Ian Walters' Flying Assessment, August 1945

Ian Walters' Flying Assessment, August 1945

Ian Walters' Flying Assessment, August 1945

Here we see the flying assessment for Ian Walters from August 1945, when he was serving with No.322 (Dutch) Squadron. By this point he had over 900 flying hours, and had moved up from 'average' in a 1943 assessment to 'proficient'.

Donated by Mitchell Walters , son of Ian.


How to look for records of. British military gallantry medals

If you know of an individual who received a British military medal or award for an act of bravery, gallantry or for meritorious service between 1854 and c1990 and you want to find out whether a record of the award and why it was awarded exist, this guide will be of use. Among the numerous medals and awards covered by the guide are the:

  • Victoria Cross (VC)
  • Distinguished Service Order (DSO)
  • Military Cross (MC)
  • Military Medal (MM)
  • Mention in Dispatches (MiD)

For advice on civilian gallantry awards consult our Civilian gallantry medals guide. There are separate records for the award of campaign medals (awarded purely for service) &ndash see our British Army campaign and service medals guide for advice on finding these.


The Case for Gustave Whitehead

More than two years before the Wright Brothers glided over the dunes of Kitty Hawk, a night watchman at a local manufacturing plant reportedly soared over the industrial city of Bridgeport, Connecticut, in his handcrafted flying machine. A full-page article on page five of the August 18, 1901, edition of the Bridgeport Sunday Herald reported that four days earlier a German immigrant named Gustave Whitehead had flown a distance of one-and-a-half miles at a height of 150 feet over Bridgeport and the neighboring town of Fairfield. An accompanying hand-drawn illustration depicted Whitehead in his bat-like contraption, known as No. 21 or 𠇌ondor.” Whitehead later reported that he returned to the skies on January 17, 1902, and flew for seven miles over Long Island Sound.

Whitehead’s claim, however, was plagued by a lack of documentation. Scientific American had noted that a single blurred photograph of the immigrant’s plane in flight had been seen at a 1906 aeronautical show in New York City, but that snapshot, if it existed, became lost to history after the report. When an attempt was made in the 1930s to interview the two eyewitnesses named in the Bridgeport Sunday Herald piece, one could not be found and the other, James Dickie, said he believed “the entire story of the Herald was imaginary.” Still, the persistent claims stuck in the craw of Orville Wright, who in 1945 wrote a rebuttal entitled “The Mythical Whitehead Flight” in U.S. Air Services magazine in which he stated that Whitehead “lacked the sufficient mechanical skill and equipment to build a successful motor” and “was given to gross exaggeration.”

The case for Whitehead’s primacy received new life in 1987 when the CBS news program � Minutes” aired a segment entitled “Wright Is Wrong?” after aviation buffs successfully flew a replica of his craft. The controversy reached new heights in 2013 after Australian aviation historian John Brown announced that he had found a photograph of the exhibit mentioned in Scientific American in 1906 that showed the missing snapshot of Whitehead in flight. Brown’s research led Paul Jackson, editor of the esteemed aviation publication Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, to endorse Whitehead as being first in flight in the foreword to its 100th anniversary issue that March. (Two years later the publication’s corporate owners issued a public statement that Jackson’s assessment was solely his personal opinion.) Connecticut legislators subsequently passed a bill signed into law that declared their state 𠇏irst in flight.”

Orville and Wilbur Wright


History [ edit | edit source ]

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

Organized on 17 August 1943 as the 423d Night Fighter Squadron, the 45th Reconnaissance Squadron is one of the most colorful units in the Air Force, with a battle record composed of the great campaigns of three wars, and a peacetime record of vital contributions to world-wide reconnaissance, treaty monitoring, and pilot proficiency training.

The squadron was organized at Orlando Army Air Base, Florida, and was stationed at Kern County Airport, California, before heading overseas in January 1944. On 22 June 1944, the 423d was redesignated the 155th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron. On 3 December 1945, the 155th was redesignated the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Night Photographic. The 155th participated in the Normandy invasion in June 1944, landed in France in August 1944, and fought its way across northern France into the Low Countries that winter. In December 1944, the 155th was involved in the Battle of the Bulge. The most notable geographic names associated with the 155th were Chormy Down and Chalgrove, England Rennes, Chateaudun, and St. Dizier, France LeCulot, Belgium and Maastricht, Holland.

The squadron crossed into Germany at Kassel/Rothwestern in early July 1945, and was later stationed at Darmstadt, Furth, and Furstenfeldbruck. On 1 July 1948, the unit was redesignated the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Night Photographic and inactivated on 25 March 1949.

Cold War [ edit | edit source ]

As the focus of world attention shifted to the growing crisis in the Orient in 1950, the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Night Photographic was redesignated the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron on 19 September 1950 and activated on 26 September 1950 at Itazuke, Japan.

When hostilities erupted 27 December 1950, the 45th was deployed to Taegu, Korea, and served in every major campaign throughout the war. In mid-summer 1951, the squadron shifted its base of operations to Kimpo AB (K-14), Korea. On 1 January 1953, the 45th was redesignated the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, Photographic-Jet. The 45th remained at Kimpo until March 1955 when it relocated to Misawa Air Base, Japan.

The 45th remained at Misawa until the overthrow of President Diem of South Vietnam in November 1962. A detachment of the 45th had earlier been deployed to Thailand due to the turmoil in South Vietnam. In December 1962, the unit deployed to Tan Son Nhut Airfield, Saigon, recalling the detachment deployed to Thailand. The unit was redesignated the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron on 1 January 1967.

During its nine years in Vietnam, the 45th was involved in most major operations of the war. On 31 May 1971, the unit was inactivated at Tan Son Nhut. On 5 October 1971, the unit was activated at Bergstrom AFB, Texas, replacing the 4th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron. The 45th participated in various training exercises while at Bergstrom, including a 1973 deployment to RAF Alconbury, England for a NATO exercise dubbed CREEK BEE II. Later, the unit transferred its aircraft to Shaw AFB, South Carolina, and was inactivated on 31 October 1975.

The squadron was activated again on 8 September 1981 as the 45th Tactical Reconnaissance Training Squadron. It received the RF-4C aircraft from the 363rd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Shaw AFB, South Carolina and began operations at Bergstrom AFB, Texas on 1 April 1982. The unit trained over 600 students and supported numerous operational deployments and exercises until it was inactivated on 30 September 1989, a result of national budgetary reductions.

Modern era [ edit | edit source ]

On 1 July 1994, the squadron was reactivated at Offutt AFB, Nebraska, as the 45th Reconnaissance Squadron. It assumed the mission of the former 24th Reconnaissance Squadron, which was inactivated on 30 June 1994. 45th Reconnaissance Squadron personnel are members of a professional team dedicated to the maintenance, operation, and support of the RC/OC/WC/EC/TC-135 aircraft.


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The 391st flew combat missions in the European Theater of Operations from, 14 March 1944 – 3 May 1945 and in Southeast Asia from, 2 February 1966 – 21 July 1968. It provided air defense in Korea and Japan from, 22 July 1968 – 14 February 1971. ΐ]

2013 Sequestration [ edit | edit source ]

Air Combat Command officials announced a stand down and reallocation of flying hours for the rest of the fiscal year 2013 due to mandatory budget cuts. The across-the board spending cuts, called sequestration, took effect 1 March when Congress failed to agree on a deficit-reduction plan. Α]

Squadrons either stood down on a rotating basis or kept combat ready or at a reduced readiness level called “basic mission capable” for part or all of the remaining months in fiscal 2013. Α] This affected the 391st Fighter Squadron with a stand-down grounding from 9 April-30 September 2013. Α]


Contents

The airfield has its origins in World War I when it served as a training school for Imperial German Air Force (Luftstreitkräfte) pilots. After the armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany in November 1918, the land was returned to farmers.

Beginning in 1933, the land again was used as an airfield, although under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forbidden to have an air force, buildings and hangars were built around a grass airfield and the airfield was used as a flight training school, ostensibly for civilian Deutsche Luft Hansa airline pilots. Ώ]

Luftwaffe use [ edit | edit source ]

When the new German Air Force (Luftwaffe) was announced in 1935, the training school was became a military flight school to train military pilots for bomber and pursuit squadrons. Beginning in April 1936, Sturzkampfgeschwader 165 was activated at Fliegerhorst Kitzingen, and in 1939, Sturzkampffliegerschule Kitzingen as training organizations, primarily for Junkers Ju 87A "Stuka" dive bomber Junkers Ju 88 fighter-bomber and Dornier Do 17 light bomber pilots. Beginning in 1943, Night Fighter training was performed by Nachtjagdschule 1, using RADAR-equipped Messerschmitt Bf 110 Dornier Do 215, and Dornier Do 217 aircraft in support of the Defense of the Reich campaign. ΐ]

As a result of the Western Allied invasion of Germany beginning in March, 1945, Kitzingen became an operational combat airfield when elements of Kampfgeschwader 54 (KG 54) arrived, flying the new Messerschmitt Me 262A jet interceptor fighter. ΐ] The jet operations drew a significant amount of attention from Allied air forces, and as a result the USAAF Eighth Air Force flew several B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber attacks on the airfield, and Ninth Air Force B-26 Marauder medium bomber attacks, along with fighter sweeps by P-47 Thunderbolts, to keep the German jets on the ground and limit their effectiveness. Α]

The Luftwaffe abandoned Fliegerhorst Kitzingen about 11 April 1945, blowing up the runway, aircraft hangars and other technical buildings. ΐ]

