Heinkel He 111B

Heinkel He 111B

Heinkel He 111B

The Heinkel He 111B was the first version of the aircraft to be ordered by the Luftwaffe. The most significant change made for this version was the replacement of the underpowered BMW VI engines with Daimler Benz DB 600C engines. This change increased the top speed and overall performance of the aircraft markedly. Like many bombers of the late 1930s, the He 111 was faster than contemporary fighter aircraft when it was developed, encouraging the belief that the bomber would always get through. In the case of the He 111 it also resulted in the adoption of utterly inadequate defensive armament.


Seven pre-production He 111B-0s were constructed in early 1936, first flying in March 1936. In many ways these aircraft set the pattern for all early models of the He 111B. Defensive firepower was limited to three 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG 15 machine guns, one in the nose, one in an open dorsal position and one in a retractable ventral “dustbin” position. When the ventral gun was lowered the top speed of the aircraft was reduced to 192 mph, the same speed as the unacceptably slow He 111A.

A major flaw with the design of the He 111 was the layout of the bomb bay. This featured eight compartments into which the bombs were stowed vertically (nose up). The largest bomb that could fit into one of these bays was the SC 250, a 551.1lb bomb. The He 111B-0 could only carry a maximum bomb load of 1500kg (3306.9lbs), the equivalent of six of these bombs, so the bomb bay design did not cause immediate problems, but when larger bombs became standard the Heinkel had to be equipped with external bomb racks that reduced performance.

The He 111B carried a crew of four - pilot, navigator/bombardier, radio operator/dorsal gunner and ventral gunner.


The B-1 was the first full production version of the He 111. It was initially powered by two 950hp DB 600A engine, later replaced by the 850hp DB 600C. It was in production during the first part of 1937, and was phased out in favour of the B-2 in May-June 1937.


The B-2 saw the engine changed again, to the 950hp DB 600CG engine. The new engine featured individual exhaust pipes and was given extra radiators, fitted to the wing leading edge on either side of the engine nacelles. One remarkable feature of the B-2 was that its cruising speed of 229.3 mph was only fractionally lower than its maximum speed of 229.9 mph, meaning that the aircraft was normally operating at virtually top speed, very rare for any combat aircraft. The nose of the B-2 was modified, partly to improve visibility for the bombardier and partly to install a better mounting for the front machine gun.

Thirty He 111Bs served with the Legion Condor, supporting Franco in the Spanish Civil War. From March 1939 the remaining aircraft were moved to training units. Two hundred and ten were still intact in 1941 when they were converted into dual-control bomber trainers.


Engine: Two Daimler Benz DB 600CG engines
Horsepower: 950
Max Speed: 229.9 mph at 4000M
Cruising Speed: 229.3 mph
Range: 661.8 miles
Ceiling: 22,965 feet
Bomb load: 3,306.9 lbs
Wingspan: 74 feet 1.8 inches
Length: 57 feet 5 inches
Empty Weight: 12,786.6 lbs
Full Weight: 18,959.4 lbs

Development - Combat - He 111A - He 111B - He 111C - He 111D - He 111E - He 111F - He 111G - He 111H - He 111J - He 111P - He 111R - He 111Z

Heinkel He 111

Heinkel He 111 adalah pesawat pengebom yang diproduksi pada tahun 1935 oleh pabrik Heinkel Flugzeugwerke, Jerman Nazi. Α] Pesawat ini adalah pesawat pengebom utama yang digunakan Jerman selama the Blitz, yakni peristiwa pengeboman terhadap kota London, yakni Perang Inggris (the Battle of Britain) antara Angkatan Udara Jerman (Luftwaffe) dengan Angkatan Udara Inggris (Royal Air Force/RAF) pada 7 September 1940- Mei 1941. Β]

Meski digunakan dalam Perang Inggris, Heinkel He 111 sebenarnya tidak diproduksi untuk digunakan dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Apalagi Jerman terikat perjanjian Versailles, yang tidak mengizinkan Angkatan Udaranya memiliki pesawat militer, sehingga pesawat ini diproduksi dengan diam-diam sebagai pesawat komersial untuk Lufthansa Airlines. Pada tahun 1934, Angkatan Udara Jerman, Luftwaffe, meminta untuk memproduksi pesawat komersial besar, namun desainnya dirancang sedemikian rupa agar dengan mudah diubah menjadi pesawat bomber. Γ]

Heinkel He 111 kemudian dirancang oleh dua orang bernama Walter Gunter dan Siegfried Gunter berdasarkan model He 70 'blitz' pada saat itu. Ukuran badan dan tenaga mesin pesawat kemudian dilebarkan agar dapat membawa lebih banyak bom untuk dijadikan pesawat militer. Heinkel He 111 terbang pertama kalinya pada Februari 1935 dan dengan beberapa modifikasi yang pada saat itu dinilai sebagai pesawat berkinerja terbaik. Γ]

Pesawat Heinkel 111 pertama kali terbang pada tahun 1936 untuk maskapai Lufthansa dan dapat mengangkut 10 penumpang melintasi Eropa Barat. Selanjutnya versi militer dikembangkan pada tahun 1937 yang mampu mengangkut 1.700 kilogram bom dan versi terakhir beban yang dapat diangkut adalah seberat 2.000 kilogram bom. Heinkel 111 kemudian diujicoba saat perang saudara Spanyol. Δ]

Namun, pada tahun 1936, daya tenaga pesawat Heinkel He 111 dinilai kurang kuat sehingga seluruh pesawat yang telah diproduksi dijual kepada China. Mesin Heinkel yang semula menggunakan mesin kembar BMW 600 horse power diganti dengan mesin yang lebih kuat, yakni Daimler-Benz DB600A dengan tenaga 1.000 horse power yang digunakan untuk tipe Heinkel 111B. Tambahan tenaga ini cocok untuk model pesawat pengebom sekaligus menambah daya pacu kecepatannya menjadi 225 Mph. Upaya menambah daya mesin pesawat juga terus dilakukan sepanjang tahun 1937, bahkan beberapa varian dari Heinkel He 111 sudah seperti deretan indeks buku. Γ]

Pesawat ini diproduksi hingga mencapai 7.300 unit dengan berbagai variannya dan versi terakhirnya adalah CASA 2.111 yang dipergunakan oleh Spanyol hingga tahun 1975. Α] Sebanyak 200 pesawat CASA versi 2.111B diproduksi di bawah lisensi hingga tahun 1956 oleh perusahaan Spanyol Construccionnes Aeronauticas S.A (CASA), dengan menggunakan dua mesin Rolls Royce. Setelah tidak digunakan oleh Angkatan Udara Spanyol pada tahun 1967, pesawat ini dijual ke Jerman dan terbang untuk terakhir kalinya pada September 1970. Ε]

Gone Forever: The Last Flying Heinkel He 111 / CASA 2.111, Crashed in 2003 (Watch)

This footage gives you detailed views of the CASA 2.111 that was owned by the Commemorative Airforce. This craft was the only example left in existence that still flew, until 2003 when it sadly crashed.

