Troy

Troy

Troy or “Truva” is one of the most famous and historically significant sites in the world. Located in modern day Turkey, the site marks the meeting place of Anatolia, the Aegean and the Balkans, making it a vitally important source of information about the historic relationships between these regions.

Imbued with several millennia of history and the subject of legend, Troy’s fame mainly derives from being the fabled location of the Trojan War. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage site and features as one of our Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Turkey.

Troy history

There are several ancient accounts of this conflict, mainly fiction, the most famous of which was written by Homer in The Iliad. The story goes that the Greeks besieged Troy after Helen, wife of the Menelaus, the king of Sparta, was taken by Paris of Troy. Many historians now believe that the reason for the Trojan War was a bitter commercial rivalry between the people of Troy and the Mycenaeans.

It was also Troy which was the subject of Virgil’s epic poem ‘The Aeneid’, in which the Greeks laid the famous “Trojan Horse” trap for the people of Troy. The Greeks, pretending to have left Troy during the Trojan War, placed a wooden horse at the gates of the city as a purported trophy of the Trojans’ victory. In fact, Greek soldiers were hiding inside the horse and once taken in by the Trojans proceeded to destroy the city and claim victory.

Over the millennia Troy became a bustling Persian commercial hub, particularly from 1700 BC. However, a combination of natural disasters, invasions and occupations led to the city being rebuilt numerous times. It is said that Alexander the Great visited Troy in 334 BC at the start of his campaign against the Persians. The Macedonian leader is believed to have paid his respects at the Tomb of Achilles.

Troy continued to maintain its status under the Romans as Ilium, especially after it was identified as the location of Homer’s ‘Iliad’ in 188 BC and the city was exempt from taxes. The site has a mix of Greek and Roman monuments, many built by prominent figures such as Alexander the Great and the Roman Emperor Augustus. Ilium flourished until the Byzantine period when Constantinople became the bishopric.

It was not until 1822 that Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren identified Hisarlik as the modern location of Troy.

Troy today

The vast ruins now found at Troy lay witness to thousands of years of history, the oldest section dating back to the late 4th millennium BC. Each part of the site is numbered, correlating to a specific period of time. The famous walls of Troy, which played such an important role on the Trojan War (some of which remain) can be seen in the VII section.

Regardless of whether Troy was the actual site of the Trojan War, the archaeological site of Troy is a fascinating place for history enthusiasts and tourists alike to wander the wooden walkways. The Troy Museum lays at the entrance to the ruins, built to the exact height of the ancient city, boasting sarcophagi, axes and cutting tools, glass bracelets, gold, coins, ceramics and more – all bringing the ancient city to life.

Of course, the site also has a replica of a Trojan horse.

Getting to Troy

Situated near Kalafat in Turkey, it is easiest to drive to the archaeological site. From Istanbul, Troy is a 5 hour drive along the O-5 and E90 roads around the Sea of Marmara. From nearby city Çanakkale, it is a 35 minute drive along the E87 and there is plenty of parking.


Troy - History

Summary of Troy Family History (NSW)

TROY: The Troy Family can be traced back to Ireland, England and Northern France as De Troyes. The name sometimes appears as Trohy, Trehy, de Troye, de Treo and other variations. OTrehy is a phonetic rendering of O'Troighthigh,(or O Troightheach), meaning "Footsoldier". The Surname Troy is first found in County of Clare, where they were granted Lands by Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, after his conquest of Ireland in 1172. One of the oldest places in Ireland associated with the name, is CastleTroy, of Limerick. The location of historic "Castle Troy" ruins. Apparently 21 Troys fled France because of religious persecution, then settling in England , Cork and Kilkenny. The best known Troy was John Thomas Troy, 1739-1823. he was the the Archbishop of Dublin and he saw to the building of St Marys Cathedral there. His Father was a Frenchman, by the name of De Troye (or De Treo). Henry Troy, was Provost (Chief Magistrate) of Limerick in 1197. And in 1198, the first Mayor and Sheriffs were chosen. From then, till 1463, no less than 21 Troys held one or other of those Offices. John de Troy was appointed Sheriff of Dublin in 1355.

The History of the Troy Family in Ireland is quite extensive. There are 4 main early lines of Troys, traced to Australia, so far. TAS. WA. VIC.and NSW. Two Convicts and Two Freesettlers.Our Branch of the Troy family started with Patrick Troy, (Father undetermined),who arrived on the "Providence 1" in 1811, after being tried at Waterford, Ireland, trying to steal guns from a "gentleman squire, Wilson". There is no proper indication of his background, as he could neither read nor write. Probably didnt know his own age. ( There were rumors that he may have been the son of Archbishop, John Thomas Troy). Patrick later on married Elizabeth Smith, the daughter of first fleet convicts Anne Colpitts and Thomas Smith (alias Haynes)

The "Providence 1" left 21/1/1811, from Falmouth Cornwall, and then to Cork Ireland, then other destinations enroute ,arriving at Sydney, Australia, 2/7/1811. - Not to be confused with the Original "Providence" of Captain Bligh, which was wrecked in 1897 off the Isle of Formosa (Taiwan) (Possibly Isle of Ikena, where a model is on display)

From here on it is all history. Patricks eldest son Thomas, married Louisa Hanks. Louisa was one of six daughters of convicts James Hanks (arrived "Barwell" 1798) and Sarah Trapnell, who arrived 1800, on the "Admiral Cornwallis". (Both Sarah and Anne left children behind in England.) Thomas and Louisa's son, George, married Emily Crisp. Their son , George Thomas S., married Betsy Crisp. The rest of the details of our family,are in the Genealogy Charts.

Another Patrick Troy married Ellen Leahy ,gave birth to yet another Patrick, Patrick William Troy. This wing migrated to the USA, but there were many others as well. There are a large number of Troys in the States.There is a Suburb in NY City named Troy. Patrick William Troy, after having worked out of the Shipping Ports in the States, for about 20 years, came to the Port of Melbourne, where he stayed and married Hilda Ainsworth. Captain Patrick Troy had 5 children, before moving to Albany,West Australia. They eventually had 10 children altogether.

There was another line of Irish Troys to WA . Patrick Richard Troy, a freesettler, arrived in Femantle, on the "Sabrina" in 1853, along with his eldest daughter Mary, who was born in Kilderry, Ireland 1828. Patrick and his Wife, Mary Bricklin (Kilderry), had 4 sons and 2 Daughters. Most settled in Gin Gin and Geraldton Area WA. There is now a large Clan of Troys in WA from Albany to Geraldton and beyond. They are highly respected over there.

