1 August 1940

1 August 1940

1 August 1940

August

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War in the Air

RAF Bomber Command attacks German airfields at Dortmund, Leeuwarden and Hamstede



Australian Naval History on 1 August 1940

HMAS BATHURST, (minesweeper), the first of 60 of the class to be built in Australia, was launched at Cockatoo Island, Sydney.

The RAN Depot at Fremantle was commissioned as HMAS LEEUWIN. The depot had been created in 1926 when a drill hall was erected in Croke Lane, for the training of naval reservists. The base was moved to nearby Preston Point on 1 July 1942, following the appointment of the first Naval Officer in Charge Fremantle.

The Naval Depot in Brisbane, (HMAS PENGUIN IV), was re-commissioned as HMAS BRISBANE. This name lasted just over two years, before the depot was re-named again this time as HMAS MORETON.


Treaties and Agreements

Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1782 .

On October 8, 1782, the Netherlands and the United States signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce in The Hague.

Convention on Recaptured Vessels, 1782 .

On October 8, 1782, the Netherlands and the United States signed a convention governing recaptured vessels in The Hague.

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, 1839 .

On January 19, 1839, the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation negotiated by U.S. Secretary of State John Forsyth and the Dutch Chargé d’Affaires near the United States, Evert Marius Adrian Martini.

Convention on Commerce, 1852 .

On August 26, 1852, the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed a Convention on Commerce, designed to supplement the 1839 Treaty of Commerce and Navigation.

Convention on Consuls, 1855 .

A convention regulating the rights, duties, and privileges of U.S. and Dutch consuls in the Netherlands and the United States respectively was signed at The Hague on January 22, 1855.

Convention on Rights, Privileges, and Immunities of Consular Officers, 1839 .

On May 23, 1878, a Convention on the Rights, Privileges, and Immunities of Consular Officers was signed in Washington, D.C., by the U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts and the Dutch Minister Resident in the United States Rudolph Alexander August Eduard von Pestel.


Formaldehyde Resins: Bakelite

After cellulose nitrate, formaldehyde was the next product to advance the technology of plastic. Around 1897, efforts to manufacture white chalkboards led to the invention of casein plastics (milk protein mixed with formaldehyde). Galalith and Erinoid are two early tradename examples.

In 1899, Arthur Smith received British Patent 16,275 for "phenol-formaldehyde resins for use as an ebonite substitute in electrical insulation," the first patent for processing a formaldehyde resin. However, in 1907, Leo Hendrik Baekeland improved phenol-formaldehyde reaction techniques and invented the first fully synthetic resin to become commercially successful under the trade name Bakelite.


Improvements and fixes in the update

April 2021 updates

April 08 release

The following updates are available for Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation – Display – 27.20.100.8681

Intel(R) HD Graphics – Display adapters

Improves graphics and system stability.

Intel Corporation – Extension - 27.20.100.8681

Intel® Display Graphics Adapter Driver Extension

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel - Extension - 1952.14.0.1470

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Extension

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel – SoftwareComponent - 1.62.321.1

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Software devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel - System - 2040.100.0.1029

Intel(R) Management Engine Interface - System devices

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface - Firmware - 11.8.82.3838

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Surface – Firmware – 235.3440.768.0

Addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - SoftwareComponent - 11.0.6000.92

Realtek Hardware Support Application - Software components

Improves application stability during audio playback.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Media - 6.0.8936.1

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) - Sound, video, and game controllers

Improves audio performance and battery life.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp. - Extension - 6.1.0.6

Realtek High Definition Audio (SST) Extension - no Device Manager notes

Improves integration between system services.

Surface – System – 6.105.139.0

Surface Integration Driver Service – System devices

Improves integration between system services.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Surface - Firmware - 235.3261.768.0

Improves device stability during hibernate.

Surface – Firmware – 241.304.139.0

Surface System Aggregator -Firmware

*Improves battery Smart Charging reliability.

To learn more about Smart Charging, see Caring for your Surface battery.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Surface - Firmware - 2.49.139.0

Surface Dock Firmware Update

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Improves Surface Dock 2 reliability during Wake On LAN scenarios and improves the overall stability.

Surface Integration Service Device - System

Improve Surface Dock 2 reliability during authentication scenarios.

The following updates are available as a "Gradual Roll-out" for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2018 Update, version 1809, or greater.

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation – Display – 26.20.100.7637

Intel(R) HD Graphics – Display adapters

improves graphics and system stability.

Surface – Extension - 1914.13.0.1063

Intel iCLS Client Extension

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel – Software Component - 1.56.87.0

Intel(R) ICLS Client - Software devices

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Intel – System – 1914.12.0.1256

Intel(R) Management Engine Interface – System

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Bluetooth – 15.68.17018.116

Marvell AVASTAR Bluetooth Radio Adapter – Bluetooth

improves connection stability and enables the support of new products.

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Net – 15.68.17018.116

Marvell AVASTAR Wireless-AC Network Controller

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface Integration Service Device – System devices

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface - Firmware - 11.8.70.3626

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

Surface – Firmware – 235.3192.768.0

addresses security updates and improves system stability.

The following updates are available as a "Gradual Roll-out" for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Bluetooth – 15.68.17015.112

Marvell AVASTAR Bluetooth Radio Adapter - Bluetooth

15.68.17015.112 improves Bluetooth connectivity.

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Net – 15.68.17015.112

Marvell AVASTAR Wireless-AC Network Controller – Network adapters

15.68.17015.112 resolves Wi-Fi connectivity issue.

Surface - HIDClass - 1.1.136.0

Surface Tcon Device – Human Interface Devices

1.1.136.0 improves system bugcheck performance.