The CASA 2.111 was designed to be a medium bomber that was manufactured in Spain by Construcciones Aeronauticas SA (CASA). This aircraft was designed with the German Heinkel He 111 in mind and looked very similar, in terms of their frames. The CASA 2.111 however, had heavier armament than the He 111 and used different engines, eventually opting for Rolls Royce Merlin as their engine of choice. This engine choice happened as they suffered problems with the original German built Junkers engine.

CASA 2.111B. Photo Credit

Of all the CASA 2.111’s created, only 14 (approx) survive to this day, all in various non-flying conditions. These remaining aircraft are either in storage or on display at aviation museums / facilities.

This particular CASA 2.111 was the last of its type that could still fly. On July 10th 2003, it was involved in a crash landing that ended fatally. This tragedy of a landing happened while attempting to land at Cheyenne Municipal Airport after flying from Midland, Texas. It was en-route to an air show in Missoula, Montana when the accident occurred.

Eyewitness accounts state the aircraft appeared to lose power in one engine while on its final approach to the airstrip and crashed through a chain fence. Following this, it then collided with a building (a school bus-washing business) that was undergoing construction. Sadly in this collision, the pilot and co-pilot were fatally injured (Neil R. Stamp and Charles S. Bates).

Videos, such as this one, and images taken at the Armed Forces Air Show (1997) are all that remain of this aircraft.

Heinkel He 111H-16 (CASA 2.111B) leaving Duxford for the Kent BOB. (Pt.3)

Today being a Monday, and therefore the Kent Battle of Britain Museum Trust is closed to the public, gave Dave Brocklehurst MBE, our Chairman and fellow Volunteer, together with his right-hand man, Julian Richardson, the opportunity to visit the Imperial War Museum at Duxford to meet Martin, Dave and Julie from Welch's Specialist Movements to discuss the possibilities of transporting our recently acquired Heinkel He 111H-16 from Duxford to Hawkinge.

The meeting was also attended by Alison and Jon, from the Imperial War Museum, and a 'back up plan' was potentially formalised to move the Heinkel by road, we hope in mid to late November 2019, if we are unable to arrange an airlift (our preferred method).

Moving the Heinkel by road is not as easy as it sounds, as the fuselage and centre section is 23 foot wide and 54 foot long! Therefore Welch's Specialist Movements, the Imperial War Museum and the Volunteers at the Museum need to sort out wide load permits, possible road closures, rolling road closures, escort vehicles, certain sections of the Heinkel's tail to be removed, crane-age, lorries, etc to be in place. It also means that if this is our chosen option, we expect that we will be moving the Heinkel during the early hours to minimise delays to the M11, M25, M20, A20 etc.

Luckily Welch's specialise in this sort of road movement, plus Dave and Julian have a wealth of knowledge after moving the Boulton Paul Defiant replica, which is 18' 6" wide, from Cosford to the Museum in February 2015.

A second meeting followed when Dave and Julian met Nigel Price, the Editor of 'Britain at War' magazine. Nigel interviewed Dave and Julian about our plans for the Heinkel when it arrives at Hawkinge and then Dave gave Nigel a guided tour around the inside of this rare aircraft.

As are plans develop to move her develops, we will of course keep everyone notified through this our Facebook Page, our Website and Twitter Page.

For further on the Museum please visit our excellent website: www.kbobm.org

Just a great job by all the KBOBM team, at the end of the day sad that it will not fly while in the hands of the KBOBM but none the less a superb addition to their collection which they will soon have they're magic hands working wonders with the restoration.

Wouldn't it be nice if they could raise enough money to have replica Jumo engines made then the airframe would appear aesthetically correct rather than the noticeably different RR engines.

They may even construct a stand to display the RR engines giving the history behind the airframe and it's iconic roll in the BOB film. I am really looking forward to seeing the end result by all the team.

Heinkel He-111 B1-B2 Pedro 1/72 Roden

During February of 1937 the first four He 111B-1's, as well as the Do 17E and Ju 86D, arrived from Hamburg. These bombers made up the "Versuchsbomberstaffel" (Experimental Bomber squadron) and operated in the K/88 bomb group. In a short time the He 111B had won a reputation as the "best of the bombers", and was separated and put into an individual sub-flight with the semi-official name "Pedro". This name would have all the planes together with individual aircraft numbers. In March 1937 the "Pedro's" achieved their first success in battle, attacking a Republican airfield near Alcals de Henares. The group destroyed 24 enemy planes on the ground. Later the "Pedro's" took part in the famous raid on Guernica, which came into history as a symbol of brutality and cruelty more than 1500 civilians were killed. The He 111B served in the "Legion Condor" until mid-1938, when they were re-equipped with the more modern He 111E. The majority of the He 111B's were lost in action others were withdrawn from service in connection with a considerable amount of damage.

Please see the paint guide below for the manufacturer&rsquos recommended colors. Roden recommends Humbrol paints for this kit, and you can find the full line by clicking here.

Is this your first time modeling, or your first time modeling in a while? Get all your basic tools in one convenient pack here.

A He 111-est az 1930-as évek közepén tervezte a német Heinkel AG. Első repüléseit 1936-ban tette meg, mint utasszállító repülőgép. Ekkor – utasszállítási funkcióját használva álcának – felderítő-repülésekre is használták. A repülőgép első, 12 hengeres BMW-VI motorral szerelt változatát nem vette át a Luftwaffe. Így az első tíz elkészült He 111A-st Kínába Csang Kaj-seknek szállították le. Az itt szerzett tapasztalatokat is felhasználva új Daimler-Benz DB 600A típusú motorral szerelték fel és a cég 1937-től ezt a He 111B-1 változatot szállította a Luftwaffénak, mint közép hatósugarú bombázót.

