Babylonian Lion

Babylonian Lion


Nergal: The Lion Headed Cock God of Babylonian Hell (Earth)

Nergal is the Hero God of War and the Underworld – ie: Babylonia, Earth, Hell, Land of the Dead and what we can just call today – Modernity.

Nergal had presided over the affairs of humans as one of the agents of punishment with his main instruments being that of magick, war, and pestilence. He was also King of the Spirits of the Air who was almost always accompanied by his female consort Ereskigal and many warrior demons as his legions.

The God Nergal was said to be an Idol of the Samaritan Hebrews who we also know under the names of the Kush, Cuthah, Cuthites, Cushite, and Cutheans. Nergal is mentioned in 2 Kings xvii, and the Babylonian Talmudic treatise Sanhedrin (fol. 63, p. 2) which states that the men of Kuth made Nergal their god.

Based on these historical descriptions, we know that Nergal was said to be worshipped in the form of a Cock (Rooster), or a man with the head of a Cock. But he is also found depicted as a “Man-Lion” with the body of a man and head of a lion.

In one of the oldest depictions of Nergal, we also see the symbols like the horns on his head, scorpion, battle ax, Great Mother and the Hellhound Cerberus – the three-headed ‘Demon-Dog’.

The rites of the Scorpion are the Mysteries of the Apocalypse.

Here is an ancient relief carving of Nergal dating to approximately the first or second century AD.

The immortal Idols used to represent Nergal, the Cock (Rooster) and a man with a Lion’s Head are actually two of the most important symbols that you will find in all of history.

These same said symbols are also prominently symbolized in the Abrahamic religions of the exoteric world and also the esoteric being that of Ancient Gnosticism which gave rise to modern Freemasonry. For example, we have Yaldabaoth who in Nag Hammadi is described as the Chief Archon created by the Goddess Sophia in the “form of a lion-faced serpent, with its eyes were like lightning fires which flash.

Let me remind some of you Christians that our Lord was also symbolized as a Cock in the Scripture or I should say the “Holy Cock.” As I had written before, the English word cock or rooster in Latin is gallus or gallinaceous which refers to a “rooster or cockerel” (male chicken) and the term gallīna is used for a “hen” (female chicken).

This is why one of the surnames for Jesus was “Jesus the Galilean from Gallillee” and his Apostles like Simon was also surnamed “Peter the Galilean.”

Also, let us not forget the chief symbol for the Tribe of the Lord – Judah is the lion.

This is may be why Jesus is surnamed the Galilean (Cock/Rooster) from Gallillee (River Galli) and the Prince of the Apostles like Simon the Samaritan who was surnamed Peter was a Galilean as well. (Matthew 26:69 John 7:41)

WHO WAS THE GOD NERGAL

As I have mentioned many times before on the Gnostic Warrior, mythology and theology go hand and hand and wherever this priesthood of the Holy Cock had traveled, they often left their immortal marks for their descendants to break the Seal in order to follow the path to their true origins.

This may be why we find the God Nergal (Ner-gal, Nirgal, or Nirgali) in the Bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah):

“And the men of Babylon made Succothbenoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima”(2 Kings 17:30) is said to be the father of Kush (Kish) (1 Chronicles 8:33). 1 Samuel 14:51 should be read, “Kish, the father of Saul, and Ner, the father of Abner, were the sons of Abiel.” And hence this Kish and Ner were brothers, and Saul and Abner were first cousins (Comp. 1 Chronicles 9:36)

The chief seats of Nergal’s worship were said to be in the ancient cities of Cutha and Tarbissa. Cutha was the sacred city where he was said to “live,” and where in ancient times you could find his famous shrine. The “men of Cuth,” when transported as colonists to Samaria then became known Biblically by names such as the Babylonians, Samaritans and Levites.

In some historical Babylonian accounts, their main temple was said to be Mount Gerizim, opposite the Temple in Jerusalem, where they were said to worship a God called ‘Nergal.’ The Father of English History and Doctor of the Church, Saint Bede says that in the Book of Places we read that “Benoth and Nergal were cities built in the region of Judea by Samaritans” who had migrated from Babylon.

It interesting that Bede says that Nergal was a city built near the region of Judea because, in my own research and as I have mentioned many, many times in the past, I have discovered that the city for the Old Judea was on the ancient Holy Island of Crete at the foot of Mount Ida.

This is the same location where the ancient myths of the Great Cretan Mother who we know by names such as Cybele, Magna Mater and Rhea had entrusted a “special priesthood” with the care of the infant God – Zeus who was hidden in a cave on Mount Ida from his vengeful father Cronus. It was at Mount Ida -AKA Judah where she had placed him in the care of a priesthood known under various names such as the Curetes, Telchnines, Corybantes, Dactyls, and Cabiri.

The first-century Roman-Jewish historian, Josephus verifies this fact when he says the tribe of the Jud or the Judeans (Idumean) of Mount Ida. Today they would be known as the Judeans or the Tribe of Judah – The Tribe of Our Lord.

This is why we find the Samaritan Levites at Mount Ida which would also most likely be the same place where the famous Levite priest lawgiver – Moses received the books of the Law from God on Mount Sinai. After all, it was on Crete where some of the most famous lawgivers in all history such as Epimenides Gnosis and King Minos had spawned so naturally, Moses would have also received the “New Laws” at Mount Ida on Crete.

We could safely say that the Samaritan Levites would be the defacto legal protectors placed in charge of our Lord in this 6th Age.

An age that may end when the last legal priesthoods for our Lord are instituted and ALL the pretenders are abolished and or destroyed.

All these ancient stories come down to us from the same Mount Ida priesthood whom I believe were the seeds for the Tribe we know as the “Samaritan Levites.” Like the Curetes, Telchnines, Corybantes, Dactyls, and Cabiri, this Ancient Priesthood for the Lord were assigned to guard and watch over the Ark of the Covenant.

Nergal (Nirgal, or Nirgali) and who is known as a Ner in the Scripture was the Ancient Patriarch and Father to this Tribe.

In the etymology of Nergal, we find that it is a compound word composed of the two words Ner and Gal. The meaning of Ner is a candle, lamp, and or light. Gal, as I mentioned before comes from the Latin gallus or gallinaceous which refers to a “rooster or cockerel” (male chicken) and the term gallīna is used for a “hen” (female chicken).

