limping back to port, badly damaged.
On 30 June 1943, during the invasion of New Georgia, Gamble laid a string of mines off the beachhead, before returning to Tulagi. In July welcome orders sent her back to the United States for overhaul. She headed west again on 20 September 1943. Her minelaying duties then brought her to Empress Augusta Bay from 1–2 November 1943 to support landing operations Bougainville Strait, 7–8 November Purvis Bay, Florida Island, 23–24 November, thence to the New Hebrides Islands for escort duty among the Solomons until she returned to San Francisco on 12 October 1944.
After overhaul and refresher training, Gamble departed San Diego on 7 January 1945, en route via Hawaii and the Marshalls to Iwo Jima where she arrived on 17 February, to lend fire support to the various sweeping units, and to explode floating mines. During her shelling a direct hit on an ammunition dump exploded the enemy magazine at the foot of Mount Surabachi.
On 18 February 1945, Gamble was hit just above the waterline by two 250 lb (113 kg) bombs. Both firerooms immediately flooded and she became dead in the water with two holes in her bottom as all hands fought raging fires, jettisoned topside weight and shored damaged bulkheads. Five men were killed, one missing in action, and eight wounded. As marines stormed the shores of Iwo Jima the next day, Gamble was taken in tow by Dorsey, who turned her over to LSM-126 for passage to Saipan. She arrived at Saipan on 24 February and went alongside Hamul for repair.
Some hope remained for Gamble for a long time, but on 1 June 1945 she decommissioned, and, on 16 July, she was towed outside Apra Harbor, Guam and sunk.
Triggering or Fuzes
The first USA designed mine, the Mark 5, was of the "Horned" type. Horns were made of soft metal such as lead and held a glass ampoule containing battery acid, usually potassium-bichromate. The lower end of the horn contained an electric battery minus the electrolyte. Contact with the horn broke open the acid container, energizing the battery which then heated a platinum wire in a mercury fulminate detonator, thus exploding the mine. By definition, this was a weapon with limited range and fields needed to be densely packed in order for it to be effective against shipping. However, such close-laid fields ran the risk of one mine setting off adjacent mines as fraternal kills.
The "K-pistol" of the Mark 6 used a copper antenna which extended upwards to just below the surface. This was connected by a relay to a copper plate on the outside of the mine. Seawater acted as the electrolyte of a battery which would be formed when a ship with a steel hull approached and touched the antenna. The current running down the antenna operated the relay and exploded the mine. This method allowed each mine to cover a wider area, meaning that fewer mines could be used to cover a given area than with the horn type. In modern terms, the "K" device exploited the Underwater Electric Potential (UEP) effect.
Magnetic triggers were originally only used on ground (bottom) mines. This is because, if they were moored, the changing of the magnetic field as they rose and fell with the tide would set them off. Near the end of World War II, a trigger that measured the total field around the mine was developed. This device added up the fields in such a way that the tides did not affect it.
Acoustic mines measure sound of certain frequencies, usually those of propeller, engine and sonar noises.
Pressure detector fuzes measure the pressure wave created by a ship moving through the water. These were simultaneously developed by both Germany and the USA during World War II, but both held off deploying them for fear that the technology would be captured by the other side. They were first used in combat off the Normandy beaches and were heavily used against the Japanese home islands near the end of the war.
U.S. Navy Minecraft
1 x Mine layer (CM)
USS Miantonomah (CM-10) sunk by a mine off Le Havre, France, 25 September 1944.
2 x Light Mine layer (DM)
USS Gamble (DM-15) damaged by aircraft bombs off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 18 February 1945, and scuttled off Saipan, Mariana Islands, 16 July 1945.
USS Montgomery (DM-17) scrapped after being damaged by a mine off Palau, Caroline Islands, 17 October 1944.
6 x Mine sweeper, High Speed (DMS)
USS Emmons (DMS-22) sunk after being hit by five Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 6 April 1945.
USS Hovey (DMS-11) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese aircraft in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 January 1945.
USS Long (DMS-12) sunk by Kamikaze attack in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 January 1945.
USS Palmer (DMS-5) sunk by Japanese aircraft in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 7 January 1945.
USS Perry (DMS-17) sunk by a mine off Palau, Caroline Islands, 13 September, 1944.
USS Wasmuth (DMS-15) sunk by explosion of depth charges during gale off Aleutian Islands, 29 December 1942.
15 x Mine sweeper (AM)
USS Bittern (AM-36) Sunk by aircraft bombs at Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1941.
USS Finch (AM-9) sunk by Japanese aircraft off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 11 April 1942.
USS Minivet (AM-371) sunk by a mine in Tsushima Strait, Japan, 29 December 1945.
USS Osprey (AM-56) sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 5 June 1944.
USS Penguin (AM-33) sunk by Japanese aircraft off Guam, Marianas Islands, 8 December 1941.
USS Portent (AM-106) sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 22 January 1944.
USS Quail (AM-15) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942.
USS Salute (AM-294) sunk by a mine off Brunei, Borneo, 8 June 1945.
USS Sentinel (AM-113) sunk by German aircraft off Licata, Sicily, 12 July 1943.
USS Skill (AM-115) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-593 south of Capri, Italy, 25 September 1943.
USS Skylark (AM-63) sunk by a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 28 March 1945.
USS Swallow (AM-65) sunk after being hit by a single Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945.
USS Swerve (AM-121) sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 9 July 1944.
USS Tanager (AM-5) sunk by shore batteries off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 4 May 1942.
USS Tide (AM-125) sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 7 June 1944.
4 x Mine sweeper, Coastal (AMc)
USS Bunting (AMc-7) sunk by collision in San Francisco Bay, California, 3 June 1942.
USS Crow (AMc-20) sunk by erratic running aircraft torpedo in Puget Sound, Washington, 23 August 1943.
USS Hornbill (AMc-13) sunk after collision with the lumber schooner Esther Johnson in San Francisco Bay, California, 30 June 1942.
USS Valor (AMc-108) sunk in collision with USS Richard W. Suessens (DE-342) off Cuttyhunk Island, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, 29 June 1944.
25 x Motor Mine sweepers (YMS)
USS YMS-14 sunk in collision in Boston harbor, Massachusetts, 11 January 1945.
USS YMS-19 sunk by a mine off Palau, Caroline Islands, 24 September 1944.
USS YMS-21 sunk by a mine off Toulon, France, 1 September 1944.