USAAF use [ edit | edit source ]

The airfield was seized by Allied ground forces in early April 1945, with the USAAF IX Engineering Command 819th Engineering Aviation Brigade moving in to clear mines remove destroyed Luftwaffe aircraft and bring the airfield to an operational state for use by American aircraft. The airfield was declared operational on 15 April 1945, designated as Advanced Landing Ground "R-6 Kitzingen". Β] It was immediately put to use as a resupply and casualty evacuation airfield, with C-47 Skytrain transports moving in and out frequently with ammunition and other supplies evacuating combat wounded back to the rear area. Γ] The Ninth Air Force 405th Fighter Group was able to move in with P-47 Thunderbolts on 30 April, but the combat use of Kitzingen was brief, as the collapse of German resistance was in progress, and the war in Europe ending on 7 May. Δ]

German Prisoners of War were housed at the airfield, and put to work repairing the heavily damaged facilities clearing the wreckage, and restoring services to the surrounding area, damaged by the bombing of the area in March and early April. The airfield became an occupation garrison by the Air Force, being designated as Army Air Force Station Kitzingen. Α] The airfield was turned over to Air Technical Service Command, becoming the home of various engineering units, and the 10th Reconnaissance Group, which used Kitzingen as a base of operations, flying mapping and damage assessment photo-recon flights from the airfield during late 1945 and most of 1946. Δ]

United States Army use [ edit | edit source ]

The Air Force units moved out at the end of July 1947 and Army units moved in, using the facility as an occupation garrison. Beginning in 1949, with the formation of NATO and the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany, American army units remained in Kitzingen though a Status of Forces Agreement. On 2 April 1951, Harvey Barracks obtained its name in honor of Captain James R. Harvey, Company E, 359th Infantry, who was killed during the invasion of Normandy, France. For his actions of extraordinary heroism, he was awarded the distinguished service cross posthumously.

Various 1st Infantry Division units have used Kitzingen Army Airfield/Harvey Barracks during the years of the Cold War, however major flight operations from the airfield ended in 1981 with the departure of the 3rd Combat Aviation Battalion to Giebelstadt AAF.

The airfield only sporadically housed flying units during training exercises after 1981, being renamed Kitzingen Army Airfield Heliport. In August 2005 it was announced that the 1st Infantry Division was returning to the United States as part of a USAREUR restructuring, and that Harvey Barracks would be inactivating. The facility wound down operations over the next 24 months and was closed on 29 March 2007.


Tracker Dogs

Of all those sent to Vietnam eleven members of the Australian Army carried out their allotted tasks without a word of complaint, which was all the more commendable considering they could not return home when their tour of duty ended. These veterans were, of course, the tracker dogs used by the Australian Task Force.

The dogs were the core of Combat Tracker Teams that were used from 1967 until the last combat troops departed in1971. Normally two dogs were assigned to each of the Australian Battalions of the Task Force at Nui Dat. Each dog would complete around a three year tour before they were 'retired'. On occasions, as when 2RAR was replaced by 4RAR, which arrived with Milo and Trajan, there were three dogs in the battalion.

Generally, a Tracker Team consisted of the two dogs and their handlers, two visual trackers and two cover men (a machine-gunner and a signaller). However, each Battalion had their own way of doing things and so you will find, for example, in 6RAR during their second tour from June 1969 to May 1970 there were 3 teams in use.

The dogs were trained at the Infantry Centre, at Ingleburn in NSW, and came from a variety of sources, including the local pound. They were outstandingly successful in carrying out their tracking task and, although not trained to detect mines, the dogs were intelligent and sometimes able to do so.

The Australian Army policy was that the dogs would not be brought home at the end of their service. One reason, perhaps not adequately explained at the time, related to an Army veterinary report which noted that large numbers of American tracker dogs in Vietnam had died from a tropical disease, thought (but not confirmed) to be transmitted by ticks. The report recommended that no tracker dogs be allowed back into Australia "even under strict quarantine".

Homes were found with European or Australian families resident in Saigon for 10 of the 11 dogs. One dog, Cassius, died of heat exhaustion after a training run.

In order of arrival in Vietnam, the dogs were

  • Cassius
  • Justin
  • Caesar
  • Marcus
  • Tiber
  • Janus
  • Julian
  • Milo
  • Trajan
  • Juno
  • Marcian

If you have further information concerning the service details of these dogs, please contact the Nominal Rolls Team

Data collected for the Vietnam War Nominal Roll

The individual's full name as recorded on the official record of service document.

If the individual served under an alias, that information will also be displayed where known. Nicknames will not be displayed, as they are not recorded on the service record.

If a woman married while enlisted, and the military authority amended the service record to her married surname, then that surname is displayed. This approach has been taken so that the displayed surname aligns with the surname recorded on the service record. In such cases, a maiden name may not have been collected.

Refers to one of the three Services that form Australia's armed forces - Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Australian Army Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).

Service numbers are allocated by the relevant Service and, in some instances, changed during service. The Service number used in the Nominal Roll is the one held by the individual at the time of their departure from Vietnam or the date of death in Vietnam.

The parent unit or units to which an individual was allotted for duty within the defined operational area of Vietnam.

The date recorded in the Service record as the date of birth.

The place recorded in the Service record as the place of birth.

During the course of Australia's involvement in the conflict, there were changes in the criteria used by the Services, and by Army in particular, to determine dates in relation to Vietnam service. This Nominal Roll uses the following criteria:

Service is taken to have begun on the day of the individual's departure from their last port of call prior to arrival in the Vietnam operational area.

Service is taken to have ended on the day of the individual's arrival at their first port of call after departing the Vietnam operational area.

Where a veteran had multiple tours in Vietnam, a Certificate printed from the website will show in the 'Service Between' section the commencement date of the first tour and the completion date of the last tour.

Ports of call used in the above criteria include those outside Australia (e.g. RAAF Butterworth in Malaysia). As a result, the dates on this website may be different to the dates of service found in some other statements of service. For those affected, the difference will be a few days, and actual time in Vietnam will not be affected.

The dates on this website have no standing in any capacity whatsoever in relation to an individual's eligibility for service medals or veteran's entitlements.

The date of death recorded with the Office of Australian War Graves, where the death has been attributed to war service and occurred before 29 April 1975.

Place of Official Commemoration

The location where those Australians who died during the Vietnam War are officially commemorated. Many Vietnam war dead have private commemorations and are officially commemorated in an official Garden of Remembrance. Although the Office of Australian War Graves ensures the names of those privately commemorated remain legible, the location of the private commemorations are not listed here.

The rank (substantive, acting or temporary) held by the individual on either their last day in the operational area or the date of death recorded with Office of Australian War Graves.

Branch / Corps / Mustering Category / Qualification

These are Service specific terms that relate to an individual's function or speciality.

Indicates any Imperial or Australian honours (1999 End of War List) and awards conferred on an individual during the Vietnam War. Service or campaign medals are not recorded. Foreign honours and awards are also not recorded.

The issuing of honours and awards and service and campaign medals is the responsibility of the Department of Defence.

Indicates National Service at the time of serving in Vietnam. The National Service Act 1964, passed on 24 November, required 20-year-old males to serve in the Army for a period of twenty-four months of continuous service (reduced to eighteen months in 1971) followed by three years in the Reserve. The Defence Act was amended in May 1965 to provide that conscripts could be obliged to serve overseas, and in March 1966 the then Prime Minister announced that National Servicemen would be sent to Vietnam to join units of the Australian Regular Army.


Historical Events on May 6

    Renaissance masterpiece The Ghent Altarpiece by Hubert and Jan van Eyck is consecrated at St Bravo's Cathedral, Belgium, commissioned by wealthy merchants Spanish and German Imperial troops sack Rome, ending the Renaissance

Victory in Battle

1529 Battle at Gogra: Mughal Emperor Babur beats Afghans and Bengals

Event of Interest

1541 King Henry VIII orders a bible in English be placed in every church in England

    Francis Xavier reaches Old Goa, then capital of Portuguese India Archduke Albrecht & Isabella become rulers of the Southern Netherlands Leon VII Spanish poet's first poem is published: La Cocina Dutch colonist Peter Minuit organizes the purchase of Manhattan Island from Native Americans for 60 guilders worth of goods, believed to have been Canarsee Indians of the Lenape Ville Marie (Montreal) forms Johan Mauritius resigns as governor of Brazil Brandenburg monarch Frederik Willem signs treaty with Netherlands

Event of Interest

1682 Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles

    1st international boxing match: Bob Whittaker beats Tito di Carni French King Louis XV observes transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle

Event of Interest

1794 Haiti, under Toussaint Louverture, revolts against France

Historic Publication

1835 James Gordon Bennett, Sr. publishes the first issue of the New York Herald (price 1 cent).

Event of Interest

1837 US blacksmith John Deere creates the first steel plough in Grand Detour, Illinois

Penny Black

1840 World's first adhesive postage stamp, the "Penny Black", is first used in Great Britain

    Johan Thorbecke argues general right to vote Otto Tank ends slavery in Suriname colony Dr John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine" Linus Yale patents Yale lock New slave regulations go into effect in Suriname San Francisco Chamber of Commerce starts 1st major US rail disaster kills 46 (Norwalk, Connecticut) San Francisco Olympic Club, 1st US athletic club forms

Event of Interest

1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi's Mille sets sail from Genoa to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

    Arkansas & Tennessee becomes 9th & 10th states to secede from US Battle of Port Walthall Junction, fought in Virginia begins (Battle of Port Walthall Junction), Union victory (US Civil War)