Ner-Gal was also the progeny (pro-geni) of who we know as our Lord in the West – Jesus the Galilean from the River Galilee and his 12 Apostlistic Galileans including Simon the Samaritan who we also know under the additional Biblical surnames as St. Peter – AKA The First Gnostic and when he became an Apostate of the Faith from which he was Christened, he then became Satan – The Lord’s Left Hand Man and Protector.


Ancient Astronomy

Until quite recently in mankind’s history, astronomy and astrology were considered one in the same. Ancient people saw the stars, constellations, and planets as being endowed with spirits and deities, making both astronomy and astrology the oldest and most sacred of sciences.

Ancient astronomical calendars have been found throughout the world. The ancient astronomical observitory at Gobekli Tepi is now believed to be at least 12,000 years old. Archaeologists can only speculate as to what, if any religious (or astro-theological) significance was attributed to it. The same cannot be said for the astronomy which rose out of ancient Mesopotamia.


4 Answers 4

The trouble is, the cuneiform tablet with the evidence hasn't been translated yet. Let me explain by way of an example:-

On the 5th July 2007 I expect Dr Michael Jursa jumped a bit for joy in London on completing his translation of what is now known as the "Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet". This tablet confirms a name found in Jeremiah 39 verse 3. The King James Bible translators had not been sure how to separate the various names in the list of names, so the King James Version is wrong "Samgar-nebo, Sarsechim, Rabsaris. " because of Dr Jursa’s translation we now know it should read "Samgar, Nebo-sarsechim, the Chief Eunuch.." (because "Nebo" belongs to sarsechim and it is also now known that “Rabsaris” is not someone’s name but means “Chief Eunuch” in Assyrian).

So in what month had the Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet been retrieved from an archaeological site? Early 2007 maybe?? Not so. It was first found in the 1870s.

The point is there are thousands and thousands and yet more thousands of cuneiform tablets not on display but stored away in museums all over the world, waiting to be translated. The problem is the world doesn’t have enough cuneiform translators. Though it is true we don't yet have evidence external to the Bible corroborating the story of the three men in the fiery furnace, it is kind of misleading to simply assert "there is no extra-Biblical evidence". We are not likely to have it, because the potential evidence has not yet been translated: we haven't yet had a chance to translate the vast majority of the material from which such evidence is likely to arise.

Though we don't yet have specific corroborating evidence, there is a fascinating aspect of the events in the book of Daniel. I guess we all know that Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were thrown into a fiery furnace during the rule of the Babylonians and, later, Daniel was thrown into a “lion’s den” during the rule of the Persians. But please note that if it had been the other way round then we would be justified in having serious doubts as to the authenticity of the whole book: if the book of Daniel claimed that the three men were thrown to the lions under Babylonian rule, and Daniel had been thrown into a fiery furnace under the Persian rule then we would have good reason to doubt the author was familiar with the Persian Empire or Persian sensitivities.

This is because the Persians were heavily influenced by Zoroastrianism. Cyrus the Great was himself a Zoroastrian. And Zoroastrians (both now as also then) have a special regard for fire. For them fire is pure and clean. They have Fire Temples where they perform ceremonies. It isn’t so much that the fire is used in worship, as that the fire itself is reverenced for its purity. For instance, Zoroastrian priests wear face masks to cover their mouths when performing their rituals in front of the fire to make sure that they don't inadvertently spit or otherwise contaminate the purity of the fire. Much less would they think to throw a person or people into any fire, it would be sacrilege.

When we come across more and more of this kind of circumstantial evidence it has, or at least it ought to have, a cumulative effective upon us.

Why did the Babylonians have hot fires anyway? It’s been suggested: to produce the finish on the brickwork for their wonderful constructions such as the Ishtar Gate, with its glazed brickwork.

And why did they have a “lion’s den”? It wasn’t a place where lion’s chose to live it was a place where lions which had been captured (or purchased from abroad) were kept alive until such a time as the King was ready to have a lion hunt. At the time of the lion hunt the King and his friends and bodyguard would be ready on horseback in some deserted place, the lion would be released, and then the lion would be hunted down and killed. You can see huge frescos of a lion hunt on the walls of the British Museum, London, from the time of the Assyrian Empire. The Babylonians adopted the same entertainment. In these hunts the King would be the one to finish off the lion, demonstrating his prowess, bravery, power, and his willingness to be the Protector of his subject peoples.

There is another possiblilty for the existence of the lion's den:-

The religious teacher Zoroaster was teaching well before Daniel. But Zoroastrianism is not today a truly major religion. How does it not have many more followers today than it does? It is supposed that one of the reasons that Zoroastrianism is not more popular is because of the way they dispose of their dead. Zoroastrians do not bury their dead because that would be to defile the purity of the earth, nor do they cremate their dead. that would be to defile the purity of the fire.

How then do Zorostrians dispose of dead bodies, both then and today? They give the body to wild animals to eat. This might be a reflection of the part of the world where it probably originated, eastern Persian/Iran, maybe Afghanistan. In the Himalayas even today the ground is too icy hard for much of the year to bury the dead. The body of a loved one is given (for a price) to a man who takes it up the mountain to be given, out of sight, to the wild animals. When the Persian and Median rulers came to Babylon, I'm speculating, they brought lions with them for their form of "burial". I suppose it would have been especially wanted for their royalty and elite: to "bury" their dead in this gruesome way privately away from the inquisitive eyes of the general masses of the people (and especially because many of these would not be Zoroastrian and thus would be even more inquisitive). The foreign Median and Persian rulers would want to minimise the possibility of the death of a ruler to become the cause of riotous celebration amongst the populace.

In short, Daniel was taken to the place where the dead of the Persian and Median ruling elite were disposed of.

It is noteworthy that when King Darius came to the den early in the morning he did not call for a light and look down into the den to see if Daniel was OK. he called out to Daniel (Daniel 6:19,20). The hint of Daniel 6 verse 19,20 is that there were no windows for simply looking in, the lions were not in cages to be seen and admired. They were out of sight. Is that not precisely what everybody would want if the lions had the gruesome task of eating deceased loved ones? If the lions performed the tasking of eating loved ones, then you really would not want either yourself or anyone else to even have the option to be looking on.

Whether this speculation is true or not, at least the book of Daniel doesn't make a major blunder and have Daniel being thrown into a fiery furnace during the Persian Empire. Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian ordered the three men into the fire: he wasn't Zoroastrian.