A He 111B első harci bevetésére 1937-ben a spanyol polgárháborúban került sor. Folyamatosan lecserélték a Condor légió Ju 52-es bombázóit, átadva azokat a spanyol hadseregnek. A Condor-légió He 111-gyel végrehajtott első bevetése Alcala, Barajas és Madrid bombázása volt. A Condor légió kiválóan képzett önkéntesekből állt, így a maga idején kiemelkedően gyors He 111-ek Spanyolországban csak jelentéktelen veszteséget könyvelhettek el, azokat elsősorban a földi légvédelem lőtte le. A He 111-ket 1939-ben vonták ki Spanyolországból, ahol a hajózó és a földi személyzet is hasznos tapasztalatokat szerzett. Mivel a Daimler-Benz cég nem tudott kellő mennyiségű motort szállítani, a He 111 újabb változatait (111D-111E) 1050 lóerős Junkers Jumo 211A motorral szerelték.

1939 nyarán indult meg Oranienburgban a He 111H sorozatának a gyártása. Ezekbe a repülőkbe már 1200 lóerős Junkers Jumo 211D motorok kerültek. Bár szeptember 1-én, Lengyelország megtámadásának napján még nem voltak hadrendbe állítva, októberben már megkezdték első harci bevetéseiket Lengyelországban. Szintén még 1939 őszén Anglia bombázására is bevetették a He 111H bombázókat, azonban Anglia a spanyol polgárháború tapasztalatain okulva intenzíven fejlesztette légierejét és 1939-ben már a Hawker Hurricane sebessége a 300 mérföld/órát is elérte így a He 111-ek 250 mérföld/órás sebessége kevésnek bizonyult. Az angliai csata során a He 111-esek is súlyos veszteségeket szenvedtek az angol vadászoktól. Ezért megerősítették védelmét, azonban a súlynövekedés hatására a modell lassabb lett.

A Királyi Magyar Honvéd Légierő 1942-től 1943 tavaszáig repült He 111H-6 gépekkel a Szovjetunió nyugati területe felett. [1]

A Szovjetunió megtámadását követően a He 111-es stratégiai bombázókat taktikai célokra használták a front vonal mögötti szállító utak, konvojok, gyárak, hidak bombázására. A fegyverzetét két MG 81Z 7,92 mm-es géppuskával erősítették meg. A legutolsó jelentős típus változatát a He 111-eknek 1944-ben szolgálatba állított He 111H-23 csapatszállító repülőgép volt. Ezzel mintegy megvalósult Henkel professzor eredeti elképzelése.

1944-ben amikor a Szovjet hadsereg elérte Magyarországot a Luftwaffe-nek még 260 bevethető 440 He 111 gépe állomásozott Kelet-Európában. Ezek a gépek elsősorban szállítási feladatokat láttak el. 1944 december és 1945 februárja között jelentős szerepet játszottak Budapest ostromakor az utánpótlás biztosításában és az evakuálásban.

Érdekességként megemlítendő a He 111Z ("Zwilling" - "iker") altípus. Ezt Messerschmitt Me 321-es nagyméretű szállító gépének vontatására építették. Két közös szárnydarabbal összekötött H-6-os gép volt. Az összekötésébe beépítettek egy 5. motort. Ez egy radikális, egyszerű és sikeres ötlet volt gyorsan és olcsón megvalósítható. Az 5 Jumo motor 7500 lóerőt biztosított. A He 111Z maximális sebessége 437 km/h az utazó sebessége 394 km/h volt. Repülési magossága 10200 m, és maximális hatótávolsága 4000 km. A He 111Z-ket 1942-től a háború végig használták. Képesek voltak 270 mérföldes sebességgel vontatni Me 321 vagy Gotha G 242 vitorlázó szállítógépeket. Egy He 111Z két teljes terhelésű G 242-est akár 1500 km-re is elvontatott.

Annak ellenére, hogy a He 111-es már nem volt korszerű, továbbra is szolgálatban maradt, mint távolfelderítő, vitorlázóvontató, és mint szállítógép. Alkalmassá tették a V-1-es robotrepülőgépek szállítására is. A magyar légierő is alkalmazta ezt a bombázótípust.

A spanyolországi CASA cég Sevillában 1956-ig folytatta CASA 2.111 néven a He 111H-16 típus építését . Mivel a német Jumo motor elérhetetlenné vált a gép brit Rolls-Royce Merlin 500 motorokkal készült. A spanyol légierő 1960-ig használta mint könnyű bombázót, de mint szállító gépet még ezt követően is. A CASA 2.111 es gépek több mozifilmben is szerepeltek.

Jelenleg CASA2.111 B-t láthatunk Schleißheimben a müncheni Német Múzeum repülőgép gyűjteményében, a Bundeswehr Berlin-Gatow-i repülőterén és a sinsheimi Autó és Műszaki Múzeumban.


He 111V1 was completed as a bomber prototype and kept secret. It first flew in February 1935, and was followed quickly by the civilian-equipped V2. V2 had a smaller wing, and used the bomb bay as a four-seat "smoking compartment" with another six seats behind it in the rear fuselage. V2 entered service with Lufthansa in 1936, along with five newly built versions known as the He 111C.

V3 was also completed as a bomber prototype. It supplanted the main bomb bay with smaller bays in the inner wings, and was armed with three MG15 machine guns for defence. The added weight slowed the plane considerably, which now cruised at a measly 170 mph (274 km/h).

