One who submerges.
(ARS-5: dp. 1,441; 1. 213'6"; b. 39'; dr. 14'8"; s. 16 k.;
cpl. 120; a. 2 40 mm.; cl. Diver)
Diver (ARS-6) was launched 19 December 1942 by Basalt Rock Co., Napa, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. F. M. Young; and commissioned 23 October 1943, Lieutenant A, T. Terrio in command.
Diver arrived at Falmouth, England, from Norfolk 16 February 1944. After 3 days of salvage training operations at Rosneath Bay, Scotland, she reported to Portland, England, 27 March, for preparations for the coming invasion of Normandy. On 26 June she got underway for Baie de la Seine, France, where she was attached to the Salvage, Wreck Disposal, Mine Disposal, and Hydrographic Survey Unit. She rescued 30 survivors of the Norwegian freighter Norfalk, sunk by mine while on her way to Cherbourg on 20 and 21 July, then reported for salvage operations at "Utah" and "Omaha" beaches. She arrived at Le Havre 11 November to continue her salvage work. Sailing to aid a torpedoed British transport 28 December Diver struck an unmarked submerged obstacle and returned to Le Havre for emergency repairs. Permanent repairs were made at Dieppe, from 6 to 21 January 1945, after which Diver returned to Le Havre to continue her salvage work.
Diver sailed for Bremerhaven, Germany, 16 June 1945, by way of Ostend, Belgium, and Den Helder, Holland. From her arrival 22 June she served as guard, ready duty, salvage, and local escort vessel. On 23 August she moved to Brake, Germany, to stand by for any damage to shipping in the Weser River. She left Bremerhaven 4 October with 41 naval passengers and arrived at Norfolk 22 October for overhaul.
From 9 to 16 February 1946, Diver was at New York to assist in relieving the harbor congestion caused by a tugboat strike. She served on towing duty between New London and Portsmouth, N.H., from 18 April to 13 May and on 27 May arrived at Orange, Tex., where she was decommissioned, 27 July 1946. Diver was sold 12 April 1949.
Diver received one battle star for World War II service.
Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger
Warship Wednesday, May 3, 2017: The battleship slaying avenger of the Pacific
Here we see the Balao-class fleet submarine USS Sealion (SS/SSP/APSS/LPSS-315) later in the WWII flying her victory pennants, she was to earn them the hard way.
A member of the 128-ship Balao class, she was one of the most mature U.S. Navy diesel designs of the World War Two era, constructed with knowledge gained from the earlier Gato-class. U.S. subs, unlike those of many navies of the day, were ‘fleet’ boats, capable of unsupported operations in deep water far from home. Able to range 11,000 nautical miles on their reliable diesel engines, they could undertake 75-day patrols that could span the immensity of the Pacific. Carrying 24 (often unreliable) Mk14 Torpedoes, these subs often sank anything short of a 5000-ton Maru or warship by surfacing and using their 4-inch/50 caliber and 40mm/20mm AAA’s. The also served as the firetrucks of the fleet, rescuing downed naval aviators from right under the noses of Japanese warships.
We have covered a number of this class before, such as carrier-sinking USS Archerfish, the long-serving USS Catfish, the rocket mail firing USS Barbero, and the frogman Cadillac USS Perch, but don’t complain, they have lots of great stories.
Laid down on 25 February 1943 by the Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn, Sealion was the second submarine to carry that name.
The first, SS-195, was also built by Electric Boat in 1939 and was part of SubDiv 202 at Cavite Navy Yard in the Philippines when the war started. She took two direct hits in the Japanese air raid which demolished the navy yard and sank on 10 December. Four of her crew– Chief Electrician’s Mate Sterling Foster, Chief Electrician’s Mate Melvin O’Connell, Machinist’s Mate First Class Ernest Ogilvie, and Electrician’s Mate Third Class Vallentyne Paul—were killed in the attack. Her surviving crew scuttled what was left on Christmas day.
(SS-195) Ship’s wrecked hulk at the old Cavite Navy Yard, Philippines, in November 1945. Her conning tower, with periscopes, is at left, with her stern at right. Sealion had been scuttled at Cavite on 25 December 1941, after suffering fatal damage during a Japanese air attack there on 10 December. Photographed by B. Eneberg, who was then navigator of a Royal Australian Air Force PBY-5 aircraft. Courtesy of B. Eneberg, 1977. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Catalog #: NH 85725
Our new Sealion was launched by none other than Mrs. Emory S. Land, then commissioned on 8 March 1944, Lt. Comdr. Eli T. Reich in command (former executive officer and engineer of SS-195), and sailed for the Pacific to join SubDiv 222, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 17 May.
On 23 June, on her first war patrol, she sank the Japanese naval transport, Snasei Maru, in the Tsushima Island area. Two weeks later, Sealion intercepted a convoy south of the Four Sisters Islands and commenced firing torpedoes at two cargomen in the formation. Within minutes, the 1,922-ton Setsuzan Maru sank, and the convoy scattered. On July 11, she conducted several attacks, sinking two freighters, Tsukushi Maru No. 2 and Taian Maru No. 2.
Her second patrol saw her scratch the Shirataka, a minelayer, and conduct a wolf pack attack along with the submarines Pampanito and Growler, which accounted for the tanker Zuiho Maru and transports Kachidoki Maru and Rakuyo Maru, the latter afterward found to be carrying British and Australian POWs. She swung to and picked up 54 of the oil-coated allies, landing 50 who survived at Saipan five days later. Tragically, of the 1300 Allied POW’s on board, only some 160 were rescued by the U.S. submarines.
British and Australian prisoners of war rescued by SEALION on 15 September 1944. The prisoners had been aboard transports en route from Singapore to Japan when their ships were sunk in an attack by U.S. submarines SEALION, GROWLER (SS-215), and PAMPANITO (SS-383). The position of the sinking was 18-42 N 114-30 E. Description: Catalog #: 80-G-281718
On her third patrol, Sealion stumbled across three surface contacts that turned out to be the 37,500-ton battleship Kongo, 2035-ton destroyer Urakaze, and another escort.
Built at Barrow-in-Furness in Britain by Vickers Shipbuilding Company, the Kongō was the last Japanese capital ship constructed outside Japan– she was also the only Japanese battleship sunk by submarine in the WWII and the last battleship sunk by submarine in history. Colorized photo by Atsushi Yamashita/Monochrome Specter http://blog.livedoor.jp/irootoko_jr/
LCDR Reich’s original patrol report:
21 NOVEMBER 1944
0020: Radar contact at 44,000 yards, on our starboard quarter, (Ship contact #3) three pips, very clear and distinct. Came to normal approach, went ahead flank on four engines, and commenced tracking. Overcast sky, no soon, visibility about 1500 yards, calm sea.