Ancient Jewish History: The Babylonian Jewish Community

There was a group of Jews who never left Babylonia after the Babylonian Exile in the 6th century BCE. This community more or less thrived. Living since 129 BCE under Parthian rule, a loosely knit semi-feudal state, it was able to develop its autonomous institutions with little interference from the royal government. The Parthians who always feared Roman intervention welcomed Jewish opposition to Rome, at least until the time of Hadrian.

The Parthians established a Jewish liaison between the government and the Jewish community, the exilarch, who thus became the head of Babylonian Jewry. Descended allegedly from the House of David, proud of their genealogical purity, the exilarchs wore the kamara, the sash of office of the Parthian court, and disputed precedence with high Parthian officials.

The community which they headed was both numerous (estimates of its number vary from 800,000 to 1,200,000) and well-based economically, comprising a fair number of farmers and many traders who grew rich as intermediaries in the profitable silk trade between China and the Roman Empire passing through Babylonia.

The Jews enjoyed not only freedom of worship, autonomous jurisdiction, but even the right to have their own markets and appoint market supervisors (agoranomoi).

In 226 CC the Sassanids conquered the Parthians. They were devout Zoroastrians, and there was some tension between the new political leadership and the Jewish community. However, after a period of troubles and disagreement at the beginning of the reign of Shapur I (241𤬀), better relations were gradually established with the king.

Apart from their political and economic status, the main interest of Babylonian Jewry was its relations with the rabbinic centers in Judea and its religious/political development, leading up to the creation of the Babylonian Gemara. So long as there was a Temple, Jerusalem was the religious center for the Jewish people. With the Temple's destruction in 70 CE, the relations of the Babylonian Diaspora with Israel were characterized by ambivalence.

There were attempts to make Babylonian rabbinic courts independent of Israel's as early as 100 CE. These attempts failed. The people and therefore the Babylonian Jewish leadership acknowledged the authority of the Israel Jewish courts.

During the Hadrianic persecution several scholars of standing, R. Yochanan Ha-Sandlar, R. Eleazar b. Shamua and other pupils of R. Akiva settled temporarily in Babylonia and thus enhanced its prestige. However, the masterful personality of the patriarch R. Judah I still dominated from Israel. There were at least five Babylonians at his court, and he claimed and was accorded the right to ordain judges for Babylonia also. R. Judah did indeed admit the genealogical superiority of the exilarch, R. Huna, but only at a safe distance.

Conditions in Babylonia changed with the arrival in 219 CE at Nehardea of Abba Aricha (Rav), one of the pupils of Judah HaNasi. He arrived at Nehardea with a copy of the new best-seller, the Mishnah. Samuel, the son of Abba b. Abba, a rich silk merchant, was the leading sage at Nehardea. Samuel had established excellent relations with King Shapur I it was due to him that the rule that civil law has the force of religious law became the guiding light for the Babylonian Jewish community.

Rav, noting serious differences between himself and Samuel, founded a new academy at Sura. Meanwhile, the school of Nehardea was dispersed after the Palmyrene raid of 259 CE and reassembled at Pumbedita, which became the rival of Sura among the Babylonian schools. More academies developed at Machoza and Mata Mechasya. The teaching process seems to be similar in all of the schools. Each started with a paragraph of Mishnah to which there appear to already have been attached added traditions and discussions from the period prior to the writing of the Mishnah. These were discussed and new legal statements were added. Each of these developed chunks of material connected to a statement from the Mishnah is called a sugya. Each succeeding generation learned the sugya and then added questions, challenges (usually from another known sugya), philosophical arguments, and stories connected to either the actual materials being discussed or to an assumed principle which the legal students believed the previous generations of sages held. Since most teachers had been the students of the previous leader of the academies, many of their statements were assumed to be direct quotes of their teachers. There are also many examples of noting the behavior of a teacher as proof of that teacher's underlying principles. Some teachers believed in encouraging philosophical argumentation others emphasized close examination of the legal texts themselves.

There continued to be a group of sages who traveled between Judea and Babylonia, exchanging traditions.

With the crises facing the Jewish community in the third and fourth centuries CE, the Babylonians, who were always proud of their descent, now began to insist also on their superiority in learning and in Jewish authority. During the reign of Constantine, the Nasi, Hillel II, made this easy for them. He made the rules of the calendar public, thus cutting the one remaining authoritative tie which Israel had over Babylonia. The outcome was that the legal academies in Babylonia from the 4th-6th centuries became the Jewish authoritative centers of the Jewish world.


Babylonian Lion - History

Revelation 16:16 announces the beginning of the Battle of Armageddon: “And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.”
The next three verses record the fall of Babylon the Great. “And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air…and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.”
This passage clearly teaches us that the destruction of Babylon will take place at the time of the Battle of Armageddon.
Since we know that the Battle of Armageddon occurs at the end of the Great Tribulation, after the reign of the Antichrist and after the Mark of the Beast, it is obvious that Babylon has not yet fallen.

Another prophecy of Babylon’s Destruction

The entire ministry of the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah was devoted to prophesying the destruction of Jerusalem and the carrying away of Israel into Babylonian captivity. He also prophesied the return of Israel to Jerusalem after 70 years and foretold the ultimate destruction of Babylon.

The prophecy against Babylon is found in Jeremiah 50:1-23.

“The word that the LORD spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by Jeremiah the prophet. Declare ye among the nations, and publish, and set up a standard publish, and conceal not: say, Babylon is taken…For out of the north there cometh up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell therein… Because of the wrath of the LORD it shall not be inhabited, but it shall be wholly desolate: every one that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues.”

Verses 17 and 18 establish for certain when this destruction of Babylon was to occur:

“Israel is a scattered sheep the lions have driven him away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured him and last this Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones. Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the king of Assyria.”

The above scriptures teach us that this particular prophesied destruction of Babylon would occur during the era of the Babylonian empire of Nebuchadnezzar.

Furthermore, verses 39-40 declared that Babylon would never again be inhabited. “Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wild beasts of the islands will dwell there, and the owls shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever…”

The two Destructions of Babylon Foretold…

The prophecy of Jeremiah clearly stated that Babylon would be destroyed, never to be inhabited again. Yet the book of Revelation prophesies the destruction of Babylon at the time of Armageddon. How do we reconcile what appears to be a biblical contradiction?

Literal Babylon vs. Mystery Babylon

The physical city of Babylon was originally built by Nimrod after the flood. It was located on the Euphrates River, about 55 miles south of where Baghdad, Iraq stands today. The name Babylon came from the Tower of Babel that was constructed there.