Still there is another convict, Richard Troy (1780-1848), who came out on the "Atlas". He was sent to Hobart to serve a 7 year term. He Married Mary Anne Moran, and established the Tasmanian Clan. It is not known if he was related to our Patrick. This Family later spread to Central NSW and then some to New Zealand.

The national Archives have many entries of other Troys having later migrated to Australia as Convicts or under assisted passage and unassisted passage from Ireland and the UK. Others came from Europe and China, whereupon these migrants adopted the name, Troy , in place of their lengthy surnames upon registering for citizenship .The true family name thus becomes obscure with time.

The Troy Family History is extensive and interesting. Anthony Laffan (a descendant of Clara Troy), has published two novels "Anne Colpitts, First Fleet Convict Pioneer" and "Convicts and Currencies, The family of James Hanks". The First book is very good reading, about the Travels of Anne Colpitts to Australia and her History. The Second is a Great book highlighting The Hanks Family during Early Settlement at Sydney with links to Trapnell, Sherwin, Troy, Rowe, Riley, and others. Let me know if you would like a copy. Tony was instrumental in helping me put this Tree together. Most of the material came from him. So also, the contributions of "cousins" Carolyn Troy and Lawrence Turtle.(Many Thanks)

Contributions are always welcome, especially historic photos etc. The hard work has been done for us, but from here on it is up to each Family Head to continue the Legacy of the TROYS., for the benefit of future Generations.


About Us

Troy University’s tradition of teaching excellence dates to its founding on February 26, 1887, when an act of the Alabama Legislature established Troy State Normal School as an institution to train teachers for Alabama’s schools. Joseph Macon Dill was the institution’s first president. In 1893, the school was renamed Troy State Normal College.

The Normal College offered extension courses for teachers and granted teaching certificates until 1929, when the State Board of Education changed the charter of the institution and renamed it Troy State Teacher’s College. That same year, the college moved to its present site and the first two buildings were dedicated: Shackelford Hall, named for Edward Madison Shackelford, president of the school from 1899-1936, and Bibb Graves Hall, named for David Bibb Graves, Alabama’s “education governor.” Governor Bibb Graves is also remembered for commissioning the Olmsted Brothers architectural firm of Brookline, Massachusetts, to design the campus landscape plan. The building has since been renamed to honor the memory of Civil Rights icon and longtime Georgia Congressman John Robert Lewis, a Pike County native.

Like many American universities, Troy State Teacher’s College enjoyed one of its most prosperous periods of growth in the years following World War II when returning veterans took advantage of the GI Bill. The enrollment of the College more than doubled and this growth led to the introduction of degree programs in disciplines other than education, most notably in business. In 1957, the State Board of Education recognized this expanded role and dropped “Teacher’s” from Troy State College’s name.

The decade of the 1950s also marked the University’s long relationship with the United States Military, as extension courses were offered on nearby bases, first at Fort Rucker, near Dothan, and later at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery. A separate Troy State College teaching center was established at Fort Rucker in 1961, which evolved into the present-day Dothan Campus. A similar center, begun at Maxwell Air Force Base in 1965, led to the creation of the present-day Montgomery Campus. These programs were the forerunners of the modern TROY Service Centers division of Troy University, which operates all TROY teaching sites outside Alabama. In 1973, the University opened sites at military bases in Florida. Today, TROY Service Centers operate some 20 sites in seven U.S. states, at locations in Japan and South Korea, and partnerships with universities in Vietnam and Malaysia.

In 1967, Gov. Lurleen B. Wallace appointed eight members to the newly established Troy State College Board of Trustees, removing the institution from the control of the State Board of Education. One of the first acts of the new board was to recommend the change of the name to Troy State University. The new name became official on Dec. 14, 1967.

In 1975, the Phenix City Campus was opened as a branch of the main campus.

In 1982, the Troy State University System was formed, as the campuses in Dothan and Montgomery were granted independent accreditation status. In April of 2004 the Board of Trustees voted to drop "State" from the University's name to better reflect the institution's worldwide mission. Starting August 2005, all TROY campuses were again unified under one accreditation.


Troy - History

Best Time to Visit
May-June
September-October

Airports
Canakkale Airport (30km)

Best Places to Stay
Canakkale

Troy (aka Troia in ancient Greek, Wilusa by Hittites, or Ilios of Greeks) is an ancient site located at Tevfikiye (Hisarlik) near Canakkale in the northwest of Turkey. The mound is home to 9 different layers, and not only for literature as in Homer’s Iliad or archeology with its 4000 years of history but also for human history, it has a high ranking of global value considered as the time capsule of ancient civilizations.

Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad, earned Troy its fame and claimed the Trojan War had been fought on the archeological site. In the epic poem, a wooden horse was used to convey the Myceneaens (Achaean league) in the center of the impenetrable city, where they eventually captured during the Trojan War between the Trojans and the Mycenaeans. Whether the story is accurate or not, a Trojan dispute was fought in the 12th century that was thought to lead to the creation of Hittite, Wilusa, to become Illion and later Troia.

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Troy (aka Troia in ancient Greek, Wilusa by Hittites, or Ilios of Greeks) is an ancient site located at Tevfikiye (Hisarlik) near Canakkale in the northwest of Turkey. The mound is home to 9 different layers, and not only for literature as in Homer’s Iliad or archeology with its 4000 years of history but also for human history, it has a high ranking of global value considered as the time capsule of ancient civilizations.

Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad, earned Troy its fame and claimed the Trojan War had been fought on the archeological site. In the epic poem, a wooden horse was used to convey the Myceneaens (Achaean league) in the center of the impenetrable city, where they eventually captured during the Trojan War between the Trojans and the Mycenaeans. Whether the story is accurate or not, a Trojan dispute was fought in the 12th century that was thought to lead to the creation of Hittite, Wilusa, to become Illion and later Troia.

Planning a trip to Troy soon? Answer this trip planner and get your FREE quotation within 24 hours.

At a Glance

Myth and Real

Before Arrival

What to See

Tips & Etiquette

During the heights of the Bronze Age, Troy relished its golden ages when it had the power, also thanks to its location controlling the trade routes. After the Trojan War, the city was deserted till 700 BCE when Greeks settled the Troas region.