Battle of Interest

1864 Battle of Wilderness, fought in Virginia, Confederate General James Longstreet seriously injured (Overland Campaign), inconclusive result (US Civil War)

Event of Interest

1864 Union Army General Sherman begins advance to Atlanta Georgia during the Atlanta Campaign (US Civil War)

Event of Interest

1882 Epping Forest, England, dedicated by Queen Victoria

    Thomas Henry Burke and Lord Frederick Cavendish are stabbed and killed during the Phoenix Park Murders in Dublin

Event of Interest

1889 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) in Paris opens with the recently completed Eiffel Tower serving as the entrance arch

    Conductors on London General Omnibus Company go on strike 21st Kentucky Derby: Soup Perkins aboard Halma wins in 2:37.50 22nd Kentucky Derby: Willie Simms aboard Ben Brush wins in 2:07.75 Samuel Pierpont Langley flies his unpiloted Number 5 aircraft using a catapult launch from a boat on the Potomac River, USA. The aircraft travels almost 3/4 of a mile - ten times further than any previous heavier-than-air flying machine. British SS Camorta sinks off Rangoon 739 die Zulu assault at Holkrantz, South Africa Chicago White Sox commit 12 errors against Detroit Tigers American Lung Association holds its 1st meeting "Temporary" permit to erect overhead wires on Market Street, San Francisco allows United Railroads to run electric streetcars

Event of Interest

1906 Tsar Nicolas II of Russia claims right to legislate by decree and restricts the power of the Duma (Russian Parliament)

    33rd Kentucky Derby: Andy Minder aboard Pink Star wins in 2:12.6 Indian nationalist Sri Aurobindo acquitted in the Alipore Bomb Case in Calcutta, India

Nine Kings in One Room

1910 George V becomes King of the United Kingdom upon the death of his father, Edward VII

    King Nikita I of Montenegro vacates Skoetari, northern Albania British House of Lords rejects women's suffrage German U-20 sinks Centurion SE of Ireland

Baseball Event

1915 Future Baseball Hall of Fame slugger Babe Ruth hits his first MLB home run pitches 12 frames in Boston Red Sox 4-3 extra innings loss to New York Yankees

    The Allies on Cape Helles launch three attacks to enlarge their beachheads after terrible losses, they advance about three miles Belgian troops march into Kigali, German East Africa St Louis Brown Bob Groom no-hits Chicago White Sox, 3-0 Paris Peace Conference disposes of German colonies German East Africa is assigned to Britain and France, German South West Africa to South Africa American Soccer League forms

Event of Interest

1925 Ty Cobb hits his 5th HR in 2 games tying Cap Ansons record of 1884

    AL announces it will discontinue MVP award New York to San Francisco footrace begins 59th Kentucky Derby: Don Meade aboard Brokers Tip wins in 2:06.8 Italy & USSR sign trade agreement Red Sox score 12 runs in 4th inning including record 4 consecutive triples hit by Carl Reynolds, Moose Solters, Rick Ferrell, & B Walters

Event of Interest

1935 British King George V & Queen Mary celebrate silver jubilee

    KTM-AM in Los Angeles California changes call letters to KEHE (now KABC) Pulitzer prize awarded to Audrey Wurdemann (Bright Ambush)

Hindenburg Disaster Ends the Age of Zeppelins

1937 German airship Hindenburg explodes in flames at Lakehurst, New Jersey, killing 35 of the 97 on board and 1 on the ground

    Dutch writer Maurits Dekker sentenced to 50 days for "offending a friendly head of state" (Adolf Hitler) 65th Kentucky Derby: James Stout aboard Johnstown wins in 2:03.4

Event of Interest

1940 Pulitzer prize awarded to John Steinbeck for "The Grapes of Wrath"

Event of Interest

1941 Joseph Stalin becomes Premier of the Soviet Union, replacing his foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov

Event of Interest

1941 At California's March Field, Bob Hope performs his first USO show

    Corregidor & Philippines surrender to Japanese Armies British 1st army opens assault on Tunis 70th Kentucky Derby: Conn McCreary aboard Pensive wins in 2:04.2 KJR-AM in Seattle Washington swaps calls with KOMO General Johannes Blaskowitz surrenders German troops in Netherlands World War II: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied troops (first was on December 11, 1941). Pulitzer prize awarded to Arthur M Schlesinger (Age of Jackson)" Revival of Jerome Kerns and Clifford Grey's rags-to-riches musical "Sally" opens at Martin Beck Theater, NYC runs for 36 performances "Great to Be Alive" closes at Winter Garden Theater NYC after 52 performances 76th Kentucky Derby: William Boland on Middleground wins in 2:01.6 Pitts Pirate Cliff Chambers no-hits Boston Brave, 3-0 MLB St. Louis Browns Alva "Bobo" Holloman, in his first start game as starting pitcher, no-hits visiting Philadelphia A's, 6-0

Event of Interest

1954 English athlete Roger Bannister becomes first to run a sub-4 minute mile, recording 3:59:4 at Iffley Road Track, Oxford

    West Germany joins NATO Gus Bell (Reds) homers off Bob Miller in both ends of a double header WRCB TV channel 3 in Chattanooga, TN (NBC) begins broadcasting

Event of Interest

1957 Italian government of Antonio Segni resigns

Event of Interest

1957 Pulitzer prize awarded to John F. Kennedy (Profiles in Courage)

Event of Interest

1960 US President Eisenhower signs Civil Rights Act of 1960

    Students attack Dutch embassy in Jakarta Trotsky's murderer Jacques Mornard (Ramon Mercader) freed in Mexico 87th Kentucky Derby: John Sellers aboard Carry Back wins in 2:04 Omer Vanaudenhove chosen chairman of Belgium Liberal Party 1st nuclear warhead fired from Polaris submarine (Ethan Allen) Antonio Segni elected President of Italy Pathet Lao breaks cease fire and conquer Nam Tha Laos US performs nuclear test at Pacific Ocean Pulitzer prize awarded to Barbara Tuchman (Guns of August) Joe Orton's play "Entertaining Mr Sloan" premieres in London Lawry & Simpson complete opening stand of 382 against W Indies Canadian Minister of Finance announces a $20 Centennial gold coin Most runs scored in 11th inning (9) Phils score 5 to beat Pirates 8-7 Myra Hindley and Ian Brady are sentenced to life imprisonment for the Moors Murders in England

Event of Interest

    400 students seize administration building at Cheyney State College, Pennsylvania 93rd Kentucky Derby: Bobby Ussery on Proud Clarion wins in 2:00.6 Maureen Wilton runs female world record marathon (3:15:22)

Event of Interest

1969 Northern Ireland Prime Minister James Chichester-Clark announces an amnesty for all offences associated with demonstrations since 5 October 1968, resulting in the release of, among others, Ian Paisley and Ronald Bunting

    Yuchiro Miura of Japan skis down Mt Everest Irish Prime Minister Jack Lynch sacks two ministers in the Irish government over allegations of illegal arms importation European Cup Final, San Siro, Milan: Feyenoord beats Celtic, 2-1 first time title won by a Dutch club 98th Kentucky Derby: Ron Turcotte aboard Riva Ridge wins in 2:01.8 Deniz Gezmiş, Yusuf Aslan and Hüseyin İnan are executed in Ankara for attempting to overthrow the Constitutional order 1st WHA championship, New England Whalers beat Win Jets, 4 games to 1 A's pitcher Paul Lindblad makes an errant throw in 1st inning of 6-3 loss to Balt ends his record streak of 385 consecutive errorless games Bundy victim Roberta Parks disappears from OSU, Corvallis, Ore Smallest attendance at Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium (4,149) Stolen "Guitar Player" painting by Jan Vermeer found in London

Event of Interest

1974 West German Chancellor Willy Brandt resigns amidst controversy over his aide Günter Guillaume's ties with the Stasi (East German secret service)


NORAD / CORAD Histories

History of the Air Force Flight Test Center, 1 January – 30 June 1961 [170 Pages, 16.84MB] – Only the first 167 pages of this document were obtained. The rest is available for purchase, but I was unable to afford the complete document.

History of the 313th Air Division, July-December 1962 [501 Pages, 61.5MB] – These documents detail the Okinawa Incident, October 28, 1962.

History of the 304th Air Rescue Squadron, 1 January – 30 June 1963 [1,984 Pages, 497MB] – UPON ACTIVATION 68/01/26, BECAME AN ACTIVE OPERATING UNIT IN LIEU OF A RESERVE TRAINING SQUADRON. THE CALL TO ACTIVE DUTY WAS IN RESPONSE TO THE SEIZURE OF THE NAVY INTELLIGENCE SHIP PUEBLO BY NORTH KOREA. PUEBLO CRISIS, RESERVE CALL-UP.