Heinkel He 111B - History

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Although the Heinkel He 111 was designed ostensibly as a civil airliner for Lufthansa, its military potential was of a far greater importance. The first prototype of Siegfried and Walter Gunter's enlarged, twin-engine development of the remarkable He 70 was fitted with a glazed nose when flown at Rostock-Marienehe on 24 February 1935, in the hands of Flugkapitan Gerhard Nitschke. An all-metal cantilever low-wing monoplane, it was powered by two 660 hp (492 kW) BMW VI 6,OZ engines and was followed by two further prototypes, each with shorter-span wings than those fitted on the first prototype. The third aircraft became the true bomber prototype and the second, which flew on 12 March 1935, was a civil version with a mail compartment in the nose and two passenger cabins, with seats for four and six passengers. After tests at Staaken this prototype eventually joined the Lufthansa fleet, although much of the development work on the civil version was carried out by the fourth prototype, the first to be revealed to the public and demonstrated at Berlin's Tempelhof Airport on 10 January 1936. Lufthansa received six He 111C 10 seat airliners during 1936, and these first entered service on the Berlin-Hannover-Amsterdam, Berlin-Nuremberg-Munich and Berlin-Dortmund-Cologne routes. Lufthansa received later a number of He llIG-3 transports with 880 hp (656kW) BMW 132Dc engines and, later, a further generally similar hatch under the alternative designation He 111L.

Development of the military counterpart continued with the manufacture of 10 He 111A-0 pre-production aircraft, based on the third prototype, but with a longer nose and armed by three MG 15 machine-guns in nose, dorsal and ventral positions. Two were used for operational trials at Rechlin but poor handling, power deficiencies and inadequate performance resulted in rejection, and all 10 were later sold to China. The solution was the installation of two 1,000-hp (746-kW) Daimler-Benz DB 600A engines, first fitted to the fifth (B-series) prototype which flew in early 1936 as the forerunner of the first production versions built at Marienehe from the autumn of 1936. These comprised the He 111B-1 powered by the 880-hp (656-kW) DB600, followed by the He 11IB-2 with 950-hp (708-kW) DB 600CG engines. The improvement in the performance of these aircraft resulted in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium placing such large orders that it was necessary to build a new He 111 construction facility at Oranienburg, near Berlin, this being completed in 1937.

The B-series was followed by the He 111D-1 with improved DB 600Ga engines, but the urgent need to divert DB 600 powerplant for fighter production meant that this version was built in only small numbers. This brought introduction of the 1,000 hp (746 kW) Junkers Jumo 211A-1, installed initially in a He 111D-O airframe to serve as the prototype of the He 11IE-0 pre-production series. In the initial production He 11IE-1 bomber of February 1938 the bombload was increased to 3,748 lbs (1700 kg), but the He 11IE-3 had another increase to 4,409 lbs (2000 kg), and the ensuing He 11IE-4 could carry 2,205 lbs (1000 kg) of this total on underfuselage racks final sub-variant of the E-series, the He 111E-5 introduced an additional 183.7 Imp gal (835 litres) of auxiliary fuel carried within the fuselage. The next version into production was the He 111G which first introduced a new wing of simplified construction with straight, instead of curved taper. This was used first in the He 111G-3 civil transport built for Lufthansa, and there was some delay before it was approved by the RLM. Then followed the He 111G-1, basically similar to C-series aircraft but for the addition of the new wing, and the He 111G-4 which was powered by the 900 hp (671 kW) DB 60OG engine four He IIIG-5 aircraft supplied to Turkey had Daimler-Benz 600Ga engines. Next came, unsequentially, the similar He 111F-1 powered by Jumo 211A-3 engines of which 24 were supplied to Turkey, and 40 virtually identical aircraft were built for the Luftwaffe in 1938 under the designation He IIIF-4.

Developed in parallel were the H-series and P- series, the latter introducing in 1939 a major fuselage redesign which replaced the stepped cockpit by an extensively-glazed cockpit and nose section and, at the same time, moved the nose gun position to starboard to improve the pilot's view. The pre-production He 111P- 0 also introduced a revised ventral gondola, with the gunner in a prone position, and was powered by two 1,150 hp (858 kW) DB 601 Aa engines. Relatively few He 111Ps were built before this version was superseded by the H-series, the He 111P-1 which was virtually identical to the pre-production aircraft being delivered first in the autumn of 1939 the He llIP-2 differed only by having changes in radio equipment, and the He 111P-3 was a dual-control trainer. Heavier armour protection and up to six MG 15 machine-guns were introduced in the five-crew He 111P-4 which, in addition to carrying 2,205 lbs (1000 kg) of bombs internally had ETC 500 racks beneath the fuselage for a similar external load the He 111P-6 had all-internal stowage for 4,409 lbs (2000 kg) of bombs, and later P-series conversions, for use as glider tugs with 1,175 hp (876 kW) DB 60IN engines installed, were redesignated He 111P-2/R2.

A Heinkel He 111H-16 of the 9./KG 53 'Legion Condor' wearing the escort identity bars carried by
bombers involved in the large daylight bombing raids on London 15 September 1940

The major production version, built in a large number of variants, was the H-series, the He 111H-0 and He 111H-1 pre-production/production batches being basically the same as He 111P-2s except for the installation of 1,010 hp (753 kW) Jumo 211A engines.

The He 111H-2 which became available in the autumn of 1939 had Jumo 211A-3 engines and carried two additional MG 15 machine-guns, one in the nose and one in the ventral gondola, and the He 111H-3 introduced armour protection and armament comprising a 20-mm MG FP cannon and an MG 15 in the ventral gondola, two MG 15s in the nose, one dorsally mounted, and similar weapons in beam positions. The He 111H-4 introduced Jumo 211D-1 engines and was equipped with two external racks to carry a 3,968 lbs (1800 kg) bombload that could include two 1,686 lbs (765 kg) differed only by having increased fuel capacity.

When He 111H-3 and He 111H-5 aircraft were later fitted with a nose-mounted device to fend off balloon cables they were both redesignated He 111H-8, and subsequent re-conversion for use as glider tugs was made under the designation He 111H-S/R2. Junkers Jumo 21IF-1 engines with variable-pitch propellers, and a fixed MG 17 machine-gun mounted in the tail, identified the He 111H-6 and the He 111H-10 was developed and built in small numbers especially for the night bombing offensive against the UK, these being equipped with Kute-Nase balloon cable-cutters in the wing leading edges and additional armour protection. Armament changes and a fully- enclosed dorsal position accommodating an MG 131 machine-gun identified the He 111H-11, in which the nose position carried a 20 mm MG FP cannon and the ventral MG 15 was replaced by a twin-barrel MG 81Z when the beam guns were later replaced by MG 81Zs these aircraft were redesignated He 111H-11/R1, and changed their designation yet again to become He 111H-11/R2 when adapted to tow Gotha Go 242 gliders. The He 111H-12 and He 111H-15 were both built in small numbers, without the ventral gondola, to serve as missile launchers for Henschel and Blohm und Voss weapons respectively. The first of the pathfinder versions had the designation He 111H-14, and when converted later to serve as a glider tug was redesignated He 111H-14/R2.

