Dunbar, battle of, 27 April 1296

Dunbar, battle of, 27 April 1296

Combat of Nollendorf, 14 September 1813

The combat of Nollemdorf (14 September 1813) was an Allied counterattack that forced the French out of their most advanced positions in Bohemia, and triggered a brief French offensive that ended with Napoleon's troops briefly fighting south of the mountains (War of Liberation).

Earlier in September Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia began a fresh advance into Saxony, but this ended when Napoleon returned to Dresden and began to push south. The allies retreated across the mountains that separated Saxony and Bohemia, and by 10 September Napoleon was at the Geiersberg, on the southern edge of the mountains. For a brief moment he had a chance to attack the Prussian and Russian elements of the Army of Bohemia before the large Austrian contingent could arrive, but he decided that the risk of attempting to take his army down the single road from the mountains onto the plains was too great. Napoleon returned to Dresden to try and deal with the problems caused by Ney's defeat at Dennewitz, leaving St. Cyr to hold the line of the mountains.

Napoleon left three corps in the mountains. St. Cyr's XIV Corps was in the French centre, with his most advanced troops (44th Division and Pajol's cavalry) at Furstenwalde, close to the Geiersberg), overlooking Teplitz. To his right (west) was Victor's II Corps, based around Altenberg. To his left was Lobau's I Corps, with its advance guard at Nollendorf (a couple of miles to the east of Furstenwalde, on the 'New Road' between Dresden and Bohemia. Dumonceau's division was posted at Nollendorf as an advance guard, with the main part of the corps at Berggiesshübel, a spar town just inside Saxony.

On 14 September Schwarzenberg decided to risk an attack on Dumonceau's isolated division at Nollendorf. The task was given to Wittgenstein, and he was able to push Dumonceau out of Nollendorf. The French lost 200-300 men, and retreated back to join Lobau and the main body of the corps at Berggieshübel.

The Allies followed the retreating French, and attacked Lobau's main position. Lobau was able to hold up the attack, but was eventually forced to evacuate the village.

Napoleon responded vigorously to this attack. He led reinforcements south from Dresden, and pushed the Allies out of Berggiesshübel (15 September 1813), Peterswalde (16 September 1813) and then descended onto the southern side of the mountains (combat of Dolnitz, 17 September 1813), before returning to Dresden.

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Spott, Battle Of Dunbar

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  • Former Region Lothian
  • Former District East Lothian
  • Former County East Lothian

Archaeology Notes

(NT 6750 7604) Site of Battle (NR) Between the English and Scots AD 1296.

The Battle of Dunbar fought in 1296 was between a Scottish force, marching to relieve the besieged Dunbar Castle (NT67NE 8) and an English force under the Earl Warren. The Scots were routed. The Ordnance Survey Name Book (ONB) states that the battle started in the valley between Broomhouse Mill (NT 6827 7638) and Oswald Dean (NT 6895 7652) and spread over a wide area.

NSA 1845 (J Jaffray) Name Book 1853

Battle of Dunbar - 27th April 1296.

Visited by OS (RD) 22 March 1966

Activities

Online Gallery (1306 - 1329)

The year 2014 sees the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, in which the army of Robert I of Scotland defeated that of Edward II of England. The battle marked a major turning point in the long, drawn-out struggle of the Wars of Independence.

The Wars have had a lasting influence upon all the nations of the United Kingdom and upon the national story. Each age has seen fit to commemorate the events in its own way: through the perpetuation of the genuine historical associations of buildings and places and also through the endowment of others with improbable or fanciful traditions. Where past generations allowed its historic buildings to decay and disappear, later generations began to value and actively preserve these for their associations. Where an event lacked a tangible reminder, as at Kinghorn where Alexander III was killed in a riding accident, a commemorative monument would be erected to act as a focus. The Wars of Independence predate the fashion for accurate portraiture: the weathered, generic military effigy of Sir James Douglas is one of the few to survive in Scotland. Later centuries saw a need and supplied it by a crowd of images of its historic heroes, William Wallace and Robert the Bruce, each depicted according to contemporary taste and imagination. The opening of the new heritage centre at Bannockburn takes this into a new dimension, through the use of three-dimensional, digital technology.

RCAHMS Collections hold many images of these buildings and locations from battlefields, castles and churches, to the many commemorative monuments erected in later years. This gallery highlights a selection of these, including antiquarian sketches, photographic and drawn surveys, and architectural designs.