USS YMS-24 sunk by a mine off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944.
USS YMS-30 sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 25 January 1944.
USS YMS-39 sunk by a mine off Balikpapan, Philippine Islands, 26 June 1945.
USS YMS-48 sunk by shore batteries in Manila Bay, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 14 February 1945.
USS YMS-50 sunk by a mine off Balikpapan, Philippine Islands, 18 June 1945.
USS YMS-70 foundered off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 17 October 1944.
USS YMS-71 sunk by a mine off Brunei, Borneo, 3 April 1945.
USS YMS-84 sunk by a mine off Balikpapan, Philippine Islands, 8 July 1945.
USS YMS-98 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945.
USS YMS-103 sunk by a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 8 April 1945.
USS YMS-127 sunk in the Aleutian Islands, 10 January 1944.
USS YMS-133 foundered off Coos Bay, Oregon, 21 February 1943.
USS YMS-304 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 30 July 1944.
USS YMS-341 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945.
USS YMS-350 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 2 July 1944.
USS YMS-365 sunk by a mine off Balikpapan, Philippine Islands, 26 June 1945.
USS YMS-378 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 30 July 1944.
USS YMS-385 sunk by a mine off Ulithi, Caroline Islands, 1 October 1944.
USS YMS-409 foundered in the North Atlantic, 12 September 1944.
USS YMS-421 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945.
USS YMS-472 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945.
USS YMS-481 sunk by shore batteries off Tarakan, Borneo, 2 May 1945.
U.S. Navy Patrol Ships
4 x Gunboat (PG)
USS Asheville (PG-21) sunk by Japanese warships south of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 3 March 1942.
USS Erie (PG-50) torpedoed by German submarine U-163 off Curacao Island, 12 November 1942, and capsized while under tow off Willemstad, Netherlands Antilles, 5 December 1942.
USS Plymouth (PG-57) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-566 off North Carolina, 5 August 1943.
USS St. Augustine (PG-54) sunk after collision with S.S. Camas Meadows off Cape May, New Jersey, 6 January 1944.
4 x Motor Gunboat (PGM)
USS PGM-7 sunk in collision in the Bismarck Sea, 18 July 1944.
USS PGM-17 destroyed by grounding off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945.
USS PGM-18 sunk by a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 7 April 1945.
USS PGM-27 destroyed by grounding during typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945.
1 x Eagle (PE)
USS PE-56 sunk by German submarine U-853 off Portland, Maine, 23 April 1945.
4 x River Gunboat (PR)
USS Luzon (PR-7) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942.
USS Mindanao (PR-8) sunk by Japanese aircraft off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942.
USS Oahu (PR-6) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942.
USS Wake (PR-3) captured at Shanghai, China, 7 December 1941.
69 x Motor Torpedo Boat (PT)
PT-22 scrapped after being badly damaged in a storm at Dora Harbor, Alaska, 11 June 1943.
PT-28 damaged beyond repair in a storm at Dora Harbor, Alaska, 12 January 1943.
PT-31 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Subic Bay, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 19 January 1942.
PT-32 destroyed to prevent capture, Tagauayan Island, Philippine Islands, 13 March 1942.
PT-33 grounded in enemy waters, 15 December 1941, and destroyed to prevent capture, Cape Santiago, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 December 1941.
PT-34 sunk by Japanese aircraft strafing attack off Cauit Island, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 9 April 1942.
PT-35 destroyed to prevent capture, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 12 April 1942.
PT-37 sunk by Japanese destroyer Kawakaze off Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 1 February 1943.
PT-41 destroyed to prevent capture on road to Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 15 April 1942.
PT-43 damaged by Japanese warships, beached, and destroyed to prevent capture on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 11 January 1943.
PT-44 destroyed by Japanese warships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 12 December 1942.
PT-63 destroyed by accidental fire while refueling in port, Hamburg Bay, Emirau Island, 18 June 1944.
PT-67 destroyed by accidental fire while refueling in port, Tufi, New Guinea, 17 March 1943.
PT-68 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture near Vincke Point, New Guinea, 1 October 1943.
PT-73 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Baliquias Bay, Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 January 1945.
PT-77 sunk in error by the USS Conyngham (DD-371) and USS Lough (DE-586) near Talin Point, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 1 February 1945.
PT-79 sunk in error by the USS Conyngham (DD-371) and USS Lough (DE-586) near Talin Point, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 1 February 1945.
PT-107 destroyed by accidental fire while refueling in port, Hamburg Bay, Emirau Island, 18 June 1944.
PT-109 sunk after being rammed by Japanese destroyer Amigiri off Kolombangara Island, Blackett Strait, Solomon Islands, 2 August 1943.
PT-110 sunk after collision in Ablingi Harbor, New Britain, 26 January 1944.
PT-111 destroyed by Japanese warships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 1 February 1943.
PT-112 destroyed by Japanese warships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 11 January 1943.
PT-113 destroyed as a result of grounding, not in enemy waters, Veale Reef, near Tufi, New Guinea, 8 August 1943.
PT-117 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Rendova Harbor, Solomon Islands, 1 August 1943.
PT-118 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 7 September 1943.
PT-119 destroyed by fire in port, Tufi, New Guinea, 17 March 1943.
PT-121 destroyed by Australian aircraft, mistaken identification, Bangula Bay, New Britain, 27 March 1944.
PT-123 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 1 February 1943.
PT-133 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, near Cape Pus, New Guinea, 15 July 1944.
PT-135 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Crater Point, New Britain, 12 April 1944.
PT-136 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Malai Island, Vitiaz Strait, New Guinea, 17 September 1943.
PT-145 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Mindiri, New Guinea, 4 January 1944.
PT-147 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Teliata Point, New Guinea, 20 November 1943.
PT-153 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Munda Point, New Georgia, 4 July 1943.
PT-158 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Munda Point, New Georgia, 5 July 1943.
PT-164 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Rendova Harbor, Solomon Islands, 1 August 1943.
PT-165 lost in transit, tanker torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-17 , 100 miles south of Noumea, New Caledonia, 24 May 1943.
PT-166 destroyed in error by US Army Air Force B-25 bombers, mistaken identification, off New Georgia, 20 July 1943.
PT-172 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 7 September 1943.
PT-173 lost in transit, tanker torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-17, 100 miles south of Noumea, New Caledonia, 24 May 1943.