Built in large numbers, following introduction in the autumn of 1942, the He 111H-16 was generally similar to the He 111H-11, but equipped to carry a bombload of up to 7,165 lbs (3250 kg), although this necessitated the use of R-Gerate rocket-assisted take off equipment it was built in sub-variants that included the He 111H-16/RI which had a revolving dorsal turret with an MG 131 machine-gun, He 111H-16/P.2 equipped for rigid- bar towing of gliders, and the He 111H-16/R3 which carried additional radio equipment for use as a pathfinder. The ensuing He 111H-18 was also a pathfinder, with exhaust flame dampers to make it suitable for night operations, followed by the He 111H-20 built in sub-variants that included the He IIIH-20/Rl carrying 16 paratroops, He 111H-20/R2 night bomber/glider tug, He 111H-20/R3 night bomber with heavier armour protection and improved radio, and the virtually identical He IIIH-20/R4 with GM-1 power boosting equipment for the powerplant when a 1,750 hp (1305 kW) Jumo 213E-1 engine with two-stage superchargers was installed in He 111H-20/R3 aircraft they were redesignated He 111H-21. The He 111H-22 was equipped to carry a Fieseler Fi 103 (V-1) missile beneath each wing, and the final H-series variant was the He 111H- 23 paratroop transport with 1,776 hp (1324 kW) Jumo 213A-1 engines.

Produced in parallel with the F-series, the He 111J-0 and He 111J-1 were intended as torpedo-bombers and powered by 950 hp (708 kW) DB 600CG engines, but the He 111J-1 production aircraft, of which about 88 were built, were equipped as bombers. A single prototype was built of a proposed high-altitude bomber under the designation He 111R, powered by two 1,810 hp (1350 kW) DB 603U engines, but no production aircraft resulted. Final, and certainly the most unusual version, was the He 111Z (Zwilling, or twin), designed to tow the Messerschmitt Me 321 Gigant transport glider. It comprised two 111H-6 airframes joined by a new wing centre-section which mounted a fifth Jumo 211F-2 engine. Two prototypes and 10 He 111Z-1 production aircraft were built during the winter of 1941-2.

First deliveries to an operational squadron were made late in 1936, to 1./KG 154 at Fassberg, and in February 1937 30 He 111B-ls were sent to the Legion Condor bomber unit K/88 in Spain, following operational trials in which four of the pre-production He 11IB-Os were flown by a flight of VB 88. The He 111 bore the brunt of the Luftwaffe's bombing effort in early World War 11. Poland in the autumn of 1939, Norway and Denmark in April 1940, France and the Low Countries in May and against British targets during the Battle of Britain. Large-scale introduction of the Junkers Ju 88, and the He 111's vulnerability to British fighters, resulted in the Heinkel bomber being transferred to night operations and to a variety of specialised roles, as a missile-carrier, torpedo-bomber, pathfinder and glider- tug. Transport duties were also undertaken, including operations to supply the beleaguered German army at Stalingrad between November 1942 and February 1943, and by the end of the war He Ills were virtually flown only in the transport role. Production of more than 7,000 German-built aircraft for the Luftwaffe was completed in the autumn of 1944. In addition to those manufactured in Heinkel factories at Marienehe and Oranienburg, He Ills were built by Norddeutsche Dornierwerke in Wismar, by Allgemeine Transport-gesellschaft in Leipzig, Arado in Babelsberg and Brandenburg/Havel and at other centres. Some 236 He 111Hs were built by CASA in Spain during and after the war as the CASA 2.111, approximately 130 with Jumo 21IF-2 engines and the rest with Rolls-Royce Merlin 500-29s. Some were converted later for transport and training duties.

Following unsatisfactory tests of 10 pre-production He 111A-0 bombers, all were sold to China.

Testing of the fifth prototype with 746 kW (1,000 hp) DB 600A engines led in 1936 to the production He 111B-1 with 656 kW (880 hp) DB 600C engines, followed by the He 111B-2 with the 708 kW (950 hp) DB 6OOCG.

Six 10-passenger airliners for Lufthansa.

An improved version with DB 600Ga engines and auxiliary wing radiators deleted production was discontinued in favour of the He 111E.

The shortage of DB 600 engines brought installation of 746 kW (1,000 hp) Junkers Jumo 211A-1 engines in an He 111D-0 airframe the resulting He 111E-0 pre-production prototype had increased bombload production He 111E-1 bombers were delivered in 1938, followed by the He 111E-3 and He 111E-4 with further increase in bombload and He 111E-5 with fuselage auxiliary fuel tank.

The new wing of the He 111G and Jumo 211A-3 engines characterised the 24 He 111F-1 bombers supplied to Turkey the Luftwaffe received 40 similar He 111F-4 aircraft in 1938.

First version with the new straight-taper wing which, incorporated on the He 111C, brought redesignation He 111G-1 the He 111G-3 had 656-kW (880-hp) BMW 132Dc engines, the He 111G-4 671-kW (900-hp) DB 60OGs, and four He 111G-5 aircraft for Turkey had DB 600Ga engines.