Babylon became a large city of global prominence around 1728 BC during the reign of Hammurabi. The glory years of Babylon were achieved under Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC). The city declined during the reign of Belshazzar, and came to ruin when Xerxes, the Persian king, destroyed it in 478 BC.

Thus, Jeremiah’s prophesied destruction of Babylon was accomplished, and, just as the prophecy said, it has never been inhabited to this day. Saddam Hussein launched a project to rebuild Babylon in the late 1980’s, but the effort was halted by Gulf War I and has yet to be resumed.
But if Babylon is never to be rebuilt, why are two entire chapters of the book of Revelation devoted to the destruction of Babylon? And why is the destruction of Babylon clearly described as occurring at the time of Armageddon?
The Babylon described in Revelation is called “Mystery Babylon.” The prophecy of Mystery Babylon is found in Revelation 17:3-5.

“So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.”

Who is Mystery Babylon?

A mystery is something secret or hidden— a thing that some understand while others do not. In Revelation 17, there are several clues given to the identity of Mystery Babylon. We will discuss four of them here.

Clue #1. Mystery Babylon is a City

Notice in the above prophecy that a woman is used to symbolize Mystery Babylon. Verse 18 of the chapter tells us that the woman is a city. “And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.”

Clue #2. Mystery Babylon presides over a vast international system

In verse 1, we are told that the woman sits on many waters. Verse 15 explains the meaning of the waters. “And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.”

Not only is this woman a city, but the city is apparently the headquarters over a vast international system.

Clue #3. The city sits on 7 hills

In verse 3, we are told that the woman rides on a beast with 7 heads. Verse 9 reveals the meaning of the heads. “And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.”

Remember, we’ve already learned that the woman is a city. This passage tells us that the city sits on seven mountains. There is a city on earth that is known as “The City of Seven Hills.” It’s the city of Rome.
But is Rome the headquarters for an international power that rules over “peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues?”
The Vatican claims to rule over one billion Roman Catholics worldwide. Remember, this prophecy was written long before the Catholic Church existed and long before Rome became her headquarters.

Clue #4. She is clothed in purple and red

Revelation 17:4 “And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:”

There are two ruling bodies in the Roman Catholic Church: The College of Cardinals and the College of Bishops and Archbishops. These two bodies are somewhat like the Senate and the House of Representatives here in the US.
An article appeared in The Criterion, a Roman Catholic publication, July 1, 1988. The article was entitled, “More than You Want to Know About Cardinals.” It stated, “Cardinals wear red, while non-Cardinal Bishops and Archbishops wear purple.”
So let’s review. Mystery Babylon is a city that sits on seven hills. Rome is known worldwide as “The City of Seven Hills.”
Mystery Babylon is to “sit” on peoples, multitudes, nations and tongues.” Rome is headquarters for the Roman Catholic Church, claiming one billion members worldwide.
Mystery Babylon is described as being clothed in purple and red. The official colors of the two ruling bodies of the Roman Church are purple and red.
One other factor should be understood. In Revelation 17, God chose to use a woman—a whore—to symbolize the Roman Catholic Church. Why?
It’s really very simple. In scripture, God always used a woman to symbolize a church. He used a virgin to represent His true church (II Corinthians 11:2), and He used a harlot to represent a false church—as he did in Revelation 17-19.

There can be only one conclusion: The Vatican is the Mystery Babylon of Revelation. And it is this false religious system that has deceived the people of the world that will be destroyed at the time of Armageddon.


Babylonian and Assyrian Demonology

The belief in demons and evil spirits predates Judeo-Christian theology. The ancient Babylonian and Assyrian cultures both had extensive demon classifications. This overview of Babylonian and Assyrian demonology explains the various classes of demons.

Virtually all cultures have believed in good and evil spirits at some point. The belief dates back to Babylonian and Assyrian religions, predating Judaism.

There are generally 2 types of evil spirits:

  1. Departed human spirits – Spirits of humans that died were thought to haunt the living. These spirits could be friendly or hostile, depending on the nature of their death or burial and whether they return to haunt friends or strangers. In some cases, a spirit of a friend or loved one could turn hostile after death. Or in some cases, they could be friendly at points and hostile at others – with no rhyme or reason to their actions.
  2. Non-human spirits – Aside from departed human spirits that could turn hostile, many cultures believed in spirits that had never been human. Again, these could be friendly or hostile, and in many cultures, they took the form of animals like reptiles, serpents, antelopes, gazelles, anthropoids, crocodiles, lizards, hawks, and jackals. Apep, the serpent-devil of Egypt, and Hebrew beasts like Leviathan and Behemoth are examples.

Demons in Babylon and Assyria

The Babylonians and Assyrians borrowed had many names for spirits including utukku (‘spirit), Alu (‘demon’), Lilu (a ghost, the feminine versions include Lilitu and Ardat Lili), and Gallu (‘devil’). They believed that there were many evil spirits and they swarmed everywhere.

According to Morris Jastrow’s Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Download free at Project Gutenberg), these demons lurked in remote or hidden places like graves, mountain tops and in the shadows of ruins. They would go out at night, enter homes through holes and crevices, and torture their victims. They were responsible for anything bad that happened from destructive winds, pestilent fevers, and disease to headaches, petty quarrels, hatred and jealousy.


The Fiery Furnace, Lion’s Den, and Walls of Babylon

When skeptics read about three certain Jews, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, being cast into a fiery furnace, they scoffed. Same thing when they read about Daniel being thrown into a den of lions.

But archaeologists working in the ruins of Babylon discovered an ancient library on clay tablets. Included on these tablets were the punishments for violations of various regulations.

For the offense of impiety to any god, one was to be cast alive into a fiery furnace, and huge furnaces have also been discovered. For an untoward act relative to a king, like failure to worship his image, one was to be cast alive into the den of lions. Cages with iron bars have also been found in the ruins and the diggings of Babylon.

Furthermore, when Babylon was at the height of its glory, Ezekiel prophesied that the great walls of Babylon would be utterly destroyed. These walls were 60 miles long and as thick as 150 feet and 300 feet high, where a number of chariots could race on the top of those walls.

Archaeologists were digging down in the ground and they ran into the base, the foundation of the walls because they were utterly destroyed, just as God said they would be. If you ever see a picture of Babylon, it looks like it has been cut off by a scythe. Once again, the critics are wrong the Bible is right.