PT-193 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Noemfoor Island, New Guinea, 25 June 1944.
PT-200 lost after collision, 22 February 1944, off Newport, Rhode Island, and sank 23 February 1944.
PT-202 destroyed by enemy mine, off Point Aygulf, France, Mediterranean Sea, 16 August 1944.
PT-218 destroyed by enemy mine, off Point Aygulf, France, Mediterranean Sea, 16 August 1944.
PT-219 damaged in storm and scrapped, near Attu, Aleutian Islands, 14 September 1943.
PT-239 destroyed by fire in port, Lambu Lambu, Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 14 December 1943.
PT-247 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 5 May 1944.
PT-251 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 26 February 1944.
PT-279 lost in collision, off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 11 February 1944.
PT-283 damaged by Japanese shore batteries or wild shot from U.S. warship, 18 March 1944, and sank off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 19 March 1944.
PT-300 destroyed by Kamikaze attack, Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 18 December 1944.
PT-301 damaged by explosion in port and scrapped, Mios Woendi, New Guinea, 7 November 1944.
PT-311 destroyed by enemy mine, Ligurian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, 18 November 1944.
PT-320 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, 5 November 1944.
PT-321 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, San Isidro Bay, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 11 November 1944.
PT-322 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Hardenberg Point, New Guinea, 23 November 1943.
PT-323 destroyed by Kamikaze attack, Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944.
PT-337 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, Hansa Bay, New Guinea, 7 March 1944.
PT-338 grounded, 27 January 1945, and destroyed as a result of grounding, not in enemy waters, Semirara Island, Philippine Islands, 31 January 1945.
PT-339 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Pur Pur, New Guinea, 27 May 1944.
PT-346 destroyed by U.S. Navy aircraft, mistaken identification, near Cape Pomas, New Britain Island, 29 April 1944.
PT-347 destroyed by U.S. Navy aircraft, mistaken identification, near Cape Pomas, New Britain Island, 29 April 1944.
PT-353 destroyed by Australian aircraft, mistaken identification, Bangula Bay, New Britain Island, 27 March 1944.
PT-363 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries in Knoe Bay, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 25 November 1944.
PT-368 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Cape Salimoedi, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 11 October 1944.
PT-371 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Tagalasa, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 19 September 1944.
PT-493 destroyed by Japanese warships, Surigao Strait, Philippine Islands, 25 October 1944.
PT-509 destroyed by ramming of a German minesweeper in the English Channel, 9 August 1944.
PT-555 damaged by a German mine off Cape Couronne, Mediterranean Sea, 24 August 1944, and sunk by US gunfire, 8 September 1944.
1 x Yacht (PY)
USS Cythera (PY-26) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine off North Carolina, 2 May 1942.
1 x Yacht, Coastal (PYc)
USS Moonstone (PYc-9) sunk after collision with the USS Greer (DD-145) off the Delaware Capes, Delaware, 16 October 1943.
3 x Converted Patrol Vessels
Fisheries II (converted yacht) destroyed to prevent capture at Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942.
Maryann (converted yacht) destroyed to prevent capture at Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942.
Perry (converted small patrol vessel) destroyed to prevent capture at Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942.
36 x Patrol Vessel, District (YP)
YP-16 lost due to Japanese occupation of the Philippine Islands and stricken from the Navy List, 24 July 1942.
YP-17 lost due to Japanese occupation of the Philippine Islands and stricken from the Navy List, 24 July 1942.
YP-26 destroyed by undetermined explosion in the Canal Zone, Panama, 19 November 1942.
YP-47 sunk by collision off Staten Island, New York, 26 April 1943.
YP-72 destroyed by grounding at Adak, Aleutian Islands, 22 February 1943.
YP-73 destroyed by grounding in Kodiak Harbor, Alaska, 15 January 1945.
YP-74 sunk by collision, 6 September 1942.
YP-77 sunk in collision off Atlantic coast, 28 April 1942.
YP-88 destroyed by grounding at Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 28 October 1943.
YP-94 destroyed by grounding, 18 February 1945.
YP-95 destroyed by grounding at Adak, Aleutian Islands, 1 May 1944.
YP-97 lost due to Japanese occupation of the Philippine Islands and stricken from the Navy List, 24 July 1942.
YP-128 destroyed by grounding off Monterey, California, 30 June 1942.
YP-183 destroyed by grounding on the west coast of Hawaii, 12 January 1943.
YP-205 destroyed by grounding, 1 November 1942.
YP-235 destroyed by undetermined explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, 1 April 1943.
YP-270 destroyed by grounding, 30 June 1942.
YP-277 scuttled to avoid capture east of Hawaii, 23 May 1942.
YP-279 foundered in heavy weather off Townsville, Australia, 5 September 1943.
YP-281 foundered in heavy weather, 9 January 1944.
YP-284 sunk by surface ships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 25 October 1942.
YP-331 foundered in heavy weather, 23 March 1944.
YP-336 destroyed by grounding in the Delaware River, 23 February 1943.
YP-345 sunk southeast of Midway Island, 31 October 1942.
YP-346 sunk by surface ships in the South Pacific, 9 September 1942.
YP-383 sunk by collision, 24 November 1944.
YP-387 sunk by collision, 20 May 1942.
YP-389 sunk by a submarine off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 19 June 1942.
YP-405 destroyed by undetermined explosion in the Caribbean Sea, 20 November 1942.
YP-422 destroyed by grounding off New Caledonia.
YP-426 destroyed by grounding, 16 December 1943.
YP-438 destroyed by grounding at Port Everglades, Florida, 20 March 1943.
YP-453 destroyed by grounding in the Bahama Islands, 15 April 1943.
YP-481 destroyed by grounding at Charleston, South Carolina, 25 April 1943.
YP-492 sunk by collision off east Florida, 8 January 1943.
YP-577 destroyed by undetermined explosion in the Great Lakes, 23 January 1943.
10 x Submarine Chaser, (173 foot) (PC)
USS PC-460 sunk by collision with a submarine in the Gulf of Panama, 24 January 1942.
USS PC-496 sunk after being torpedoed by Italian submarine off Bizerte, Tunisia, 4 June 1943.
USS PC-558 sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-230 north of Palermo, Italy, 9 May 1944.
USS PC-584 sunk by typhoon at Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945.
USS PC-590 destroyed by grounding during typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945.