Oral History Interviews

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Video Archive


Ian Walters' Flying Assessment, August 1945 - History

A Research Paper Presented To The Research Department Air Command and Staff College In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements of ACSC

by
Lt. Col. José G. Vega Rivera (MEXICO)

March 1997

Disclaimer

Contents

Page
DISCLAIMER ii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v
LIST OF TABLES vi
PREFACE vii
ABSTRACT viii
INTRODUCTION 1
The Traditional Position of Mexico 3
Mexico and the Second World War 4
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 7
Status of Mexican Aviation before World War II 7
The Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission 9
TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT 15
The Training in the United States 15
The Training in the Theater of Operations 19
The Equipment 22
The Limiting Factors 23
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE 27
The Concept of Operations 27
The Luzon Operations 29
The Formosa Operations 31
Operational Factors 32
ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSIONS 36
The MEAF Contribution 36 Conclusions 38
APPENDIX A: MEXICO-UNITED STATES AGREEMENT 41
APPENDIX B: FLIGHT TRAINING PROGRAM 43
APPENDIX C: OPERATIONAL DATA OF THE 201ST SQUADRON 45
48
BIBLIOGRAPHY 49
Illustrations
Page
Figure 1. Mexican pilots and P-47 aircraft in the SWPA 2
Figure 2. Map of the Philippines 21

Preface

The Mexican Expeditionary Air Force is Mexico's only military organization that saw combat overseas in World War II. This organization and its operational unit--the 201st Squadron--were part of the Allied forces that battled against the Axis in the South West Pacific Area. However, there are few history works that mention the participation of this unit. Hence, the history of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force is not well known. In this research paper, I explain some aspects related to the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force, concentrating on the organization, training, and operations of the 201st Fighter Squadron. I consider that there are valuable and very important lessons to learn from this experience.

I want to acknowledge the guidance and assistance from my research advisor, Dr. Richard R. Muller, who suggested the topic, and helped me to focus my research and my writing. I also want to acknowledge the insights provided by Captain Amadeo Castro Almanza a--201st Fighter Squadron flight-leader in combat missions--and Lieutenant Charles H. Volz Jr., an instructor of Mexican pilots in 1945 at Napier Field, Alabama. My thanks to the librarians and staff at the Historical Research Agency in Maxwell Air Force Base for their invaluable support. My appreciation, finally, to Don Humberto Gamboa Montoya, who served as a Sergeant in the 201st Squadron, and later became a mathematics teacher in my hometown Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Thanks to him I first learned about the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force in World War II.

Abstract

The Mexican Expeditionary Air Force was part of the Allied forces in the South West Pacific Area in World War II. Its operational unit--the 201st Squadron--was organized, trained, and equipped with the P-47 aircraft. This is Mexico's only unit that conducted combat operations overseas. This research paper analyzes the organization, training, and operations of the 201st Fighter Squadron, as the basis for assessing its performance and explain the significance of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force.

The main source of this research is Lieutenant Colonel Enrique Sandoval Castarrica's "Historia Oficial de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana." Most of the support for the unit's history and operations data comes from original documents found in the Historical Research Agency at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. It includes insights of participants in the training conducted in the US and the operations of this unit in the Philippines and Formosa.

This research paper clarifies some aspects of the operational performance and contributions of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force. It shows how with many limitations and at a relatively low cost, the 201st Squadron was able to succeed in its combat missions in the South West Pacific Area.

Chapter 1Introduction

México, al adherirse a la causa de las Naciones Unidas, expresó la firme resolución de coadyuvar por todos los medios posibles a la victoria final de las democracias, aceptando conscientemente las altas responsabilidades que un pueblo libre debe asumir, cuando se ven en peligro, junto con el prestigio de su soberanía, los ideales que norman su existencia y que son base de sus instituciones, honra de su pasado, preocupación intensa de su presente y garantía eficaz de su porvenir. *

President Manuel Avila Camacho

Mexico's participation in the Second World War against the Axis powers is seldom mentioned in history books. In the few works that acknowledge Mexico's participation, the support with raw materials and labor force to the Allied war effort receives considerably more attention than the actual contribution in combat. This relationship reflects the perceived overall contribution of the country to the Allied cause in World War II, but unfortunately, adds to the lack of information about Mexico's only unit participating in combat overseas the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force (MEAF).

The MEAF was part of the Allied forces in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War II. The organization of its operational unit t he 201st Fighter Squadron was mostly the result of coordination in the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission (JMUSDC). The 201st Squadron, through Lend-Lease Agreement, trained in the United States from August 1944 to March 1945 and was equipped to conduct

combat operations. The preparation of the MEAF culminated with its successful employment in the SWPA from June to August 1945. This research paper analyzes the organization, training, and operations of the 201st Squadron, and clarifies some aspects of the operational performance and contributions of the MEAF.

The participation of the MEAF in World War II, was not an ordinary accomplishment especially if we consider that this was the first occasion that Mexico s government sent forces to fight outside of the country's territory. To understand the significance of Mexico's decision to send forces overseas, it is necessary to briefly review the country's history and the impact of the Second World War.


Figure 1. Mexican pilots and P-47 aircraft in the SWPA

The Traditional Position of Mexico

A recurrent event in Mexico's history is the country defending against acts of external aggression. After Mexico's independence in 1821, the country was invaded several times, lost more than half its territory, and suffered foreign intervention repeatedly. Reparation for war damages on foreign nationals property was used on many occasions as justification for military action against Mexico.

The last cases of military intervention happened during the Mexican Revolution. From April to November 1914 US forces occupied Veracruz in the Gulf of Mexico, to deny European support to Victoriano Huerta. World War I started on August 1914. In March 1916, US forces initiated the Punitive Expedition against Francisco Villa--the outlaw who attacked Columbus, New Mexico. The people and government of Mexico opposed both interventions, always recurring to law and international su pport.

The relations of Mexico and the US remained tense during most of World War I, until the withdrawal of the US troops. The last formation of the retreating US forces reached the border on February 5, 1917, the same day of the promulgation of the actual Constitution of Mexico. 1 This is the legal foundation of the Mexican Armed Forces, and signals the initial step in the professionalization of the Mexican milit ary.

The single person that most contributed to both the US forces leaving Mexico and the promulgation of the Constitution was Don Venustiano Carranza. The Mexican principles of international politics, also known as Estrada Doctrine, are basically a continuation of the posture adopted by Carranza, who solved an international conflict through law, not force. The essence of this doctrine is Mexico's freedom, sovereignty, independence, and equality to all countries of the world before International Law. 2

Mexico and the Second World War

World War II changed in many ways Mexico's international relations. World War II was a total war, and its economic aspects included the cooperation of countries distant from the battlefields. The Allied nations, the US in particular, increased efforts to align on its side the Latin American countries, reducing the influence of the Axis powers in the continent. The US's Good Neighbor policy and the inclination of Mexico to support the cause of democracies, were probably the main reasons for greater cooperation among the two countries.

Mexico's traditional opposition to imperialism contributed to the country s antagonism against totalitarian governments. Before the war, Mexico participated in the economic blockade to Italy after the annexation of Ethiopia in 1935. Later, Mexico maintained recognition to legitimate governments in exile after the military occupation of their countries. Mexico also supported the Republicans in Spain. Those actions manifested Mexico's commitment to the cause of Democracies.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Mexico broke relations with the Axis powers, adopted defensive measures, and increased cooperation with the US. Mexico and the US continued negotiations and both countries reached political, economic, and military agreements to ensure cooperation. One of these agreements was the creation of the Joint

Mexican-United States Defense Commission (JMUSDC) for coordination of military concerns. 3

Support to Allied nations was not limited to greater cooperation with the US. Mexico also resumed relations with Great Britain in October 1941. Both countries had exchanged notes and suspended diplomatic relations after Mexico nationalized its oil industry in March 1938. The Second World War helped to solve this conflict. 4

The enlargement of the theater of war after Pearl Harbor reached Mexico. German U-boats expanded their area of operations after December 1941, to include the Atlantic coast of the US and the Gulf of Mexico. 5 Two Mexican oil ships sank after submarine attacks in May 1942. This caused Mexico's declaration of war against the Axis Powers.

After Mexico entered the war, the country increased defensive measures and cooperation with the US. The obligatory military service, civil defense, and the creation of a Supreme Council of National Defense were some of the actions of Mexico. 6 The Mexican Army deployed in the Pacific Military Region to defend the Mexican territory from Axis forces, while the US counterpart defended north of the border. This cooperation, based on mutual respect, was a completely new relationship, in contrast to the complicated and tense situation during World War I.

The participation of the Mexican military was not limited to territorial defense. The Navy and the Air Force patrolled the coast of Mexico on antisubmarine missions. 7 The latter also participated in combat with a military force overseas. It was the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force with the 201st Squadron a small unit representing the Mexican military. This was something new for Mexico, and it required the organization of a capable unit.

Chapter 2Organizational Development

Whereas to shift the weight of effort on the ground from one point to another takes time, the flexibility inherent in Air Forces permits them without change of base to be switched from one objective to another in the theater of operations.

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery

Mexico's declaration of war against the Axis powers demanded hostile action against the adversary. Mexico wanted to participate, together with Allied forces, with a small but significant military organization. An aerial unit offered the best option for the employment of an effective Mexican force overseas. 8 Different considerations helped this decision.

Status of Mexican Aviation before World War II

year, on November 15, the National Shops of Aeronautical Constructions and the National School of Aviation were born. These organizations evolved, changing name and location several times, and were the main source of technicians and pilots when Mexico entered the war.

The training of Mexican pilots was a responsibility of the Military Aviation School. Many generations of pilots graduated from this school, which had moved recently to a new Base built in 1941. When Mexico declared war on the Axis powers the requirements for trained personnel increased significantly, and the school became insufficient. In 1944 the school had 18 instructors and over 500 students. The MAF had 425 officers (225 pilots) and 1,350 enlisted men. 10

The Mexican Army used different types of aircraft, for the training of pilots and for its operational needs. Most of the equipment was obsolete when Mexico entered the war. In July 31, 1942, in addition to a variety of biplanes and one Ryan STM-150, there were on service a dozen Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher and North American AT-6 Texan, received earlier that year. 11 Civilian aviation did not offer a great amount of additional means to solve problems created by the war so, a growth and modernization progra m started.