Almighty God, as we consider what happened to Your people in ancient Babylon, we can&rsquot help but think of Your people today in various parts of the world facing persecution for the name of Jesus. Grant them strength, grace, and perseverance until the end&hellip


From Thematic Bible

Azariah » A captive » Returned from » Babylon

who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahamani, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispereth, Bigvai, Nehum, Baanah. The number of men of the people of Israel:

These came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum and Baanah. The number of the men of the people of Israel:

Babylon » Predictions respecting » Restoration of the jews from

When the LORD will have compassion on Jacob and again choose Israel, and settle them in their own land, then strangers will join them and attach themselves to the house of Jacob. The peoples will take them along and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel will possess them as an inheritance in the land of the LORD as male servants and female servants and they will take their captors captive and will rule over their oppressors. And it will be in the day when the LORD gives you rest from your pain and turmoil and harsh service in which you have been enslaved, read more.
that you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon, and say, "How the oppressor has ceased, And how fury has ceased!

“It is I who says of Cyrus, ‘He is My shepherd!
And he will perform all My desire.’
And he declares of Jerusalem, ‘ She will be built,’
And of the temple, ‘ Your foundation will be laid.’”

Go forth from Babylon! Flee from the Chaldeans!
Declare with the sound of joyful shouting, proclaim this,
Send it out to the end of the earth
Say, “ The Lord has redeemed His servant Jacob.”

“For thus says the Lord , ‘When seventy years have been completed for Babylon, I will visit you and fulfill My good word to you, to bring you back to this place.

“In those days and at that time,” declares the Lord , “the sons of Israel will come, both they and the sons of Judah as well they will go along weeping as they go, and it will be the Lord their God they will seek.

Babylon » Predictions respecting » Conquests by

Then Jeremiah said to them, "You shall say to Zedekiah as follows: 'Thus says the LORD God of Israel, "Behold, I am about to turn back the weapons of war which are in your hands, with which you are warring against the king of Babylon and the Chaldeans who are besieging you outside the wall and I will gather them into the center of this city. "I Myself will war against you with an outstretched hand and a mighty arm, even in anger and wrath and great indignation. read more.
"I will also strike down the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast they will die of a great pestilence. "Then afterwards," declares the LORD, "I will give over Zedekiah king of Judah and his servants and the people, even those who survive in this city from the pestilence, the sword and the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their foes and into the hand of those who seek their lives and he will strike them down with the edge of the sword He will not spare them nor have pity nor compassion."' "You shall also say to this people, 'Thus says the LORD, "Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death. "He who dwells in this city will die by the sword and by famine and by pestilence but he who goes out and falls away to the Chaldeans who are besieging you will live, and he will have his own life as booty. "For I have set My face against this city for harm and not for good," declares the LORD "It will be given into the hand of the king of Babylon and he will burn it with fire."'

thus says the LORD to me--"Make for yourself bonds and yokes and put them on your neck, and send word to the king of Edom, to the king of Moab, to the king of the sons of Ammon, to the king of Tyre and to the king of Sidon by the messengers who come to Jerusalem to Zedekiah king of Judah. "Command them to go to their masters, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, thus you shall say to your masters, read more.
"I have made the earth, the men and the beasts which are on the face of the earth by My great power and by My outstretched arm, and I will give it to the one who is pleasing in My sight. "Now I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, My servant, and I have given him also the wild animals of the field to serve him.

Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon defeated Thus says the LORD, "Arise, go up to Kedar And devastate the men of the east. "They will take away their tents and their flocks They will carry off for themselves Their tent curtains, all their goods and their camels, And they will call out to one another, 'Terror on every side!' "Run away, flee! Dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Hazor," declares the LORD "For Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has formed a plan against you And devised a scheme against you. read more.
"Arise, go up against a nation which is at ease, Which lives securely," declares the LORD "It has no gates or bars They dwell alone. "Their camels will become plunder, And their many cattle for booty, And I will scatter to all the winds those who cut the corners of their hair And I will bring their disaster from every side," declares the LORD. "Hazor will become a haunt of jackals, A desolation forever No one will live there, Nor will a son of man reside in it."

"As for you, son of man, make two ways for the sword of the king of Babylon to come both of them will go out of one land. And make a signpost make it at the head of the way to the city. "You shall mark a way for the sword to come to Rabbah of the sons of Ammon, and to Judah into fortified Jerusalem. "For the king of Babylon stands at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination he shakes the arrows, he consults the household idols, he looks at the liver. read more.
"Into his right hand came the divination, 'Jerusalem,' to set battering rams, to open the mouth for slaughter, to lift up the voice with a battle cry, to set battering rams against the gates, to cast up ramps, to build a siege wall. "And it will be to them like a false divination in their eyes they have sworn solemn oaths But he brings iniquity to remembrance, that they may be seized. "Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, 'Because you have made your iniquity to be remembered, in that your transgressions are uncovered, so that in all your deeds your sins appear--because you have come to remembrance, you will be seized with the hand. 'And you, O slain, wicked one, the prince of Israel, whose day has come, in the time of the punishment of the end,' thus says the Lord GOD, 'Remove the turban and take off the crown this will no longer be the same Exalt that which is low and abase that which is high. 'A ruin, a ruin, a ruin, I will make it This also will be no more until He comes whose right it is, and I will give it to Him.' "And you, son of man, prophesy and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD concerning the sons of Ammon and concerning their reproach,' and say: 'A sword, a sword is drawn, polished for the slaughter, to cause it to consume, that it may be like lightning-- while they see for you false visions, while they divine lies for you--to place you on the necks of the wicked who are slain, whose day has come, in the time of the punishment of the end. 'Return it to its sheath In the place where you were created, in the land of your origin, I will judge you. 'I will pour out My indignation on you I will blow on you with the fire of My wrath, and I will give you into the hand of brutal men, skilled in destruction. 'You will be fuel for the fire your blood will be in the midst of the land You will not be remembered, for I, the LORD, have spoken.'"

"Son of man, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon made his army labor hard against Tyre every head was made bald and every shoulder was rubbed bare. But he and his army had no wages from Tyre for the labor that he had performed against it." Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, I will give the land of Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon And he will carry off her wealth and capture her spoil and seize her plunder and it will be wages for his army. "I have given him the land of Egypt for his labor which he performed, because they acted for Me," declares the Lord GOD.