Alexander the Great (descendant of Achilles), who was on his way to conquer Asia, also stopped by the glorious city to honor the heroes and governed the area around the 4th century BCE. This visit was rather romantic and more of a personal one where he switched his armor with that of Achilles.

Named as New (Sacred) Ilium, Romans ruled the area from 85 BCE, and the city had glorious times again thanks to the belief of the Aeneas, one of the heroes of Troia, and considered as the ancestor of Romulus and Remus (the founders of Rome). This legendary was turned into a great marketing, and Troy, even back then, became a popular destination for tourism and pilgrimage.

As Constantinople flourished, the city lost its importance, and many assumed that it was just a mythical place invented by Homer before the self-proclaimed archeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, demonstrated its presence. Archeological excavations are still ongoing, so the ancient city is still visible, and it has a great deal to teach the world.

In Search of Troy because of Homer’s Iliad

The legend tells us that the sea goddess Tethys and the Titan of the Atlantic Sea, Oceanus had a beautiful daughter named Electra. She would become the wife of Zeus later and would bring Dardanus to the world. The son of Dardanus founded the city- later called Troad, and his son, named Ilus, would establish the city of Troy.

The Mount Ida (Kaz Dagi) rising above the city was home to the first beauty contest, of which candidates were Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris, the judge of this beauty contest, chose Aphrodite, and he was promised the love of Helen, the beautiful queen of Menelaus, the king of Sparta. Eventually, Paris abducted the beautiful queen from Mycenae and brought her to his homeland, to the castle of his father, King Priam.

As a result, the brother of Agamemnon, who is the king of Mycenae, loaded his army along with a vast list of Achaean troops and landed on the shores of the city to start the legendary war that would turn into ten years of besieging. While thousands lost their lives in the war, the idea of Odysseus, pretending to abort the siege, Epeius building the massive Trojan Horse, and leave it at the shores of the city. The warnings of Cassandra (the daughter of Priam) did not result in good, and the horse was taken into the fortified walls with celebrations considering it as a present of Athena.

Later in the night, the Greek fleet came back, and the army hiding inside the horse opened the gates to the Greek troops, and at the end of the night, the whole city was burned and destroyed. The sons of King Priam’s were killed with all the other men, while women were taken to Greece as slaves to be traded in different cities.

It is not precisely known when Homer wrote this great epic. Some believe it was right after the war, around the 12th century BCE, and some believe it was even earlier, around the 9th century BCE.

So, while there is no firm evidence of all these happenings or the other speculations about the history, there is still a piece of evidence supported by the bronze arrowheads and fire-damaged bodies found around the archeological site.

In summary, Trojan Horse might be a myth, but the city and more than one war are real!

Hittite References to Troy

Hittites’ capital, Hattusa, located in today’s Bogazkale in central Turkey, was quite far from Troy. The tablets found at this capital and the ones in Egypt have mentions of a mighty city near Dardanelles named Wilusa (Greek: Ilios) reigned by a king named “Alaksandu” or Alexandros, birthname of Paris, the Trojan prince.

According to the vessels found on the site, these lands were under the Hittite rule or at least had good trade relations. However, while the Hittites had a perfect archiving system, this was not the case for western Luwians.

Troy in the Bible

Troy is not mentioned in the bible, but there is a mention of the city of Troas in Acts 16:8 and 20:5-6. While Paul’s missionary journeys were much more later than the myth of the Trojan Horse, it is still a debate if it is the same location or not.

Excavations

While the city’s location was known approximately by the works of Homer, Herodotus, and Strabo, the exact location of the site was not known until the modern days.

In 1822, Charles Maclaren proclaimed that the mound of Hisarlik was the exact location. Still, the idea was not taken into consideration by the scholars believing the legend was rather based on myths.

The site was first excavated by Frank Calvert in 1863 and visited and taken over by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann who continued the excavations from 1870 till his death in 1890.

Upon his death, his assistant and architect of the protect, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, continued the project from 1893 till 1894. Dörpfeld successfully numbered the levels from I to IX (from the lowest upward) and exposed the impenetrable fortifications of Troy VI, which he defined as the “Homeric Troy.”

From 1932 to 1938, led by Carl W. Blegen, the University of Cincinnati (USA) continued the excavations using new technologies of the time and newer methods.

Excavations were taken over by a new team of Turks, Germans, and Americans organized by Manfred Korfmann. Most of the findings from the classical era (Greek and Roman) were brought to light by C. Brian Rose from the University of Cincinnati.

After 2012, Canakkale 18 Mart University continues the excavations with the new team under the direction of Rustem Aslan from Canakkale 18 Mart University.

Getting There

Troy is approx. 30 km away from the nearest city, Canakkale, where there is an airport, but there are no direct flights from Istanbul. The best way to get there instead is by land & ferry combination, which is 500 km and takes little more than 6 hours depending on the season, traffic or stops.

From Canakkale to Troy, there are public buses every hour, and the bus trip takes around 45 minutes. However, getting from Istanbul by bus and then other buses until you get to the ancient site means you will be wasting most of your time on the buses.

Where to Stay

The options for accommodation and restaurants are somewhat limited compared to those in Canakkale. Since the ancient site is only 30 km away from the city center, we favor this option considering it is also easier to take the ferry to Gallipoli the next or the previous day. The city center also has a good variety of restaurants along the seafront (Kordon), where you will also get to see the wooden Trojan horse model used in the 2004 Wolfgang Petersen movie “Troy”.

When to Go

You’ll be able to go to the archeological ruins almost any time of the year if you’re from a chiller corner of the world.

In general, the best times to visit the site are in the early summer and before fall, meaning May, June, September, and October.

The coldest months are January and February, but the temperatures even then dip below around 4°C (40°F). The temperature rises to 43°C (110°F) in the middle of the day around July and August when it hardly rains.

Is Troy Worth Visiting?

Absolutely, yes. Technically, you can take a day trip from Istanbul however, we don’t recommend it. The journey (or bus trip) takes about 6 hours/one way, and you will already feel tired once you reach there. The best way to make the most of the visit is to stay one night and see Gallipoli on the other day.

However, if you have limited time and this is a must-do on your bucket list, get ready to wake up around 06:00 in the morning, enjoying a scenic ride through Thrace and crossing Dardanelles, finally get back to Istanbul by 21:00 or 22:00 at the latest.