USS PC-814 destroyed by typhoon at Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 12 December 1945.
USS PC-815 sunk by collision with USS Laffey (DD-724) off San Diego, California, 11 September 1945.
USS PC-1129 sunk by Japanese Suicide boat off Nasugbu, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 31 January 1945.
USS PC-1261 sunk by shellfire from shore batteries off Normandy, France, 6 June 1944.
USS PC-1603 damaged by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 21 May 1945, and sunk 26 May 1945.
15 x Submarine Chaser, (110 foot) (SC)
USS SC-521 foundered off Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands, 10 July 1945.
USS SC-632 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945.
USS SC-636 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945.
USS SC-694 sunk by aircraft off Palermo, Italy, 23 August 1943.
USS SC-696 sunk by aircraft off Palermo, Italy, 23 August 1943.
USS SC-700 sunk by accidental fire off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 10 March 1944.
USS SC-709 grounded off Cape Breton, France, 21 January 1943.
USS SC-740 grounded on Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 17 June 1943.
USS SC-744 sunk by Kamikaze attack in Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, 27 November 1944.
USS SC-751 grounded off Western Australia, 22 June 1943.
USS SC-984 grounded off New Hebrides, 9 April 1944.
USS SC-1019 lost by grounding, 22 April 1945.
USS SC-1024 sunk after collision off North Carolina, 2 March 1943.
USS SC-1059 lost by grounding off the Bahamas Islands, 12 December 1944.
USS SC-1067 foundered off Attu, Aleutian Islands, 19 November 1943.
USS Gamble (DM-15), c.1940 - History
ARMY AIR FORCES C-2 WRECKER
WANTED FOR OUR C-2 WRECKER
one each main and rear jack stand for the outrigger we are missing them. We also need a Dayton fifth wheel as ours is severely damaged by rust. Here is a photo of the parts needed:
The main jack stand stowed on each side of the truck
If you know where we can find these parts please contact us at [email protected] or call 209 982 0273
The Army Air Forces Wrecking Truck Tractor Type C-2, 7.5 ton 6X6, was originally made by the Federal Motor Truck Company of Detroit Michigan. It was also known as the Federal model 606 series up to the 606E.The C-2 was one of the largest, if not the largest, vehicle used in the Army Air Forces. The truck was also manufactured before and during WWII by Biederman, Corbitt and possibly REO.
For more information on surviving C-2's click here
For more information on our 1945 Federal C-2 Wrecker click here
The photo below is from a wartime brochure published by Timken Bearing showing all of the different trucks their bearings, axels and equipment were installed in. This view shows the Biederman C-2 wrecker. There sure are a lot of differences between the manufacturers. Note how the whole crane appears to be different with spare tires are mounted a lot higher on the boom tower. Other obvious differences include the: grill, rear fenders, outriggers and stands, boom and many others
The photo below looks to be the same exact picture as seen above with the registration number removed.
This shot shows the Biederman C-2 which looks like it has the same boom crane as the Corbitt. Also interesting is that it is towing one of the C2 trailers on the converter dolly attached to the pintle hitch instead of the fifth wheel.
Here are some Federal ads from WWII or shortly after. I want to thank Jeff Lakaszcyck for sending in these ads. They are great!
Here is the Federal C-2 which seems to be the most common one produced. I base this on the fact that there are few photos of the Beiderman and Corbitt wreckers especially when compared to the Federal. This shot shows the early style boom.
The photos below are excerpts from the TO
One feature that all of the manufacturers had in common were the two air springs mounted on each side of the radiator just behind the bumper.
The round device just in front of the radiator is an inertia starter exactly like the ones used on WWII aircraft engines. This starter had a heavy flyweight that could be cranked up to speed. It could then be engaged to turn the engine over.
Here is a photo of a REO truck (not a C-2) showing the hand crank installed
We sure could use one of these cranks if you happen to know where one might be.
Here is the boom operators controls. The tread plate below the levers is a platform that could slide out for the operator to stand on. Other controls were mounted higher up on the boom tower.
Here is a great color shot showing a mechanic standing on the retractable platform while he moves a B-17G outer wing panel
This is a great shot showing the outriggers in the extended position. Notice how the jack stands are adjustable. The rear stabilizers are in the stowed position.
This is the gas engine generator that makes 115 volts DC to power the large flood lights on top of the boom tower. The generator control panel had other outlets for power tools and field lighting.
This is how the C-2 Wrecker was issued. It came with two trailers a 25 foot and a 40 foot low bed and a converter dolly. In the picture below you can see the 25 foot trailer is hooked up to the converter dolly on top of the 40 foot trailer.
Here is the 25 foot trailer with the stakes installed
This is the 40 foot trailer
This C-2 is helping to level the P-47 in preparation for bore sighting the 8 fifty caliber machine guns.
What a beautiful color photo.
Two of the most important pieces of equipment used my the Army Air Forces: the Cletrac M-2 High Speed Tractor and the C-2 Wrecker. Notice the ambulance in the background. These guys look like they are ready to help the bomber crews, who might be all shot up, as they return from a mission.
These next three shots show a Bell P-39 Airacobra being loaded . or unloaded. not sure which
Disassembling a Curtis P-40 in a little less than ideal conditions
Changing engines on a C-54 Skymaster
Removing an outer wing panel on a B-17G Flying Fortress. Note the elaborate spreader bar.
A completely different B-17 fuselage and, I would think, a very tired crew!
A crew at Wendover Field in Utah lowers a Little Boy practice bomb into the loading pit. One of the 509th B-29's would then be backed over the pit so the bomb could be raised into the forward bomb bay. This very loading pit is still there at Wendover along with the original flight line and many of the WWII buildings. It is a great place to visit as they have a great museum with wonderful volunteers who are doing a great job. Check them out here:
These guys are practicing for dropping the first atomic bomb that was delivered to Hiroshima. The bomb was loaded on Tinian Island using an identical bomb pit which is also still in existence. Check it out here
With WWII brought to an early end thanks to weapons like the one above a lot of soldiers and their equipment started to head for home. Here are two well used C-2's being loaded on a ship presumable after the end of the war. Many wreckers were simply left behind and several of those are in the hands of collectors in Britain and Europe. To see some of the surviving wreckers click here
Here is a link to a book about Wreckers available from the Military Vehicle Preservation Association
I've attached a copy of the Marmon-Herrington ad that the photos I sent came from. The ad indicates these trucks were built as vehicle and tank recovery wreckers, but not all was truthful in wartime. They certainly could have handled aircraft recovery. The equipment certainly looks very similar to the C-2's, except there is no 5th wheel. They definitely went to Russia, I have an M-H brochure which confirms this. M-H was known as the "Birthplace of the Arsenal of Democracy". Many of the concepts of the big and small all wheel drive trucks, from 1/2 ton to 7-1/2 ton, were developed by M-H in the 1930's. It is ironic that they didn't win any of the big contracts for U.S. all wheel drive trucks during the war, but they did a huge business with our allies with Lend-Lease. They are probably best known for converting Ford trucks to all wheel drive, starting in 1935. There were 4x4 and 6x6 models.