0043: Two large pips and two smaller pips now outlined on radar screen at a range of 35,000 yards. These are the greatest ranges we have ever obtained on our radar. Pips so large, at so great a range, we first suspected land. It was possible to lobe switch on the larger targets at 32,000 yards – we now realized we probably had two targets of battleship proportions and two of larger cruiser size as our targets. They were in a column with a cruiser ahead followed by two battleships, and a cruiser astern, course 060 T, speed 16 knots. not zigging.
0146: Three escorts now visible on the radar, at a range of 20,000 yards. One on. either beam on the formation, and one on the starboard far quarter. We are pining bearing slowly but surely. The formation is now on our starboard beam. Seas and wind increasing.
0245: Ahead of task force. Turned in and slowed for attack, keeping our bow pointed at the now destroyer who is now 1800 yards on the port bow of our target. the second ship in column. Able to make out shape of near destroyer from bridge. Kept swinging left with our bow directly on the destroyer, and at
0256: Fired six torpedoes, depth set at 8 feet, at the second ship in column, range 3000 yards, believed to be a battleship. Came right with full rudder to bring the stern tubes to bear.
0259-30: Stopped and fired three torpedoes, depth set at 8 feet, from the stern tubes at the third ship in column (i.e. the second battleship). Range 3100 yards. Range to near destroyer at the time of firing stern tubes about 1800 yards. While firing stern tubes, O.O.D. reported he could make out outline of the near cruiser on our port quarter. During the firing of the bow tubes the bridge quartermaster reported he could make out outline of a very high superstructure on target, he said it looked to him like the pagoda build of the Jap battleships.
0300: Saw and heard three hits on the first battleship – several small mushrooms of explosions noted in the darkness.
0304: Saw and heard at least one hit on the second battleship – this gave a large violent explosion with a sudden rise of flames at the target, but it quickly subsided.
0304-07: Went ahead flank, opening to westward from target group. Noted several small explosions, flames, and probably lights in vicinity of target group.
0308: Heard a long series of heavy depth charge explosions from vicinity of enemy force – we are about 5000 yards from group. P.P.I. shows one escort opening and rapidly to east of target group. Continued tracking.
0330: Chagrined at this point to find subsequent tracking enemy group still making 16 knots, still on course 060T. I feel that in setting depth at 8 feet, in order to hit a destroyer if overlapping our main target. I’ve made a bust – looks like we only dented the armor belt on the battleships.
0406: Tracking indicates the target group now zigzagging. We are holding true bearing, maybe gaining a little. Called for maximum speed from engineers – they gave us 25% overload for about thirty minutes, then commenced growling about sparking commutators, hot motors, et al , forced to slow to flank. Sea and wind increasing all the time – now about force 5 or 6 – taking solid water over bridge, with plenty coming down the conning tower hatch. SEALION making about 16.8 to 17 knots with safety tank dry and using low pressure blower often to keep ballast tanks dry. Engine rooms taking much water through main induction.
0430: Sent SEALION Serial Number TWO. [?]
0450: Noted enemy formation breaking up into two groups – one group dropping astern. Now P.P.I. showed:(a) one group up ahead to consist of three large ships in column – cruiser. battleship, cruiser with a destroyer just being lost to radar view up ahead. Range to this group about 17000 yards. (b) Second group dropping astern of first to consist of a battleship, with two destroyers on far side. Close aboard – range to this group about 15000 yards and closing.
0451: Shifted target designation, decided to attack second group, which contains 1 battleship, hit with three torpedoes on our first attack. Tracking shows target to have slowed to 11 knots. Things beginning to took rosy again.
0512: In position ahead of target, slowed and turned in for attack.
0518: Solutions on T.D.C. and plot is getting sour – target must be changing speed.
0520: Plot and T.D.C. report target must be stopped, radar says target pip seems to be getting a little smaller. Range to target now about 17000 yards.
0524: Tremendous explosion dead ahead – sky brilliantly illuminated, it looked like a sunset at midnight, radar reports battleship pip getting smaller – that it has disappeared -leaving only two smaller pips of the destroyers. Destroyers seem to be milling around vicinity of target. Battleship sunk – the sun set.
0525: Total darkness again.
The crew, left with sound recording equipment by a visiting CBS film crew, archived the audio of the attack, the only occasion in which a live attack on an enemy ship was recorded. They were preserved by the Navy’s Underwater Sound Laboratory and can be heard at the following website.
Four of the torpedoes fired carried the names of the fallen Sealion (SS-195) crew, lost in 1941.
Sealion holds the distinction of being the only Allied submarine to sink a battleship during World War II and LCDR Reich received the Navy Cross.
Lt.Cdr. Charles Frederick Putnam took over Sealion for her 4th patrol, which netted the 15,820-ton Japanese supply ship Mamiya about 450 nautical miles north-east of Cam Ranh Bay, French Indo-China after a two-day running chase as well as her 5th patrol that added the Thai oiler Samui (1458 GRT) to her tally in March 1945. Her 6th patrol was uneventful.
The successful submarine was decommissioned 2 February 1946 and laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet. In all, Sealion earned the Presidential Unit Citation and received five battle stars for her World War II service.
She was then later converted to a Submarine Transport, at Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco, California and recommissioned 2 November 1948. Her torpedo tubes and forward engines were removed and her forward engine room and after forward and after torpedo rooms were converted to hold up to 123 troops.
Her insignia changed during this time to reflect her new role.
Sealion continued a schedule of exercises with Marines, Underwater Demolition Teams (and later SEALs) and Beachjumper units and, on occasion, Army units, landing helicopters on her deck and launching small boats and LVTs from her “hangar”
Sealion (SSP-315) after her conversion to a submarine transport. The “notch” in her deck near the large stowage chamber abaft the conning tower is fitted with rollers to aid in retrieving rubber landing boats.
U.S. Marines land on the deck of the SEA LION by helicopter during a practice reconnaissance mission, 4 May 1956. The helicopters are from HMR-26 and HMR-262, shuttling 55 Marines of 2nd Marine Amphibious Reconnaissance Company in an exercise. Note the M14s and “duck hunter” camo. Description: Catalog #: K-20159
A Marine helicopter aboard the SEA LION during a practice reconnaissance mission off Little Creek, Virginia, 4 May 1956. Note her earlier LVT hangar is removed. Description: Catalog #: K-20154
Submerged Sealion (SS-315) during exercises with Marine scouts of the 2nd Marine Division circa May 1956. Note the HRS/H-19 helicopter resting on the after deck 5-inch/25 and 40mm guns are still carried. Shortly after this photo was taken the boat was reclassified APSS-315. USN photo and text from The American Submarine by Norman Polmar, courtesy of Robert Hurst, via Navsource.