Babylon » Predictions respecting » Destruction of

that you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon, and say, "How the oppressor has ceased, And how fury has ceased! "The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, The scepter of rulers Which used to strike the peoples in fury with unceasing strokes, Which subdued the nations in anger with unrestrained persecution. read more.
"The whole earth is at rest and is quiet They break forth into shouts of joy. "Even the cypress trees rejoice over you, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, 'Since you were laid low, no tree cutter comes up against us.' "Sheol from beneath is excited over you to meet you when you come It arouses for you the spirits of the dead, all the leaders of the earth It raises all the kings of the nations from their thrones. "They will all respond and say to you, 'Even you have been made weak as we, You have become like us. 'Your pomp and the music of your harps Have been brought down to Sheol Maggots are spread out as your bed beneath you And worms are your covering.' "How you have fallen from heaven, O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, You who have weakened the nations! "But you said in your heart, 'I will ascend to heaven I will raise my throne above the stars of God, And I will sit on the mount of assembly In the recesses of the north. 'I will ascend above the heights of the clouds I will make myself like the Most High.' "Nevertheless you will be thrust down to Sheol, To the recesses of the pit. "Those who see you will gaze at you, They will ponder over you, saying, 'Is this the man who made the earth tremble, Who shook kingdoms, Who made the world like a wilderness And overthrew its cities, Who did not allow his prisoners to go home?' "All the kings of the nations lie in glory, Each in his own tomb. "But you have been cast out of your tomb Like a rejected branch, Clothed with the slain who are pierced with a sword, Who go down to the stones of the pit Like a trampled corpse. "You will not be united with them in burial, Because you have ruined your country, You have slain your people. May the offspring of evildoers not be mentioned forever. "Prepare for his sons a place of slaughter Because of the iniquity of their fathers. They must not arise and take possession of the earth And fill the face of the world with cities." "I will rise up against them," declares the LORD of hosts, "and will cut off from Babylon name and survivors, offspring and posterity," declares the LORD.

The oracle concerning the wilderness of the sea As windstorms in the Negev sweep on, It comes from the wilderness, from a terrifying land. A harsh vision has been shown to me The treacherous one still deals treacherously, and the destroyer still destroys Go up, Elam, lay siege, Media I have made an end of all the groaning she has caused. For this reason my loins are full of anguish Pains have seized me like the pains of a woman in labor. I am so bewildered I cannot hear, so terrified I cannot see. read more.
My mind reels, horror overwhelms me The twilight I longed for has been turned for me into trembling. They set the table, they spread out the cloth, they eat, they drink "Rise up, captains, oil the shields," For thus the Lord says to me, "Go, station the lookout, let him report what he sees. "When he sees riders, horsemen in pairs, A train of donkeys, a train of camels, Let him pay close attention, very close attention." Then the lookout called, "O Lord, I stand continually by day on the watchtower, And I am stationed every night at my guard post. "Now behold, here comes a troop of riders, horsemen in pairs." And one said, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon And all the images of her gods are shattered on the ground." O my threshed people, and my afflicted of the threshing floor! What I have heard from the LORD of hosts, The God of Israel, I make known to you.

‘Then it will be when seventy years are completed I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation,’ declares the Lord , ‘for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans and I will make it an everlasting desolation.

Babylon » General references to

The beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Now the bronze pillars which were in the house of the Lord , and the stands and the bronze sea which were in the house of the Lord , the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried the bronze to Babylon.

that you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon, and say,


“How the oppressor has ceased,
And how fury has ceased!

Suddenly Babylon has fallen and been broken
Wail over her!
Bring balm for her pain
Perhaps she may be healed.

Twelve months later he was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon.

Babylon » The great

And another angel, a second one, followed, saying, “ Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, she who has made all the nations drink of the wine of the passion of her immorality.”

The great city was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath.

and on her forehead a name was written, a mystery, “ BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.”

And he cried out with a mighty voice, saying, “ Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place of demons and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird.

Babylon » Nebuchadnezzar king of » Took zedekiah, &c captive to babylon

They slaughtered the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, then put out the eyes of Zedekiah and bound him with bronze fetters and brought him to Babylon.

Then the rest of the people who were left in the city and the deserters who had deserted to the king of Babylon and the rest of the people, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away into exile.

Then the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest, with the three officers of the temple. From the city he took one official who was overseer of the men of war, and five of the king's advisers who were found in the city and the scribe of the captain of the army who mustered the people of the land and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard took them and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. read more.
Then the king of Babylon struck them down and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was led away into exile from its land.

Those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia,

Babylon » Predictions respecting » Captivity of the jews by

"For thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I am going to make you a terror to yourself and to all your friends and while your eyes look on, they will fall by the sword of their enemies So I will give over all Judah to the hand of the king of Babylon, and he will carry them away as exiles to Babylon and will slay them with the sword. 'I will also give over all the wealth of this city, all its produce and all its costly things even all the treasures of the kings of Judah I will give over to the hand of their enemies, and they will plunder them, take them away and bring them to Babylon. 'And you, Pashhur, and all who live in your house will go into captivity and you will enter Babylon, and there you will die and there you will be buried, you and all your friends to whom you have falsely prophesied.'"

"Go up to Lebanon and cry out, And lift up your voice in Bashan Cry out also from Abarim, For all your lovers have been crushed. "I spoke to you in your prosperity But you said, 'I will not listen!' This has been your practice from your youth, That you have not obeyed My voice. "The wind will sweep away all your shepherds, And your lovers will go into captivity Then you will surely be ashamed and humiliated Because of all your wickedness. read more.
"You who dwell in Lebanon, Nested in the cedars, How you will groan when pangs come upon you, Pain like a woman in childbirth! "As I live," declares the LORD, "even though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were a signet ring on My right hand, yet I would pull you off and I will give you over into the hand of those who are seeking your life, yes, into the hand of those whom you dread, even into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and into the hand of the Chaldeans. "I will hurl you and your mother who bore you into another country where you were not born, and there you will die.

behold, I will send and take all the families of the north,' declares the LORD, 'and I will send to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, My servant, and will bring them against this land and against its inhabitants and against all these nations round about and I will utterly destroy them and make them a horror and a hissing, and an everlasting desolation. 'Moreover, I will take from them the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones and the light of the lamp. 'This whole land will be a desolation and a horror, and these nations will serve the king of Babylon seventy years.

“ Writhe and labor to give birth,
Daughter of Zion,
Like a woman in childbirth
For now you will go out of the city,
Dwell in the field,
And go to Babylon.
There you will be rescued
There the Lord will redeem you
From the hand of your enemies.