Surface - Firmware – 241.6.139.0

Surface System Aggregator

241.6.139.0 resolves an issue where the CPU will throttle down to .4GHz, and improves battery stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface – Firmware – 241.1.139.0

Surface System Aggregator – Firmware

241.1.139.0 helps improve battery life.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface Storage Firmware Update – System devices

5.2.139.0 improves system stability.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Bluetooth – 15.68.17013.110

Marvell AVASTAR Bluetooth Radio Adapter - Bluetooth

15.68.17013.110 improves Bluetooth connectivity.

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Net – 15.68.17013.110

Marvell AVASTAR Wireless-AC Network Controller – Network adapters

15.68.17013.110 improves Wi-Fi connectivity.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface - Firmware – 239.3101.139.0

Surface System Aggregator

239.3101.139.0 improves battery performance.

Surface Integration – System devices

4.18.139.0 improves integration between services.

Surface Pen Firmware Update – System devices

3.0.10.1 resolves intermittent pen top button click failure on Surface Pen with no clip.

Use the Surface Pen Checker Tool to verify that the Pen’s firmware was successfully updated.

Surface Pen Integration Device – Human Interface Devices

1.0.9.0 enables firmware update to Surface Pen with no clip.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface – Firmware – 234.2706.768.0

234.2706.768.0 resolves potential security vulnerabilities, including Microsoft security advisory 190013.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 May 2019 Update, version 1903 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Bluetooth - 15.68.9127.58

Marvell AVASTAR Bluetooth Radio Adapter – Bluetooth

15.68.9127.58 improves system security.

Intel – Camera – 30.15063.6.8611

Intel(R) AVStream Camera 2500 – Camera

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel Corporation – Display – 25.20.100.6471

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 620 – Display adapter

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 640 – Display adapter

25.20.100.6471 improves system stability and performance, when resuming from sleep.

Marvell Semiconductor, Inc. – Net -15.68.9127.58

Marvell AVASTAR Wireless-AC Network Controller – Network adapters

15.68.9127.58 improves system security.

Intel Corporation – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Intel(R) Control Logic – System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel Corporation – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Microsoft Camera Front– System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel Corporation – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Microsoft IR Camera Front– System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel Corporation – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Microsoft Camera Rear– System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel Corporation – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Intel(R) CIO2 Host Controller – System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Intel – System – 30.15063.6.8611

Intel(R) Imaging Signal Processor 2500 – System devices

30.15063.6.8611 improves camera performance.

Surface System Telemetry - System

4.0.0.0 resolves an error code in Device Manager under Surface System Telemetry.

Realtek Semiconductor Corp - USB - 10.0.17763.31246

Realtek USB 3.0 Card Reader - Universal Serial Bus controllers

10.0.17763.31246 improves battery life while using SD card during Connected Standby.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Intel Corporation – Display – 24.20.100.6294

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 620 – Display adapters

Intel(R) UHD Graphics 640 – Display adapters

24.20.100.6294 improves system stability and performance.

Intel Corporation –Extension – 24.20.100.6293

Intel(R) HD Graphics extension sub-component

24.20.100.6293 improves system stability and performance.

Surface - Firmware - 239.3001.139.0

Surface System Aggregator - Firmware

239.3001.139.0 improves battery stability and Type Cover connectivity scenarios.

Surface - System – 3.104.139.0

Surface Display Color – System devices

3.104.139.0 improves and resolves Display color.

Surface Serial Hub Driver – System devices

6.35.139.0 improves system stability and performance.

The following updates are available for all Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface Pen Firmware Update – System devices

3.0.10.1 resolves intermittent pen top button click failure on Surface Pen with no clip-on Windows 10 October 2018 Update, version 1809.

Use the Surface Pen Checker Tool to verify that the Pen’s firmware was successfully updated.

Surface Pen Integration Device – Human Interface Devices

1.0.9.0 enables firmware update to Surface Pen with no clip.

Note: Your Surface Pen must be awake and paired to install this update on your device. Learn more about how to set up and use your Surface Pen.

The following updates are available for Surface Pro 6 devices running Windows 10 April 2018 Update, version 1803 or greater:

Windows Update History Name

Surface – Firmware - 239.5.139.0

Surface System Aggregator – Firmware

239.5.139.0 improves system stability.

Surface – Firmware – 234.2344.769.0

234.2344.769.0 resolves an issue where processor speed may be capped at an unexpected low frequency.

Intel(R) Corporation System -9.21.00.3755

Intel(R) Smart Sound Technology (Intel(R) SST) OED

9.21.00.3755 ensures music streaming services will not be interrupted after resume from sleep.

Intel(R) Corporation System - 9.21.00.3755

Intel(R) Smart Sound Technology (Intel(R) SST) Audio Controller

9.21.00.3755 ensures music streaming services will not be interrupted after resume from sleep.

Intel(R) Corporation System - 10.25.00.10

10.25.00.10 resolves battery consumption issue associated with Windows 10 October 2018 Update.


History of Camp Bowie

Camp Bowie, located in Central Texas, was a military training center during World War II. The campsite was one and one half miles south and southwest of the city limits of Brownwood, Texas. During the years of 1940-1946 it grew to be one of the largest training centers in Texas, through which a quarter of a million men passed.

In 1940, the war situation in Europe caused the U. S. Congress to determine that it was time to strengthen the defense system. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was given the power to mobilize the National Guard units. The 36th Division of the Texas National Guard unit arrived at Camp Bowie in mid-December for their year's training. Before the year of training ended, war had been declared.

On September 19, 1940 the War Department announced that a camp would be built at Brownwood. Work began at the campsite on September 27, 1940. The Camp was the first major defense project in the state and there was no scarcity of labor when the building work began. At one time more than 15,000 men were employed on the project.