Dunbear illuminated: Five-metre bear sculpture lit up to commemorate the first battle of Dunbar in the Scottish Wars of Independence

The invasion into Scotland by the English King occurred on April 27 in 1296 and saw the overthrow of the Balliol regime in Scotland.

It came as King Edward of England wanted to punish King John Balliol for his refusal to support English military action in France.

Around 100 Scottish knights were captured and held prisoner in England and with Balliol forced to surrender, Edward ripped the royal insignia from his tunic.

To commemorate this battle, the five-metre high DunBear steel sculpture, will be illuminated in blue and white on April 27.

The lights will shine from 5.30pm on Tuesday and will last until 12.30am on Wednesday.

Ken Ross from Hallhill Developments Limited commented: “Being in such a prominent position at the gateway to Dunbar, the stunning DunBear sculpture provides the perfect opportunity to commemorate key events such as the Battle of Dunbar.

“The DunBear has become a much-loved piece of public art, drawing visitors to the area and into Dunbar itself to find out more about John Muir, the pioneering naturalist and conservationist which it is a tribute to.”

Designed by Andy Scott – who also designed the Kelpies – the bear was erected in 2019 and is the focal point for the DunBear Park mixed-use development located beside the A1 at Dunbar.


King Edward I (1239-1307)

Edward ruled England from 1272 to 1307. He was a powerful and successful king, a skilled military leader and fearsome warrior. He was known as ‘Longshanks’ because he was so tall.

Edward took part in the ninth crusade. He survived an attempt on his life. Edward was stabbed with a poisoned dagger but fought off the assassin. Edward’s beloved wife Eleanor travelled with him to the Holy Land but died soon after they returned to England.

Edward conquered Wales and incorporated it into the Kingdom of England in 1284. He believed that he had the right to be recognised as overlord of Scotland. After the death of Alexander III the Scots nobles turned to Edward to judge their competing claims to the throne. He decided that John Balliol had the strongest claim.

When the Scots made an alliance with France and attacked Carlisle, Edward sent his army north. Edward made an example of the people of Berwick. Edward laid siege to the town then had Berwick sacked and its inhabitants slaughtered. Around 8000 people were killed – almost everyone in the town.

On 27 April 1296 the English army, under the command of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, met and defeated the Scots at Dunbar. The Scots nobles were led away to English prisons. John Balliol was humiliated by Edward stripped of his kingship and held captive in the Tower of London. Balliol became known as ‘Toom Tabard’ - ‘empty coat’. 2000 Scots nobles and clergy were forced to swear fealty to Edward, signing the ‘Ragman Roll’.

King Edward I had taken Scotland. An English parliament sat in Berwick to govern and tax the Scots. Edward’s troops held castles across Scotland. In 1296 the Scots faced a bleak winter under Edward’s rule.


Roll-call of battles

Dunbar (27 April 1296)

Scots host defeated by John de Warenne leading advance force in Edward I’s invasion.

Stirling Bridge (11 September 1297)

John de Warenne, who Edward I had left in charge of Scotland, defeated by William Wallace and Andrew Murray.

Falkirk (22 July 1298)

William Wallace defeated by Edward I (but English invasion halted).

Roslin (24 February 1303)

English force based in Edinburgh Castle defeated by John (the Red) Comyn.

Methven (19 June 1306)

Robert Bruce defeated by English.

Loudon Hill (c. 10 May 1307)

English defeated by Robert Bruce.

Inverurie (23 May 1308)

John Comyn, earl of Buchan, defeated by Bruce.

Pass of Brander (mid-August 1308)

John Macdougall of Lorn defeated by Bruce.

Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314)

Edward II defeated by Robert Bruce.

Dundalk (14 October 1318)

Edward Bruce killed by English-Irish force.

Byland (20 October 1322)

John of Brittany, earl of Richmond, defeated by Robert Bruce raiding in Yorkshire.

Dupplin (10 August 1332)

Donald earl of Mar, guardian for David II, defeated and killed by Edward Balliol.

Halidon Hill (19 July 1333)

Archibald Douglas, guardian for David II, defeated and killed by Edward III.

Culblean (30 November 1335)

David Strathbogie (leading supporter of Edward Balliol) defeated and killed by Andrew Murray, guardian for David II.


The Anglo-Scottish Wars (or Wars of Scottish Independence)

The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

Sometimes referred to as the Wars of Scottish Independence they were fought between the years of 1296 – 1346.