Her peacetime training schedule included breaks for a Med deployment and support of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1961.
On 3 December 1962 Sealion (APSS-315) returned to Norfolk and from then into 1967 she maintained her schedule of exercises with Marine Reconnaissance, UDT, and SEAL personnel. She is pictured here in October 1964– note she still has her WWII deck guns, one of the last subs in the fleet to do so. USN photo # NPC 1106522 courtesy of usssubvetsofwwii.org via Navsource.
Between 1949-1969 her designation switched from SSP to Transport Submarine (ASSP-315) to Amphibious Transport Submarine, (LPSS-315) though her role remained the same.
Decommissioned 20 February 1970, she was laid up in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Stricken 15 March 1977, she was sunk as a target off Newport, Rhode Island 8 July 1978.
The flag from her 3rd War Patrol is maintained in the collection of the U.S. Undersea Warfare Museum.
“The upper left quadrant contains the submarine’s insignia, a black sea lion riding a red torpedo. The upper right and lower left quadrants depict Japanese merchant ships sunk — six tankers and five freighters, respectively. The submarine’s most significant actions are represented in the lower right quadrant: the large battleship above the broken rising sun flag is Kongo, the smaller battleship with the intact rising sun flag is damaged battleship Haruna, and the number 50 atop the red cross refers to the 50 prisoners of war that Sealion rescued from torpedoed Japanese transport Rakuyo Maru. The crew of Sealion created this battle flag and presented it to Sealion skipper Lieutenant Eli Reich.”
Reich, a retired Vice Admiral, died at age 86 in 1999.
Retiring from the Navy in 1973 after 38 years of service, Adm. Reich was named director of the Emergency Energy Allocations Program, which was responsible for the distribution of scarce oil and gasoline during the Arab oil embargo. Described as a “crusty three-star admiral” by syndicated columnists Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, Adm. Reich was reported by the columnists to have told staff members: “I don’t give a damn for the public image. We’re not here to create an image. We’re to do a job–my way. And that’s the military way.”
There has never been another Sealion on the Navy List other than the two war babies mentioned above. Their memory is maintained by the USS Sealion veterans group.
Although Sealion is no longer afloat, eight Balao-class submarines are preserved as museum ships across the country.
Please visit one of these fine ships and keep the legacy alive:
USS Batfish (SS-310) at War Memorial Park in Muskogee, Oklahoma.
USS Becuna (SS-319) at Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
USS Bowfin (SS-287) at USS Bowfin Submarine Museum & Park in Honolulu, Hawaii.
USS Clamagore (SS-343) at Patriot’s Point in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (for now).
USS Ling (SS-297) at New Jersey Naval Museum in Hackensack, New Jersey (for now).
USS Lionfish (SS-298) at Battleship Cove in Fall River, Massachusetts.
USS Pampanito (SS-383) at San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco, California, (which played the part of the fictional USS Stingray in the movie Down Periscope).
USS Razorback (SS-394) at Arkansas Inland Maritime Museum in North Little Rock, Arkansas.
As for SS-195, she is considered on eternal patrol.
Displacement, Surfaced: 1,526 t., Submerged: 2,424 t.
Length 311′ 10″
Beam 27′ 3″
Draft 15′ 3″
Speed, Surfaced 20.25 kts, Submerged 8.75 kts (halved after 1949)
Cruising Range, 11,000 miles surfaced at 10kts Submerged Endurance, 48 hours at 2kts
Operating Depth Limit, 400 ft
Complement 6 Officers 60 Enlisted
Armament, (as built) ten 21″ torpedo tubes, six forward, four aft, 24 torpedoes, one 5″/25 caliber deck gun, one 40mm gun, two .50 cal. machine guns
Berthing for 123 Marines/Soldiers
One 5″/25 caliber deck gun, one 40mm gun, two .50 cal. machine guns
Patrol Endurance 75 days
Propulsion: diesel-electric reduction gear with four Fairbanks-Morse main generator engines., 5,400 hp, four Elliot Motor Co., main motors with 2,740 hp, two 126-cell main storage batteries, two propellers. (Halved after 1949)
Fuel Capacity: 94,400 gal.
If you liked this column, please consider joining the International Naval Research Organization (INRO), Publishers of Warship International
They are possibly one of the best sources of naval study, images, and fellowship you can find http://www.warship.org/membership.htm
The International Naval Research Organization is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the encouragement of the study of naval vessels and their histories, principally in the era of iron and steel warships (about 1860 to date). Its purpose is to provide information and a means of contact for those interested in warships.
With more than 50 years of scholarship, Warship International, the written tome of the INRO has published hundreds of articles, most of which are unique in their sweep and subject.
World War II North Atlantic operations
Diver arrived at Falmouth, England, from Norfolk, Virginia, 15 February 1944. After 3 days of salvage training operations at Rosneath Bay, Scotland, she reported to Portland, England, 27 March, for preparations for the coming invasion of Normandy.
Assisting during the Normandy invasion
On 26 June she got underway for Baie de la Seine, France, where she was attached to the Salvage, Wreck Disposal, Mine Disposal, and Hydrographic Survey Unit. She rescued 30 survivors of the Norwegian freighter SS Norfolk, sunk by mine while on her way to Cherbourg on 20 July and 21 July, then reported for salvage operations at Utah beach and Omaha beach. She arrived at Le Havre 11 November to continue her salvage work. Sailing to aid a torpedoed British transport 28 December Diver struck an unmarked submerged obstacle and returned to Le Havre for emergency repairs. Permanent repairs were made at Dieppe, from 6 January to 21 January 1945, after which Diver returned to Le Havre to continue her salvage work.
The trace buster, buster, Captain Nemo edition
Ahh, the unlikely scourge of the armored leviathans of the early 20th Century– the plucky torpedo boat as seen by German naval artist Willy Stower, titled “Torpedo boats on maneuver”
Once the spar and locomotive torpedoes claimed their first victims in 1864 (USS Housatonic) and 1878 (the Turkish steamer Intibah), the world’s fleets began to research torpedo nets to be carried by capital ships to protect them from such infernal devices. By the early 20th Century, such an idea was common.
Naval History and Heritage Command NH 84492
Behold, a net cutter fitted to an early MKV Whitehead Torpedo, at the Newport Torpedo Station, R.I., March 1908
In service from 1910 through the mid-1920s, the MKV was cutting edge.