Technically, the only C-2's were the Corbitt, Biederman, and Federal 7-1/2 ton wreckers built for the USAAF (some say Reo also built C-2's, but I am not entirely convinced of it). There were other similar trucks built for other branches of the services, but they were not designated as C-2's. I think after the War C-2 became a generic term in the civilian world for all similar trucks. Corbitt, Biederman, Federal, and Reo also built the F-1 fuel tanker semi tractor, which had a nearly identical cab and chassis to the C-2 (the F-1 had a 5.5" longer wheelbase). The Federal F-1 was a model 605, the Reo a 29XS, and the Corbitt a 54SD6. The Biederman was simply an F-1. Reo also built a Cardox airport firefighting truck on the 29XS chassis (29FF ?). The Federal and Reo 7-1/2 tonners are nearly identical, the only difference in appearance besides the nameplate is the front fenders. The Federal fenders are somewhat "styled", while the Reo's are flatter in appearance. The Reo disc wheels also have more holes in them, but these are easily swapped around and not a sure thing.
Reo did build a 10 ton 6x6 aircraft salvage wrecker for the Navy, with equipment similar to the C-2. Reo built about 200 of these trucks, and a handful have survived. These trucks are not in any of the books, but are shown in a 1945 Reo Annual Report I have, plus I have photos of survivors. I have yet to come across a closeup photo of this truck while in the Navy, except for one with a cement mixer body on it (with USN markings !) The annual report does not make any mention of 7-1/2 ton wreckers, only the tractors and Cardox fire trucks.
Sterling also built a 10 ton 6x6 aircraft wrecker for the Navy in much larger numbers, the DDS235. I think the Sterling and Reo probably had similar specs, but the cabs did not look at all alike. Many of the Sterlings have survived, but not as many as the Federals. The "Stuart Motor Company" truck on your website is a Sterling DDS235, as is the red and white truck in the background of one photo (you speculate this may be a Corbitt)
I am not 100% sure on this, but I think Corbitt only built some late '30's and very early '40's model C-2's. By '42 Corbitt was up to their necks with orders for the standard 6 ton 6x6 50SD6. Corbitt was a small outfit, I would be surprised if they had production capacity for much else besides the 6 tonners. I think Federal and Biederman built all the C-2's after '42 or so, with the majority from Federal, assuming I am correct that Reo didn't build any.
If you are interested , I am the moderator for the "What Am I" on the ATHS discussion page. We post a photo of a different old truck every day and folks try to guess what it is. We also have a pretty lively discussion page (Road Kill Cafe), and everyone is pretty friendly. Here is a link to the WAI if you want to check it out.
Wow, sorry if this went too long !
The Navy Sterling DDS235 Wrecker lifting a OS2U Kingfisher. Thanks Jeff for sending in these great photos.
Here is a Navy Sterling DDS235 wrecker that is restored National War and Resistance Museum / Marshall Museum at Overloon, The Netherlands
Here is some more great information from Jeff about the Sterling wreckers used by the Navy and the Marine Corps:
I thought I would send you some strictly Sterling stuff. Even though the 10 ton Sterling DDS235 wreckers were not technically C-2's, they were certainly very similar and perhaps even the Navy equivalent. They certainly deserve space on your website. If you haven't figured it out, I really have a soft spot for these Sterling's. I probably have 100 times more info than this on the civilian models.
Sterling trucks go back to 1907, and were built in Milwaukee. They were very respected in their time, particularly in the '20's thru '40's. Never a large producer, they were very popular heavy duty trucks, particularly in the northeast and west coast. Sterling's main claim to fame was their wood-lined frames, and chain drive models which they produced right up to the end, long after anyone else was building them. Sterling was bought out by White in 1951. Production continued as Sterling-White until 1953 , when White pulled the plug. The late model Sterling's you see on today's highways are absolutely no relation to the original. The new trucks are the former Ford heavy duty line, sold to Freightliner/Mercedes Benz in 1998.
On many of the photos I have placed a 2 letter code at the end of the description, that is the initials of the person who either took the photo, or sent it to me.
I have 4 shots of the Stuart Motors DDS235, (one you already have), one is a head on shot taken at the same time as the one you have posted. Both were taken by Bob Gilbreath. The other 2 are more recent, and were sent to me by Don MacKenzie. This truck still gets worked. It appears to have been retrofitted with a diesel. Don also sent the great factory photo.
There are 3 photos of survivors from Tom Siemons, a Sterling collector. The yellow wrecker has been re-cabbed with Sterling's post war cab. Notice the rounded windshield corners. The other yellow truck photo, with the long wheelbase, is from Pat MacPhail, another old truck collector.
There are a couple of "official photos", with specs on the backside of one, and some military shots. These all came from various places on the internet.
Sterling also built a smaller 6x6 with similar wrecker equipment, the DDS150. I believe this was a 4-5 ton model. It appears to have been built for the Navy to handle torpedoes. I have never seen an "in service" photo but a few of these trucks have survived. This is another truck that is not in any of the books.
Perhaps the largest standardized wrecker of any type built during the war was Sterling's huge 6x4 HCS330, also built for the Navy. These trucks were rated at 15 tons, and featured Sterling's patented center driven dual chain drive bogie. The bogie was very similar in appearance to the Knuckey bogie used on the Pacific M26 "Dragon Wagon", but Sterling had introduced theirs many years previous, in 1931. Military photos of the HCS330's are rare also. The Lynch civilian truck in the photo is very similar in appearance to the military models, with no major modifications.