1. Roman Odeon (Music Theater)

Built closer to the agora, the Odeon was a small theater for musical events that consisted of a semi-circular orchestra planned separately from the skene (stage).

2. Roman Bouleuterion (Council Chamber-Senate)

The bouleuterion, offering a great view of the entire site, served as a place of political gatherings. Today, you can still enjoy its podium, and the marble seats date back to the reign of Augustus.

3. South Gate

It would not be strange to assume that this was the entrance to the town, but the only thing that survived to the present day is the paved roadway along with a water channel in the center.

4. Altars and Temple of Athena

The presence of the Athena temple can be seen only in the shrines and monasteries. The west and north of the altars have to be pictured. Lysimachos built the glorious new temple promised by Alexander the Great, but little remains.

The Dardanelles, the European Turkish, and the Menderes (Scamander) river plains have a great view from these heights. The “burnt town” (Troy II), which was assumed by Schliemann to have been the town of Priam, is still in the foreground.

5. Fortification Walls

To supersede the existing walls of the older Troy VI, the fortification walls of the Troy VI were built in several steps. While not equal in height, the rectangular limestone blocks were perfectly set to maximize the durability of the defense. The walls were over 4 meters thick and around 9 meters in height.

6. Defensive Tower of Troy VI

Visiting the Eternal Stone of Troia, make a right turn and head to the fortifications of Troy VI. The defensive towers were erected on these fortifications out of limestone that could last longer and were pretty strong, rising around 10 meters high.

7. Mycenaean Houses of Troy VI

Surpassing the walls of Troy VI, you can see the settlements of the Mycenaean houses. Considering the iron or steel was not available when houses were built, the exquisite stonework and the quality of artistry are pretty remarkable.

8. Schliemann’s Trench

Between the first and second groups of Troy II dwellings, the wide north-south trench, which Schliemann traversed, allows tourists to see the walls of homes and parts of ancient settlers made of stones attached to earth mortar. The restored eastern wall, made of air-coated clay bricks, marks the boundary of the large, long buildings. The base of the ramp is crossed by a wooden bridge through the three-ring walls of Troy II.

9. The Ramp of Troy II

A well-preserved paved ramp will let you access the interior of Troy II. Archeological findings revealed that the ramp was below a large tower. Nearby is where Schiemann discovered the Priam’s Treasure, which he was wrong about the date- around 1000 years.

10. East Gate

The East Gate wall is superposed by a Roman stone wall that had its columns on the east end of the temple. A curving passage some 10 meters long and 1,8 meters wide was created by the defensive wall from the south. The massive North-Eastern Tower can be seen on the Mycenaean walls from one of the more than 20 calcareous altars surrounding the Temple of Athena.

11. Troia Museum

Opened and announced as “The Year of Troy” by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2018 to honor the 20th anniversary of getting listed UNESCO World Heritage List in 1998, The Troia Museum is an award-winning project out of 150 candidates.

The museum sits on a vast space of over 11,000 m2 that exhibits more than 2000 findings consisting of sculptures, inscriptions, sarcophagus, altar, milestone, ax, and similar cutting tools, terracotta ceramics, bone objects, figurines, glass bracelets, metal pots, gold caches objects, jewelry, guns, coins, ornaments, glass/terracotta scent bottles, and tear bottles.


Historical Timeline

On February 26, 1887, an act of the Alabama Legislature establishes State Normal School Troy as an institution to train teachers for Alabama's schools. Joseph Macon Dill is appointed as first president.

The University grants teaching certificates to its first graduates: Kitty Corley, Celeste Darby and Emesa Locke. Edwin Ruthven Eldridge is appointed second president.

TROY establishes its first summer school, called the Normal Institute.

The Normal Ray is established as a combination literary journal and student newspaper, published monthly.

The TROY Alumni Association is organized with 28 charter members the first president was Edgar M. Wright.

The school is renamed Troy State Normal College.

The State Normal Exponent, the University’s first magazine, begins publication.

Edward Madison Shackelford is appointed as the third president.

The college is separated from the Troy City Schools system.

The athletic program begins the first football team is formed.

The Alabama Legislature appropriates $40,000 for the purpose of building a girls' dormitory.

The first edition of the Palladium, the University's yearbook, is published.

The Student Army Training Corps forms with 110 men.

The first student government is formed.

The Old Hilliard Place was purchased from W.B. Folmar through a $35,000 city bond issue for the new campus.

The Normal School begins using Kilby Hall on the site of the current campus in Troy.

Ground is broken on Bibb Graves Hall.

The State Board of Education changes the charter of the institution and renames it Troy State Teacher's College.

The Tropolitan, TROY's official student newspaper, is founded.

Matthew Downer Pace is appointed as acting president of Troy State Teacher's College.

Charles Bunyan Smith is appointed president.

A crew of students constructs the campus lagoon.

Sherrill Busby is named TROY's first football All-American.

The marching band is formally organized.

Due to World War II, enrollment drops to an all-time low of 119.

Poet Carl Sandburg visits and lectures during homecoming.

Non-education certificate related BA and BS degrees are made available to students.

Construction begins on the football stadium.

The band marches in uniform for the first time during a football game with Livingston State Teaching School the TROY band was the first marching band among the state's normal colleges.

TROY establishes first extension course at Camp Rucker, the college's first formal military partnership.

One of 15 colleges chosen nationally for a pilot program preparing teachers to deal with the topic of religion in the public schools.

The State Board of Education recognizes the University's growth and expansion and drops Teacher's from Troy State College's name.

The TROY Collegiate Singers appear on a nationwide Christmas radio program aired by the Mutual Broadcasting Company.

A Medical Technologist program is offered.

An engineering technologist and engineer aide program is offered.

Frank Ross Stewart is appointed as president.

A separate Troy State College teaching center is established at Fort Rucker which evolves into the present-day Dothan Campus.

Enrollment passes 2,000 for the first time.

Dr. Ralph W. Adams is appointed as president.

The University's Greek system is developed.

A teaching center is established at Maxwell Air Force Base which evolves into the present-day Montgomery Campus.

The Sound of the South starts, under the direction of Dr. John M. Long, with 35 members.

December 14, 1967, Troy State College officially becomes Troy State University.

Governor Lurleen B. Wallace appoints eight members to the newly established Troy State College Board of Trustees, removing the institution from the control of the State Board of Education.