Manufactured under license at Newport, the 1,400-pound fish carried 200-pounds of gun-cotton with a contact exploder in its nose and– a first for Whitehead– was hot-running. It was also variable speed on its 4-cylinder reciprocating engine, capable of being set for a sedate 27-knot clip for 4,000-yards (though the gyroscope keeping it in a straight line for that long was a stretch) or a blistering 40-kt pace for 1,000.
In 1908, Whitehead was the household name in locomotive torpedoes, having made them for over 30 years.
They sold the first to the Royal Navy back in 1877 and didn’t look back.
The early Whitehead: NH 95129 Illustrations of Torpedo Warfare Line engraving Harpers Weekly, 14 July 1877 early Whitehead torpedo
Whiteheads, later versions: Copied from the Journal of Scientific American Coast Defense Supplement, 1898. A widely-used naval torpedo, propelled by compressed air. This cut-away view shows the torpedo’s major components. Description: Catalog #: NH 73951
An improved Mark III Whitehead Torpedo fired from the East Dock, Goat Island, Newport Torpedo Station, Rhode Island, in 1894, torpedo boat destroyer USS Cushing in background
In the end, the Navy went with domestically designed and produced Bliss-Leavitt torpedoes over the Whiteheads, scrapping the latter in all their variants by 1922.
But they did outlive torpedo nets, which were ditched by ships in the early days of WWI, though defended harbor entrances continued to use anti-submarine nets through the 1940s.
The following ship classes have been designated under the ARS hull classification symbol in United States Navy Service.
Lapwing-class minesweeper conversions [ edit ]
The earliest designated United States Navy salvage ships (ARS) were converted Lapwing-class minesweepers. Ships of this type were operated by the United States Navy as salvage ships from June 1941 until USS Viking was decommissioned and scrapped in 1953.
Diver class [ edit ]
The United States Navy operated Diver-class rescue and salvage ships (ARS) from October 1943 until the last example was decommissioned in July 1979. Several ships of this class were converted to other uses, and USS Shackle remained in service as the 213' United States Coast Guard Cutter USCGC Acushnet until March 2011. Ε]
Miscellaneous civilian vessel conversions [ edit ]
Several ships were converted and redesignated as salvage ships (ARS) during World War II.
Anchor class [ edit ]
The United States Navy operated Anchor-class rescue and salvage ships (ARS) from October 1943 until March 1946.
Weight class [ edit ]
The United States Navy operated Weight-class rescue and salvage ships (ARS) from August 1943 until the last example was decommissioned in June 1946. The Weight-class ships were originally intended for delivery to the Royal Navy under different names, as part of the Lend-Lease program. However, they were instead delivered to and operated by the United States Navy.
Bolster class [ edit ]
Bolster-class rescue and salvage ships (ARS) were operated by the United States Navy from July 1944 until the last example was decommissioned in September 1994.
Safeguard class [ edit ]
Safeguard-class salvage ships (T-ARS) are operated by Military Sealift Command in support of United States Navy operations. They were operated by the United States Navy as commissioned auxiliaries from November 1982 until the last example (Safeguard) was decommissioned in September 2007. Δ] Two are currently in service as part of the MSC Η]
Here in Idaho's 1st Congressional District, we're just now starting to think about the upcoming Congressional elections. There are a couple of candidates on the Democratic side, and a challenger on the Republican side, but up to now the incumbent, Bill Sali, hadn't bothered to activate his campaign website. Now he has. and it's a thing of beauty.
What makes it so special? Well, although he doesn't allow comments and likely won't answer any questions (just like in his last campaign) he for some reason has decided to join various social networking sites that do allow comments (like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube, and Flickr). I'm sure he's got them moderated, but it's still great for his constituents to see how Emily thinks he's the "best boss ever. :)" -- you can't get that kind of thing on a boring campaign website.
While I'll be keeping a close eye on Congressman Sali's continuing efforts to "keep it real" with the younger generation, I'll personally be supporting Larry Grant for Congress in 2008 as the kind of economically conservative, socially moderate Representative that Idaho needs.
Bubblehead Predicts The Future II
In honor of Leap Day, I hereby provide you with a sneak peak of a story that will be near the top of the Cranial-Ocular Implant Newsflash (COIN) menus on February 28, 2100:
"Thousands of New Centenarians Don't Have Birthday to Celebrate"
For the first time in history, people will not be able to celebrate their 100th birthday on the actual anniversary of the day they were born. Because leaps years occur every four years, unless the year is divisible by 100 and not divisible by 400, the survivors from among the 350,000 people worldwide born on February 29, 2000, don't have a February 29th in 2100 on which to celebrate their birthday. The last time this happened was in Febrary 1700, but there weren't any people who lived to be 100 back then. (In the same way, there probably weren't any 100 year olds who missed their birthdays when countries omitted 11 days from the calendar at various times when they converted to the Gregorian calendar.)
Bottom line -- some 8 year old having their 2nd birthday celebration today won't get to celebrate their 25th birthday until they're 104.
Men And Women, Differences Between, Illustrated
My keyring has about 8 keys and one of my dogtags very minimalist and functional. Here's what my wife's keyring looks like:
How many actual keys do you see amongst the extraneous stuff on the ring?
Floyd Matthews Passes, Was Oldest Living Submariner
Back in 2006, I wrote about Floyd Matthews, who at the time was said to be the 2nd oldest living submariner. He passed away this week in Alabama, aged 105 his memorial service is today. I'm happy to see that the Patriot Guard will be there, and at his internment tomorrow at the Pensacola National Cemetary.
From the announcement of his passing on the U.S. Submarine Veterans, Inc. website:
I'm assuming that LCDR Matthews was the oldest living submariner by the time he passed, and not just the oldest USVVI member. Does anyone know who takes the mantle from Floyd as the oldest living submariner?
Mk 48 Torpedo -- Not Just For Skimmers
All submariners enjoy seeing a surface ship blown in half by a well-placed torpedo, but sometimes we forget that the Mk 48 is also effective against submarines. Poking around the 'net looking for information on the Navy's recently-released 5 year SINKEX plan, I found (here, here, here, and here) video of the torpedoing of USS Sailfish (SS 572) by my old boat USS Topeka (SSN 754) in May 2007. All the videos I found were in a .wmv format, so I uploaded it to YouTube for ease of viewing:
Personally, I think that being the target of a SINKEX is one of the most honorable ways for a retired warship to end her life -- she helps train the next generation of Sailors, and provides a home to marine life.