1297 Following the killing of an English sheriff by William Wallace, revolts broke out in Scotland and on 11th September at the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Wallace defeated English forces led by John de Warenne. The following month the Scots raided northern England.
1298 Wallace was appointed Guardian of Scotland in March however in July Edward invaded again and defeated the Scottish army, led by Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Following the battle Wallace went into hiding.
1302 Further campaigns by Edward in 1300 and 1301, led to a truce between the Scots and English.
1304 In February the last major Scottish held stronghold of Stirling Castle fell to the English most Scottish nobles now paid homage to Edward.
1305 Wallace evaded capture until 5th August, when John de Mentieth, a Scottish knight, turned him over to the English. Following his trial, he was dragged naked through the streets of London behind a horse, before being hanged, drawn and quartered.

At the Battle of Dupplin Moor, Edward Balliol’s army defeated a much larger Scottish force Balliol was crowned king at Scone on 24th September.

Siege of Dunbar, picture from The Book of History, Vol. IX pg. 3919 (London, 1914)


History… april 27

1296 – The Scots were defeated by Edward I at the Battle of Dunbar.

1509 – Pope Julius II excommunicated the Italian state of Venice.

1521 – Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.

1565 – The first Spanish settlement in Philippines was established in Cebu City.

1805 – A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.

1813 – Americans under Gen. Pike capture York (present day Toronto) the seat of government in Ontario.

1861 – West Virginia seceded from Virginia after Virginia seceded from the Union during the American Civil War.

1861 – U.S. President Lincoln issued an order to General Winfield Scott that authorized him to suspend the writ of habeas corpus between Philadelphia and Washington at or near any military line.

1863 – The Army of the Potomac began marching on Chancellorsville.

1865 – In the U.S. the Sultana exploded while carrying 2,300 Union POWs. Between 1,400 – 2,000 were killed.

1880 – Francis Clarke and M.G. Foster patented the electrical hearing aid.

1897 – Grant’s Tomb was dedicated.

1899 – The Western Golf Association was founded in Chicago, IL.

1903 – Jamaica Race Track opened in Long Island, NY.

1909 – The sultan of Turkey, Abdul Hamid II, was overthrown.

1938 – Geraldine Apponyi married King Zog of Albania. She was the first American woman to become a queen.

1938 – A colored baseball was used for the first time in any baseball game. The ball was yellow and was used between Columbia and Fordham Universities in New York City.

1945 – The Second Republic was founded in Austria.

1946 – The SS African Star was placed in service. It was the first commercial ship to be equipped with radar.

1947 – “Babe Ruth Day” was celebrated at Yankee Stadium.

1950 – South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, which formally segregated races.

1953 – The U.S. offered $50,000 and political asylum to any Communist pilot that delivered a MIG jet.

1953 – Five people were killed and 60 injured when Mt. Aso erupted on the island of Kyushu.

1960 – The submarine Tullibee was launched from Groton, CT. It was the first sub to be equipped with closed-circuit television.

1961 – The United Kingdom granted Sierra Leone independence.

1965 – “Pampers” were patented by R.C. Duncan.

1967 – In Montreal, Prime Minister Lester Pearson lighted a flame to open Expo 67.

1975 – Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops.

1978 – Pro-Soviet Marxists seized control of Afghanistan.

1982 – The trial of John W. Hinckley Jr. began in Washington. Hinckley was later acquitted by reason of insanity for the shooting of U.S. President Reagan and three others.

1982 – China proposed a new constitution that would radically alter the structure of the national government.

1983 – Nolan Ryan (Houston Astros) broke a 55-year-old major league baseball record when he struck out his 3,509th batter of his career.

1984 – In London, Libyan gunmen left the Libyan Embassy 11 days after killing a policewoman and wounding 10 others.

1986 – Captain Midnight (John R. MacDougall) interrupted HBO.

1989 – Student protestors took over Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

1987 – The U.S. Justice Department barred Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the U.S. He claimed that he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.

1992 – The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed in Belgrade by the Republic of Serbia and its ally Montenegro.

1992 – Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics won entry into the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

2005 – The A380, the world’s largest jetliner, completed its maiden flight. The passenger capability was 840.

2005 – Russian President Vladimir Putin became the first Kremlin leader to visit Israel.

2006 – In New York, NY, construction began on the 1,776-foot One World Trade Center on the site of former World Trade Center.