Mexico increased its military power significantly after the country entered the war. The US Lend-Lease Law permitted agreements to obtain material and ammunitions. Air power increased significantly in comparison to the status prior to the war. In 1944 Mexico's military aviation included 70 AT-6, 24 AT-11, and 30 A-24B dive bombers. 12 The Aviation Department received the official name Mexican Air Force on February 10, 1944. The following month, the President of Mexico made known that if Mexican forces

were to participate in combat, it would be the MAF personnel who would be representing the country's military.

Probably different reasons contributed to the decision of sending Aviation personnel to war. They could have been among others: the language knowledge, previous experience, and the nature of training. Most pilots and maintenance personnel had some knowledge of the English language this reduced the problem of communication with Allied forces. Also, some pilots had already received flight training in the US Army Air Corps and Navy. 13 Finally, a relatively high amount of training would be of technical nature, benefiting the modernization effort of the Mexican military. The implementation of this decision required thorough coordination.

The Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission

price set on the equipment. 16 The Lend-Lease agreement covered the cost of the program related to the training and equipment of the MEAF, whose organization was discussed in the JMUSDC. 17

The organization of an aerial unit to be employed in combat overseas, representing the Mexican military, offered many advantages for both countries. Operational and tactical considerations favored such an organization. An aerial unit would be able to concentrate the military power of a small unit against different objectives in the Theater of Operations, in contrast with the requirement for a larger ground force deployed in the front. Strategic considerations also supported this type of organization. An aerial unit could better seek combat with a retreating adversary force, which was the overall war situation since 1942.

Many other aspects indicated that the best option for a military force overseas was an Air Force unit. One important consideration was that there would be a lower number of people participating in training in the US and in the operations overseas. This reduced the chances of incidents that could affect the program, and contributed to reduce the expected amount of casualties, which combat experience showed were higher for ground forces. In addition, there was the experience in the US of the organization and training of a Brazilian aerial unit that fought in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.

The coordination resulted in the organization of a Mexican Squadron, which later became the operational unit of the MEAF. As a result of this coordination, on July 1944 Mexico organized a group to receive advanced training in the US. The group developed around the MAF's existing 201st Air Squadron, augmented with personnel selected from different Army and Air Force organizations. 18

  1. Individual training. During five weeks on different bases, starting Augu st 1, 1944.

  2. Unit training. For two months on Pocatello Air Base, Idaho, from September 10 to November 10, 1944. In P-47 aircraft, under supervision of Commanding General 2nd Air Force, and according to Standard 10-1-1.

  3. Replacement training. If necessary, to start four months prior to the date required.

for the participation of a force overseas and the terms of the agreement with the US government for such participation, required changes.

The regular Command line for a US P-47 Squadron, normally commanded by a Major or Captain, was a Fighter Group headed usually by a Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel. The rank of the Commander of the 201st Squadron was higher than usual, a normal designation for independent forces, but unnecessary for the agreed structure. Since the Squadron would be operating under tactical tasking from a US Fighter Group, it was necessary to appoint a new Commander. A Mexican officer, qualified to command in accordance with the standards applied for selection of a commander for a Fighter Squadron in the US Army, was to be in command of the Squadron. As a result, Captain Radamés Gaxiola Andrade was appointed for this position after the creation of the MEAF. 22

The Mexican government, given the importance that this force represented for Mexico and in accordance to the nature of its mission, created the MEAF. This organization was the Squadron's superior unit overseas, except in tactical tasking. The commander of the MEAF was the senior Mexican officer accompanying the Squadron, and he represented the Mexican Army in matters pertaining the Squadron. The Mexican government appointed for this position to Col Antonio Cárdenas Rodr guez, the previous Commander of the 201st Squadron. His responsibility included to further the administrative efficiency of the MEAF, and foster good relations with other United Nations troops. He disposed of a small staff group to assist the training and operations of the 201st Squadron.

Chapter 3Training and Equipment

Train as you intend to fight, and fight as you trained.

--Principle of training

The training of the MEAF took place in the US and overseas. Activities in the US involved Individual and Unit training. The purpose was to create a force able to operate independently, integrated with the US forces. Adaptation to the US system and procedures was a requirement to permit integration on the battlefield. Training continued after deployment in the Theater of Operations. There were many obstacles in the training, but important lessons were learned.

The Training in the United States

Individual training started as early as August 1, 1944. The Squadron divided according to specialties and went to different training centers. The largest groups went to Pocatello, Idaho and the Republic Aviation Corporation in Farmingdale, Long Island,

N.Y. Others went to Boca Rat n, Florida., and Scot Field, IL. Training for the ground echelon consisted basically of instruction in English, basic military subjects, and on the job training in different specialties. 27 Instructors and trainees worked hard to accomplish the mission. In the opinion of their instructors, the Mexican maintenance men were demonstrating a commendable seriousness of purpose, initiative, and comprehension. 28

The pilots commenced a refresher training in Foster Field, TX that terminated in October 1944. Twenty seven pilots were needed to fill the Tables of Organization, and the original training plan included eleven replacements. They flew transition, formation, instruments, navigation, night flying, and strafing missions in the AT-6 and P-40 aircraft. Two pilots were considered not apt for the training and returned to Mexico in August 1944, together with six enlisted men eliminated in the medical exam. 29

After individual training finished, the Squadron concentrated in Pocatello, Idaho for unit training. The purpose of unit training was to create a force able to operate independently. On October 20, 1944, the only absences were the Intelligence Officer and six radar men. 30 The Squadron received eighteen P-47 aircraft, and organized as shown in Table 1. 31

The Second Air Force, to assist in the unit's training, organized Section I in Pocatello, Idaho, in August 1944. This organization, commanded by Captain Paul B. Miller, included instructors and interpreters selected for their technical knowledge and ability to speak Spanish. 32 Lieutenant Colonel Arthur W. Kellond replaced Captain Miller in February 1945, and Section I changed to Squadron it was disbanded in March 1945. Ten members of this unit, including Lt Col Kellond, remained on temporary duty with the 201st Squadron, and accompanied the MEAF overseas. 33

Table 1. Organization of the 201st Squadron

Flight Echelon Ground Echelon
Officers Enlisted Officers Enlisted
Command 3 2 1 6
Medical Service 1 1 0 3
Subsistence (Food) 1 17 0 0
Administrative Supply 1 1 0 3
Transportation 0 0 1 9
Ordnance 1 9 1 19
Communications 1 8 1 24
Engineering/Maintenance 3 8 0 28
Technical Supply 1 1 0 3
Intelligence 2 2 1 1
Operations 3 2 0 3
Flight A 6 13 0 12
Flight B 7 11 0 11
Flight C 6 11 0 11
Flight D 6 12 0 11
TOTAL 42 98 5 144

Flying training in the new aircraft started on 22 October 1944 with good results, attributed to the pilots flying experience. They proved to be well above average as a whole. 34 The pilots flew a minimum of three sorties in the Vultee BT-13 aircraft, before flying the P-47. The complete training program was the standard for US pilots, and it included 120 flight hours, in five phases. Appendix B provides more information about the Flying training program.

The pilots soon demonstrated their flying ability, and during the first week, all except one had been checked out in the P-47. The Commander of Section I pr oclaimed the Mexican pilots considerably above average i n judgment, technique, take-off, landings, and in general performance. He also reported on 16 December 1944 that their formation flying ranged from excellent to superior. 35

Inclement weather on the winter of 1944 prevented flying activities in Pocatello. The MEAF wanted to be ready to participate in combat, and when weather permitted the 201st Squadron aircraft were the first to be ready to flight. To solve this problem and continue training, the MEAF relocated to Majors Field, TX on November 30, 1944. 36 The Mexican Senate authorized the President to send Mexican troops overseas on Decem ber 29, 1944.

On February 2, 1945, the pilots were ready to start gunnery training, the final phase of the 201st Squadron training program. The unit moved to Brownsville Army Air Field, TX for this training but unfortunately, weather continued to be a delaying factor. The higher score for air to air impacts was almost 25 %, and the best results for air to ground strafing were over 30 %. 37 The unit completed gunnery training, and returned to Majors Field, TX on March 14, 1945.

The training of replacement pilots and ground personnel started on February 1945. On March sixteen pilots were flying the refresher course. Ten were almost ready to fly the P-47, and six were about a month behind. Considering the attrition rate, at least nine replacement pilots would be ready on July 28, 1945, and five more a month later. The replacement training plan considered forty-eight more pilots for refresher and P-47 training. 38 The training, initially conducted at Foster Field, TX, was changed to Napier Field, Alabama, near Maxwell Field. Maxwell was the home of the Air Corps Tactical School, the US center for development of air power tactics and strategy.

After finishing the unit training, the MEAF, which received the Mexican Flag on February 22, 1945, was ready to go overseas. 39 The pilots went to Topeka, Kansas, for final processing by the 21st Bombardment Wing, and the ground personnel left Majors

The Training in the Theater of Operations.