The Troy State football team wins the 1968 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) football national championship. This win is the first of 11 national championships TROY has won in four sports.

The nursing school is established.

The Theatre Department forms the popular touring troupe The Pied Pipers.

The University accepts its first official foreign exchange student.

TROY's first international sites are established in Europe in contract with the United States Air Force.

The Phenix City Campus is opened as a branch of the main campus.

TSU-TV begins broadcasting.

WTSU radio begins broadcasting as an NPR affiliate.

Construction begins on Pell Avenue fraternity housing.

The Trojan football team wins the NCAA Division II National Championship with an 18-7 victory over North Dakota State.

Both the Men's and Women's golf teams win NCAA Division II National Championships.

The baseball team wins the NCAA Division II National Championship.

The Trojan baseball team wins a second NCAA national title.

The Trojan football team defeats Portland State 31-17 to win the NCAA D-II National Championship.

Dr. Jack Hawkins, Jr., is appointed as Chancellor.

The Adams Center Performing Arts Theater opens with Brighton Beach Memoirs as the first play.

Chase Riddle retires as Trojans baseball coach the most winning coach in TROY baseball history.

Plans begin to move athletics from NCAA Division II to Division I

Enrollment at the Troy Campus tops 5,000, total enrollment passes 14,000

The Alabama Supreme Court hears arguments on campus and TSU-TV broadcasts the session live, a first for the state's highest court.

A study by USA Today finds the Troy Campus to be the safest campus in the Alabama and one the 15 safest campuses in the nation.

The Men's basketball team sets an NCAA scoring record with a 258-141 win over DeVry Institute.

In its final year of Division II competition, the men's basketball team advances to the national title game.

The Trojan football team advances to the national semi-finals in its first year of Division I-AA play.

Cowart Hall reopens as a dorm for female students a new pool, weight room and volleyball courts also open.

Environmental Science and Sports Medicine are added to the TROY curriculum.

Basketball coach Don Maestri and baseball coach John Mayotte are each named Coach of the Year in the East Coast Athletic Conference in the first year of Division I competition for the two sports.

Legendary band director Dr. John M. Long leads the Sound of the South for his final homecoming game the School of Music is named for him in December.

Hurricane Opal causes $1 million in damage to the University.

The Olympic Torch Relay stops on the Troy Campus on its way to the Centennial Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta.

Money Magazine selects TROY as one the nation's 25 best buys in public higher education.

The City of Troy issues the then-largest building permit in its history for the $6.5 million renovation and expansion of McCall Hall.

University initiates its first capital campaign, Quest for Excellence, chaired by alumnus Harrel McKinney.

TROY acquires the 12-acre site of the former Alabama Baptist Children's Home near the Troy Campus the property later becomes home to Sorority Hill and the Southeast Alabama In-service Center.

The Women's basketball team makes its first appearance in the Division I championship tournament.

The City of Troy provides $4.5 million to fund improvements to Memorial Stadium and Sartain Hall

The Hawkins-Adams-Long Hall of Honor, which houses the Alabama Bandmasters Association Hall of Fame and the National Band Association Hall of Fame of Distinguished Conductors, is dedicated.

Ground is broken on the Rosa Parks Library and Museum at the Montgomery Campus.

The Board of Trustees votes to move the Trojan football program from Division I-AA to I-A effective 2001.

The renovated and expanded Pace Hall-Rotary International Living and Learning Center, home to the Office of International Programs and international student housing, opens.

TROY's budget tops $100 million for the first time.

Troy arts patron Claudia Crosby donated $1.3 million to renovate the Smith Hall Auditorium and fund arts and theater scholarships the then-largest individual gift ever received by the University.

The Alumni Association charters its first international chapter in Kirov, Russia 11 Kirov residents and TROY graduates sign the charter.

Ground is broken on the Library/Technology Building at the Dothan Campus

Award-winning actress Polly Holiday spends two weeks at TROY as a visiting professor of theater

A food court and fitness center are added to the Adams Student Center work begins on Claudia Crosby Theater.

TROY begins its first school year on the semester system.

The TROY Alumni Association is organized with 28 charter members the first president was Edgar M. Wright.

Dr. Christi Magrath receives the University's first National Science Foundation grant at the time the largest individual grant received by a TROY faculty member

The TROY Collegiate Singers Perform in Carnegie Hall for the first time.

TROY total enrollments tops 18,000

The Rosa Parks Library and Museum opens at the Montgomery Campus

Quest for Excellence Capital Campaign concludes with about $20 million raised.

TROY Football moves into NCAA Division 1-A, now known as the Football Bowl Subdivision the inaugural season is highlighted by an SEC win over Mississippi State on Oct. 13.

Irish Week Celebration is initiated (Alabama's official St. Patrick's Day parade)

The first 1+2+1 program students arrive on the Troy Campus from China.

The First Leadership Conference Celebrating Black History Month is held.

The Men's basketball team wins the Atlantic Sun Conference and participates in the NCAA Tournament for the first time since moving to Division I.

A new softball complex is completed

TROY enrollment tops 20,000 for the first time.

All TROY students receive a University email address.

A new Soccer/Track Complex is completed.

The University is invited into the Sun Belt Athletics programs.

In April of 2004, the Board of Trustees votes to drop State from the University's name to better reflect the institution's worldwide mission.

The renovated Quad is dedicated at the Troy Campus.

Construction completed on the Movie Gallery Veterans Stadium Tower.

TROY hosts its first nationally televised (on ESPN 2) home football game from Movie Gallery Veterans Stadium with a win against nationally ranked #19 Missouri.

TROY plays in the Silicon Valley Classic bowl game in its first D-I bowl appearance and its first bowl invitation in school history.

Troy University officially begins its new era as a unified, worldwide institution—One Great University.

The General Academic Building opens at the Troy Campus.

Inaugural Odyssey Convocation for first-year students and parents is held.

The TROY Trojans win the 2006 New Orleans Bowl against the Rice Owls, the first bowl game win for TROY, after capturing TROY's first Sun Belt Conference title.

The Children's Wing dedicated at the Rosa Parks Library and Museum.

The TROY baseball team wins Sun Belt Conference title and Sun Belt tournament Championship.

TROY embarks on its second capital campaign, Building Beyond Boundaries, chaired by distinguished alumnus Dr. Manuel H. Johnson.

The Trojan Village dorms and the new Barnes and Noble bookstore officially open.