Ближайшие родственники

About Sir Adam de Gordon, 6th Laird of Gordon

HISTORY OF THE HOUSE OF GORDON

"..Adam de Gordun married an Englishwoman named Marjory and in her right possessed an estate in England for which he had to do homage to the English King (Henry III). Alexander of Scotland had died the previous year (1286) and his grand daughter, the young Maid of Norway, died in 1290 leaving the throne vacant. The matter was referred to Edward I (of England) who decided in favor of John Balliol to whom Adam adhered. ("Braveheart" fame). he (John Balliol) raised an army in the West which was joined by Adam whose Berwickshire lands were plundered by the English during Edward's victorious invasion of Scotland. When, on the 28th of April 1296, the armies met on the field of Dunbar, Adam was one of the large number which fell in that fight so fatal to Scottish independence. He left a son."

(from Ancestry.com, , Kare-Forgue & Wysond-Elliott Family, [email protected])

Do to www.darkisle.com/h/huntly/huntly.html for info on Huntly Castle.

Child of Adam Gordon and Marjory Unknown

Notes �m, was a supporter of Baliol in his contest with Bruce for the crown, but he died before the commencement of the War of Independence. [2]

Sources 1.[S6] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Gordon01 (Reliability: 3)


Timeline 1070–1331

ca 1070: The English royal family, ousted by William the ‘Conqueror’, duke of Normandy, take refuge in Scotland. Margaret, a member of the English royal family, marries Mael Coluim (Malcolm) III at Dunfermline.

1072: William the ‘Conqueror’, king of England, invades Scotland. At Abernethy (just south of Perth) Mael Coluim (Malcolm) III does homage to William and gives up his eldest son, Donnchad (Duncan) as a hostage.

1093: Mael Coluim III killed on raid into England. His brother Domnall Bán (Donald III) takes the throne.

1094: Donnchad (Duncan) II, son of Mael Coluim III, obtains English help in seizing throne from Domnall Bán. Before the year is out, Donnchad is killed by Domnall, who becomes king again.

1097: Edgar, son of Mael Coluim III and Margaret, takes the Scottish throne with the help of William II, king of England. Domnall Bán is imprisoned and mutilated.

1100: William II of England dies. His brother Henry I becomes king, and marries Matilda/Maud/Edith (yes, these are all names of the same person!), daughter of Mael Coluim III and Margaret. David, youngest son of Mael Coluim III and Margaret, is looked after by Matilda.

1101: Pope sends letter to Scottish bishops instructing them to obey the new archbishop of York. This is probably the context for an uncompromising statement of St Andrews’ claim to be the archiepiscopal seat of Scotia (i.e.Scotland north of the Forth) which is found in a version of the St Andrews foundation-legend composed at this time (1093x1107).

1107: Edgar dies his brother Alexander becomes king. Alexander I’s position as client king is demonstrated by his willingness to fight for Henry I king of England in Wales. Either now, or soon after, Alexander I’s younger brother, David, is established as ruler of (what is now) southern Scotland.

1113: David becomes earl of Huntingdon.

1120: Alexander I ‘head-hunts’ Eadmer of Canterbury as the new bishop of St Andrews. Eadmer is a keen proponent of the archbishop of Canterbury’s claim to exercise jurisdiction over Britain. Alexander I refuses to compromise on his control of the church in his kingdom, and relations break down between him and Eadmer. Eadmer returns to Canterbury.

1124: Alexander I dies and is succeeded by David I.

1125: David I pushes for St Andrews to become an archbishopric. He fails, but succeeds in having Robert, the new bishop of St Andrews, consecrated by the archbishop of York without the need to swear obedience to the archbishop as his metropolitan.

1135: Death of Henry I of England. The succession is disputed between Stephen of Blois (whose mother was Mary, another daughter of Mael Coluim III and Margaret) and Matilda, daughter of Henry I. David I backs Matilda.

1138: David I, despite suffering defeats in his invasions of England, is recognised by Stephen as ruler of NW England David’s only surviving son and heir, Henry, is recognised as earl of Northumberland.

1149: David I knights the future Henry II of England at Carlisle (one David’s chief residences). Henry II recognises Scottish control of the northern counties of England.

1152: David’s only surviving son and heir, Henry, dies, leaving three immature sons: Mael Coluim (Malcolm), William and David. Mael Coluim is recognised as David I’s heir, and William is installed as earl of Northumberland.

1153: Death of David I Mael Coluim IV (aged 12) succeeds him. There are no mature descendants of Mael Coluim III alive who were in a position to claim the throne ahead of the boy Mael Coluim. (Alexander I’s illegitimate son, Mael Coluim, had been imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle since 1134.)

1157: Mael Coluim IV agrees to return northern counties of England to Henry II in return for his being recognised as earl of Huntingdon.