The land was to be leased from the land owners but this proved to be unsatisfactory. On October 1, 1942 the War Department became the owner of 123,000 acres of land in Brown and Mills Counties. The original plan was for a 2,000 acre campsite, 8,000 acres for the infantry training, 28,000 acres for maneuvers grounds and 23,000 acres for artillery range. Before the War ended the campsite encompassed 5,000 acres, and approximately 118,000 acres was used as the training grounds.

When someone mentions the construction of Camp Bowie, one event will be mentioned in the course of the conversation, the rains that fell from October, 1940 to June, 1941. The official rain totaled 19.50 inches. With the sixty miles of dirt roads built and the laying of utilities lines along these roads the soil became very soft. The slow rain that fell over a period of days resulted in the camp grounds being very muddy. "Camp Gooie", so named by the workers, was an appropriate name for the Camp Bowie.

The expansion of Bowie began in 1940 and lasted until 1945. The Pyramidal tents were the vogue the first year and a half. At one time there were 6,072 pyramidal and 910 wall tents at Bowie. Each cabin or tent was the home of five enlisted men.

While the living quarters were being built, larger buildings were going up all over the campsite. On March 1, 1941, it was reported that 213 mess halls and 224 bathhouses had been built. The men enjoyed sports and entertainment at the 22 recreation centers. There was one post exchange with 27 branches, three libraries, one 18 hole golf course, a veterinary clinic, three dental clinics and two Red Cross buildings. When completed, the hospital could take care of 2,000 patients. The fourteen chapels broke the monotony of the buildings with the steeples reaching toward the sky. There were numerous other buildings constructed at the campsite.

Atop the highest and most Olympian hill in Camp Bowie was the Headquarters. Krueger Hill was the hub of the Camp's activities. General Walter Krueger, formerly the commander of the VIII Corps, was stationed on the hill and his home was built nearby the headquarters. The hill was named for the man who led the Sixth Army in the Pacific.

There were five commanders at Bowie. Brigadier-General K.L. Berry commanded from November 18 to December 14, 1940 and again from July 29, 1941 to October 25, 1941. Major-General Claude V. Birkhead commanded from December 14, 1941 to July 29, 1941. Colonel Frank E. Bonney took command on November 18, 1941 and left the Camp June 20, 1944. Colonel Alfred G. Brown took command on June 10, 1944 and stayed until January 11, 1946. Colonel K. F. Hunt took command on January 1946 and remained until the Camp closed on October 1, 1946.

The original plan was a temporary training camp for the 36th Texas National Guard Division. When War was declared the plans changed. Many of the men stationed at Camp Bowie were from Brown and the adjacent counties, arriving in mid-December and departing for Camp Blanding, Florida on February 15, 1942. Soldiers of the Texas Division splashed ashore on the beaches of Salerno on September 9, 1943, to become the first allied soldiers to crack Hitler's Europe fortress from the west. According to the Camp Bowie Blade, printed on September 14, 1946, the Division suffered 27,343 casualties, including 3,974 killed, 19,052 wounded and 4,317 missing in action. The official figures were 19,466 casualties, including 3,717 killed in action, 12,685 wounded and 3,064 missing in action.

Finally, in December 1945 the 36th came home as a unit to be discharged. The Division was demobilized on Christmas Day.

There were eight divisions trained at Bowie, and many other battalions, regiments, and companies came for a short time to use the training grounds. Medical companies, MP companies, and others were here to learn how to survive during the War. During the War Days at least 30,000 men were at Bowie for training and at one time the population was 60,000 men.

Living quarters for these men and their families was a problem. Men stayed at the camp, lived off the campsite or in tents out in the training grounds. Every available room in Brown County and surrounding counties were rented to the men's families.

The first Women's Army Corps, officially arrived on November 16, 1943 to take over jobs to free the men for overseas duties.

There were two prisons in Bowie. The Rehabilitation Center that restored men back to duty and the German Prisoner of War Camp.

The Rehabilitation Center was opened on December 1, 1942. From that date until 1946 there were 2,294 men restored back to active duty. Only 12 percent could not be restored.

The first German Prisoners of War arrived at Bowie in August of 1943. Most of the men were members of Field Marshall Erwin Rommell's one proud Afrika Corps. When they got settled at Camp Bowie the 2,700 men were well behaved. The men worked at jobs on the Camp and became day laborers for the farmers and ranchers in Central Texas. They raised their own vegetables and had their own burial grounds near the Jordan Springs Cemetery.

Dogs were another resident of the Camp. They were loved and well fed by the men. The Camp Veterinarians rounded them up once a year to register and vaccinate them. Flea baths came more often.

On October 1, 1946 the U. S. Flag came down for the last time. On August 1, 1946 the War Department notified Texas members of Congress that the Camp had been declared "surplus". The Civilian War Assets Administration was to take charge and began the distribution of the land and buildings.

Today, 1997, there are few things at the Campsite to remind us of the Camp Bowie Days. The campsite has become a medical center, complete with a hospital and other medical buildings. Many industries have built in the area. The site has become a place where people can gather to enjoy entertainments at the parks, the municipal swimming pool, and the football and baseball sports complex. There are now homes and businesses in the area.


The attack on Detling Airfield 1940

Detling airbase near to Maidstone was wrongly considered to be a major air base by Luftwaffe Intelligence. While it was an airbase for Coastal Command, it was not an official base constantly used by Fighter Command on the same level as Hawkinge and Biggin Hill. However, aircraft from Fighter Command did use Detling air base as and when they needed to, if only to re-fuel. Photographic reconnaissance by the Luftwaffe identified British fighters on the ground and assumed that Detling must be a Fighter Command airfield. Hence a decision was made to attack it.

The attack on Detling air base took place on August 13 th , 1940. Sixty-seven personnel were killed and ninety-four injured. The base had no warning that it was about to be attacked. However, it was known that a large Luftwaffe force was flying over Kent.

