28 February 1942
Japanese troops invade Java
General Bennett reaches Australia after escaping from the surrender at Singapore
Japanese cut the Rangoon road
22 civilians killed and 21 injured in February, demonstrating the reduced threat from German bombing since the invasion of Russia
The History Guy
Whereas the Governments of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declare that they are engaged in a cooperative undertaking, together with every other nation or people of like mind, to the end of laying the bases of a just and enduring world peace securing order under law to themselves and all nations:
And whereas the President of the United States of America has determined, pursuant to the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941, that the defense of the United Kingdom against aggression is vital to the defense of the United States of America
And whereas the United States of America has extended and is continuing to extend to the United Kingdom aid in resisting aggression
And whereas it is expedient that the final determination of the terms and conditions upon which the Government of the United Kingdom receives such aid and of the benefits to be received by the United States of America in return therefore should be deferred until the extent of the defense aid is known and until the progress of events makes clearer and final terms and conditions and benefits which will be in the mutual interests of the United States of America and the United Kingdom and will promote the establishment and maintenance of world peace
And whereas the Governments of the United States of America and the United Kingdom are mutually desirous of concluding now a preliminary agreement in regard to the provision of defense aid and in regard to certain considerations which shall be taken into account in determining such terms and conditions and the making of such an agreement has been in all respects duly authorized, and all acts, conditions and formalities which it may have been necessary to perform, fulfill or execute prior to the making of such an agreement in conformity with the laws either of the United States of America or of the United Kingdom have been performed, fulfilled or executed as required
The undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective Governments for that purpose, have agreed as follows:
The Government of the United States of America will continue to supply the Government of the United Kingdom with such defense articles, defense services and defense information as the President shall authorize to be transferred or provided.
The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to contribute to the defense of the United States of America and the strengthening thereof and will provide such articles, services facilities or information as it may be in a position to supply.
The Government of the United Kingdom will not without the consent of the President of the United States of America transfer title to, or possession of, any defense article or defense information transferred to it under the act or permit the use thereof by any one not an officer, employee, or agent of the Government of the United Kingdom.
If, as a result of the transfer to the Government of the United Kingdom of any defense article or defense information, it becomes necessary for that government to take any action or make any payment in order fully to protect any of the rights of a citizen of the United States of America who has patent rights in and to any such defense article or information, the Government of the United Kingdom will take such action or make such payment when requested to do so by the President of the United States of America.
The Government of the United Kingdom will return to the United States of America at the end of the present emergency, as determined by the President, such defense articles transferred under this agreement as shall not have been destroyed, lost or consumed and as shall be determined by the President to be useful in the defense of the United States of America or of the Western Hemisphere or to be otherwise of use to the United States of America.
In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom full cognizance shall be taken of all property, services, information, facilities, or other benefits or considerations provided by the Government of the United Kingdom subsequent to March 11, 1941, and accepted or acknowledged by the President on behalf of the United States of America.
In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom in return for aid furnished under the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941, the terms and conditions thereof shall be such as not to burden commerce between the two countries, but to promote mutually advantageous economic relations between them and the betterment of world-wide economic relations. To that end, they shall include provision for agreed action by the United States of America and the United Kingdom, open to participation by all other countries of like mind, directed to the expansion, by appropriate international and domestic measures, of production, employment, and the exchange and consumption of goods, which are the material foundations of the liberty and welfare of all peoples to the elimination of all forms of discriminatory treatment in international commerce, and to the reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and in general, to the attainment of all the economic objectives set forth in the Joint Declaration made on Aug. 12, 1941, by the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
At an early convenient date, conversations shall be begun between the two governments with a view to determining, in the light of governing economic conditions, the best means of attaining the above-stated objectives by their own agreed action and of seeking the agreed action of other like-minded governments.
This agreement shall take effect as from this day's date. It shall continue in force until a date to be agreed upon by the two governments.
Signed and sealed at Washington in duplicate this 23 day of February, 1942.
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Brownwood Bulletin (Brownwood, Tex.), Vol. 41, No. 136, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 28, 1942 , newspaper , February 28, 1942 (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth1101697/: accessed June 21, 2021 ), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu crediting Brownwood Public Library .