Death of Robert, bishop of St Andrews. This leads to a fresh attempt to obtain archiepiscopal status for St Andrews. Again, this fails, but the new bishop of St Andrews (Arnold, 1160-2) and his successor are allowed to be consecrated without professing obedience to York.

1159: Mael Coluim IV fights in Henry II’s army at Toulouse, and his knighted by him.

1160: Mael Coluim’s absence at Toulouse is resented by Scottish earls who besiege Mael Coluim at Perth. Fergus, king of Galloway, retires (under duress?) to the monastery of Holyrood.

1164: Somairle (Somerled) king of Argyll and the Isles invades up the Clyde, and is killed in battle at Renfrew.

1165: Death of Mael Coluim IV his brother William becomes king.

1173-4: William participates in revolts against Henry II by leading raids into northern England. In July 1174 William is captured. This leads to the first written submission by a king of Scots: the ‘Treaty of Falaise’. Edinburgh and Roxburgh castles are surrendered to English garrisons.

1176: Pope Alexander III, concerned by the powers claimed over the Scottish church by Henry II, and the consequent diminution of papal control, becomes the first pope to support Scottish claims to independence from the archbishop of York.

1179-87: Domnall son of William son of Donnchad II leads a revolt in Moray and challenges William for the throne. He is finally defeated by Lachlan/Roland, lord of Galloway.

1189: Henry II dies, and is succeeded by Richard I, who (for a large sum) gives a written concession to William I (known as the ‘Quitclaim of Canterbury’) cancelling the Treaty of Falaise.

1192: The pope, in the bull Cum universi, finally recognises the independence of the Scottish church. There is still no Scottish archbishop, however. Instead, each Scottish bishop is directly and independently under the pope’s authority. This does not apply to the bishop of Galloway (who is happy to be under the archbishop of York’s authority) or the bishop of the Isles (who is under the authority of the recently created archbishop of Trondheim in Norway).

1196: William I subdues the earl of Orkney (who controlled northern Scotland). The lord of Galloway and the king of the Isles are instrumental in defeating the earl of Orkney.

1201: Recognition of William’s son, Alexander (then aged 3), as heir to the throne.

1212-15: The sons of Domnall son of William son of Donnchad II (the ‘MacWilliams’) lead another revolt on Moray.

1214: William dies his son Alexander II (aged 16) is king.

1215-17: Alexander campaigns in northern England and is recognised by many Northern English barons as their lord. When Henry III of England’s supporters regain the initiative against their opponents after the battle of Lincoln Alexander II loses northern England.

1221: Alexander marries Joan, sister of Henry III of England. Alexander first raises the subject of securing papally sanctioned coronation for kings of Scots. This is resisted by kings of England.

1225: Pope instructs Scottish bishops to meet together in annual councils to oversee running of church in Scotland (except Galloway and the Isles).

1230: The MacWilliams are finally destroyed.

1234-5: Revolts in Galloway after the death of Alan, lord of Galloway, and Alexander II’s refusal to recognise Alan’s illegitimate son, Thomas, as lord, or at least to prevent the division of Galloway among Alan’s daughters. Alexander II’s victory is secured because of the intervention of Ferchar Mac in tSagairt, earl of Ross.

1237: Treaty ofYork. Alexander II formally renounces claim to northern England. In the formal ceremony of the treaty, Alexander II is treated as an independent monarch. The treaty is framed as an agreement between two sovereigns.

1249: Alexander II dies while on campaign in Argyll. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III, who is not quite 8 years old. A further attempt to secure papally sanctioned coronation (and anointment) is refused but the pope rejects Henry III’s claim that the king of Scots is his vassal.

1250: Canonisation of Margaret, wife of Mael Coluim III, and ancestor of the Scottish royal dynasty.

1251: Alexander III marries Margaret daughter of Henry III. Henry III abortively raises issue of homage.

1260: Alexander III’s request to the pope for coronation and anointment is rejected, but the pope formally recognises the liberty of the Scottish kingdom.

1263: King Hakon VI of Norway invades the kingdom of the Isles his forces are rebuffed at Largs. Hakon dies in Orkney on the return journey to Norway. MacDougall (Meic Dhubhghaill) kings (now lords) of Argyll recognise authority of king of Scots.

1266: Treaty of Perth: Hakon’s successor, King Magnus, formally cedes the kingdom of Man and the Isles to the dominion of Alexander III.

1275: Rising in Man against Scottish rule is brutally suppressed.

1278: Alexander III rejects Edward I’s claim to homage for the kingdom of Scotland.