Taigh, in just a short time you already have the best website devoted to the big military wreckers. You have done a nice job, and it is especially commendable since the main reason for your website is to promote the aircraft side of your business. I don't know how far you want to stray from the wreckers, if at all, but I do have some more photos of USAAF Reo and Biederman F-1 fuel tankers, and Reo and Sterling Cardox crash trucks. Most of these are military "in service" shots. I can send them along if you are interested.
Thanks for taking the time to post all this stuff, keep up the good work.
Here is the DDS150 Torpedo Crane
Here is a photo of the Biederman Wrecker towing a disabled P-40. Judging the early markings on the aircraft I am guessing 1941 or early 1942. Good shot Jeff!
Steve sent in a comment about the P-40 pictured above:
T he ship is a P-40 (P-40-CU, the first production model) and I'm fairly certain that it's from the 35th Pursuit Squadron, 8th Pursuit Group. If so, the location would quite likely be either Langley Field, VA or Mitchell Field, NY. The time frame would be no earlier than June 1940, but I don't know when the 8th transitioned to the P-39, and so don't know offhand what the tail end of the time-frame would be. Maybe Fall 1941 or thereabouts?
Jeff also sent in a photo of the F1 fuel service truck data plate he bought on ebay.
For some shots of surviving Sterling's click here
Another recent addition can be found here
Good stuff, keep it coming!
Admission of guilt: Many of the photos above were shamefully taken from various sources on the internet. I will be trying to insert photo credits and links as I can find them. Please bear with me. If you have information or photo credits for any of these pictures please let me know so I can post that information.
Should you have any C-2 wrecker photos or stories that you might like to share please send them to me and I will gladly post them with credit to you.
TO ALL OF OUR COUNTRY'S VETERANS, WE HERE AT VINTAGE AIRCRAFT WOULD LIKE TO SAY:
Pearl Harbor Ships on December 7thThe U.S. Navy battleship USS California (BB-44) slowly sinking alongside Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (USA), as a result of bomb and torpedo damage, 7 December 1941. The destroyer USS Shaw (DD-373) is burning in the floating dry dock YFD-2 in the left distance. The battleship USS Nevada (BB-36) is beached in the left-center distance.
There were 130 vessels in the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941, the day of the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. 96 of the Pearl Harbor Ships were warships. 8 were battleships, of which 7 were lined up like easy targets on Battleship Row.
For more information about each ship, click the link. If you have more information that you would like to contribute contact us. If you knew someone on board one of these ships, search for them in our Pearl Harbor Heroes, or Pearl Harbor Survivors. Don’t forget to comment.
This lovely Craftsman House is located in Ingleside Terraces, a residential neighborhood in San Francisco, California.
Developed between 1911 and 1913, Ingleside Terraces has many older homes with Arts & Crafts details. Originally, this home was painted darker colors, but the current color scheme of cream and ruddy brown has been used for at least thirty years. Typical of Arts & Crafts architecture, the house features:
- Open floor plans few hallways
- Numerous windows - The owner counts 40!
- Some windows with stained glass
- Beamed ceilings - In the dining room, the beams are made with redwood
- Dark wood wainscoting and moldings. In the dining room, the redwood wainscoting is seven feet high.
To learn more about Craftsman architecture, see our House Styles dictionary >
USS Gamble (DM-15), c.1940 - History
Creating a monument to endure millennia
A stone carver hangs on to Thomas Jefferson's eyelid.
Image: George Rinhart/Corbis via Getty Images
In 1923, looking to attract tourists and stimulate the economy of his state, South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson proposed creating a massive monument in the Black Hills. He envisioned a memorial to great heroes of the West, suggesting Lakota Sioux leader Red Cloud as a possibility.
The proposal was granted federal funding, and Robinson selected architect and sculptor Gutzon Borglum to design and carve the monument.
Borglum convinced Robinson that sculptures of presidents would attract more national interest than Red Cloud. Before settling on the final design of the monument, Borglum selected the stable granite cliffs of Mount Rushmore as the ideal location.
This decision was met with immediate protest by Native Americans. The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had granted the land around Mount Rushmore to the Lakota in perpetuity, but the area was later seized by the federal government after the discovery of gold. Carving the faces of the leaders of that government into a spiritually significant mountain — known as “The Six Grandfathers” to the Lakota — was adding insult to injury.
Their protests fell on unsympathetic ears, however, and the project moved forward. It was decided that the sculpture would include George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt for their contributions to the founding, growth and preservation of the nation.
Birthdays 1 - 100 of 189
- Frank Knox, American politician (Republican VP candidate 1936), newspaper editor and Secretary of the Navy during World War II, born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1944)
1874-11-30 Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1940-45, 1951-55) during World War II, and writer (Nobel Prize in Literature, 1953), born in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England (d. 1965)
Gerd von Rundstedt
1875-12-12 [Karl Rudolf] Gerd von Rundstedt, German field marshal during World War II (Commander-in-Chief in the West), born in Aschersleben, German Empire (d. 1953)
- Henri Winkelman, Dutch general, Commander-in-Chief of Dutch Armed Forces during WWII, born in Maastricht, Netherlands (d. 1952) Dudley Pound, British admiral of the fleet and 1st Sea Lord (Jutland, WW II), born in Ventnor, Isle of Wight, England (d. 1943) Pyotr Nikolayevich, Baron Wrangel, Russian baron general (White Armies, WW II), born in Novalexandrovsk, Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire (d. 1928) Alex von Falkenhausen, German general (China, WW II), born in Gut Blumenthal, Province of Silesia, German Empire (d. 1966) Ernest J King, US fleet admiral/Chief of Naval Operations (WWII)
1880-01-26 Douglas MacArthur, American General in World War II, born in Little Rock, Arkansas (d. 1964)
- Johan H. Westerveld, Dutch WW II resistance fighter and leader of Order Service (OD), born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1942) Fedor von Bock, German field marshal (commander in the German occupation of Austria, invasions of Poland, France, and Russia during WWII), born in Cüstrin, Province of Brandenburg, German Empire (d. 1945) Władysław Sikorski, Polish World War II general and Prime Minister of Poland in exile (1939-43), born in Tuszów Narodowy, Austria-Hungary (d. 1943) Georg von Küchler, German field marshal and WWII war criminal, born in Schloss Philippsruh, German Empire (d. 1968)