Colonel Cárdenas with the MEAF personnel established at Fort Stotsenburg in Clark Field, located about 40 NM Northwest of Manila. Some MEAF elements were assigned to the Fifth Fighter Command as Liaison officers. The 201st Squadron established in Porac, in the Clark Field's area, and was attached to the 58th Fighter Group, Fifth Fighter Command, Fifth Air Force, US Far East Air Forces. 42 The unit remained in this situation until its attachment to the 360th Air Service Group (CR&TC) on 11 August 1945 it was assigned to 13th Air Force along with 360th Air Service Group on 1 September 1945. 43

Advanced combat training in theater was a normal procedure for newly arrived replacements, and it involved ground and flight training. The training program for the 201st Squadron established ground training from 7 to 12 May 1945. 44 The initial two days were lectures from V Fighter Command and Fifth Air Force personnel the rest included

  1. Overall picture on War Fronts
  2. SWPA forces
  3. Weather in SWPA
  4. Fighter Sector orientation
  5. Air Sea rescue
  6. Escape and evasion
  7. Zones of action
  8. Friendly ground situation
  9. Support Air Party
  1. Familiarization and orientation
  2. Fighter tactics and technics
  3. Simulated combat missions
  4. Combat missions

The Equipment

The Lend-Lease agreement permitted the Mexican Squadron to use airplanes, equipment, instructors, and training facilities, in the US. It also contemplated the equipment of the unit overseas, in the same manner that an American unit. Initially the unit received in the Philippines used aircraft and other equipment on loan. The 201st Squadron's aircraft had US markings in addition to the Mexican marks, and they also have a white band painted in the nose. 47

The 201st Squadron flew the P-47 aircraft, officially known as Thunderbolt, but nicknamed "Jug" due to its bulky shape that resembled a milk jug. It was a big and heavy airplane, weighting almost 7 tons, but powerful and fast. There were many series of this aircraft, of which 15,682 were built. 48 Initially it was used as an air superiority fighter, a role later taken by the P-51 Mustang, an aircraft with better endurance and range. The P- 47 could carry up to two 1,000 lb. bombs, and with its eight 0.50 cal . machine guns, it was an excellent aircraft for Close Air Support and air to ground missions in general, specially at short range.

The unit started operations with fifteen P-47 D aircraft, and was able to maintain around twelve operational aircraft at all times. Adequate training and integration in the US logistical system contributed to these numbers, in spite of losses. Spare parts were available and the 58th Fighter Group retained the P-47 aircraft, while other units changed to the P-51. Access to higher level maintenance facilities, also contributed to the Squadron operational status. However, there were some limitations.

The Limiting Factors

Several factors affected the training. The time necessary for preparation and the language barrier were critical. Weather in the US and in the SWPA was a factor that caused delays and imposed restrictions. The equipment of the unit as a whole also required a great amount of effort.

After the 201st Squadron program started, time for training was critical if the unit was to be sent to combat. The original training plan contemplated that the Squadron would be ready in November 1944 however, more realistic estimates indicated five months of training. It took over seven months before the unit was ready to leave the US, and the training was not completed as established in the program, due mainly to weather. 49

Weather played an important role in the delay of the MEAF training. The Squadron suspended unit training in Pocatello, Idaho due to weather it had to move, together with the American classes training at Pocatello, to Majors Field, TX. Weather also affected gunnery training at Brownsville Field, TX. Even in the SWPA flying training was delayed because of weather.

Language was probably the biggest barrier for pilots and ground personnel, and English classes were added to the training program. The instructors of Section "I" agreed that "The chief difficulty in the training of Mexican personnel was the language difference. This was a particular handicap in the on-the-job training program. Results were not completely satisfactory when the Mexican mechanics were put to work with the base mechanics." The interpreters of Section "I" at Pocatello and Majors Field were a great help. "Some considered that training at Farmingdale (Republic Aviation Corp.) was not as

beneficial as training on the line, due to inability of interpreters to speak sufficient Spanish." 50

The language difference also affected pilot training, and probably flight safety. One fatal training accident in the US was probably due to communication problems. A pilot died during a take-off accident, when after receiving clearance to use the runway attempted to get airborne on a short taxiway. The tail wheel and the big engine on the P- 47 difficulted forward visibility on the ground. One pilot was eliminated during unit training for his limited knowledge of the English language a problem that could not be solved completely even with bilingual instructors. 51 The "check sheet" for the ground training in the SWPA recommended: "Since only about 40% of the 201st Squadron personnel are English speaking, the use of posters, photos, maps and other visual aids is indicated. An interpreter will also be present to assist you in presenting your material." 52

Most pilots agree that the P-47 was not an easy plane to fly. Marvin Bledsoe, a P-47 fighter pilot, mentions in his book Thunderbolt that several inexperienced pilots were killed in this aircraft, while others asked for transfers. 53 In addition to that, the very nature of combat training increases risk. One pilot died on air to air gunnery training, when the aircraft went out of control right after he made a firing pass on the target. It was never known if something hit him, but that is a possible cause. Another pilot died in the SWPA during combat training, attempting to recover a high speed stall after a dive bombing pass. 54

Maintenance during training was excellent, but the war requirements imposed sometimes to operate barely within safety margins. It is natural for a unit engaged in combat to retain the best aircraft, and give away war weary equipment. This is one

Chapter 4Operational Performance

Que los miembros de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana no olviden nunca el ejemplo de nuestros héroes. Que, en las pruebas que les reserva la guerra, sientan latir al un sono con los suyos los corazones de todos los mexicanos. Y que la bandera que les env o vuelva con ellos, desgarrada tal vez por las balas del enemigo, pero con gloria. **

President Manuel Avila Camacho

The MEAF and the 201st Squadron were a force representing in the battlefield to the Mexican military they represented them well. It was a small force that combated during a relatively short period of time. "But considering that the 201st was new to combat their record compares favorably with that of the veteran pilots of the 58th Group." 57 The 201st Squadron flew fifty-nine combat missions in Luzon and Formosa, and several ferry flights in the SWPA. 58 There were inevitable losses that was the price to pay for the honor of Mexico.

The Concept of Operations

Allied forces. Their success in integrating air and land forces operations is comparable to the German's "Blitzkrieg" operational concept.

The Allied Strategy to defeat Japan required the reduction of the defense perimeter, expanded after the Japanese offensive in 1942. This strategy made unnecessary to recapture all the terrain in Japanese hands. Isolation of forces and use of forward operational bases were better in terms of cost and effectiveness. From these forward bases it was possible to employ tactical air power, to negate Japan its lines of communication. The War Zone Familiarization Manual for the SWPA presented this strategy as follows: The pattern has been generally like this: An Allied air blockade is first spread out from our most advanced base. Japanese shipping is attacked with persistence until the enemy strong-points within the blockade area are sealed from their major feeder lines. Simultaneously our fighters seek out enemy planes wherever they are, particularly over the latter's bases and destroy them. Importunate, well rehearsed bomber missions follow into these bases and shoot for ships and airplanes. This continues until the enemy's capacity for air retaliation to a landing is minimized. Meanwhile only one or two of the numerous enemy coastal bases within the blockade area are selected for invasion. The Air Force is switched to ground support and turns its full fury on the infantry's target. Then comes the landing with the ground troops aiming for the airstrips. Engineers and malarial control units begin work immediately. Our Air Force moves forward and the process is then ready for repetition to the next limit of our fighters reach, while by-passed bastions in the rear are kept impotent by isolation. 59

In World War II, it was already accepted that Air Superiority was the initial task of air power. After it was achieved, some believed that strategic bombardment of moral o r material objectives followed others thought that isolation of the battlefield and support to ground forces was next. The characteristics of the SWPA favored the latter, that is, tactical air power was necessary, either to contribute in the destruction of the Japanese fielded forces to attain victory, or to permit forward bases for strategic air operations.

The Allied Strategy required a great degree of cooperation at the operational level. Not considering maritime forces, most of the time it was air power who supported ground forces, but also ground forces helped air power providing and defending air bases closer to the diffuse battle front in the Pacific islands. This was the concept that permitted tactical development in air-ground operations, and allowed an early invasion of the Philippines in Leyte Gulf, on October 20, 1944. 60

When the MEAF arrived to the Philippines, Japanese forces still occupied an extensive part of Luzon and Mindanao. The Allied ground forces were in pursuit of the Japanese troops, but they were still a formidable force that continued fighting until the surrender of Japan. 61 Enemy air activity over Luzon was very limited, but there were some isolated reports of hostile aircraft over Manila Bay in June. 62 This was the general situation when the MEAF initiated combat missions on 4 June 1945.

The Luzon Operations

from good to excellent, with the results of some missions not reported by SAP. Appendix C contains mission information.

Coordination with ground forces was essential for this type of missions. The Support Air Party (SAP) concept in use for Allied forces in the SWPA was a refined aspect of the Air-Ground operations. It had evolved from experiences in previous operations, and all the general components of a modern CAS system were present. The 201st Squadron conducted many missions under SAP control, most of them with good results. Weather was the most common cause for ineffective missions. Weather conditions in the Philippines during summertime are unpredictable. In general, there is a direct relationship observed between accuracy of impacts and weather conditions. However, sometimes the 201st Squadron attained good results dropping bombs in close formation due to bad weather. Occasionally, an alternate target was attacked due to weather conditions around the main target.

Target identification was also a factor for ineffective missions. Forests in the Philippines sometimes prevented target identification. Clearance was a requirement for attack, and it would only be granted after identification of the target. The available and unclassified mission reports of the V Fighter Command, 58th Fighter Group, and the 201st Squadron, do not indicate cases of fratricide during the Mexican missions. However, Lt Col Sandoval Castarrica wrote that on one occasion the SAP and the L-5 pilot (Forward Air Controller) designated the target with white smoke bombs and cleared the attack, indicating satisfactory results with all bombs observed impacting the objective area later the V Fighter Command notified the attack affected American troops. 64 The next two

flying days, pilots from the 58th Fighter Group replaced the American liaison pilots, and accompanied the Squadron's flights.