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Battle of the Sunda Strait (February 28 - March 1, 1942)
The Battle of the Sunda Strait commenced in earnest on 28 February at 11.06pm when the Japanese invasion force assigned to western Java engaged and attacked by HMAS Perth and the USS Houston.
Two Allied cruisers that had fought in the Battle of the Java Sea tried to attack transports bringing Japanese soldiers to three landing sites in western Java from which they planned to capture the capital, Batavia.
The badly outnumbered Allie ships sank, as did several Japanese ships, some of which were hit by their own forces.
At the Sunda Strait the already battered and exhausted Perth and Houston, joined by the Dutch cruiser Evertsen sunk a minelayer, four transports and damage a Japanese cruiser but at catastrophic cost.
All three ships were sunk at the cost of over 1,000 lives. The 671 men rescued were taken prisoner by the Japanese. The survivors held captive in Java and Singapore and most laboured in the infamous Thai-Burma Railway.
The invading forces soon capture Batavia, and joining the soldiers landing on the eastern coast, took control of the entire island.
Battle of the Sunda Strait (February 28 - March 1, 1942)
February 28. On this date in 1942, a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to a "Bahá'í Sister" in the United Kingdom referred to another Bahá'í, stating that "Regarding . Shoghi Effendi is writing him direct, advisinghim to sever his membership in the Synagogue."
'Abdu'l-Bahá had previously permitted membership in freemason lodges and non-Bahá’í religious organizations.
During his visit to London in 1911, 'Abdu’l-Bahá had the following interaction with a Christian.
During his tour of North America in 1912, coverage in news stories would report this comment.
For example, on February 18, 1912, an article in "The Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Press" featured an article stating "In some respects the Bahá’í movement is the most remarkable of modern times. It isn’t a religion, in the sense that Christianity and Mohammedism and other faiths are religions. Its followers belong to many diverse sects, remaining Christian or Mohammedan or Brahmin as the case may be, and still being thorough going Bahis." During his visit to London in 1911, 'Abdu’l-Bahá had stated that "You can be a Bahá’í-Christian, a Bahá’í-Freemason, a Bahá’í-Jew, a Bahá’í-Muḥammadán."
And on February 28, 1912, the "SFO Daily News" of San Francisco featured an article stating "In some respects the Bahá’í movement is the most remarkable of modern times. It isn’t a religion in the sense that Christianity and Mohammedism and other faiths are religious. Its followers belong to many diverse sects, remaining Christian or Mohammedan or Brahmin as the case mya be, and still being thorough going Bahá’ís" During his visit to London in 1911, 'Abdu’l-Bahá had stated that "You can be a Bahá’í-Christian, a Bahá’í-Freemason, a Bahá’í-Jew, a Bahá’í-Muḥammadán."
Similarly, on September 1, 1912, "The Oregonian" of Portland, Oregon carried an article about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, introducing him as the "Leader of Religions Movement Which Claims Three Million Followers" and quoting his statement "When in London he was approached by a student of higher criticism who asked ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if he should continue in the church. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá replied: “Yes, you must not dissociate yourself from it. Know this: the Kingdom of God is not in any society. If you belong to a society already do not forsake your brothers. You can be a Bahá’í-Christian, a Bahá’í-Freemason, a Bahá’í-Jew, Bahá’í-Mohammedan.”
In fact, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had encouraged the Bahá’ís of Manchester to emulate the freemasons.
Numerous statements by Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice would later contradict these statements, with Bahá’ís being explicity prohibited from associating with any other faiths.
On July 24, 1954, a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the Spiritual Assembly of Japan stated that "So far as non-Bahá'ís affiliating with the Bahá'í Faith is concerned, either a person becomes a Bahá'í and accepts Bahá'u'lláh as the divine Manifestation for this day, or he does not. they can only become Bahá'ís on the basis of accepting Bahá'u'lláh as a divine Manifestation, and of course, with this goes the acceptance of the Bab as the Forerunner, and Abdu'l-Bahá as the Center of the Covenant, and the present Administrative Order. When a person has reached the sea of immortality, it is idle to keep seeking elsewhere."