He 111H/H-0/H-1/H-3/H-4/H-5/H-6/H-8/(H-8/R2)/H-10/H-11/(H-11/R1/R2)/H-12/H-15/H-14/(H-14/R2)/H-16/(H-16/R1/R2/R3)/

Developed in parallel with the He 111P series, the He 111H-0 and He 111H-1 were basically He 111P-2s with 753 kW (1,100 hp) Jumo 211A engines the He 111H-2 of 1939 had improved armament the He 111H-3 introduced armour protection and a 20-mm cannon the He 111H-4 had Jumo 211 D-1 engines and two external racks for bombs or torpedoes, and the generally similar He 111H-5 had increased fuel capacity the He 111H-6 introduced Jumo 211F-1 engines and machine-gun in the tailcone He 111H-8 was the redesignation of He 111H-3s and He 111H-5s following installation of fenders for balloon cables, most of them being converted later to He 111H-8/R2 glider tugs the He 111H-10 for night bombing of UK targets had additional armour, reduced armament and wing leading-edge balloon cable-cutters the He 111H-11 and He 111H-11/R1 had revised armament, the last becoming He 111H-11/R2 when converted later as a glider tug the He 111H-12 and He 111H-15 were missile-launchers, the He 111H-14 a pathfinder version and the He 111H-14/R2 a glider tug introduced in 1942, the He 111H-16 was a major production variant similar to the He 111H-11 but able to carry a 7,165 lbs (3250 kg) bombload with the use of rocket-assisted-take-off gear. The He 111H-16/R1 had a revolving dorsal turret, the He 111H-16/R2 was for rigid bar towing of gliders and the He 111H-16/R3 was a pathfinder version as was the He 111H-18 with exhaust flame dampers. Four versions of the He 111H-20 comprised the He 111H-20/R1 capable of carrying 16 paratroops. The He 111H-20/R2 night bomber/glider tug, the He 111H-20/R3 with increased armour protection and the generally similar He 111H-20/R4 which introduced GM-1 power boost equipment. A version of the He 111H-20/R3 with 1,750 hp (1305 kW) Jumo 213E-1 engines and two-stage superchargers was designated He 111H-21. The He 111H-22 was a missile carrier and the He 111H-23 was a paratroop transport with 1,776 hp (1324 kW) engines.

A torpedo bomber version of the He 111F series, the He 111J-0 and He 111J-1 both had 950 hp (708 kW) DB 600CG engines.

The alternative designation for the He 111G-3 civil transport.

In 1939 the He 111P series introduced a major fuselage redesign, the stepped cockpit being replaced by an asymmetric glazed cockpit and nose. The He 111P-0 introduced a prone position ventral gondola and was powered by two 1,150 hp (858 kW) DB 601Aa engines. First being deliveries of the He 111P-1 began in late 1939. The He 111P-2 was similar but for radio revisions. The He 111P-3 had dual controls and the five crew He 111P-4 had more armour and armament. The He 111P-6 had 1,175 hp (876 kW) DB 601N engines and its 4,409 lbs (2000 kg) bombload stowed vertically in the fuselage when later converted as a glider tug the He 111P-6 became the He 111P-6/R2.

A single prototype of proposed high altitude bomber.He 111Z/Z-1

The He 111Z (Zwilling, or twin) combined two He 111H-6 airframes, joined by a new wing centre-section to mount a fifth Jumo 211F-2 engine designed to tow the Messerschmitt Me 321 Gigant transport glider two prototypes and 10 He 111Z-1 production aircraft were built.

Specifications (Heinkel He 111H-16)

Type: Four or Five seat medium bomber (Later used as a torpedo bomber, glider tug and missile launching platform)

Design: Ernst Heinkel AG

Manufacturer: Ernst Heinkel AG, SNCASO (France), Fabrica de Avione SET, CASA (Spain), Romania.

Powerplant: Two 1,350 hp (1007 kW) Junkers Jumo 211F-2 12-cylinder inverted Vee piston engines.

Performance: Maximum speed 227 mph (365 km/h) at sea level service ceiling 21,980 It (6700 m).

Range: 1,212 miles (1950 km) with full bombload.

Weight: (Z-2) Empty equipped 19,136 lbs (8680 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 30,865 lbs (14000 kg).

Dimensions: Span 74 ft 1 3/4 in (22.60 m) length 53 ft 9 1/2 in (16.40 m) height 13 ft 1 1/4 in (4.00 m) wing area 931.11 sq ft (86.50 sq m).

Armament: One 20 mm MG FF cannon, one 13 mm (0.51 in) MG 131 machine gun and three 7.92 mm (0.31 in) MG 81Z machine guns, plus a normal internal bombload of 2,205 lbs (1000 kg). Could carry up to 7,165 lbs (3250 kg) of bombs (most externally) with the use of rocket-assisted-takeoff-gear (RATOG).

Variants: He 111A, He 111B/B-1/B-2, He 111C, He 111D, He 111E/E-0/E-1/E-3/E-4/E-5, He 111F/F-1/F-4, He 111G/G-1/G-3/G-4/G-5, He 111H/H-1 to H-6/H-8, He 111H-8/R2, He 111H-10, He 111H-11, He 111H-11/R1/R2, He 111H-12/H-15 (missle launchers, He 111H-14 (pathfinder), He 111H-14/R2 (glider tug), He 111H-16 (major production version), He 111H-16/R1/R2/R3, He 111H-18, He 111H-20/R1/R2/R3/R4, He 111H-21, He 111H-22, He 111H-23, He 111J/J-0/J-1, He 111L, He 111P/P-0/P-1/P-2/P-3/P-4/P-6, He 111P-6/R2, He 111R, He 111Z/Z-1 (Zwilling).

History: First flight (He 111V-1 prototype) 24 February 1935, (pre-production He 111B-0) August 1936, (production He 111B-1) 30 October 1936 (first He 111E series) January 1938, (first production He 111P-1) December 1938, (He 111H-1) January/February 1939, final delivery (He 111H-23) October 1944, (Spanish C2111) late 1956.

Heinkel 111B

The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Often described as a "Wolf in sheep's clothing", it masqueraded as a transport aircraft, though its actual purpose was to provide the Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber.

Perhaps the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively glazed, bullet-shaped "greenhouse" nose of later versions, the Heinkel was the most numerous and the primary Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. It fared well until the Battle of Britain, when its weak defensive armament, relatively low speed, and poor manoeuvrability were exposed. Nevertheless, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European Theatre. It was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber during the Battle of the Atlantic, and a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western, Eastern, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African Fronts.

Although constantly upgraded, the Heinkel He 111 became obsolete during the latter part of the war. It was intended to be replaced by the Luftwaffe's Bomber B project, but the delays and eventual cancellation of the project forced the Luftwaffe to continue using the He 111 until the end of the war. Manufacture ceased in 1944, at which point, piston-engine bomber production was largely halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force defunct, the He 111 was used for transport and logistics.

The design of the Heinkel endured after the war in the CASA 2.111. The Spanish received a batch of He 111H-16s in 1943 along with an agreement to licence-build Spanish versions. Its airframe was produced in Spain under license by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA. The design differed significantly in powerplant only. The Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973, when it was retired.