To facilitate target identification, a liaison aircraft (L-5) or ground controllers directed the attacking force. Lack of communication with these elements also added to non effective missions. These personnel gave mission results, and when foliage or distance did not interfere scoring most results were confirmed on target. When the Squadron aborted a mission for any reason, the pilots dropped their bombs on safety areas, usually over the sea.

Effective strafing required visual contact with the target. Not all missions involved strafing, but when it happened, results were also good. Some mission results mention secondary explosions and silenced machine gun nests. One daily report indicated: The Mexican P-47s bombed and strafed enemy concentrations and motor convoy north of PAYAWAN on route #4. All bombs were in the target area and two trucks were left burning. Accurate M/G fire holed two A/C. 65 These reports testify the performance of the 201st Squadron in the SWPA.

The Formosa Operations

they were too distant and it was not possible to engage in air combat. On one occasion the enemy planes reversed direction, and both times they climbed into the clouds. 67 Some friendly flights were observed, and on one occasion a submarine was detected. Japanese submarines conducted resupply missions to forces isolated on some islands.

These missions did not destroy enemy adversaries, but allowed training for long range missions. After almost a month of training and aircraft ferry missions, the unit received another mission--to bomb Karenko, Formosa. Eight aircraft launched on 8 August 1945 for a long range mission that almost exceeded the aircraft capabilities. The pilots declared the mission non effective, but they did not have a second chance. The war ended on 15 August 1945.

The last mission of the 201st Squadron was to escort a convoy enroute to Okinawa, and it took place on 26 August 1945. The war was officially terminated, but there was the possibility of Kamikaze aircraft launching from Formosa. This was the final mission tasked to the 201st Squadron of the MEAF.

Operational Factors

When the MEAF arrived to the Philippines there was almost no Japanese air opposition, and the ground forces were retreating trying to reorganize. However, the adversary was still capable of inflicting damage, and at least on three missions aircraft were damaged from enemy fire. The P-47 was a rough airplane and no aircraft were lost due to enemy action.

Five Mexican pilots died and several accidents happened in the SWPA during non combat missions. 68 The first fatal accident overseas happened on June 1, 1945, apparently

for a high speed stall after a steep bombing dive. Another pilot died on June 5 when his P- 47 crashed because of engine failure after take-off for a functional check flight. Apparently he attempted to avoid a bivouac area. One more fatal accident happened on July 16 during a ferry flight, when the pilot attempted to ditch on the sea after the engine quit due to lack of fuel, while trying to reach friendly territory flying wingman to an American Officer. 69

Another fatal accident occurred in similar conditions on July 19, 1945. A two-ship flight encountered heavy weather and the leader was lost and never found. The final fatal accident happened on July 21, 1945. In the weather, a pilot flew to the ground in formation with his leader an American officer. 70 These losses severely affected the operational performance of the unit, and contributed together with other factors to prevent the Squadron from relocating to Okinawa. 71

The short range of the P-47 also affected the operational performance. When the Squadron flew missions to Formosa, the aircraft limitations imposed severe restrictions. Loiter time in fighter sweep missions with no bombs onboard was about 20 minutes. With the aircraft loaded with bombs, the missions were critical. 72 In the only mission to bomb Formosa, two aircraft had to land in an alternate field due to fuel shor tage.

Another factor that combined with the others to affect the operational performance was the lack of replacements. They continued training in the US, and it would require more time for them to arrive to the SWPA and be ready for combat. 73 In addition, some losses were leaders and it would require additional training to replace them.

Chapter 5Assessment and Conclusions

Fue as como dejo de existir la FAEM, una fuerza de modestos efectivos que, con un m nimo costo en sangre y en dinero, en poco tiempo desarrolló una actividad vis ible en efectos materiales en el frente del Pacífico, haciendo realidad la voz de México en defensa de las libertades humanas al lado de las Naciones Unidas. ***

--Tte.Cor. de E.M. Enrique Sandoval Castarrica

To assess the significance of the MEAF and the 201st Squadron, it is necessary to consider more than the simple participation in combat. Several aspects of the Mexican military benefited from the participation of this small but significant military force. Hence, the contributions of the MEAF can even be connected to emerging US-Mexico relations after World War II.

The MEAF Contribution

full of technical innovations, but it was fighting among friends and for a noble cause this was important.

In spite of the losses in lives and material, the overall cost of the MEAF was not excessive. Perhaps the lack of combat experience and the conditions in the SWPA contributed to a relatively high amount of casualties and accidents. Probably they could have been avoided with better training, conducted without time constrain ts.

The MEAF program brought great political value. The people of Mexico united to receive and honor the returning MEAF personnel. Enormous groups of Mexicans gathered in US and Mexican cities to celebrate with the MEAF. They were part of the forces of liberation that fought against the oppressor and attained victory. Mexico s participation in combat overseas brought international prestige and strengthened US- Mexico relations.

Probably in the same way that the war contributed to better US-Mexico relations, the MEAF also contributed to better relations between the military of both countries. The MEAF program fully developed from start to finish, and it contributed to a greater degree of cooperation among the US and Mexican military.

This cooperation contributed significantly to the modernization of the Mexican armed forces. Some of the equipment acquired during World War II remained in the inventory for many years. Some trainer aircraft were still flying almost forty years after the MAF received them through the Lend-Lease agreement. The MAF also received some B-25 bombers after the war. 74 For a country with a reduced military budget, these were very important contributions.

The training of pilots in the US was another positive result of this cooperation. Some 201st Squadron replacements continued training in twin engine aircraft after the war finished. Many of them would later fly the transport and cargo aircraft of the MAF, fulfilling an important role during peace time. Also, some MAF pilots went on to civilian jobs in airline companies during the following years. This somewhat reduced capabilities of the armed forces but contributed to the development of Mexico's co mmercial aviation.

The pilots graduated from flight training centers in the US helped to improve the Mexican training programs. Since 1943 the MAF pursued a reorganization of its training centers. 75 The curricula, organization, and equipment of the Military Aviation School benefited from the coordination through the JMUSDC.

The MEAF also contributed personnel to senior leadership positions in the MAF. Colonel Antonio Cárdenas Rodr guez and Captain Roberto Salido Beltrán the Commander and A-3 of the MEAF ould later become Chiefs of the MAF. Also, some 201st Squadron and replacement pilots would reach the rank of General. No doubt their combat experience benefited the MAF development. These are some of the contributions of the MEAF.

Conclusions

coordination, commitment, and cooperation between international allieds for a worthy cause.

This research paper analyzed the organization, training, and operations of the 201st Squadron, and explained some aspects of the operational performance and contributions of the MEAF. The participation of this force in World War II was not an ordinary accomplishment, especially if we consider that this was the first occasion that Mexico s government sent forces to fight outside of the country's territory.

It is almost certain that Mexico's participation in the Second World War against the Axis powers will continue to be seldom mentioned in history books. Also, the support with raw materials and labor force to the Allied war effort aspect will continue to receive considerably more attention than the actual contribution in combat. A relationship that reflects the perceived overall contribution of the country to the Allied cause in World War II, but that not diminishes the action of Mexico's only unit participating in combat overseas--the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force (MEAF).

The MEAF ceased to exist on December 1, 1945. This is what Lt Col Sandoval Castarrica registered about the event in his Historia Oficial de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana. That is how the MEAF ceased to exist, (it was) a modest force in numbers that, with a minimum cost of blood and money, in a short time performed a visible activity in material effects in the Pacific Front, turning into reality the voice of Mexico in defense of the human liberties together with the United Nations. 76

Appendix AMexico-United States Agreement

The Governments of Mexico and the US signed an Agreement on January 1945, regarding the participation overseas of the 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron. The following is a transcription of the Agreement, as it appears on Lt Col Sandoval Castarrica's book. 77

"ACUERDO A QUE SE HA LLEGADO ENTRE LOS GOBIERNOS DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS Y DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMERICA, CON RESPECTO A LA PARTICIPACION DEL ESCUADRON AEREO MEXICANO DE PELEA 201, EN ULTRAMAR.

I. - Los Gobiernos de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos y de los Estados Unidos de América, convienen en la participacion de un Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano de Pelea, con el Ejército de los Estados Unidos, bajo las siguientes condiciones, en que convinieron el Gobierno Mexicano y el de los Estados Unidos:

1. - El Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano de Pelea y personal mexicano adjunto será, para todos intentos y propósitos, manejado como una parte integrante del Ejército de los Estados Unidos, con las siguientes excepciones:

a). - COMANDO:

El Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano de Pelea puede ser acompañado por un Jefe mexicano, cuyo grado no exceda al de Coronel, con un reducido grupo de ayudantes, Oficiales y Tropa, cuyas funciones se limitarán a aquellas relacionadas con la supervisi n, enlace y administraci n. El Comandante táctico del Escuadrón Mexicano de Pelea, en realidad, seráun Oficial mexicano, clasificado para mandar de acuerdo con los requisitos de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los EstadosUnidos.

b).- ADMINISTRACION:

(1) La administración interior del personal mexicano será ejercida por un Oficial mexicano, y el personal sujeto a los reglamentos y códigos de las leyes militares mexicanas. (2) En sus relaciones con el personal civil de la zona en que el personal del Escuadrón esté estacionado, en combate o en descanso, el Comando mexicano deberá

adoptar las modalidades y reglas actualmente en vigor, acatadas por el Ejército de los Estados Unidos bajo las mismas circunstancias.