Back to the Navy scrapping list, the only surprise I saw is that they expect to scrap USS Los Angeles (SSN 688) within the next five years she's still in commission, so it'll be a rush job (considering some of the other boats coming up for scrapping have been decomm'd since the mid-'90s).
(Non-sub related postscript: While I was uploading the video to YouTube, I figured I might as well post the old video of my cat Hercules molesting blankets.)
Submarines On ('Net) Parade!
After checking out bothenook's latest Submarine Blogger Roundup, you should check out all the submarine stories and pictures that popped up on the official Navy website in the last couple of days. The CNO visited snowy Groton, and here's the pictures to prove it! There's also a story on the delivery of PCU North Carolina (SSN 777) to the Navy the story mentions that the boat will be commissioned in Wilmington, N.C., on May 3, 2008. (The Mom of one of my old Topeka shipmates is the sponsor, so that's pretty cool.)
The Navy website also has a couple examples of submarine pictures that bring me mixed emotions -- Groton-based boats covered in snow. They've got one of USS Philadelphia (SSN 690) here, and here's one of USS Alexandria (SSN 757):
Why do these pictures bring me mixed emotions? Well, I feel sorry for the Submariners who have to put up with the snow, but I'm happy I don't have to be stationed in Groton during the winter anymore.
Bubblehead's Best Picture Bonanza!
By (mostly) staying awake through "Michael Clayton" last night, I completed, for the first time in my life, the Oscar Best Picture quintfecta -- seeing all five movies nominated for "Best Picture" before the Academy Awards are presented. This gives me the right -- nay, the responsibility -- to give to you one guy's rankings of the Best Picture nominees.
Note that this list isn't generated from the perspective of an artsy-fartsy person who worries about "nuance" and "exploring themes of identity and alienation from an uncaring society". I don't care that much about a film's politics, unlike those who don't like "Juno" because the girl in the movie didn't actually get an abortion, thereby trying to foist heteronormative, patriarchal notions on impressionable teens. I want my movies to entertain me, and if they make me think, that's a bonus.
That being said, here's how I rank this year's nominees:
1) "No Country For Old Men": This movie had some of the most suspenseful scenes I've seen in a movie since "Silence of the Lambs". The acting was great, and while the movie never really explained how Tommy Lee Jones' sheriff became such a coward, it had enough character background that I could appreciate everyone else's motivations. Not quite good enough to get 5 Self-Treated Gunshot Wounds out of five, it did get a solid 4.
2) "Juno": A smart, funny film that provides depth for the characters with minimal hand-waving. As such, it'll never win, but it's the only one I'd consider buying on DVD. Gets a solid 4 Overtrained Thinclads out of five.
3) "Michael Clayton": Since this is the last of the movies I saw, I was thinking much more about Oscar-worthiness with this one than any of the others. To paraphrase the Princeton recruiter in "Risky Business": "Your storyline is respectable, you've got some solid acting, but it's not quite Oscar League, now is it". A decent movie that gets 3 Slimy Lawyers out of five.
The last two movies I'd reviewed previously:
4) "There Will Be Blood": Another decent movie that didn't really stick out in my mind. It's one of those where I'm glad I saw it once, and if I ever see it in the TV listings, I can't imagine I'd want to watch it again.
99 gazillion to the bazillionth power) "Atonement": Even thinking about this movie for a short time makes me more and more pissed off. If film people are trying to be so "Green", they should kick the makers of this travesty out of the business for wasting perfectly good film stock. It sucked that bad. Of course, that mean's it'll probably win.
Identify This Submarine!
A while back I made fun of people who theorized that Israeli submarines were standing off the coast of Iran ready to attack I pointed out that diesel boats would take a long time to circumnavigate Africa, and would be seen if they went through the Suez Canal. I bring this up because I now have proof that people along the Suez do in fact notice submarines driving by the only problem is, they don't have very good submarine identification skills.
Check out this video posted yesterday on YouTube the caption describes it as an "American Submarine Going to iraq in a secret mission caught by mobile camera in Egypt":
So, what kind of sub do you think it really is? I'm guessing a British Swiftsure-class boat, most likely HMS Superb (S 109).
The Chinese Media Lies About U.S. Submarines!
Here's an interesting tidbit from China's Xinhua news agency about the visit of USS Ohio (SSGN 726) to Pusan, South Korea:
[Emphasis mine] So, that last little piece of information is clearly wrong why would the official Chinese government press agency put it out? There are a few possible explanations:
1) Instead of "the submarine" they meant "a submarine", and they want to make it look to their readers that the U.S. is escalating the pressure on their North Korean allies, laying the groundwork for when the North Korean media puts out their government's inevitable tirade against American aggression that they promise to defeat by use of the "glorious Army-First Policy".
2) They do their research by typing in phrases into Google like "U.S. submarine visit Korea" and just relying on the first link that comes up.
3) They used this Korea Times article as a source, and misunderstood the part about "(i)t is the first trip to South Korea by the USS Ohio since the former Trident-class vessel underwent a near two-year conversion until late 2005. "
Since I subscribe to the axiom that errors are normally due to incompetence rather than intentional planning, I'm going with option #2 or #3.
Video Of The Navy Missile / Satellite Collision
While I for one don't completely buy the "we only did it because of the hydrazine" explanation, I think it was a great test. Hopefully we got some good data to help us predict how the Standard Missile might do against satellites in slightly higher orbits if it's ever needed for such a mission.
Northwest Meteor Puts On A Show
I understand the math, but it still amazes me how bright meteors can seem from a long distance. Check out this video from the National Guard Base just south of Boise of a meteor that lit up the sky over the northwest yesterday:
Looks pretty close, huh? By most reports, though, it actually flamed out over eastern Washington, a couple hundred miles northwest of here.
Update 0808 21 Feb: What with the meteor, last night's lunar eclipse, and this morning's 6.3 earthquake a couple hundred miles south of here, can you imagine what superstitious people would have been thinking had all these things happened a couple hundred years ago in such a short period of time?
Not Feeling Very Politically Correct
Better Use Of Tax Dollars Than Some Real Programs
Yvan Eht Nioj
In recruiting new Sailors, the Navy has to go where potential recruits are, which nowadays means YouTube. Here's one of the newest videos the Navy put up on its own YouTube Channel:
Personally, I like it there's nothing wrong with using a little humor to get someone to check out your website. What do you think? And what elements would you like to see in Navy Submarine recruiting videos? (I had some ideas back in 2005 I think might still work.)