He 111H and its variants

He 111 H-1 to H-10

The H variant of the He 111 series was more widely produced and saw more action during World War II than any other Heinkel variant.
Owing to the uncertainty surrounding the delivery and availability of the DB 601 engines, Heinkel switched to 820 kW (1,100 hp) Junkers Jumo 211 powerplants, whose somewhat greater size and weight were regarded as unimportant considerations in a twin-engine design. When the Jumo was fitted to the P model it became the He 111 H. The He 111 H-1 was fitted with a standard set of three 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine guns and eight SC 250 250 kg (550 lb) or 32 SC 50 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. The same armament was used in the H-2 which started production in August 1939. [45]
The P-series was gradually replaced on the eve of war with the new the H-2, powered by improved Jumo 211 A-3 engines of 820 kW (1,100 hp). [45] A count on 2 September 1939 revealed that the Luftwaffe had a total of 787 He 111s in service, with 705 combat ready, including 400 H-1 and H-2s that had been produced in a mere four months. [46] Production of the H-3, powered by the 895 kW (1,200 hp) Jumo 211 D-1, began in October 1939. Experiences during the Polish Campaign led to an increase in defensive armament. MG 17s were fitted whenever possible and the number of machine guns was increased to seven. The two waist positions received an additional MG 15 or 17, and on some variants a belt-fed MG 17 was even installed in the tail. [45]

After the Battle of Britain, smaller scale production of the H-4s began. The H-4 was virtually identical to the He 111 P-4 with the DB 600s swapped for the Jumo 211D-1s. Some also used the Jumo 211H-1. [47] [48] This variant also differed from the H-3 in that it could either carry 2,000 kg (4,410 lb) of bombs internally or mount one or two external racks to carry one 1,800 kg (3,970 lb) or two 1,000 kg (2,210 lb) bombs. As these external racks blocked the internal bomb bay doors, a combination of internal and external storage was not possible. A PVR 1006L bomb rack was fitted externally and an 835 L (221 US gal) tank added to the interior spaces left vacant by the removal of the internal bomb-bay. The PVR 1006L was capable of carrying a SC 1000 1,000 kg (2,210 lb) bomb. Some H-4s had their PVC racks modified to drop torpedoes. [47] Later modifications enabled the PVC 1006 to carry a 2,500 kg (5,510 lb) "Max" bomb. However 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) "Hermann" or 1,800 kg (3,970 lb) "Satans" were used more widely. [49]

The H-5 series followed in February 1941, with heavier defensive armament. [50] Like the H-4, it retained a PVC 1006 L bomb rack to enable it to carry heavy bombs under the fuselage. The first ten He 111 H-5s were pathfinders, and selected for special missions. The aircraft sometimes carried 25 kg flashlight bombs which acted as flares. The H-5 could also carry heavy fire bombs, either heavy containers or smaller incendiary devices attached to parachutes. The H-5 also carried LM A and LM B aerial mines for anti-shipping operations. After the 80th production aircraft, the PVC 1006 L bomb rack was removed and replaced with a heavy-duty ETC 2000 rack, enabling the H-5 to carry the SC 2500 "Max" bomb, on the external ETC 2000 rack, which enabled it to support the 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) bomb. [51]

Some H-3 and H-4s were equipped with barrage balloon cable-cutting equipment in the shape of cutter installations forward of the engines and cockpit. They were designated H-8, but later named H8/R2. These aircraft were difficult to fly and production stopped. The H-6 initiated some overall improvements in design. The Jumo 211 F-1 engine of 1,007 kW (1,350 hp) increased its speed while the defensive armament was upgraded with one 20 mm MG FF cannon in the nose position, one MG 15 in the ventral turret, and in each of the fuselage side windows (optional). Some H-6 variants carried tail-mounted MG 17 defensive armament. [52] The performance of the H-6 was much improved. The climb rate was higher and the machine could reach a slightly higher ceiling of 8,500 m (27,200 ft). When heavy bomb loads were added, this ceiling was reduced to 6,500 m (20,800 ft). The weight of the H-6 increased to 14,000 kg (30,600 lb). Some H-6s received Jumo 211F-2s which improved a low-level speed of 226 mph (365 km/h). At an altitude of 6,000 m (19,200 ft) the maximum speed was 270 mph (435 km/h). If heavy external loads were added, the speed was reduced by 21.75 mph (35 km/h). [53]

Other designs of the mid-H series included the He 111 H-7 and H-8. The airframes were to be rebuilds of the H-3/H-5 variant. Both were designed as night bombers and were to have two Jumo 211F-1s installed. The intention was for the H-8 to be fitted with cable-cutting equipment and barrage ballon deflectors on the leading edge of the wings. The H-7 was never built. [54]

The H-9 was intended as a trainer with dual control columns. The airframe was a H-1 variant rebuild. The powerplants consisted of two JumoA-1s or D-1s. [54] The H-10 was also designated to trainer duties. Rebuilt from an H-2 or H-3 airframe, it was installed with full defensive armament including 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 and 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z machine guns. It was to be powered by two Jumo 211A-1s, D-1s or F-2s. [54]

Later H variants, H-11 to H-20

In the summer of 1942, the H-11, based on the H-3 was introduced. With the H-11, the Luftwaffe had at its disposal a powerful medium bomber with heavier armour and revised defensive armament. The drum-fed 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 was replaced with a belt-fed 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 in the now fully enclosed dorsal position (B-Stand) the gunner in the latter was now protected with armoured glass. The single MG 15 in the ventral C-Stand or Bola was also replaced, with a belt-fed 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z with much higher rate of fire. The beam positions originally retained the single MG 15s, but the H-11/R1 replaced these with twin MG 81Z as well this latter arrangement was standardized in November 1942. The port internal ESAC bomb racks could be removed, and an 835 L (221 US gal) fuel tanks installed in its place. [55] Many H-11s were equipped with a new PVC rack under the fuselage, which carried five 250 kg (550 lb) bombs. Additional armour plating was fitted around crew spaces, some of it on the lower fuselage and could be jettisoned in an emergency. Engines were two 1,000 kW (1,340 hp) Junkers Jumo 211F-2, allowing this variant to carry a 2,000 kg (4,410 lb) payload to a range of 2,340 km (1,450 mi). Heinkel built 230 new aircraft of this type and converted 100 H-3s to H-11s by the summer of 1943. [55]