1284: Death of Alexander, son and heir of Alexander III. Community of the realm formally recognise as heir Alexander III’s only living descendant, his young grand-daughter, Margaret, daughter of King Eric of Norway.

1286: Death of Alexander III. Six Guardians appointed by the ‘community of the realm’ to govern the kingdom in the absence of Margaret, Alexander III’s grand-daughter.

1290: Negotiations for marriage between Margaret and Edward, son and heir of Edward I ofEngland, are concluded with the ‘Treaty’ of Birgham (18 July ratified by Edward I on 28 August). Scottish independence is expressly guaranteed.

By end of September 1290: Margaret dies in Kirkwall while journeying from Norway to Scotland. Civil war begins to beak out between Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway, who both claim the throne. Bishop Fraser of St Andrews asks Edward I to intervene.

May 1291: Edward I meets Scottish leaders on border at Norham. The Scottish leaders expect him to act as an arbitrator between Bruce and Balliol (which would mean that Scottish independence was formally recognised). Edward I announces, however, that he will act as a judge (which means that his jurisdiction as overlord must be recognised). The Scottish leaders refuse to accept this.

June 1291: Negotiations continue at Norham. The English army assembles in readiness for a possible invasion. Edward I orchestrates a number of further claimants to the Scottish throne. This makes the situation much more complicated than could be resolved simply by arbitration between Bruce and Balliol, as the Scottish leaders hoped. Edward I also outmanoeuvres the Scottish leaders by getting the claimants (known as the ‘Competitors’) to recognise Edward I’s overlordship. John Balliol is the last competitor to agree to this. In the end, Edward achieved recognition of his overlordship, and was given custody of Scottish royal castles, without the need for an invasion.

August 1291 –November 1292: The ‘Great Cause’: the court case to decide who, should be king. The jury was composed chiefly of Balliol and Bruce supporters in equal number. In the end the majority (including some initial Bruce supporters) decided for John Balliol. Robert Bruce, the aged Lord of Annandale, resigned his title to his son, Robert, who in turn resigned his earldom of Carrick to his eldest son, also Robert, the future King Robert I. In this way Robert Bruce, the future king, entered the political elite in his own right as earl of Carrick, aged 18.

Nov.1292-Jan.1293: King John Balliol does homage to Edward I Edward I hears appeals from decisions made in the highest Scottish courts, thus demonstrating that he exercises ultimate jurisdiction in Scotland. King John declares the ‘Treaty’ of Birgham null and void.

June 1294: Edward I at war with Philip IV of France. King John and Scottish nobles summoned to fight for Edward I. They fail to appear as requested.

5 July 1295: Parliament at Stirling: government taken from direct control of King John and entrusted to council of twelve.

23 October 1295: Treaty with France against Edward I. (Edward I only aware of this after his conquest of Scotland and seizure of government records.)

March 1296: Edward I responds to repeated disobedience of King John and Scottish leaders by invading Scotland.

30 March 1296: Destruction of Berwick, which was at that time Scotland’s wealthiest burgh.

27 April 1296: Battle of Dunbar. Scottish army routed most of Scottish leaders captured.

July 1296: Submission of King John. In Edward I’s eyes John now ceased to be king of Scotland.

September 1296 Edward I leaves Scotland under the control of John, earl of Warenne.

Spring and Summer 1297: The unprecedented (in Scottish experience) financial demands by Edward I’s officials provoke revolts across Scotland. Two leaders emerge: William Wallace in the south, and Andrew Moray in the north. Among the very few ‘regular’ Scottish leaders not in captivity, James Stewart, Robert Bruce earl of Carrick, and Robert Wishart bishop of Glasgow demonstrate support for Wallace and Moray.

11 September 1297: The combined forces of Wallace and Moray defeat Warenne at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. All but South-East Scotland liberated. Moray dies of his wounds, leaving Wallace in charge of Scotland. Wallace is in due course recognised as Guardian in the name of King John.

3 November 1297: William Lamberton (a Balliol supporter) elected bishop of St Andrews.

Spring 1298: Scottish leaders fighting in Edward I’s army in Flanders abandon Edward I and return to Scotland.

1 July 1298: Edward I leads a huge force into Scotland.

22 July 1298: Battle of Falkirk. Edward I defeats Wallace’s army, but he is unable to advance further. Only parts of southern Scotland are restored to English rule.

By end of 1298: Wallace resigns as Guardian. The new Guardians are John Comyn the younger of Badenoch, and Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick.

1299: Tension between Bruce and Comyn leads to appointment of Lamberton bishop ofSt Andrewsas chief Guardian. Scots take Stirling castle.