The Observer Corps had tracked the incoming force as it crossed the Kent coastline. This information was passed to the local Observer Corps post based in a valley near to Detling. However, they had to pass the information they received on to the Observer Corps headquarters in Maidstone, who in turn contacted Anti-Aircraft Command headquarters.

By following this procedure, the Observer Corps base nearest to Detling – that knew which aircraft were approaching and how many – could not actually inform Detling airbase itself. In fact, they had no direct line to Detling airbase.

Anti-Aircraft Command decided that the Luftwaffe raiding party was heading for Rochester – the Shorts-Pobjoys factory was seen as a specific target – but it was wrong. Detling was attacked and devastated.

The damage to Detling was so extensive that any bus that passed near to the base had police on board who made passengers look away as the bus passed the airbase. Smoke from the bomb damage done to Detling Air Base could be seen miles away.

The one benefit that came from the raid was a wholesale review of how the Observer Corps operated. The local base had the information Detling airbase needed. While damage to the base could not have been prevented, casualties could have much reduced if the airbase had received an early warning. After the attack on Detling, Observer Corps bases were allowed to contact their local airbase directly rather than going through the convoluted process that had previously existed.

One member of the Observer Corps based near to Detling later stated:

“You cannot imagine our feelings as we stood in our posts, helpless and watched the bombing and strafing. It (contacting Detling direct) would not have stopped the raid but a phone call to them before the Luftwaffe was into the areas might have saved some.”

A man delivering bread at the nearby village of Bredhurst watched the raid and saw the ammunition and bomb store blow up and compared it to a “huge firework display”.


1 August 1940 - History

The August Offer (1940)

The August Offer (1940)

To win over the sympathies of the Indian masses and political parties during the war, His Majesty’s Government issued a White Paper on August 8, 1940. The document, which later on is known as the August Offer in history books, promised for the establishment of an independent Indian Constituent Assembly with completely indigenous representation and a power to frame the future constitution of the country. The offer also provided the option for the extension of the Viceroy’s Executive Council. Simultaneously, the August Offer talked about the rights of minorities, especially Muslims as it declared that the majority community will not be given the veto power and full weight would be given to the views of minorities in making the Constitution. However, the document made it clear that all the promises will be fulfilled after the conclusion of the war and that too if all the communities and political parties would help the British in their war efforts.

To discuss the August Offer, Quaid-i-Azam held meetings with the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, on August 12 and 14. This was followed by the meeting of the Muslim League Working Committee on September 1 and 2. The Committee appreciated the clauses of the offer in which the British agreed to accept that no future constitution will be recognized by the Government without the approval and consent of the minority communities. However, the committee showed its reservations on issues like the composition of the Executive Council and the vagueness of the War Advisory Council. The working Committee also made it clear that no formula was accepted to the party which was against the spirit of the Lahore Resolution, which declared that the Muslims of India were a nation by themselves and they alone were the final judges and arbiters of their future destiny. The Indian National Congress also opposed the offer and their president, Abul Kalam Azad, even refused to discuss the formula with the Viceroy.


THE DEFENSE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

The authors of the Military Histories have been given full access to official documents. They and the editor are alone responsible for the statements made and the views expressed.

CONTENTS

Page
Preface xv
Chapter I. Retrenchment and Air Defence (1918-1932) 1
Chapter II. Disarmament and Rearmament (1930-1938) 21
Chapter III. Maritime Defence (1918-1939) 49
Chapter IV. The Even of War (1938-1939) 63
Chapter V. The Opening Phase (September, 1939-May, 1940) 77
Chapter VI. Norway to Dunkirk (April-May, 1940) 97
Chapter VII. The Stocktaking (May, 1940) 119
Chapter VIII. After Dunkirk (June-August, 1940) 127
Chapter IX. The Battle of Britain: The Prelude (June-July, 1940) 147
Chapter X. The Battle of Britain: The Preliminary Phase (July-August, 1940) 163
Chapter XI. Operation S EALION (July-September, 1940) 175
Chapter XII. The Battle of Britain: The First Phase (13th-23rd August, 1940) 183
Chapter XIII. The Battle of Britain: The Second Phase (24th August-6th September, 1940) 203
Chapter XIV. The Invasion Risk: The Crisis and After (September, 1940-June,1941) 219
Chapter XV. The Battle of Britain: The Last Phase (7th September-31st October, 1940) 233
Chapter XVI. The Night Offensive Against London (7th September-13th November, 1940) 251
Chapter XVII. The Night Offensive Against British Industry and Communications (14th November, 1940-16th May, 1941 Summary 7th September, 1940-16th May, 1941) 261
Chapter XVIII. Blockade: Part One (October, 1940-June 1941) 283
Chapter XIX. Blockade: Part Two (June, 1941-October, 1943) 293
Chapter XX. The Dwindling Threat (The German Air Offensive 1942-1943) 303
Chapter XXI. The Watch on the Base (1943-1944) 321
Chapter XXII. The Threat from Long-Range Weapons (1939-1944) 331
Chapter XXIII. The Flying Bomb: Part One (1939-1944) 353
Chapter XXIV. The Flying Bomb: Part Two (1944-1945) 367
Chapter XXV. The Long-Range Rocket (1944-1945) 399
Chapter XXVI. A Summing-Up 423
Index 529