TROY worldwide enrollment nears record 30,000.

University announces plans to begin the state's first Interpreter Training Program classes begin in 2008.

The Alabama Commission on Higher Education grants approval for TROY to offer its first doctoral degree—the Doctorate in Nursing Practice.

The Trojans are named Sun Belt Conference co-champions.

The Lott Baseball Complex at Riddle-Pace Field debuts.

Gov. Bob Riley commits $8 million to the Bibb Graves Hall renovation project.

Confucius Institute is officially dedicated.

The TROY Trojans play in New Orleans Bowl, captured the Sun Belt Conference championship and played both LSU and Ohio State, the past year's BCS National Championship playoff teams. In non-conference play, the Trojans faced Big 10, Big 12 and SEC teams.

Jack Hawkins, Jr., Hall is dedicated.

Renovations begin on Bibb Graves Hall.

TROY receives an A1 bond rating, its highest rating ever, from Moody's Investor's Services.

Forbes magazine ranks TROY as the top public university in Alabama in it its annual college and university survey.

The Trojans football team marks its first undefeated season in the Sun Belt Conference and claimed their fourth-straight league championship.

TROY forms the Manuel H. Johnson Center of Political Economy.

The TROY Dance Repertory Ensemble performs in The Great Hall in Beijing as part of the celebration of the Sino-American 1-2-1 Dual Degree Program's 10th anniversary.

TROY Trojans play in GMAC Bowl as Sun Belt Conference champions.

The first graduating class of TROY's first doctoral program, the Doctorate of Nursing Practice, receives diplomas.

Troy University mathematics professor Dr. Sergey Belyi is named a Fulbright Scholar and will spend three months at East Ukrainian National University and Donetsk National University collaborating on mathematical research.

A new dining facility opens on the Troy Campus.

TROY cuts the ribbon on Trojan Arena, and the men’s basketball team opens the facility with a 56-53 win over the SEC’s Mississippi State.

TROY celebrates its 125th birthday with a gala celebration and events on each of its Alabama campuses and around the world.

TROY dedicates Manuel H. Johnson Center for Political Economy in renovated and expanded Bibb Graves Hall.

TROY dedicates Confucius Institute offices in Bibb Graves Hall and recognizes Confucius Classroom partner schools in Birmingham and Montgomery.

Dr. John M. Long, director of bands emeritus, is honored with the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts’ Stephen Sondheim Inspirational Teacher Award.

The TROY football team defeats Navy 41-31 on Nov. 10 in the University’s Military Appreciation Game at Veterans Memorial Stadium.

Troy University celebrates the career and service of former Congressman Terry Everett, dedicating R. Terry Everett Hall and opening the Everett Congressional Library on the Dothan Campus.

TROY dedicates a major renovation of Wallace D. Malone Jr. Hall on the Dothan Campus to add classroom and lab space for degree programs in the College of Health and Human Services.

TROY holds 10th 1-2-1 Sino-American Dual Degree Program commencement ceremony in China.

“The Chronicle of Higher Education” names Troy University as a “2013 Great College to Work For” in the area of “Work/Life Balance.”

Troy University officials, joined by the Troy University Foundation officers and the Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile, formally open and dedicate the John Henry Cardinal Newman Center residence hall.

TROY dedicates the new John M. Long Hall, home to the University’s Long School of Music.

The Alabama Commission on Higher Education approves TROY’s first-ever doctor of philosophy degree – the Ph.D. in Sport Management.

TROY joins The Campus Kitchens Project, a national organization that empowers student volunteers to fight hunger in their community, with the official launch of its own Campus Kitchen.

TROY officials dedicate the Center for Student Success in honor of Dr. John W. Schmidt, a retired University administrator who served in leadership positions including Senior Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs and Senior Vice Chancellor for Advancement and External Relations.

The Hall School of Journalism and Communication is ranked 6th nationally in the Radio Television Digital News Association's 2014 Best College Journalism Schools survey.

Dr. Jack Hawkins, Jr., Chancellor, is one of nine chancellors worldwide and the only one in North America to receive the World Confucius Institute's Individual Performance Excellence Award.

TROY opens its Phenix City Riverfront Campus along the banks of the Chattahoochee River. The 48,000-square foot, four-story, $11.5 million building houses the Phenix City Campus' business, nursing and social work programs

The John M. Long School of Music takes delivery of the largest current collection of new Steinway pianos in the state, culminating the University’s initiative to become an All-Steinway School. The delivery brought the School’s inventory to 29 Steinway pianos, including the first two Sterling Steinways ever produced.

TROY celebrates the completion of its “Building Beyond Boundaries” capital campaign, announcing the effort had exceeded its goals in raising $258.3 million.

TROY’s Rosa Parks Museum, located on the University’s Montgomery Campus, celebrates the 60th anniversary of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

The Janice Hawkins Cultural Arts Park opens on the Troy Campus, featuring an amphitheater and several prominent art installations, including “Violata Pax Dove,” by the artist Fred “Nall” Hollis located on the Daniel Foundation of Alabama Plaza, 200 replica terracotta warriors by the artist Huo Bao Zhu and the International Arts Center.

Troy University Libraries receive national attention after installing exercise bikes containing stations for laptop computers were installed at the Troy and Dothan campuses.

Troy University, Barnes and Noble and Montgomery officials cut the ribbon on the new Trojan Cafe on the University's Montgomery Campus.

DeMarcus Ware Day is declared in Alabama, and the University salutes its Super Bowl champion alumnus by presenting him with the Distinguished Leadership Award.

Five Troy University students are part of The Leon Levy Expedition, a 30-year excavation of Ashkelon, Israel, that unearths what archeologists believe to be the world’s first discovered Philistine cemetery.

The Trojans football team posts a win over Ohio in the Dollar General Bowl to cap a 10-win that included the program’s first-ever ranking in the Associated Press Top 25.

In a historic fall commencement ceremony, Sara Shoffner received the University’s first Doctor of Philosophy degree, earning the Ph.D. in Sport Management.

TROY football completes its best season ever, posting an 11-2 record, capturing a share of the Sun Belt Conference title and winning the New Orleans Bowl over North Texas. The epic season included a 24-21 win over LSU in Baton Rouge on September 30.