1881-08-07 François Darlan, French Admiral of the Fleet during WWII and Vichy Prime Minister (1941-42), born in Nérac, France (d. 1942)
- Walter Lucht, German artillery general (WW I/WW II) Max Winders, Belgian architect (WWII), responsible for bringing the Belgian gold stock, born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1982) George S. Rentz, U.S. Navy Chaplain (awarded the Navy Cross during WW II), born in Lebanon, Pennsylvania (d. 1942) William Halsey Jr., US vice-admiral (WW II Pacific), born in Elizabeth, New Jersey (d. 1959) Andrew Browne, Irish/British admiral (WWII)
1884-04-04 Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese WWII Marshall Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese fleet who led the attack on Pearl Harbor, born in Nagaoka, Niigata (d. 1943)
1884-06-18 Edouard Daladier, 72nd Prime Minister of France (1933, 1934 and 1938-40) and PM at the start of World War II, born in Carpentras, Vaucluse, France (d. 1970)
- Claude Auchinleck, British Army commander during the Second World War, born in Aldershot, Hampshire, England (d. 1981)
1884-12-30 Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister during WW II (1941-44), born in Tokyo (d. 1948)
1885-02-24 Chester Nimitz, American admiral who commanded the US Pacific fleet in World War II, born in Fredericksburg, Texas (d. 1966)
- Soemu Toyoda, Japanese admiral during World War II, born in Kitsuki, Ōita, Japan (d. 1957 Ernst Busch, German field marshal (WWII), born in Essen, German Empire (d. 1945)
George S. Patton
1885-11-11 George S. Patton, American WWII general (Sicily, Italy and Normandy) known as "Old Blood & Guts", born in San Gabriel, California (d. 1945)
1885-11-30 Albert Kesselring, German general during World War II (Commander-in-Chief South and West), born in Marktsteft, German Empire (d. 1960)
- Henry "Hap" Arnold, American commanding general, US Army Air Force (WWII), born in Gladwyne, Pennsylvania (d. 1950) John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, British soldier, Field Marshal during WW II, born in London, England (d. 1946) Marc A "Pete" Mitscher, US lt-admiral (WW II-Task Force 58)
1887-11-17 Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Alamein, British WWII Field Marshal (African campaign, D-Day) and WWI officer, born in London (d. 1976)
1888-04-28 Harry Crerar, Canadian WWI and WWII general (First Canadian Army), born in Hamilton, Ontario (d. 1965)
- Willis Augustus Lee, American World War II admiral (Guadalcanal) and sport shooter (5 Olympic golds 1920), born in Natlee, Kentucky (d. 1945) Heinz Guderian, German general during WWII, born in Kulm, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1954)
1889-11-23 Alexander Patch, American WWII general (Guadalcanal Campaign, Operation Dragoon), born in Fort Huachuca, Arizona (d. 1945)
1890-05-10 Alfred Jodl, German general during World War II (head of the German High Command, signed unconditional Nazi surrender), born in Würzburg, German Empire (d. 1946)
- Arthur W Tedder of Glenguin, British air marshal (WWII) Gabriel Heatter, American radio commentator famous for his WWII sign-on "There's good news tonight", born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1972)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890-10-14 Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th US President (R, 1953-61) and WWII general, born in Denison, Texas (d. 1969)
- Carl Spaatz, American World War II general and 1st Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, born in Boyertown, Pennsylvania (d. 1974)
1891-11-15 Erwin Rommel, German Field Marshal (WWII - African campaign), born in Heidenheim, Württemberg, Germany (d. 1944)
1892-04-13 Robert Watson-Watt, Scottish physicist and developer of the radar and radio direction finding in WWII, born in Brechin, Scotland (d. 1973)
- Theo Osterkamp, World War I and World War II German fighter pilot, born in Düren, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1975)
Josip Broz Tito
1892-05-07 Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist revolutionary and leader of Yugoslavia (1943-80), born in Kumrovec, Hrvatsko Zagorje, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (d. 1980)
1893-02-12 Omar Bradley, American WWII General (Invasion of Normandy) and 1st Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1949-53), born in Clark, Missouri (d. 1981)
- Draža Mihailović, Serbian WWII hero and war criminal, born in Ivanjica, Serbia (d. 1946) Velvalee Dickinson, American spy, convicted of espionage against the United States on behalf of Japan during World War II, born in Sacramento, California (d. 1980) Gerald F. Bogan, U.S. Navy aviator and vice admiral who served in World War I & II, born in Mackinac Island, Michigan (d. 1973) Ivan Isakov [Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan], Russian-Armenian military commander (Commander in Chief of the Soviet Navy during World War II), born in Hadjikend, Russian Empire (d. 1967) Walter Warlimont, German General WWII, born in Osnabrück, Hanover, Prussia, Germany (d. 1976) Oliver Leese, British World War II general, born in Westminster, London (d. 1978) Semjon Timoshenko, Russ marshal/inspector-general (WWII) Matthew B Ridgway, US gen (WW II/China/Nicaragua/Korea/NATO) Jürgen Stroop, SS General during World War II and commander of Nazi forces during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, born in Detmold, Germany (d. 1952) Richard Sorge, German spy for the Soviet Union in Tokyo during World War II, born in Baku, Russian Empire (d. 1944) Walter Bedell Smith, U.S. Army general (WWII) and head of CIA (1950-52), born in Indianapolis, Indiana (d. 1961) Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (German Air Force-WW II), born in Barzdorf, German Empire (d. 1945) Francis C Denebrink, US Naval officer (WW I, WW II, Korea)
1896-12-01 Georgy Zhukov, Russian deputy commander-in-chief of the Red Army during WWII (Battles of Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin) and Minister of Defense, born in Strelkovka, Kaluga (d. 1974)
1896-12-15 Miles Dempsey, British WWII general (XIII Corps, Second Army), born in New Brighton, Cheshire (d. 1969)
- Hasso von Manteuffel, German WWII general (5th Panzer Army) and politician, born in Potsdam, Germany (d. 1978) Lucius du Bignon Clay, American WWII general and military governor of West Germany, born in Marietta, Georgia (d. 1978) Karl Plagge, German officer and Nazi Party member who during World War II used his position as a staff officer in the German Army to employ and protect some 1,240 Jews, born in Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1957) Kurt Tank, German WW II aircraft designer Arthur R. von Hippel, German physicist (pioneer in the study of dielectrics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, and semiconductors and was a codeveloper of radar during World War II), born in Rostock, Germany (d. 2003) Jean Moulin, French hero of the Résistance during World War II, born in Béziers, France (d. 1943) Lyman Lemnitzer, United States Army Marine Corps general (WWII), born in Honesdale, Pennsylvania (d. 1988)