USS Ohio Subjected To Media Availability
New Russian Boomer Finally Hits The Water
Back in April 2007, the Russians announced that they had "launched" their first new SSBN since the fall of the Soviet Union, the RFS Yuri Dolgorukii. To everyone's amusement, the announcements of the "launch" indicated that the boat would go out to sea in October of last year, even though the sub was only 82% complete at the time.
It turns out the Russians apparently have a different definition of "launched" than most navies it's been announced that she finally made it into the water for the first time yesterday. For those interested, here are some pictures of the original "launch", which apparently involved moving the sub from the construction building to a drydock.
At this rate, we're not going to get any pictures taken from one of our periscopes until 2011 or so.
Submariner Vs. Moonbats
Russian Provide Valuable Training For U.S. Navy
The pilot that flew near the carrier seems to have been especially eager to help American Sailors with some lookout quals. Since a Bear in wartime would never want to get very close to their target (but instead launch stand-off weapons and get the heck out of Dodge) it's clear that they weren't training for their own sake -- they were just trying to help out their American friends. Plus, giving the F/A-18 pilots an extended amount of time to practice getting into attack position against a slowly-moving target was very nice of the Russian.
Remember when the Russian submarines used to come out and provide target services for our boats? I wish they'd start doing that again -- there's no better training than having a fire control solution locked onto a potential adversary while he has no clue that you're there.
Update 0722 13 Feb: Here's a picture of a Hornet escorting the Bear during the encounter:
Other pictures are here and here. I guess the articles can't say that the incident is "secret" anymore if the Navy website is publishing pictures of the exercise.
This, my 900th posting in what will be exactly three and a half years of blogging one week from today, will simply remark upon a mystery.
I recently saw from my traffic counter that on January 30th, I got about 500 visits and 800 page views -- about ten times normal daily traffic!
I didn't notice that, however, until several days went by, and the free statcounter only keeps info on the last 100 visits, so I have no idea where they came from and what they were reading! And nobody left any comments to give a clue what they were reading. I wish I knew who posted a link here, and to what.
Or maybe, but less likely, everyone just was interested in the electoral college and found me by googling about it (one of my perrenial high-traffic google-search postings), because of Super Tuesday perhaps?
Oddly, the same thing happened about a year ago in December 2006 -- the reason also still a mystery!
Would embattled former UN ambassador John Bolton have a place in John McCain's presidential cabinet?
The idea was brewing beneath the veneer of Bolton's address to the Conservative Political Action Conference on Friday.
Revealing information that he said had never before been made public, Bolton discussed how McCain secretly tried to shepherd his nomination to the United Nations -- a nomination that was held up in Congress over Bolton's controversial anti-UN statements and policies.
"He was very active behind the scenes," said Bolton, who was ultimately sent to the UN via a presidential recess appointment. "He thought I was the type of ambassador that ought to represent the United States at the United Nations."
Addressing an audience already skeptical of McCain's presidential nomination, Bolton offered a defense of the senator.
Of course, I think that would be AWESOME to have Bolton back! And with Rudy as Attorney General. well I can dream!
Of course, Huffpo was presenting this as something dreadful and scary! I was amused by the comments left be readers. This criticism in particular is telling:
So apparently, thinking for yourself means changing your views to conform with popular opinion which is swept along in knee-jerk response to "real world events", i.e. MSM news headlines!
Having "highly predictable" views couldn't possibly be due to having a well-developed personal philosophy, could it now?
Watching Saturday Night Live, of all things, changed my life that night!
As an 11-year-old, I was very impressed.
And then they topped it off with this -- remember spuds, this is 1978.
When the music charts were dominated by Andy Gibb and the Bee Gees with hits like Stayin' Alive. Barry Manilow, Olivia Newton John, Debbie Boone!
This SNL appearance includes a short film intro:
Are We Not Men?
Submarines Did Not Cause The Internet Cable Breaks
As I mentioned earlier, I've been wondering how to address conspiracy theorists who claim a U.S. submarine -- specifically my old boat USS Jimmy Carter (SSN 23) -- was behind the recent breaking of submerged internet cables in the Middle East. I've figured out how to do it -- by stipulating to the tinfoil hatter's assumption that USS Jimmy Carter has the ability to tap into underwater cables, and then showing logically why they didn't do it, even if they could have.
First let's take care of the easiest one -- that USS Jimmy Carter is responsible for, or will take advantage of, the recent cable breaks. (One theory I've seen is that the cables were broken by some non-specialized ship, and that Carter will attach the "black box" at some other location so as not to be detected.) USS Jimmy Carter was in port in Bangor as recently as January 17th, and one 'net commenter reported that they could see the boat inport on Thursday from the ferry. One might wonder why a submarine blogger would go out on a limb and only use an Internet commenter as a source for his "fact" when he probably has friends still on the boat, and could just contact them to find out if the boat is still in port. One might then consider that there must be a reason said sub-blogger is so confident that the boat is still in port. Seeing that it's about 10,000 miles from Bangor to the Med (unless you go through the Bering Straits in January) it would be very problematic for the Carter to get there between January 17th and when the cables started getting cut in late January.
So if the Carter didn't do it, did another U.S. submarine? Let's look at motive. Some say that the U.S. did it to stop the opening of an Iranian Oil Bourse that's been threatened for years -- apparently, this will destroy the U.S. economy by trading in Euros instead of dollars. The reasons why such a market wouldn't destroy the U.S. economy are so simple that even a KOSsack can understand them. Others say it was a prelude to an attack on Iran -- an attack that apparently got called off, because Iran never really lost Internet connectivity.
Suppose we were trying to tap the cables? What the hell good would that do? These aren't voice cables, like the ones we supposedly tapped in the Sea of O and described in Blind Man's Bluff. These are packet data cables. An Internet connectivity "pipe" would carry literally terabytes of data -- more than you could store in some black box undersea. Besides, Internet traffic gets routed all over the world a good part of it probably comes through U.S. or UK servers anyway. It just doesn't make any sense to "tap" an undersea Internet cable -- there's just too much data that's too easily available by other means.
The fact is, undersea internet cables break on the average of once every three days. Statistically, you're going to have a cluster of such breaks once in a while. It's especially not a U.S.-Israeli conspiracy when they find the anchor that cut one of the cables. unless you believe the Carter left that behind to fool the gullible. If you believe that, I've got some options on the Iranian Oil Bourse to sell you.
Darn You, Hannah Montana!
Lots of good movies are scheduled to come out this year, but one I've really been anticipating is U2 3D. It was supposed to come out here in the Boise area next Friday, but now I hear it's being pushed back a week. There's only one explanation for this travesty -- the 3D theaters are currently filled with screaming tweens watching the Hannah Montana concert movie.