10 May 1300. Parliament at Rutherglen. Bruce resigns as a Guardian and is replaced by Ingram de Umfraville.

Summer 1300: Edward I campaigns in Galloway. Most of Scotland still held by Guardians in name of King John. King John now in papal custody.

1301: John Soules appointed sole Guardian. King John transferred from papal custody to his ancestral castle at Bailleul in Picardy. The return of King John is eagerly anticipated. Edward I campaigns in south and takes Bothwell castle.

Beginning of 1302: Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick, fearful of King John’s return, submits to Edward I, and marries daughter of the Anglo-Irish earl of Ulster.

11 July 1302: French defeated by Flemish at Battle of Courtrai. French now want peace with Edward I, and are no longer willing to back King John’s return to Scotland.

24 February 1303: Battle of Roslin. Comyn and Fraser defeat English sheriff of Edinburgh.

May 1303: The king of France makes peace with Edward I, leaving the Scots out in the cold. Edward I launches his third major invasion of Scotland. He overwinters at Linlithgow.

9 February 1304: Comyn and the rest of the Scottish leaders governing in King John’s name surrender to Edward I.

March 1304: Edward I calls a parliament at St Andrews, and Scottish freeholders submit.

21 April 1304: Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale, dies: his son, Robert earl of Carrick, becomes head of the Bruce family.

11 June 1304: Robert Bruce earl of Carrick forms secret alliance with Lamberton, bishop of St Andrews.

20 July 1304: Fall of Stirling castle.

February 1305: Westminster parliament: new constitution for Scotland ordered.

23 August 1305: Capture and execution of Wallace.

15 September 1305: Westminster parliament: promulgation of Ordinance for Government of Scotland.

10 February 1306: Robert Bruce murders John Comyn in Dumfries

25 March 1306: Robert I inaugurated as king at Scone.

19 June 1306: Robert I defeated at Battle of Methven. Members of his family and many supporters are captured and executed. He flees west with a small band.

February 1307: Robert I returns to Carrick.

May 1307: Robert I wins Battle of Loudoun Hill.

7 July 1307: Death of Edward I.

May 1308: Robert I destroys Comyn heartland of Buchan.

June 1308: Balliol heartlands in Galloway attacked.

August 1308: Macdougall, Lord of Argyll, a prominent Comyn/Balliol supporter, defeated at Battle of Brander.

31 October 1308: Another prominent Comyn/Balliol supporter, the earl of Ross, submits to Robert I.

16-17 March: Robert I consolidates his position after his victories on the civil war by holding a parliament at St Andrews.

1310-11: Edward II campaigns without much success in southern Scotland.

29 October 1312: Treaty of Inverness with Norway.

January 1313: Robert I takes Perth.

February 1313: Robert I takes Dumfries.

May/June 1313: Robert I takes Isle of Man.

Spring 1314: Roxburgh and Edinburgh castles taken for Robert I.

23-24 June 1314: Battle of Bannockburn.

November 1314: Cambuskenneth parliament: forfeiture of Robert I’s remaining opponents.

1315-18: Edward Bruce campaign in Ireland as king of Ireland. His death leaves Robert I with only one heir, the infant Robert Stewart, son of Robert I’s daughter Marjory.

1318: Edward Balliol, son of King John (who had died 4 years earlier), arrives in England from Picardy to promote his claim to the Scottish throne.

6 April 1320: The Declaration of Arbroath.

4 August 1320: Parliament at Scone: brutal suppression of ‘Soules’ conspirators who were plotting to kill Robert I and make Edward Balliol king.

January 1324: Pope recognises Robert I’s title as king of Scotland.

April 1326: Treaty of Corbeil with France.

15 July 1326: Robert I’s infant son, David, recognised as his heir.

20 January 1327: deposition of Edward II. Robert I leads a raid into northern England with a difference: he now begins to act as if north England is part of his realm. This provokes the English government of Edward II’s queen, Isabella, and her partner, Mortimer, to sue for peace.

17 March 1328: Treaty of Edinburgh. Formal recognition of Scottish independence and the Bruce kingship. Edward III, not yet old enough to rule, disapproves.