Appendices

Page
I. British Naval Forces in Home Waters, 31st August, 1939 437
II. Equipment and Location of Coastal Command Squadrons, 31st August, 1939 438
III. Home Defences: Chain of Command, September, 1939 facing page 438
IV. British Capital Ships, 1st June, 1940 439
V. British Naval Forces in Home Waters, 1st July, 1940 440
VI. Organisation of the Air Defences, Summer, 1940 441
VII. Equipment and Location of British Fighter Squadrons, 9th July, 1940 442
VIII. Equipment and Location of Balloon Squadrons, 31 st July, 1940 445
IX. Disposition of Anti-Aircraft Guns, 11 th July, 1940 448
X. The Battle of Britain: the Preliminary Phase (Summary of Operations) 450
XI. Strength and Serviceability of Luftwaffe Units deployed for use against the United Kingdom, 10th August, 1940 452
XII. Equipment and Location of British Fighter Squadrons, 8th August, 1940 453
XIII. The Battle of Britain: the First Phase (Summary of Operations) 456
XIV. The Battle of Britain: the Second Phase (Summary of Operations) 458
XV. Night Attacks on Liverpool-Birkenhead, 28th-31st August, 1940: German Statistics 461
XVI. Coaching Mileage of the Four Main British Railway Companies, June-September, 1940 462
XVII. Equipment, Strength, Serviceability and Location of Luftwaffe Units deployed for use against the United Kingdom, 7th September, 1940 463
XVIII. Equipment and Location of Squadrons Available in Nos. 16 and 18 Groups, Coastal Command, for Anti-Invasion Duties, 26th September, 1940 468
XIX. Fixed Artillery Defences of Home Ports, November, 1940 469
XX. Equipment and Location of British Fighter Squadrons, 7th September, 1940 472
XXI. Equipment and Location of Balloon Squadrons, 31st August, 1940 475
XXII. Disposition of Anti-Aircraft Guns, 21st August and 11th September, 1940 479
XXIII. Some Problems and Achievements of Anti-Aircraft Gunnery during the Battle of Britain 482
XXIV. The Battle of Britain: the last Phase (Summary of Operations) 491
XXV. Numbers of Pilots and other Aircrew who lost their Lives in Battle during the Battle of Britain, 10th July-3ist October, 1940 493
XXVI. Night Attacks on London, 7th September-13th November, 1940: German Statistics 494
XXVII. Night Attacks on London: British Statistics showing Numbers of Bombs on London Boroughs from the Night of 7th October to the Night of 6th November, 1940 496
XXVIII. Summary of Operations against the United Kingdom by the Italian Air Force, October, 1940-April, 1941 499
XXIX. Equipment and Location of British Night-Fighter Squadrons, September-November, 1940 501
XXX. Notable Night Attacks on United Kingdom Cities, 14th November, 1940-16th May, 1941 503
XXXI. Tons of High-Explosive aimed at United Kingdom Cities in Major Night Attacks from the Night of 7th September, 1940, to the Night of 16th May, 1941 506
XXXII. Night Attacks on London: Numbers of High-Explosive Bombs to the Hundred Acres on some of the most heavily-bombed Boroughs 507
XXXIII. Equipment and Location of British Night-Fighter Squadrons, November, 1940-May, 1941 508
XXXIV. Analysis of British Night-Fighter Effort, January-May, 1941 510
XXXV. The Air War against British Coastal Shipping, November, 1940-December, 1941 511
XXXVI. The Führer's Order for the 'Baedeker' Offensive 512
XXXVII. Principal German Night Attacks, 1942 513
XXXVIII. Principal German Night Attacks, 1943 515
XXXIX. Notable Day Attacks by German Fighter-Bombers, 1943 517
XL. Angriffsführer England:Units under Command, 30th April, 1943 518
XLI. Angriffsführer England: Operational Bomber and Fighter-Bomber Units under Command, 20th January, 1944 519
XLII. The 'Baby Blitz' 520
XLIII. The A-4 Rocket: Technical Details 521
XLIV. Summary of Anglo-American Air Effort against suspected Flying-Bomb and Rocket Installations in Northern France, '5th December, 1943-12th June, 1944 522
XLV. The Flying-Bomb Offensive 523
XLVI. Analysis of Anglo-American Air Effort against suspected Flying-Bomb and Rocket Targets, 17th August, 1943-1st September, 1944 524
XLVII. Boroughs or Districts in London Civil Defence Region reporting Thirty or more Flying-Bomb 'Incidents' 525
XLVIII. Counties outside the London Civil Defence Region reporting Ten or more Flying-Bomb 'Incidents' 526
XLIX. The Long-Range Rocket Offensive 527
L. Civilian Casualties caused by Bombing and by Various other Forms of Long-Range Bombardment 528

Facing page
1. The Steel-Bartholomew Plan of Air Defence (1923) 15

2. The Fifty-Two Squadron Scheme of Air Defence (1924) 16

3. The Reorientation Scheme of Air Defence (1935) 33

4. Organisation for Maritime Defence, 1939 49

5. Disposition of Home Forces, 1st May, 1940 85

6. Disposition of Eastern Command and G.H.Q,. Reserves, 31st May, 1940 119

7. G.H.Q. Line covering the principal Production Centres, June-July, 1940 129

8. Coastal Command Anti-Invasion Patrols, 16th July, 1940 133

9. Organisation for Home Defence, Summer, 1940 143

10. The Radar Chain and Observer Corps Network, July, 1940 149

11. Organisation of Luftwaffe Commands for the Battle of Britain, Summer, 1940 159

12. Disposition of British Fighter Forces, 9th July, 1940 161

13. The Revised S EALION Plan, September, 1940 175

14. Action on the Morning of 13th August, 1940 183

15. Action on the Afternoon of 13th August, 1940 187

16. Actions of the Tyne-Tees and the Humber, 15th August, 1940 191

17. Disposition of Home Forces, 11th September, 1940 219

18. Photographic Reproduction of German Intelligence Map showing supposed Disposition of Home Forces, 20th September, 1940 220