The third mass production model of the He 111H was the H-16, entering production in late 1942. Armament was as on the H-11, with some differences. The 20 mm MG FF cannon was deleted, as the H-16s were seldom employed on low-level missions, was replaced with a single MG 131 in a flexible installation in the nose (A-Stand). On some aircraft, designated He 111 H-16/R1, the dorsal position was replaced by a Drehlafette DL 131 electrically powered turret, armed with a single MG 131. The two beam and the aft ventral positions were provided with MG 81Zs, as on the H-11. The two 1,000 kW (1,340 hp) Jumo 211 F-2 provided a maximum speed of 434 km/h (270 mph) at 6,000 m (19,690 ft) cruising speed was 390 km/h (242 mph), service ceiling was 8,500 m (27,900 ft). [56] Funkgerät (FuG) radio equipment. FuG 10P, FuG 16, FuBl Z and APZ 6 were fitted for communication and navigation at night, while some aircraft received the FuG 101a radio altimeter. The H-16 retained its eight ESAC internal bomb cells four bomb cells, as on previous versions could be replaced by a fuel tank to increase range. ETC 2000 racks could be installed over the bomb cell openings for external weapons carriage. Empty weight was 6,900 kg (15,210 lb) and the aircraft weighed 14,000 kg (30,860 lb) fully loaded for take off. German factories built 1,155 H-16s between the end of 1942 and the end of 1943 in addition, 280 H-6s and 35 H-11s were updated to H-16 standard. [56] An undetermined number of H variants were fitted with the FuG 200 Hohentwiel. The radar was adapted as an anti-shipping detector for day or night operations. [57] [58]

The last major production variant was the H-20, which entered into production in early 1944. It was planned to use two 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) Junkers Jumo 213E-1 engines, turning three-blade, Junkers VS 11 wooden-bladed variable-pitch propellers. It would appear this plan was never developed fully. Though the later H-22 was given the E-1, the F-2 remained the H-20s main power plant. Heinkel and its licensees built 550 H-20s through the summer of 1944, while 586 H-6s were upgraded to H-20 standard. [59] [60]

In contrast to the H-11 and H-16 the H-20, equipped with two Jumo 211F-2s, had more powerful armament and radio communications. The defensive armament consisted of one MG 131 in an A-Stand gun pod for the forward mounted machine gun position. One rotatable Drehlafette DL 131/1C (or E) gun mount in the B-stand was standard and later MG 131 machine guns were added. [61] Navigational direction-finding gear was also installed. The Peil G6 was added to locate targets and the FuBI 2H blind landing equipment was built in to help with night operations. The radio was a standard FuG 10, TZG 10 and FuG 16Z for navigating to the target. The H-20 also was equipped with barrage balloon cable-cutters. The bomb load of the H-20 could be mounted on external ETC 1000 racks, or four ESAC 250 racks. The sub variant H-20/R4 could carry 20 50 kg (110 lb) bombs as external loads. [61]

He 111Z

The He 111Z Zwilling (English: Twin ) was a design that entailed the mating of two He 111s. The design was originally conceived to tow the Messerschmitt Me 321 glider. Initially, four He 111 H-6s were modified. This resulted in an aircraft with twin fuselages and five engines. They were tested at Rechlin in 1941, and the pilots rated them highly. [62]
A batch of 10 were produced and five were built from existing H-6s. The machines were joined by a center wing formed by two sections 6.15 m (20 ft) in length. The powerplants were five Junkers Jumo 211F engines producing 1,000 kW (1,340 hp) each. The total fuel capacity was 8,570 L (2,260 US gal). This was increased by adding of four 600 L (160 US gal) drop tanks. [36] The He111Z could tow a Gotha Go 242 glider or Me 321 for up to 10 hours at cruising speed. It could also remain airborne if the three central powerplants failed. The He 111 Z-2 and Z-3 were also planned as heavy bombers carrying 1,800 kg (3,970 lb) of bombs and having a range of 4,000 km (2,500 mi). The ETC installations allowed for a further four 600 L (160 US gal) drop tanks to be installed.

The He 111 Z-2 could carry four Henschel Hs 293 anti-ship missiles, which were guided by the FuG 203b Kehl III missile control system. [63] With this load, the He 111Z had a range of 1,094 km (680 mi) and a speed of 314 km/h (195 mph). The maximum bombload was 7,200 kg (15,870 lb). To increase power, the five Jumo 211F-2 engines were slated to be fitted with Hirth TK 11 superchargers. Onboard armament was the same as the He 111H-6, with the addition of one 20 mm MG 151/20 in a rotating gun-mount on the center section.

The layout of the He 111Z had the pilot and his controls in the port fuselage only. The controls themselves and essential equipment were all that remained in the starboard section. The aircraft had a crew of seven a pilot, first mechanic, radio operator and gunner in the port fuselage, and the observer, second mechanic and gunner in the starboard fuselage. [36]

The Z-3 was to be a reconnaissance version and would have had additional fuel tanks, increasing its range to 6,000 km (3,730 mi). Production was due to take place in 1944, just as bomber production was being abandoned. The long-range variants failed to come to fruition. [64] The He 111Z was to have been used in an invasion of Malta in 1942 and as part of an airborne assault on the Soviet cities of Astrakhan and Baku in the Caucasus in the same year. During the Battle of Stalingrad their use was cancelled due to insufficient airfield capacity. Later in 1943, He111Zs helped evacuate German equipment and personnel from the Caucasus region, and during the Allied invasion of Sicily, attempted to deliver reinforcements to the island. [65]

During operations, the He 111Z did not have enough power to lift a fully loaded Me 321. Some He 111s were supplemented by rocket pods for extra takeoff thrust, but this was not a fleet-wide action. Two rockets were mounted beneath each fuselage and one underneath each wing. This added 500 kg (1,100 lb) in weight. The pods were then released by parachute after takeoff. [36]

The He 111Z's operational history was minimal. One machine was caught by RAF fighter aircraft over France on 14 March 1944. The He 111Z was towing a Gotha Go 242, and was shot down. [66] Eight were shot down or destroyed on the ground in 1944. [67]