Troy University and Troy Bank and Trust partner to launch the IDEA Bank, an initiative of the Sorrell College of Business aimed at cultivating and supporting student entrepreneurs who will launch business ventures in collaboration with faculty, fellow students and mentors from the community. As a part of the effort, the college launched the Troy Bank and Trust Entrepreneurship Program, an interdisciplinary minor designed to provide students with a strong understanding of business and entrepreneurship theory, practices and applications.

TROY announces plans for the creation of the Coleman Center for Early Learning and Enrichment at the University’s Dothan Campus. The facility will be named for James F. Coleman, the longtime chairman of Coleman Worldwide Moving, whose family’s donation helped make the project possible.

TROY unveils North End Zone facility at Veterans Memorial Stadium as new football season kicks off.

Troy University receives grant from the U.S. Department of Education to implement the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program, which is designed to provide first generation and underrepresented undergraduate student populations the opportunity to pursue graduate and doctoral degrees.

TROY received a $3.2 million grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to establish the Center for Materials and Manufacturing Sciences, focusing on research in the areas of polymers and polymer recycling.

TROY dedicated the new Earl Hutto Studio in Wallace Hall that provides broadcast journalism students to opportunity to hone their craft in a state-of-the-art television studio. The studio is named in honor of Hutto, a renowned news broadcaster who went on to serve eight terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, who alongside his wife, Nancy, donated $100,000 toward the renovation of the TROY TrojanVision studios.

TROY unveils a clock in front of Smith Hall as a part of a celebration honoring Dr. Jack Hawkins, Jr.’s 30 years as Chancellor.

TROY’s School of Accountancy earns accreditation from AACSB International, making the Sorrell College of Business one of only 189 colleges of business worldwide to hold dual AACSB accreditation.


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Trojan War Around 1184 BC: Truth or Legend?

1184 BC sparked the beginning of the Trojan War. During this phase, the Greeks departed in various ships and left behind an enormous wooden horse that was a form of victory offering. The truth is that it was actually heaved within Troy’s walls, and the Greek soldiers would then come down from the belly of the horse after dark just to slay each and every guard. That way, they were able to successfully destroy the city.

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Throughout the generations, a lot of questions about the war have been commonly asked. Did it really happen? Was it really during the 1184 BC? The answer to the first question would be a yes based on various archaeological evidence. According to studies, it didn’t really happen during the traditional date that’s told, but rather just around the 1200 BC. Where? The answer would be Asia Minor.
So, there is actually a conflict of info between the works of Homer about the Trojan War legends and the various archaeological studies conducted. However, it can’t just be a truly made up story. The said war and the folklores it comes with are firm parts of the Western Culture, especially in language enrichment.

Significant Details about the Trojan War

The war lasted for over 10 consecutive years until such time that the Greeks were able to send the wooden horse loaded with soldiers who were aimed to bring destruction to the city of Troy. Achilles, who was one of the major characters to have fought in the said war, was speared through his heel to death. Due to the invasion of the Greek soldiers, all the major structures within Troy were totally burnt. In the end, Troy lost the battle that seems to be pretty tragic if you really think about it.
Now, why did Paris have to take away Helen from Menelaus, the King of Sparta? As you may know, Paris is actually one of the gods in the said legend. The main reason Helen had been such a big interest to him was the goddess beauty that she had possessed. Aphrodite whom Paris sent along with the soldiers was actually the one who did the abduction for him.

Menelaus’s Broken Vow

Due to Menelaus’s love for Helen, he had made a vow to do whatever it took to rescue Helen. With the help of his brother, Agamemnon, he was able to win the companionship of the Achaean soldiers towards the retrieval of Helen. There are actually different versions about how it ended. There’s one where Menelaus ended it all by killing Helen. On the other hand, there was a version where he dies and reunites with his beloved Helen in a so-called “Island of the Blessed.”


Troy - History

Troy Bickham is a Professor of History. Having joined Texas A&M in 2003, he served in various roles at the university’s campus in Qatar from 2009-19, before returning to the Department of History. He teaches broadly in the histories of Britain and its empire, the Atlantic world, and British colonial North America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He is an elected Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.

Bickham has written on a variety of topics and published in multiple leading journals, including Past & Past Present, Journal of British Studies, Eighteenth-Century Studies, and the William and Mary Quarterly. He is the author of four monographs: Savages within the Empire (2005), which explores how encounters with Native Americans affected British culture in the eighteenth century Making Headlines (2008), which examines British engagement with the American Revolution via the British newspaper press and The Weight of Vengeance (2012), which is a transatlantic study of the Anglo-American War of 1812. His most recent book, Eating the Empire (2020), investigates how food from around the world shaped British culture in the eighteenth century. His current research projects include a cultural history of the maple tree and mapping the public communications networks of early modern Britain and its empire.

Publications

Eating the Empire: Food and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain

The Weight of Vengeance: The United States, the British Empire and the War of 1812

Making Headlines: The American Revolution as Seen Through the British Press


HISTORY OF TROY®

Stephen Troy, Jr. is a retired Massachusetts State Trooper, a retired member of the Air Force and a successful entrepreneur. His commitment to service and a passion for designing high performance weapons have propelled his law enforcement, military and business career.

As a young man Steve was highly motivated and drawn to public service earning his Eagle Scout award, becoming a member of the Civil Air Patrol, enrolling as a Police Explorer and became a martial arts expert. Troy’s military experience began in 1987 when he joined the Connecticut Air National Guard and he later transferred to the US Air Force Reserve.

Early in his military role Steve began serious exploration of what would become a lifelong passion &ndash the expert use and development of small arms. TROY took advantage of every opportunity to train and earned certification in weapons ranging from the M-16 rifle to the M-60 machine gun. During his military career Troy&rsquos been called to active duty twice, has served in the Middle East and extended his training in small arms development and counter-terrorism. Steve began his law enforcement career in 1988 and served as a Massachusetts State Trooper from 1999 to 2011. With his expertise in small arms design, Steve became a highly sought after consultant. In 2003, he formed his own company, Troy Industries, with a goal of designing and manufacturing top quality small arms components and accessories.

With an unrelenting focus on quality and innovation, TROY has enjoyed phenomenal growth. Acceptance of TROY products by combat soldiers and law enforcement personnel, including Troy&rsquos flagship product, Folding BattleSights, earned a solid reputation for exemplary quality and performance. Other TROY products, including rails, slings and full weapon upgrades are widely recognized as top quality weapon enhancements.