19. Coastal Command Anti-Invasion Patrols, 26th September, 1940 223

20. Disposition of Home Forces, May, 1941 229

21. Coastal Command Scheme of Anti-Shipping and General Reconnaissance Patrols, 20th December, 1940 231

22. Disposition of British Fighter Forces airborne at 5 p.m., 7th September, 1940 235

23. Disposition of British Fighter Forces airborne at 11.30 a.m., 15th September, 1940 244

24. Fighter Command Groups and Sectors, Spring, 1941 267

25. The Bombing of London, Night of 29th December, 1940 271

26. Distribution of Major Night Attacks on British Cities (1940-1941) 279

27. Disposition of Home Forces, Spring, 1942 293

28. The Bombing of Exeter, Night of 3rd May, 1942 303

29. The V-1 Organisation, June-September, 1944 367

30. Proposed V-2 Organisation, June, 1944 399

31. V-2 Launching Areas used for the Bombardment of the United Kingdom, September, 1944-March, 1945 405

32. General Map of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland In pocket at the end of the book

Illustrations

Plate Facing page
1. Air attack on British Warships in the Firth of Forth, 16th October, 1939 84
2. Preparing to fire a 3-7-inch Mark II Anti-Aircraft Gun (Static Mounting) 85
3. Beach Defences on the Coast of Kent: a Concealed Machine-Gun Point at Dymchurch 104
4. Coast Defence Gunners preparing to fire a Practice Round from a g-2-inch Gun 104
5. Obstructions to prevent the landing of Gliders or Troop-Carrying Aircraft on a Bypass Road in Surrey 105
6. A Camouflaged Strong Point in Northern Command 105
7. Hudson Aircraft of Coastal Command on Patrol over the North Sea 140
8. Destroyers on Patrol off the East Coast 140
9. General Sir Edmund Ironside, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Home Forces, May-July, 1940 141
10. General Sir Alan Brooke, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Home Forces, July, 1940-December, 1941 141
11. Spitfires of a Fighter Command Squadron 168
12. Air attack on a British Convoy in the English Channel, 14th July, 1940 168
13. Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command, 1936-1940 169
14. Air Vice-Marshal K. R. Park, Air Officer Commanding. No. 11 Group, Fighter Command, April-December, 1940 169
15. An Observer Corps (later Royal Observer Corps) Post at Work 192
16. A Barrage-Balloon Close-Hauled 192
17. German Bombers above the Thames near Woolwich, 7th September, 1940 236
18. Polish Pilots of Fighter Command at Readiness in their Dispersal Hut 236
19. A 25-pounder Field Gun in Action during a Practice Shoot 237
20. An Anti-Aircraft Rocket Projector in Action (3-inch U.P. Single Projector) 237
21. The City of London on the morrow of 29th December, 1940 273
22. The Guildhall, York, during the 'Baedeker' Raid on the night of 28th April, 1942 308
23. Air Marshal R. M. (later Sir Roderic) Hill, Air Marshal Commanding, Air Defence of Great Britain, 1943-1944, and Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command, 1944-1945 309
24. Lieutenant-General (later General) Sir Frederick Pile, Bt., General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Anti-Aircraft Command, 1939-1945 309
25. German Flying Bomb immediately after Launching 336
26. German Long-Range Rocket A-4 in process of elevation to Firing Position 336
27. German Flying Bomb about to descend near Drury Lane in London 384
28. German Flying Bomb engaged and brought down at Night by Anti-Aircraft Fire 384
29. German Flying Bomb Storage Depot at Saint-Leu-d'Esserent 385
Reproduction of Bilingual Notice prepared by the Germans for use after Invasion of this Country 180

Preface

T HE DEFENCE of the United Kingdom is a wide subject. Hitherto no official historian, at least in recent times, has approached it from an inter-service viewpoint. In apportioning my space between its various aspects, in deciding what to include and what to leave out, I have had no modern precedent to guide me. I have made my own choice within the framework of limitations necessarily imposed on a contributor to a series of inter-related volumes, and with valuable assistance from the Editor and his Advisory Panel of senior officers drawn from all three fighting Services. I have been given full access to official records, but in making use of them have respected the requirements of military 'security' and the constitutional principle which forbids discussion of individual differences of opinion within Cabinets or disregard of Civil Service anonymity.

During the Second World War three great dangers confronted the United Kingdom. The first was starvation through severance of our sea communications--a potent threat to a country long accustomed to import much of its food and to pay for it largely from the proceeds of an export trade involving a constant outward flow of manufactured goods and an inward flow of raw materials. The second danger was invasion, which came nearer in 1940 than at any time since the Napoleonic Wars, or perhaps, if we disregard the bloodless landing of William of Orange in Tor Bay, since the perilous days of the Armada. The third danger was air attack. At no stage did bombing seriously threaten the country with defeat through collapse of the national will to fight but in 1940 the German air force made a formidable attempt to crush the air defences as a prelude to invasion--or even, as some of our opponents hoped, to the unopposed occupation of a land already subjugated by Reichsmarschall Goring and his airmen.

At the outset of my task it was made clear to me that I should be expected to give little space to the defence of ocean trade in view of a decision to devote a number of volumes to the war at sea. I have willingly left it to a naval colleague to review, with expert knowledge, the progress of the struggle against the submarine, the surface raider and the long-range ocean-going aircraft. Inevitably I have made some references to these matters and I am grateful to Captain Roskill for showing me parts of his draft and reading parts of mine. These references are, of course, much briefer and less numerous than they would have been but for the decision to treat the war at sea as

a separate subject. It would be regrettable if their brevity and rarity were thought to imply that, in the opinion of any responsible historian, the defence of ocean trade can safely be ignored by strategists concerned with the defence of the United Kingdom. In fact no aspect 6f home defence, in the widest and best sense of that term, has been more important in modern times.