(3) Oficiales de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los Estados Unidos pueden ser asignados, en misión de enlace, con el Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano con el fin de facilitar las operaciones del Escuadrón.

(4) Si por alguna razón, el Comandante del Teatro de Operaciones lo estima conveniente, cualquier personal mexicano puede ser regresado a México.

(5) El Gobierno Mexicano proporcionará los reemplazos de personal que se requieran, a notificación hecha por las Fuerzas Aéreas de los Estados Unidos para su entrenamiento y envío a la unidad.

(6) Las comunicaciones oficiales entre el Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano de Pelea, y el Gobierno mexicano, serán por conducto del Departamento de Guerra de los Estados Unidos.

(7) Para evitar confusiones, y por razones de seguridad, los aeroplanos del Escuadrón Aéreo Mexicano de Pelea llevarán las identificaciones regulares de los Estados Unidos. La insignia mexicana deberá inscribirse, además y su colocación sujeta a la aprobación del Comandante del Teatro de Operaciones.

c). - GASTOS:

(1) Los haberes, asignaciones, etc., de las tropas mexicanas fuera de los límites continentales de los Estados Unidos, se harán en dólares o en cualquier otra unidad monetaria utilizada por el Ejército de los Estados Unidos en la misma zona, y de acuerdo con la distribución establecida por el Gobierno Mexicano. Los fondos para este objeto serán proporcionados al Departamento de Guerra por el Gobierno Mexicano, a solicitud del primero. El adelanto inicial que haráel Gobierno Mexicano ascenderáa quinientos mil dólares (500,000.00). Los Oficiales Americanos, pagadores en los Teatros de Operaciones, recibirán las instrucciones convenientes para asegurar el pronto pago del personal mexicano en campaña.

(2). EQUIPOS Y ABASTECIMIENTOS:

Los art culos de ministración inicial para un Escuadrón de Pelea, clasificación S.E. T/O & E 1-27, serán proporcionados por los Estados Unidos con cargo al convenio de Préstamos y Arrendamientos, existente actualmente entre los dos Gobiernos, al límite de disponibilidad del equipo dentro de las prioridades operativas. Los artículos de reemplazo y mantenimiento para la unidad, se proporcionarán por medio de los conductos de abastecimiento normales de los Estados Unidos. El mantenimiento abarca art culos de ministración standard, incluyendo subsistencias y servicios proporcionados normalmente a la unidades de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los Estados Unidos. Todos los art culos de ministración inicial, los de reemplazo y mantenimiento, se cargarán de acuerdo con los procedimientos de Préstamos y Arrendamientos.

Appendix BFlight Training Program

  • Transition (13 missions)
    1. Transition
    2. Formation
    3. Navigation
    4. Acrobatics

  • Pre-Gunnery (50 missions)
    1. Combat (Individual)
    2. Combat (Unit)
    3. Camera Gunnery
    4. Ground Gunnery
    5. Strafing
    6. Instrument
    7. Night transition
    8. Night Formation
    9. Low altitude navigation
    10. Combined training

  • Aerial Gunnery (20 missions)

  • Post-Gunnery - Unit training (16 missions)

  • One hundred and fifty hour pilot (8 missions)
    1. High Altitude Combat
    2. Theater tactics

  1. Transition
  2. Formation
  3. Navigation
  4. Acrobatics
  5. Strafing
  6. Rockets
  7. Aerial gunnery
  8. Night flying
  9. Bombing
  10. Instrument
  11. Combat
  12. Combined training
  13. Chemical spraying
  14. Theater tactics

Appendix COperational Data of the 201st Squadron

The operations of the 201st Squadron from June to August 1945 are representative of the missions usually flown by fighter units in the SWPA. According to the general military situation and the P-47's capabilities most missions were in support of ground forces. However, some missions were against the air adversary over Formosa, one was an Interdiction mission (Karenko bombing), and the last one was a Naval convoy escort mission. The unit also flew non combat training and ferry missions on combat zone .

The table below shows approximate combat missions data, based on the available 201st Squadron's Final Mission Reports. 80 The translation of the MAF Chief of Staff's report provided details about the initial operations. 81 Lt.Col. Sandoval Castarrica's book explained mission development. 82 Measure of success was validated in most cases with the V Fighter Command, A-2 Daily Intelligence Summaries. 83 The History of the 58th Fighter Group was also consulted for this purpose. 84

No. Date A/C Mission Target Bombs Rounds Result
1 4-Jun 4 Alert Aritao Effective
2 4-Jun 4 Alert Aritao Effective
3 4-Jun 4 Bomb and strafe Vwacs Effective
4 4-Jun 4 Bomb and strafe Vwacs Effective
5 4-Jun 4 Bomb and strafe Vwacs Effective
6 5-Jun 4 Alert Aritao/Dupax Effective
7 5-Jun 4 Alert Aritao Effective
8 5-Jun 2 Direct support Aritao Effective
9 5-Jun 2 Alert Aritao/Sto. Domingo Effective
10 5-Jun 2 Alert Aritao Effective

No. Date A/C Mission Target Bombs Rounds Result
11 6-Jun 3 Alert Aritao Effective
12 6-Jun 2 Alert Aritao Effective
13 6-Jun 2 Alert Bambang Effective
14 6-Jun 2 Direct support Bambang Effective
15 6-Jun 4 Alert Bambang Effective
16 6-Jun 3 Alert Bambang Effective
17 6-Jun 4 Alert Bambang Effective
*18 7-Jun 7 Bomb Infanta @ 0 N/E
19 7-Jun 7 Bomb Infanta 14 0 Effective
20 10-Jun 8 Direct support Mariquina River 12 830 Effective
21 10-Jun 8 Direct support Mariquina River @ 0 N/E
22 11-Jun 8 Air alert Oscariz 16 540 Effective
23 11-Jun 5 Air alert Oscariz 10 3,330 Effective
24 12-Jun 7 Air alert Mariquina River 11 1,300 Effective
25 12-Jun 7 Air alert Balete Pass @ 0 N/E
26 13-Jun 6 Direct support Mariquina River 10 16 Effective
27 13-Jun 7 Air alert Infanta @ 0 N/E
28 14-Jun 11 Air alert Montalban @ 0 N/E
29 15-Jun 9 Bomb and strafe Tuguegarao 14 480 Effective
30 15-Jun 9 Air alert Antipolo 12 3,720 Effective
31 16-Jun 11 Air alert Infanta 22 13,520 Effective
32 17-Jun 6 Bomb Zolanga/Bambang 8 8,000 Effective
33 17-Jun 9 Bomb Payawan/Bangang 14 6,900 Effective
34 18-Jun 8 Bomb Lematin River 16 4,360 Effective
35 18-Jun 5 Bomb Lematin River 10 6,180 Effective
36 19-Jun 6 Air alert Antipolo @ 0 N/E
37 20-Jun 8 Air alert Antipolo 16 5,260 Effective
38 20-Jun 7 Air alert Antipolo 14 8,880 Effective
39 21-Jun 7 Bomb Monte Malabito 14 7,886 Effective
40 21-Jun 7 Air alert Ilagan 14 0 Effective
41 22-Jun 8 Bomb Monte Malabito 16 7,136 Effective
42 22-Jun 9 Bomb and strafe Agos River 17 8,732 Effective
43 23-Jun 8 Bomb Antipolo 16 5,370 Effective
44 23-Jun 6 Bomb Antipolo 10 1 Effective
45 24-Jun 6 Bomb Kanan River 10 10,060 Effective
46 24-Jun 6 Bomb Infanta 12 0 Effective
47 25-Jun 12 Bomb Infanta 24 9,200 Effective
48 25-Jun 12 Bomb Infanta 24 1 Effective
49 26-Jun 11 Bomb Infanta 21 8,750 Effective
50 28-Jun 10 Bomb Limutan 18 2,290 Effective
51 29-Jun 10 Bomb Limutan 20 15,910 Effective
52 30-Jun 9 Bomb Cervantes #@ 0 Effective
53 4-Jul 11 Air alert Cervantes 0 0 N/E
54 6-Jul 8 Fighter sweep Toko, Formosa 0 0 Effective
55 7-Jul 10 Fighter sweep Toko, Formosa 0 0 Effective
56 8-Jul 10 Fighter sweep Toko, Formosa 0 0 Effective
57 9-Jul 10 Fighter sweep Toko, Formosa 0 0 Effective
58 8-Aug 8 Bombardment Karenko, Formosa **6 0 N/E
59 26-Aug 20 Convoy escort Route to Okinawa 0 0 Effective
* Mission number 18 (1-1) is the first mission lead by the 201st Squadron.
** Bombs in target area. The pilots declared it non effective.
@ Bombs dropped in safety area.
# Fragmentation 160 lb. bombs. All other 1000 lb. and 500 lb. GP bombs.

Glossary

CAS Close Air Support

JMUSDC Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission

MAF Mexican Air Force

MEAF Mexican Expeditionary Air Force

SAP Support Air Party

SWPA South West Pacific Area (Theater of Operations)

air alert. Air operations conducted over a specific area to maintain airplanes in the air available for attack of targets of opportunity, designated by the SAP.

direct support. Air operations against hostile targets in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration with the fire and movement of those forces. Similar to the actual Close Air Support (CAS).

fighter sweep. Air operations conducted in the adversary's territory to engage and destroy enemy aircraft.


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