1900-05-04 Archibald McIndoe, New Zealand plastic surgeon pioneer who rehabilitated badly burned Royal Air Force crew during WWII, born in Dunedin, New Zealand (d. 1960) 
- Ernie Pyle, American journalist and war correspondent during WW II (Pulitzer Prize 1944), born in Dana, Indiana (d. 1945)
1901-05-13 Witold Pilecki, Polish WWII resistance fighter (volunteered to go to Auschwitz, Witold's Report), born in Olonets, Russian Empire
- Mariel-Henri Jaspar, Belgian minister who unsuccessfully attempted to establish a Belgian government in London during World War II, born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1982) Willy Lages, German chief of Sicherheitsdienst in Amsterdam (WWII), born in Braunschweig, Germany (d. 1971) Arleigh A Burke, Colo, admiral (WW II, Solomon Islands, Navy Cross) Truman J Hedding, US vice-admiral (WWII) Jacques-Philippe Leclerc, French WW II hero (liberator of Paris), born in Belloy-Saint-Léonard, France (d. 1947) James Sargent Russell, US pilot and admiral (WW II Pacific Ocean), born in Tacoma, Washington (d. 1996) Nikolay Kuznetsov, Russian naval commander (Admiral of the Fleet during World War II), born in Medvedki, Russian Empire (d. 1974) Paul D. Stoop, American vice-admiral (WW II-Coral Sea), born in Zanesville, Ohio (d. 1995) Herbert D. Riley, US Navy vice-admiral (WW II, Guadalcanal, Okinawa), born in Maryland, United States (d. 1973) Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (WWII, Korean War & Vietnam War), born in Lexington, North Carolina (d. 1965) John Thach, American WWII Naval aviator (developed the Thach Weave) and USN admiral, born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas (d. 1981) Alfredo M. Santos, First Four-star General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, World War II hero (d. 1990) Fitzhugh Lee, US pilot/vice-admiral (WW II, Navy Cross) Harry Broadhurst, British Royal Air Force commander and flying ace of the Second World War, born in Frimley, Surrey, England (d. 1995) Denis Barnett, British air chief marshal (WWII, Suez Canal) (d. 1992) Roy L Johnson, US admiral (WW II-Pacific Ocean)
A. J. P. Taylor
1906-03-25 A.J.P Taylor [Alan John Percival], English historian (The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918, Origins of the Second World War), born in Southport, England (d. 1990)
- Virginia Hall [Goillot], American spy with British Special Operations during WWII (1940-1966), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1982) Eddie Myers, British WWII soldier and engineer, born in Kensington, London (d. 1997) Lee Miller, American photographer (War correspondent for Vogue in WWII), born in Poughkeepsie, New York (d. 1977) Cecil Brown, American war correspondent (worked closely with Edward R. Murrow during WW II), born in New Brighton, Pennsylvania (d. 1987) Herbert Kappler, German head of Nazi police and security services (SS) in Rome during WWII, born in Stuttgart, German Empire (d. 1978) Günther Prien, German World War II submarine captain (d. 1941) Stewart Myles MacPherson, Canadian-born British broadcaster (WWII), born in Winnipeg, Manitoba (d. 1995) Charles Merritt, Canadian Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross during World War II, born in Vancouver, British Columbia (d. 2000) Lionel KP "Buster" Crabb, British diver (WW II-George Medal) Simone Weil, social philosopher/Resistance fighter (WWII), born in Paris, France
105th Infantry Regiment
The 105th Infantry Regiment, formerly the 2nd New York Infantry was a New York State National Guard Regiment that saw action in a number of conflicts, including the Civil War, the Spanish-America War, the Mexican Border dispute of 1916, World War I, and finally World War II. It was officially re-designated the 105th Infantry in September of 1917. For service in World War II, the Regiment was organized into twelve companies, which initially drew their membership from a number of towns in the capital region. Companies A, C, and D were recruited from Troy. Company B was recruited from Cohoes. Companies E, F, and H were recruited from Schenectady. Companies G, I, K, L, and M were recruited from Amsterdam, Malone, Glens Falls, Saratoga Springs, and Gloversville respectively. Additional regimental troops came from Hoosick Falls, Whitehall, and Saranac Lake.
The 105th was inducted into federal service and assigned to the 27th Infantry Division on October 15th 1940. Following its induction, the Regiment was moved to Fort McClellan, AL. on October 25th 1940. The 106th departed for Hawaii March 10th 1942 and arrived on March 17th 1942. The Regiment&rsquos 3rd Battalion landed on Butaritari Island, the principal island of the Makin Atoll on November 20th 1943. It formed a Special Landings Group, which preceded the main landing craft in amtracs (Amphibious Tanks) and cleared the beaches for the subsequent landing waves. The Battalion fought with the 165th Infantry for the remainder of the battle and on November 24th 1943 left the atoll for Hawaii, where they arrived on December 2nd 1943. The Regiment left Hawaii on May 31st and landed on Saipan on the 17th of June 1944, where it fought with the rest of the 27th Division for the first time. The 105th Regiment was initially responsible for clearing the hilly and well fortified southern point of Saipan, which was later found to have been held by over 1,200 Japanese defenders. Following this, the Regiment joined the rest of the 27th Division and the 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions for what would be an extremely bloody assault on Mount Tapotchau, the island&rsquos key defensive position. Near the end of the battle, the 105th also bore the brunt of the largest Banzai charge of the entire war, its 1st and 2nd Battalions killing by actual count 2,295 Japanese. As a result of this grisly fighting, three soldiers of the 105th were posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. The 105th was detached to Army Garrison Force 244 on Saipan between the 15th and 30th of July. The 105th arrived at Espiritu Santo on September 4th 1944 for rest and re-supply, and departed on March 25th 1945. The 3rd Battalion assaulted Tsugen Shima off Okinawa on April 10th 1945 to safeguard the landing beaches on Okinawa itself. The 105th landed on Okinawa on April 12th and 13th 1945 and was heavily engaged in an area known as the Kakazu pocket, which centered on a well-fortified ridge system. The Regiment&rsquos action in Okinawa was its last serious duty. On September 12th 1945 the 105th arrived in Japan for garrison duties. It was deactivated on December 12th 1945, following its return to the states.