While there's no doubt that the U2 movie will be infinitely superior to the "Achey-Breaky Daughter" flick, Disney is keeping us from seeing good concert footage by "deciding" to extend the "planned" one week run of their annoying film. This sucks!
In better movie news, I did see "Fool's Gold" tonight, and liked it. It didn't technically count as a "chick flick" because there were explosions and guns, but it's still a good date movie. As far as treasure-hunting movies go, I'd put it in the same league as the original "National Treasure" , and way better than the sequel.
Update 1901 22 Feb: I saw U2 3D this afternoon it totally rocked. They didn't do much with the 3D, but the music was still incredible. I think it's probably the best concert film I've ever seen.
Why Art Turned Ugly
For a long time critics of modern and postmodern art have relied on the "Isn't that disgusting" strategy. By that I mean the strategy of pointing out that given works of art are ugly, trivial, or in bad taste, that "a five-year-old could have made them," and so on. And they have mostly left it at that. The points have often been true, but they have also been tiresome and unconvincing—and the art world has been entirely unmoved. Of course, the major works of the twentieth-century art world are ugly. Of course, many are offensive. Of course, a five-year old could in many cases have made an indistinguishable product. Those points are not arguable—and they are entirely beside the main question. The important question is: Why has the art world of the twentieth-century adopted the ugly and the offensive? Why has it poured its creative energies and cleverness into the trivial and the self-proclaimedly meaningless?
Where could art go after death of modernism? Postmodernism did not go, and has not gone, far. It needed some content and some new forms, but it did not want to go back to classicism, romanticism, or traditional realism.
As it had at the end of the nineteenth century, the art world reached out and drew upon the broader intellectual and cultural context of the late 1960s and 1970s. It absorbed the trendiness of Existentialism's absurd universe, the failure of Positivism's reductionism, and the collapse of socialism's New Left. It connected to intellectual heavyweights such as Thomas Kuhn, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida, and it took its cue from their abstract themes of antirealism, deconstruction, and their heightened adversarial stance to Western culture. From those themes, postmodernism introduced four variations on modernism.
First, postmodernism re-introduced content—but only self-referential and ironic content. As with philosophical postmodernism, artistic postmodernism rejected any form of realism and became anti-realist. Art cannot be about reality or nature—because, according to postmodernism, "reality" and "nature" are merely social constructs. All we have are the social world and its social constructs, one of those constructs being the world of art. So, we may have content in our art as long as we talk self-referentially about the social world of art.
Secondly, postmodernism set itself to a more ruthless deconstruction of traditional categories that the modernists had not fully eliminated. Modernism had been reductionist, but some artistic targets remained.
Saint Phalle's Venus links us to the third postmodern strategy. Postmodernism allows one to make content statements as long as they are about social reality and not about an alleged natural or objective reality and—here is the variation—as long as they are narrower race/class/sex statements rather than pretentious, universalist claims about something called The Human Condition. Postmodernism rejects a universal human nature and substitutes the claim that we are all constructed into competing groups by our racial, economic, ethnic, and sexual circumstances. Applied to art, this postmodern claim implies that there are no artists, only hyphenated artists: black-artists, woman-artists, homosexual-artists, poor-Hispanic-artists, and so on.
The fourth and final postmodern variation on modernism is a more ruthless nihilism. The above, while focused on the negative, are still dealing with important themes of power, wealth, and justice toward women. How can we eliminate more thoroughly any positivity in art? As relentlessly negative as modern art has been, what has not been done?
The heyday of postmodernism in art was the 1980s and 90s. Modernism had become stale by the 1970s, and I suggest that postmodernism has reached a similar dead-end, a What next? stage. Postmodern art was a game that played out within a narrow range of assumptions, and we are weary of the same old, same old, with only minor variations. The gross-outs have become mechanical and repetitive, and they no longer gross us out.
It is helpful to remember that modernism in art came out of a very specific intellectual culture of the late nineteenth century, and that it has remained loyally stuck in those themes. But those are not the only themes open to artists, and much has happened since the end of the nineteenth century.
We would not know from the world of modern art that average life expectancy has doubled since Edvard Munch screamed. We would not know that diseases that routinely killed hundreds of thousands of newborns each year have been eliminated. Nor would we know anything about the rising standards of living, the spread of democratic liberalism, and emerging markets.
We are brutally aware of the horrible disasters of National Socialism and international Communism, and art has a role in keeping us aware of them. But we would never know from the world of art the equally important fact that those battles were won and brutality was defeated.
And entering even more exotic territory, if we knew only the contemporary art world we would never get a glimmer of the excitement in evolutionary psychology, Big Bang cosmology, genetic engineering, the beauty of fractal mathematics—and the awesome fact that humans are the kind of being that can do all those exciting things.
Artists and the art world should be at the edge. The art world is now marginalized, in-bred, and conservative. It is being left behind, and for any self-respecting artist there should be nothing more demeaning than being left behind.
The point is not that there are no negatives out there in the world for art to confront, or that art cannot be a means of criticism. There are negatives and art should never shrink from them. My argument is with the uniform negativity and destructiveness of the art world. When has art in the twentieth century said anything encouraging about human relations, about mankind's potential for dignity, and courage, about the sheer positive passion of being in the world?
Artistic revolutions are made by a few key individuals. At the heart of every revolution is an artist who achieves originality. A novel theme, a fresh subject, or the inventive use of composition, figure, or color marks the beginning of a new era. Artists truly are gods: they create a world in their work, and they contribute to the creation of our cultural world.
The point is not to return to the 1800s or to turn art into the making of pretty postcards. The point is about being a human being who looks at the world afresh. In each generation there are only a few who do that at the highest level. That is always the challenge of art and its highest calling.
Friday, June 11, 2010
Back in the Day The Buoyant Ascent. Submarine Escape Training New London, Conn. 1964 and now.
Well Sir, I was just over at a feller Submarine bloggers place, " Vigilis " at "Molten Eagle", and upon read'n his post about how today's modern Navy " Bubbleheads " escape from a disabled and downed Submarine, I was reminded that back in May of 2006, right after I first began bloggin , I had posted an article regarding a personal adventure of mine doing what is called "The Buoyant Ascent".
Thought y'all might just enjoy read'n it if'n ya ain't already done so.
The Buoyant Ascent, Submarine Escape Training Tower in New London, Conn..
A few days back. for nostalgic reasons. I posted an article about one of my duty stations while in the Navy. an article about the USS Piper SS409. This brought back some other fond memories of those days back in 64 and 65. so. what the hell. here's an article about a once in a lifetime experience(hopefully). The Buoyant Ascent.