Iconic firearms manufacturers such as Smith & Wesson, Sturm Ruger & Company and LaRue Tactical took notice and began incorporating TROY products into their new weapons. Today, TROY is one of America&rsquos largest suppliers of OEM small arms accessories, with a wide ranging and highly satisfied customer base of military and law enforcement personnel.

Building upon the success of TROY limited edition CAR 14 rifle and years of BattleProven accessories, TROY Industries proudly debuted TROY, the firearms division in 2012. Geared towards special operations, law enforcement specialists and the discerning shooter, Troy Defense offers technologically advanced and professionally constructed firearms and tactical upgrades that previously were only available to select military and law enforcement agencies.

What started as a small family-run business has grown significantly. Steve has stayed involved in the day-to-day business operation and enjoys the challenge of managing a company with a seemingly unlimited potential for growth. He believes that by staying focused on the company&rsquos original commitment to quality and innovation, all TROY Divisions will continue to thrive.


The History of Troy

Archaeologists say that Troy has become famous mainly through the epics of Homer. Many scholars have long doubted the existence of Troy altogether. Today, however, it is generally accepted that the archaeological site on the Hisarlık hill in northwest Turkey, on the southwest entrance to the Dardanelles, was that of the Bronze Age settlement. Already in the 3rd millennium BCE a fortified citadel had been erected on this knoll. The settlement was at its peak between around 1700 and 1200 BCE. The size of Troy and its role at the end of the Bronze Age are still highly controversial subjects.

CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE

F or a long time the existence and location of Troy ranked among the most controversial topics in archaeology. Today the majority of researchers assume that the settlement mound on Hisarlık, located at the southwest entrance of the Dardanelles, matches the Troy sang of in the Homeric poems. As early as the 3rd millennium BCE a fortified citadel arose on this hill. The settlement reached its peak of prosperity between 1700 and 1200 BCE. Later, during the Roman Empire, Troy and its heroes were still highly revered. At the beginning of the medieval period, however, the place fell into oblivion and its location was eventually forgotten.

To this day, the size and importance of Troy is still fiercely debated. Some researchers think that the settlement was of regional significance only, while others see Troy as an important commercial center with far-reaching relations. The Troy debate between the former excavator Manfred Korfmann and his peer in Tübingen, historian Frank Kolb, a debate that was for the most part conducted publicly, ultimately did not result in any clarification.

The historicity of the Trojan War, as described by Homer in the Iliad, is uncertain as well. It is clear, however, that the settlement was destroyed shortly after 1200 BCE. Hittite documents indicate that both Hittite and Mycenaean kings were trying to expand their influence along the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. An attack by the Mycenaeans would, therefore, be plausible but cannot be proven.

SUGGESTIONS

The myth of a former city – Not a fiction

In principle, there are two ways to explain the outstanding significance of Troy in European cultural history. Most prehistorians and historians, including the longtime excavator of the archaeological site Manfred Korfmann and his assistant Peter Jablonka, attribute the importance of Troy to Homer’s poetry. From their point of view, people have glorified Troy for thousands of years because of the Iliad – even though the place itself is not spectacular, as the excavations have uncovered only a settlement of relatively modest size.

There is much that speaks against the idea that Troy’s fame is derived from Homer’s. First of all, Homer was a Greek writer who wrote a poem in Greek about Greek heroes that ended a mighty war through a victory brought about by their Greek forces. How and why should subsequent generations (for over 2000 years!) glorify not the victors but rather the little place that was pummeled by the Greeks? If Homer’s poems made the Trojan War famous, then Roman aristocrats and the people of Europe should have claimed descent from the victorious Agamemnon and his hometown Mycenae, rather than from the losers of the Trojan War. Secondly, many details transmitted about Troy during its heyday are not even related by Homer. So, there must have been other sources in addition to Homer. Thirdly, the Troy theme was especially popular during the medieval period, a time when Homer’s work was not available and was considered lost.

The second possibility, and the one favored here, is that Troy became a myth because the location and its downfall actually were of great significance. Homer’s work therefore benefited from the importance of Troy, not vice versa. Regarding the size and importance of Bronze Age Troy, there is scope for models that are quite different from the prevailing paradigms. It is conceivable that the city was much larger, even a hundredfold larger, than was assumed until 1992. Despite more than 140 years of excavation history, only the citadel hill has thus far been explored. According to various ancient texts, this residence of royal families was surrounded by a park. The actual city of Troy was located in the floodplain of the Karamenderes and Dümrek Rivers (Diodorus 4.75.3). The Trojan kings had engaged outstanding hydraulic engineers who channelized the rivers, so that their water could be used for irrigation as well as for cleaning the city (see Guido de Columnis). During the Trojan War, the Greeks are likely to have destroyed levees and hydraulic installations. Since the war was fought in the dry summer months, their actions had no immediate effect. But when the winter came, with Troy already defeated and destroyed, the topographically low-lying ruins were buried under mud carried by the rivers. Thus, the remains of Troy are likely to be buried a few hundred meters west of Hisarlık, and remain hidden. Excavator Manfred Korfmann has said (in a personal conversation) that drill holes in the floodplain revealed pottery deep down below the present surface. The geoarchaeologist who investigated these deposits for almost forty years concluded, “some levels contain a great deal of archaeological material … Pieces of bricks, stones and mortar indicate the remains of a construction. … From an archaeological point of view, the area along the foot of the northern slope of Troia is an important one … In the light of these findings we consider that it would be very useful to make an archaeological excavation about 7 meters deep.”

In its heyday Troy was indeed the epitome of a thriving city – which is why it became such a symbol in European cultural history. Few visitors who had experienced Troy in its glory were likely to have ever seen anything to surpass it.

REFERENCES

I am extremely disappointed at being obliged to give so small a plan of Troy nay, I had wished to be able to make it a thousand times larger, but I value truth above everything.

Heinrich Schliemann 1875, 344

A great number of the Bronze Age settlements in western Anatolia were probably Luwian foundations, or re-foundations, like Apasa, predecessor of Classical Ephesos, Beycesultan, and perhaps also Troy VI.

To Erichthonius was born a son Tros, who called the people of the land Trojans, after his own name. To Tros were born three sons, Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. Ilus founded in a plain a city which was the most renowned among the cities in the Troad, giving it after himself the name Ilium.

Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE), Library of History 4.75.3 (Oldfather)


Watch the video: Troy clip 3, Achilles talks with hector