12 June 1328: Marriage of David Bruce and Edward III’s sister, Joan.

7 June 1329: Death of Robert I. Days later the pope grants the honour of coronation and anointment to Scottish kings.


Annabella of Strathearn

Annabella of Strathearn is reported to be the daughter of Robert, fourth Earl of Strathearn. The name of her mother has not been identified. The Scots Peerage VIII: 245 She was the sister of Malise, Earl of Strathearn, who gave her the lands of Kincardine. Inchaffrey Liber: pp. xxxii-iii

Death

A date and place of death has not been identified for Annabella of Strathearn. She was alive on 28 August 1296, when her homage was received at Berwick on Tweed by King Edward I of England: "Anable qe su la femme Patrik de Graham". Instrumenta Publica: p. 146 and she appears still to have been alive on 3 September 1296, when King Edward I of England seized her lands because her husband had opposed him at Dunbar. Stevenson's Documents II: p. 92

Marriage

Annabella of Strathearn married Patrick Graham. Instrumenta Publica: p. 146 Her husband is reported to have been killed in action at the battle of Dunbar on 27 April 1296. The Scots Peerage VIII: 245

Secondary Source Evidence

Genealogy

Malise, the younger son, got from King William the lands of Kincardine, to be held of his brother, Earl Robert, and through the marriage of his niece, Annabella, elder daughter of Earl Robert, to Graham, ancestor of the duke of Montrose, they afterwards came into that family.

  • Various sources indicate that his wife was Annabella, daughter of 4th Earl of Strathearn. TSP (Strathearn) specifically contradicts this and reports "the evidence is clear that she was the wife of his son Sir Patrick".
  • BP1934 Montrose and TSP Montrose disagree here as BP1934 inserts an additional generation of a Sir David of Dundaff (which we follow) and shows that David as husband of Annabella of Strathearn whom TSP shows as wife of SIr Patrick of Kincardine. There is therefore some difference in allocation of children, the most 'important' one possibly being the John who became Earl of Menteith.
  1. Neville, Cynthia J., Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland: The Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox, c. 1140-1365, (Portland & Dublin, 2005)
  2. Paul, James Balfour, Sir, "The Scots Peerage" (Edinburgh : D. Douglas 1904-1919)

Born 1212 in Strathearn, Perthshire, Scotlandmap Daughter of Robert Strathearn and Matilda Strathearn Sister of Malise De Strathearn Wife of David Graham — married [date unknown] [location unknown] Mother of David Graham Died 1263 in Strathearn, Perthshire, Scotlandmap

Father  Robert, 4th Earl of Strathearn Disputed


Spott, Battle Of Dunbar

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Collections

Administrative Areas

  • Council East Lothian
  • Parish Spott (East Lothian)
  • Former Region Lothian
  • Former District East Lothian
  • Former County East Lothian

Archaeology Notes

(NT 6750 7604) Site of Battle (NR) Between the English and Scots AD 1296.

The Battle of Dunbar fought in 1296 was between a Scottish force, marching to relieve the besieged Dunbar Castle (NT67NE 8) and an English force under the Earl Warren. The Scots were routed. The Ordnance Survey Name Book (ONB) states that the battle started in the valley between Broomhouse Mill (NT 6827 7638) and Oswald Dean (NT 6895 7652) and spread over a wide area.

NSA 1845 (J Jaffray) Name Book 1853

Battle of Dunbar - 27th April 1296.

Visited by OS (RD) 22 March 1966

Activities

Online Gallery (1306 - 1329)

The year 2014 sees the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, in which the army of Robert I of Scotland defeated that of Edward II of England. The battle marked a major turning point in the long, drawn-out struggle of the Wars of Independence.

The Wars have had a lasting influence upon all the nations of the United Kingdom and upon the national story. Each age has seen fit to commemorate the events in its own way: through the perpetuation of the genuine historical associations of buildings and places and also through the endowment of others with improbable or fanciful traditions. Where past generations allowed its historic buildings to decay and disappear, later generations began to value and actively preserve these for their associations. Where an event lacked a tangible reminder, as at Kinghorn where Alexander III was killed in a riding accident, a commemorative monument would be erected to act as a focus. The Wars of Independence predate the fashion for accurate portraiture: the weathered, generic military effigy of Sir James Douglas is one of the few to survive in Scotland. Later centuries saw a need and supplied it by a crowd of images of its historic heroes, William Wallace and Robert the Bruce, each depicted according to contemporary taste and imagination. The opening of the new heritage centre at Bannockburn takes this into a new dimension, through the use of three-dimensional, digital technology.

RCAHMS Collections hold many images of these buildings and locations from battlefields, castles and churches, to the many commemorative monuments erected in later years. This gallery highlights a selection of these, including antiquarian sketches, photographic and drawn surveys, and architectural designs.


Watch the video: 10 Of The Bloodiest Battles In History