Babylon » As a power, was » Cruel and destructive

Who made the world like a wilderness
And overthrew its cities,
Who did not allow his prisoners to go home?’

“I was angry with My people,
I profaned My heritage
And gave them into your hand.
You did not show mercy to them,
On the aged you made your yoke very heavy.

“Behold, I am against you, O destroying mountain,
Who destroys the whole earth,” declares the Lord ,
“And I will stretch out My hand against you,
And roll you down from the crags,
And I will make you a burnt out mountain.

"For behold, I am raising up the Chaldeans, That fierce and impetuous people Who march throughout the earth To seize dwelling places which are not theirs. "They are dreaded and feared Their justice and authority originate with themselves.

Babylon » Empire of » Jews carried to

Therefore the Lord brought the commanders of the army of the king of Assyria against them, and they captured Manasseh with hooks, bound him with bronze chains and took him to Babylon.

So all Israel was enrolled by genealogies and behold, they are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel. And Judah was carried away into exile to Babylon for their unfaithfulness.

Therefore He brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion on young man or virgin, old man or infirm He gave them all into his hand. All the articles of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king and of his officers, he brought them all to Babylon. Then they burned the house of God and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burned all its fortified buildings with fire and destroyed all its valuable articles. read more.
Those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia, to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed its sabbaths All the days of its desolation it kept sabbath until seventy years were complete.

Now at that time the army of the king of Babylon was besieging Jerusalem, and Jeremiah the prophet was shut up in the court of the guard, which was in the house of the king of Judah,

Babylon » Nebuchadnezzar king of » Spoiled and burned the temple

He burned the house of the Lord , the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem even every great house he burned with fire.

Now the bronze pillars which were in the house of the LORD, and the stands and the bronze sea which were in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried the bronze to Babylon. They took away the pots, the shovels, the snuffers, the spoons, and all the bronze vessels which were used in temple service. The captain of the guard also took away the firepans and the basins, what was fine gold and what was fine silver. read more.
The two pillars, the one sea, and the stands which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD--the bronze of all these vessels was beyond weight. The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and a bronze capital was on it the height of the capital was three cubits, with a network and pomegranates on the capital all around, all of bronze. And the second pillar was like these with network.

All the articles of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king and of his officers, he brought them all to Babylon. Then they burned the house of God and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burned all its fortified buildings with fire and destroyed all its valuable articles.

Babylon » Nebuchadnezzar king of » Took jehoiachin, &c captive to babylon

Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he and his mother and his servants and his captains and his officials. So the king of Babylon took him captive in the eighth year of his reign.

Then he led away into exile all Jerusalem and all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths None remained except the poorest people of the land. So he led Jehoiachin away into exile to Babylon also the king's mother and the king's wives and his officials and the leading men of the land, he led away into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon. All the men of valor, seven thousand, and the craftsmen and the smiths, one thousand, all strong and fit for war, and these the king of Babylon brought into exile to Babylon.

At the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylon with the valuable articles of the house of the Lord , and he made his kinsman Zedekiah king over Judah and Jerusalem.

Babylon » Empire of » Prophetic denunciations against

O daughter of Babylon, you devastated one, How blessed will be the one who repays you With the recompense with which you have repaid us. How blessed will be the one who seizes and dashes your little ones Against the rock.

“Prepare for his sons a place of slaughter
Because of the iniquity of their fathers.
They must not arise and take possession of the earth
And fill the face of the world with cities.”

Thus says the LORD your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, "For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And will bring them all down as fugitives, Even the Chaldeans, into the ships in which they rejoice. "I am the LORD, your Holy One, The Creator of Israel, your King." Thus says the LORD, Who makes a way through the sea And a path through the mighty waters, read more.
Who brings forth the chariot and the horse, The army and the mighty man (They will lie down together and not rise again They have been quenched and extinguished like a wick):

Babylon » Empire of » Called land of shinar

The beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

And it came about in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,

against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar—four kings against five.

It came about as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.

Then it will happen on that day that the Lord
Will again recover the second time with His hand
The remnant of His people, who will remain,
From Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath,
And from the islands of the sea.

Babylon » Empire of » Divisions

Then he left the land of the Chaldeans and settled in Haran. From there, after his father died, God had him move to this country in which you are now living.

The king of Assyria brought men from Babylon and from Cuthah and from Avva and from Hamath and Sepharvaim, and settled them in the cities of Samaria in place of the sons of Israel. So they possessed Samaria and lived in its cities.

The king of Egypt did not come out of his land again, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the brook of Egypt to the river Euphrates.

He has said, "You shall exult no more, O crushed virgin daughter of Sidon Arise, pass over to Cyprus even there you will find no rest." Behold, the land of the Chaldeans--this is the people which was not Assyria appointed it for desert creatures--they erected their siege towers, they stripped its palaces, they made it a ruin.

Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, the height of which was sixty cubits and its width six cubits he set it up on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon.

Babylon » City of » Capital of the kingdom of babylon

Now the bronze pillars which were in the house of the Lord , and the stands and the bronze sea which were in the house of the Lord , the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried the bronze to Babylon.

Those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia,

At the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylon with the valuable articles of the house of the Lord , and he made his kinsman Zedekiah king over Judah and Jerusalem.

The king reflected and said, ‘Is this not Babylon the great, which I myself have built as a royal residence by the might of my power and for the glory of my majesty?’

Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against him and bound him with bronze chains to take him to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar also brought some of the articles of the house of the LORD to Babylon and put them in his temple at Babylon.

Babylon » A type of antiChrist

The great city was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath.

and on her forehead a name was written, a mystery, “ BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.”

Babylon » Restoration of the jews from

“Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The Lord , the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever there is among you of all His people, may the Lord his God be with him, and let him go up!’”

Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he sent a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying: "Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, 'The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. 'Whoever there is among you of all His people, may his God be with him! Let him go up to Jerusalem which is in Judah and rebuild the house of the LORD, the God of Israel He is the God who is in Jerusalem. read more.
'Every survivor, at whatever place he may live, let the men of that place support him with silver and gold, with goods and cattle, together with a freewill offering for the house of God which is in Jerusalem.'" Then the heads of fathers' households of Judah and Benjamin and the priests and the Levites arose, even everyone whose spirit God had stirred to go up and rebuild the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem. All those about them encouraged them with articles of silver, with gold, with goods, with cattle and with valuables, aside from all that was given as a freewill offering. Also King Cyrus brought out the articles of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from Jerusalem and put in the house of his gods and Cyrus, king of Persia, had them brought out by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and he counted them out to Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah. Now this was their number: 30 gold dishes, 1,000 silver dishes, 29 duplicates 30 gold bowls, 410 silver bowls of a second kind and 1,000 other articles. All the articles of gold and silver numbered 5,400. Sheshbazzar brought them all up with the exiles who went up from Babylon to Jerusalem. Now these are the people of the province who came up out of the captivity of the exiles whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away to Babylon, and returned to Jerusalem and Judah, each to his city. These came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum and Baanah. The number of the men of the people of Israel: the sons of Parosh, 2,172 the sons of Shephatiah, 372 the sons of Arah, 775 the sons of Pahath-moab of the sons of Jeshua and Joab, 2,812 the sons of Elam, 1,254 the sons of Zattu, 945 the sons of Zaccai, 760 the sons of Bani, 642 the sons of Bebai, 623 the sons of Azgad, 1,222 the sons of Adonikam, 666 the sons of Bigvai, 2,056 the sons of Adin, 454 the sons of Ater of Hezekiah, 98 the sons of Bezai, 323 the sons of Jorah, 112 the sons of Hashum, 223 the sons of Gibbar, 95 the men of Bethlehem, 123 the men of Netophah, 56 the men of Anathoth, 128 the sons of Azmaveth, 42 the sons of Kiriath-arim, Chephirah and Beeroth, 743 the sons of Ramah and Geba, 621 the men of Michmas, 122 the men of Bethel and Ai, 223 the sons of Nebo, 52 the sons of Magbish, 156 the sons of the other Elam, 1,254 the sons of Harim, 320 the sons of Lod, Hadid and Ono, 725 the men of Jericho, 345 the sons of Senaah, 3,630. The priests: the sons of Jedaiah of the house of Jeshua, 973 the sons of Immer, 1,052 the sons of Pashhur, 1,247 the sons of Harim, 1,017. The Levites: the sons of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the sons of Hodaviah, 74. The singers: the sons of Asaph, 128. The sons of the gatekeepers: the sons of Shallum, the sons of Ater, the sons of Talmon, the sons of Akkub, the sons of Hatita, the sons of Shobai, in all 139. The temple servants: the sons of Ziha, the sons of Hasupha, the sons of Tabbaoth, the sons of Keros, the sons of Siaha, the sons of Padon, the sons of Lebanah, the sons of Hagabah, the sons of Akkub, the sons of Hagab, the sons of Shalmai, the sons of Hanan, the sons of Giddel, the sons of Gahar, the sons of Reaiah, the sons of Rezin, the sons of Nekoda, the sons of Gazzam, the sons of Uzza, the sons of Paseah, the sons of Besai, the sons of Asnah, the sons of Meunim, the sons of Nephisim, the sons of Bakbuk, the sons of Hakupha, the sons of Harhur, the sons of Bazluth, the sons of Mehida, the sons of Harsha, the sons of Barkos, the sons of Sisera, the sons of Temah, the sons of Neziah, the sons of Hatipha. The sons of Solomon's servants: the sons of Sotai, the sons of Hassophereth, the sons of Peruda, the sons of Jaalah, the sons of Darkon, the sons of Giddel, the sons of Shephatiah, the sons of Hattil, the sons of Pochereth-hazzebaim, the sons of Ami. All the temple servants and the sons of Solomon's servants were 392. Now these are those who came up from Tel-melah, Tel-harsha, Cherub, Addan and Immer, but they were not able to give evidence of their fathers' households and their descendants, whether they were of Israel: the sons of Delaiah, the sons of Tobiah, the sons of Nekoda, 652. Of the sons of the priests: the sons of Habaiah, the sons of Hakkoz, the sons of Barzillai, who took a wife from the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and he was called by their name. These searched among their ancestral registration, but they could not be located therefore they were considered unclean and excluded from the priesthood. The governor said to them that they should not eat from the most holy things until a priest stood up with Urim and Thummim. The whole assembly numbered 42,360, besides their male and female servants who numbered 7,337 and they had 200 singing men and women. Their horses were 736 their mules, 245 their camels, 435 their donkeys, 6,720.

Babylon » Predictions respecting » Perpetual desolation of

And Babylon, the beauty of kingdoms, the glory of the Chaldeans' pride, Will be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It will never be inhabited or lived in from generation to generation Nor will the Arab pitch his tent there, Nor will shepherds make their flocks lie down there. But desert creatures will lie down there, And their houses will be full of owls Ostriches also will live there, and shaggy goats will frolic there. read more.
Hyenas will howl in their fortified towers And jackals in their luxurious palaces. Her fateful time also will soon come And her days will not be prolonged.

"I will rise up against them," declares the LORD of hosts, "and will cut off from Babylon name and survivors, offspring and posterity," declares the LORD. "I will also make it a possession for the hedgehog and swamps of water, and I will sweep it with the broom of destruction," declares the LORD of hosts.


Critical Thoughts



A "Striding Lion," from ancient Babylon. I spotted it a few weeks ago on a cold December day in Chicago and took its picture.

One of the many gems on permanent display at the Oriental Institute, the University of Chicago’s remarkable museum which displays well its large collection of objects from the ancient Near-East, particularly Mesopotamia, Assyria, Egypt, and Persia.

Per the museum: From Babylon. Molded and glazed brick. Neo-Babylonian Period, circa 604-562 B.C.

Excerpt from legend: This colorful striding lion, its mouth opened in a threatening roar, once decorated in ancient Babylon (the Biblical city of Babel) a side of the “Processional Way,” which led out of the city through a massive gate named for Ishtar, the Mesopotamian goddess of love and war whose symbol was the lion.

These structures were built by Nebuchadnezzar II of Hanging Gardens fame. The Encyclopedia Britannica informs me that the Processional Way was a stone- and brick-paved avenue which ran over half a mile, and that its sides were decorated with an estimated 120 brick lions. The Ishtar Gate itself was decorated with hundreds of dragons and bulls, and along with the Processional Way has been partially rebuilt in Berlin at the Pergamon Museum from excavated material. I saw a short video of the museum exhibit on a TV travel show a while back and it looked quite impressive. Wikipedia has a photo from the Pergamon as well as sketches of how the original structure must have appeared (link).

The aesthetics seem remarkably refined and developed for a society near the beginning of recorded civilization.


Watch the video: Babylonischer Schöpfungsmythos