Defence against invasion is likewise a field where the interests of the historian of home defence may impinge on those of the naval historian. Just as one of the two great tasks traditionally devolving on the Royal Navy is to protect the merchant shipping which links Britain with the outside world, so the other is to challenge any attempt to land a hostile force on these shores. Both are strategically offensive, although often they provide opportunities for offensive tactics. A measure designed to serve one of these purposes frequently serves the other also. Destroyers and aircraft watching off the East Coast for an invader, battleships and cruisers chasing commerce-raiders in the South Atlantic, ships of the line engaging the enemy in Aboukir Bay or off Cape Trafalgar may alike, in the eyes of a strategist to whom the seas are one, be engaged in defence of the home country. But a writer on home defence may need to accept a narrower definition of his province. In practice I have suffered no hardship from this restriction. Notwithstanding the impossibility of drawing a continuous line of demarcation between defence against invasion and the defence of trade, it was always clear that many naval measures, related to home defence in its wider interpretation, might be touched upon in the present volume but could be best described at length elsewhere, and that others--including some whose manifest aim was home defence in the narrower sense--ought to be regarded as common ground.

Accordingly the knowledge that naval measures to resist invasion were not my exclusive province has not debarred me from treating them at such length as I have thought appropriate. If my treatment appears more summary than the traditional role of the Royal Navy as the country's prime defender against an assailant who comes by sea may seem to warrant, the reason is simply that I have judged it unnecessary, and even undesirable, to dwell long on that aspect of my subject. The essence of naval planning is that plans should be elastic. To give more prominence than I have given to measures contemplated, at one stage or another, by the Admiralty and naval Commanders-in-Chief for the reception of an invasion fleet that never sailed might have been misleading. What shape would have been assumed by such naval actions as might have followed the sailing of that fleet, who can say? Perhaps the one assertion that can be made with confidence is that it would not have conformed to preconceptions which the wisest did not allow to take possession of their minds.

In the outcome the issue of invasion or no invasion was decided not at sea but in the air. It is conceivable that, if the Luftwaffe's attempt to gain air superiority over southern England and the English Channel had succeeded, Hitler might still have hesitated, as did his predecessors from Parma to Napoleon, to trust his transports to waters not commanded by his fleet. More probably he would have chanced his arm as he did in Norway, France and Russia. What is certain is that the victory won by our air defences deprived him of all choice.

While, therefore, I have given a good deal of my space to the enemy's preparations to land troops in this country and--with the proviso made above--to steps taken by the Royal Navy and Home Forces to oppose them, I have given still more to air attacks on the United Kingdom and corresponding measures of air defence. If the Battle of Britain was not the most important action ever fought by British arms--and posterity may well deem it so--its effects were certainly no less momentous than those of the most striking victories of Hawke or Nelson. I have thought it right to review the battle in some detail, and no less desirable to sketch, against the background of political events, the period of preparation that began with the adoption of a scheme of air defence soon after the end of the First World War.

Strategically, the succession of night attacks on this country which began before the daylight battle was well launched and continued almost until the end of the war with Germany was less important. A German victory in the daylight battle might have made the United Kingdom indefensible the night 'Blitz' and its aftermath never brought the enemy within sight of inflicting a decisive stroke. But the raids had such profound and memorable effects on the fives of most of us that to slight them would have been a blunder. The flying bomb and the long-range rocket failed, in their turn, to bring much comfort to the enemy but their novelty, their challenge to the ingenuity of those called upon to assess and act upon the threat they offered, their potential value to an enemy more favourably placed than were the Germans by the time they brought them into use, all qualify them for much more than passing mention. Some account of their early development seemed essential and here I was fortunate in having access not only to much published and unpublished material about the rocket but also to new matter kindly laid before me by Dr. Fritz Gosslau, who was closely associated with the birth and progress of the rival weapon.

Civil defence is the subject of a volume with that title, contributed by Major Terence H. O'Brien to the United Kingdom Civil Series of official histories edited by Sir Keith Hancock. I have therefore made only brief references in my volume to civil defence matters,

notwithstanding their obvious relevance to my subject. Major O'Brien generously allowed me to see his book while it was yet unpublished he also read the draft of some of my chapters and shared with me his knowledge of certain facts and figures of interest to both of us.

Unpublished documents have provided the bulk of my sources and have been placed unreservedly at my disposal. Detailed citation in a published volume of documents not generally available for study would serve no useful purpose even if it were desirable on other grounds for the benefit of students who have access to the sources references are given in a limited number of copies which such readers will be able to consult. Nevertheless I must record here my particular debt to the authors of certain monographs and narratives prepared in the Cabinet Office Historical Section and the Air Historical Branch of the Air Ministry under the direction of Brigadier H. B. Latham and Mr. J. C. Nerney respectively. Mr. Nerney and his staff have been indefatigable in searching the records on my behalf and he has given me much help and encouragement. For valuable comments and for checking certain facts and figures--for whose accuracy, however, I alone am answerable--I am grateful to Rear-Admiral R. M. Bellairs of the Historical Section of the Admiralty, to Brigadier Latham and Mr. Nerney and to many other officers and officials, some of them unknown to me, in various departments of the administration. My task would have been impossible without the generous help of Mr. Brian Melland of the Cabinet Office and Squadron Leader Louis Jackets of the Air Historical Branch, who have sought out and translated or digested for my benefit a vast mass of material. I owe thanks, too, to others who have worked under their supervision, and in particular to Mr. R. R. A. Wheatley for a paper on German invasion plans, on which I have drawn in Chapters XI and XIV.