For oh so many years, this tower at the US Naval Submarine Base was the defining motif of the Groton , Conn. skyline. Any old " Bubbleheads " (fer all you land-lubbers that's slang fer Submariners) who were stationed at New London/ Groton during the 40's, 50' and 60's and 70's, I'm sure y'all most certainly remember this landmark.
This is were we learned the rudiments of escape from a disabled sunken "Boat". For many of us. this 125 foot tall(if memory serves me correctly) old lady also helped many of us to achieve new self confidence and courage. and a sort of "right of passage" from Sub School student to, an almost Submariner.
This was generally one of the first sites that greeted us as our "boats" cruised up the Thames River returning home from a patrol. and the last site to see as we went down river to begin a new adventure.
If you went to the Base Exchange to buy some sort of souvenir (Post Card, coffee mug, T-Shirt, hat. ) for the folks and friends back home. more likely as not it had this image on it. Oddly enough. it took me two full days of "Googling" to find this old photo. and that was by accident (naturally).
So. to all you lubbers and people unfamiliar with Submarine School and the types of training. what's so special about this "water tank"? Well Sir. this is where one did what is called The Buoyant Ascent". a Submarine escape procedure.
A "buoyant ascent" is when a person surfaces from a depth of 50 or 75 feet underwater using ONLY the air in his/her lungs. no breathing apparatus. Here's how it works.
Dressed in just our Navy issued swim trunks, we would proceed to the top of the tower where we were greeted by a site that looked something similar to this.
Once you became familiarized with your surroundings and instructed for the 10 th time on just what to do and what not to do. you descended (via the stairs on the outside of the tower) to an "pressurized Escape trunk" 50 foot under the surface.
. much like this one. but without the safety apparatus these men are wearing.
Once in the 50 foot "escape trunk" with your instructor, the outer hatch was closed and you received your last set of safety instructions. The escape trunk was then filled with water just a little over your chin (if you were 5'11" tall) and the hatch to the inside of the tank was opened. and now. "It's Show Time".
You ducked through the hatchway into the tank and you were now 50 feet below the surface, where you were then greeted by Navy divers who, for safety reasons. would accompany you to the surface.
Once outside the Escape trunk. one would first notice a large "No Smoking" sign just above the hatchway. don't laugh out loud. it could be fatal.
The Submariner would then grab a bar on the side of the tank, arch his back so he was looking straight up through 50 feet of water above him. and then let go. the ascent had started. The air in your lungs would carry you to the surface.
Now Sir. here's the catch! If you held your breath. your lungs would explode somewhere between there and the surface. not a pleasant prospect. so to avoid this most uncomfortable condition. you had to EXHALE air all the way to the surface. a trip that took about 8 seconds. This was also the reason for the Navy safety diver. if you stopped exhaling. he would punch you in the diaphragm to expel air. if you exhaled too much. he would give you an air hose.
If all went well. and you did exactly as instructed. you arrived at the surface with a renewed sense of self confidence and one real great adrenalin high.
Now Sir. it was mandatory for all prospective submariners to perform the buoyant ascent from the 50 feet level. and optional from the 75 feet level. Myself, the buddy I joined the Navy with, and three other men opted to do it from 75 feet. a trip, that if I recall correctly, took about 14 seconds (remember. exhaling ALL the way). WOW. what another great rush that was.
I just thought old Cookie would share that nostalgic adventure with y'all. after all. what's an adventure in'f cain't tell no one about it. take care and may God Bless everyone.
Now Sir, I guess this is the new way of escaping from a downed Sub. You'll notice that nowadays these bubbleheads use a contained suit fer escape'n , WUSSIES!! We did it with NUTHIN !! Just bustin balls mates. With the depths today's boats cruise at, and usually in Arctic waters ya gotta have a suit like these.
This video takes you from inside the pressurized escape trunk as it fills with water, to your buoyant ascent ride to the surface. Pretty good video.
NOTE: Although the sound is lost briefly and then returns, you'll hear the man yelling all the way to the surface. It's NOT because he's scared (although it could be), but remember, you MUST exhale all the way up or your lungs will EXPLODE!
Définition - divers
Diver Div"er (?) , n.
1. One who, or that which, dives.
Divers and fishers for pearls. Woodward.
2. Fig.: One who goes deeply into a subject, study, or business. “A diver into causes.” Sir H. Wotton.
3. (Zoöl.) Any bird of certain genera, as Urinator (formerly Colymbus ), or the allied genus Colymbus , or Podiceps , remarkable for their agility in diving.
☞ The northern diver ( Urinator imber ) is the loon the black diver or velvet scoter ( Oidemia fusca ) is a sea duck. See Loon , and Scoter .
Divers Di"vers (?) , a. [F. divers , L. diversus turned in different directions, different, p. p. of divertere . See Divert , and cf. Diverse .]
1. Different in kind or species diverse. [Obs.]
Every sect of them hath a divers posture. Bacon.
Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds. Deut. xxii. 9.
2. Several sundry various more than one, but not a great number as, divers philosophers . Also used substantively or pronominally.
Divers of Antonio's creditors. Shak.
☞ Divers is now limited to the plural as, divers ways (not divers way ). Besides plurality it ordinarily implies variety of kind.
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Andra världskriget Nordatlantiska operationer
Dykare anlände till Falmouth, England , från Norfolk, Virginia , den 15 februari 1944. Efter 3 dagars räddningsutbildning i Rosneath Bay , Skottland , rapporterade hon till Portland, England , 27 mars, för förberedelser för den kommande invasionen av Normandie .
Hjälp under invasionen i Normandie
Den 26 juni var hon igång i Baie de la Seine , Frankrike , där hon var knuten till räddnings-, vrakavfalls-, avfallshantering- och hydrografiska undersökningsenheten. Hon räddade 30 överlevande från den norska fraktbåten SS Norfolk , sjunkna av mina medan hon var på väg till Cherbourg 20 juli och 21 juli, och rapporterade sedan för räddningsinsatser vid Utah-stranden och Omaha-stranden . Hon anlände till Le Havre 11 november för att fortsätta sitt räddningsarbete. Seglar för att hjälpa en torpedod brittisk transport 28 december Dykare träffade ett omarkerat nedsänkt hinder och återvände till Le Havre för akuta reparationer. Permanenta reparationer utfördes i Dieppe , från 6 januari till 21 januari 1945, varefter Diver återvände till Le Havre för att fortsätta sitt räddningsarbete.