I have had the advantage of receiving comments and suggestions from Commanders-in-Chief, Chiefs of Staff, members of wartime governments and other actors in my story who very kindly read my drafts in whole or part. I cannot sufficiently express my gratitude to them for the generous gift of their time and special knowledge. Several of these commentators, and also some distinguished wartime leaders who had no opportunity of reading my drafts, were good enough to discuss points with me and give me the benefit of their experience. Such contributions did much to amplify, and sometimes correct, impressions drawn from documentary sources or from observation at a less exalted level. These generous helpers do not, of course, share the responsibility of Editor and author for statements made and views expressed. If I do not mention here the names of most of them, it is because I believe they would rather rest content with

private gratitude than figure in a list whose length might tire the reader's patience. Even so I venture to record my appreciation of the pains taken to elucidate particular topics by Lord Hankey, Field-Marshal Lord Ironside, General Sir Bernard Paget and Lieutenant-General Sir John Swayne.

Reference is made in footnotes to published works in rare cases where such material has been relied upon as a primary source, or where courtesy demands that course. I apologise to any authors whose brains I may unwittingly have picked without acknowledgement.

The sources of the illustrations are given in the appropriate list. To all those concerned I tender thanks. For providing most of the photographs I am indebted to the Director General of the Imperial War Museum, and for doing much to guide my choice to the Deputy Director, Mr. A. J. Charge. The maps were drawn under the direction of Colonel T. M. M. Penney of the Cabinet Office, who has been most helpful.

My biggest debt is to the Editor.

B. C.

Falmer,
Sussex.
22nd October, 1956.


1 August 1940 - History

World War II cost America 1 million casualties and over 300,000 deaths. In both domestic and foreign affairs, its consequences were far-reaching. It had an immediate impact on the economy by ending Depression-era unemployment. The war accelerated corporate mergers and the trend toward large-scale agriculture. Labor unions also grew during the war as the government adopted pro-union policies, continuing the New Deal's sympathetic treatment of organized labor.

Presidential power expanded enormously during World War II, anticipating the rise of what postwar critics termed the "imperial presidency." The Democrats reaped a political windfall from the war. Roosevelt rode the wartime emergency to unprecedented third and fourth terms.

For most Americans, the war had a disruptive influence--separating families, overcrowding housing, and creating a shortage of consumer goods. The war accelerated the movement from the countryside to the cities. It also challenged gender and racial roles, opening new opportunities for women and many minority groups.

The Allies prevailed in World War II because of the United States' astounding productive capacity. During the Depression year of 1937, Americans produced 4.8 million cars, while the Germans produced 331,000 and the Japanese 26,000. By 1945, the United States was turning out 88,410 tanks to Germany's 44,857 the U.S. manufactured 299,293 aircraft to Japan's 69,910. The American ratio of toilet paper was 22.5 sheets per man per day, compared with the British ration of 3 sheets. In Germany, civilian consumption fell by 20 percent in Japan by 26 percent in Britain by 12 percent. But in the United States, personal consumption rose by more than 12 percent.

During World War II, the federal government took an even larger economic role than it did during the World War I. To gain the support of business leaders, the federal government suspended competitive bidding, offered cost-plus contracts, guaranteed low-cost loans for retooling, and paid huge subsidies for plant construction and equipment. Lured by huge profits, the American auto industry made the switch to military production. In 1940, some 6,000 planes rolled off Detroit's assembly lines production of planes jumped to 47,000 in 1942 and by the end of the war, it exceeded 100,000.

To encourage agricultural production, the Roosevelt administration set crop prices at high levels. Cash income for farmers jumped from $2.3 billion in 1940 to $9.5 billion in 1945. Meanwhile, many small farmers, saddled with huge debts from the depression, abandoned their farms for jobs in defense plants or the armed services. Over 5 million farm residents left rural areas during the war.

Overall, the war brought unprecedented prosperity to Americans. Per capita income rose from $373 in 1940 to $1,074 in 1945. Workers never had it so good. Rising incomes, however, created shortages of goods and high inflation. Prices soared 18 percent between 1941 and the end of 1942. Apples sold for 10 cents apiece the price of a watermelon soared to $2.50 and oranges reached an astonishing $1.00 a dozen.

Many goods were unavailable regardless of price. To conserve steel, glass, and rubber for war industries, the government halted production of cars in December 1941. A month later, production of vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, radios, sewing machines, and phonographs ceased. Altogether, production of nearly 300 items deemed nonessential to the war effort was banned or curtailed, including coat hangers, beer cans, and toothpaste tubes.

Congress responded to surging prices by establishing the Office of Price Administration (OPA) in January 1942, with the power to freeze prices and wages, control rents, and institute rationing of scarce items. The OPA quickly rationed food stuffs. Every month each man, woman, and child in the country received two ration books--one for canned goods and one for meat, fish and dairy products. Meat was limited to 28 ounces per person a week sugar to 8-12 ounces and coffee, a pound every five weeks. Rationing was soon extended to tires, gasoline, and shoes. Drivers were allowed a mere 3 gallons a week pedestrians were limited to two pairs of shoes a year. The OPA extolled the virtues of self-sacrifice, telling people to "use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without."

In addition to rationing, Washington attacked inflation by reducing the public's purchasing power. In 1942, the federal government levied a 5 percent withholding tax on anyone who earned more than $642 a year.

The war created 17 million new jobs at the exact moment when 15 million men and women entered the armed services--unemployment virtually disappeared. Union membership jumped from 10.5 million to 14.75 million during the war.

During the 1944 presidential campaign, President Roosevelt unveiled plans for a "GI Bill of Rights," promising educational support, medical care, and housing loans for veterans, which Congress approved overwhelmingly in 1944. Unwilling to switch leaders while at war, the public stuck with Roosevelt to see the crisis through. The president easily defeated his Republican opponent, Governor Thomas Dewey of New York, receiving 432 electoral votes to Dewey’s 99 votes.


Watch the video: 1. August 1940