Ski-Bataillon 3. Inf.Div., 28 Feb. 1942 - Eike Middeldorf Brandenbergers
Post by Hoplophile » 19 Oct 2019, 16:52
Thanks to the splendid work of Jeff Leach, I have found war diaries of the various staff sections of the V. Army Corps for this time. These both corroborate the information about the attack that Middeldorf provides and provide a little bit of context. Unfortunately, I have not been able to find comparable documents from the 3rd Infantry Divisions. If the relevant guides from the National Archives and Record Service are any indication, these do not seem to have survived the war. (I suspect that they may have been lost when the division was destroyed at Stalingrad.)
Thanks to clues provided in the sketch map included by Middeldorff in his book, I have been able to use Google maps to take a good look at the area in which this engagement took place. Strange to say, none the villages depicted in the sketch map provided by Middeldorf (Gora, Pashoga, Krjukowo, and Wasiljewschtschina) are missing from from the various views provided by Google.
With these things in mind, I would be grateful for any clues that participants in this forum might be able to provide, as well as any sources that I might have overlooked. I am, in particular, looking for any maps of the immediate area of the attack. (Thanks to the exemplary efforts of John Calvin, I have German army-group level daily situation maps.) I am also looking for information about the role played by the small company of Brandenbergers serving with Middeldorf's ski battalion. (The employment of such specialized troops for a local attack like this strikes me as an indication of the desperation of the situation in which the German forces around Vjazma found themselves at this time.)
PS: I have ordered, but not yet received, a copy of one of the histories of the 3rd Infantry Division penned by Gerhard Dieckhoff.
28 February 1942 - History
Pacific War Maps | Nihon Kaigun Pacific Naval Battles in World War II
The Pacific War was the largest naval conflict in history. Across the huge expanses of the Pacific, the two most powerful navies in the world found themselves locked in a death struggle. The war was fought in every possible climate, from Arctic conditions in the Aleutians, to the appalling heat and swelter of the South Pacific. Every conceivable type of naval activity was represented: carrier aviation battles, surface engagements, bitterly fought night-fights, the largest amphibious landings of the entire war, and the stealthy, brutal battles waged by and against submarines.
I have compiled information on a number of the more important (and, I think, interesting) battles of the war, including a synopsis, tabular displays of the forces involved, and in some cases ship movement track charts. Just click on the battle map you want to see. Alternately, use the text-driven menu below the maps.
Standing his Ground
As detailed in the masterful Jackie Robinson: A Biography by Arnold Rampersad, on July 6, 1944, Robinson “became entangled in a dispute that threatened to end his military service in disgrace.” While riding on a military bus returning to a hospital from “the colored officers club,” Robinson sat next to Virginia Jones, the wife of one of his fellow officers. Jones looked white — at least the white bus driver thought so. After a few blocks, the driver abruptly ordered Robinson “to move to the back of the bus.” Robinson, justifiably outraged, refused. Among other things, he had read that segregation was no longer allowed on military buses (pdf) and proceeded to engage in a form of protest prefiguring a similar action by Rosa Parks 11 years later.
Rampersad reprints Robinson’s statement about what happened next: “The bus driver asked me for my identification card. I refused to give it to him. He then went to the Dispatcher and told him something. What he told him I don’t know. He then comes back and tells the people that this nigger is making trouble. I told the driver to stop f—in with me, so he gets the rest of the men around there and starts blowing his top and someone calls the MP’s.” Robinson was placed under “arrest in quarters,” which meant that “he would be considered under arrest at the hospital, although without a guard. Robinson was then taken to the hospital in a police pickup truck.” A white officer would recall that Robinson “was handcuffed, and there were shackles on his legs. Robinson’s face was angry, the muscles on his face tight, his eyes half closed.”
Robinson was transferred to the 758th Tank Battalion on July 24, “where the commander signed orders to prosecute him.” On that day, he was arrested. Rampersad says that “At 1:45 in the afternoon on August 2, the case of The United States v. 2nd Lieutenant Jack R. Robinson, 0-10315861, Cavalry, Company C, 758th Tank Battalion, began.” Robinson’s fate was in the hands of nine men, eight of them white: “One was black another had been a UCLA student [where Robinson had been an undergraduate]. Six votes were needed for conviction.”
Robinson faced two charges: “The first, a violation of Article of War No. 63, accused him of ‘behaving with disrespect toward Capt. Gerald M. Bear, CMP, his superior officer’ … The second charge was a violation of Article No. 64, in this case ‘willful disobedience of lawful command of Gerald M. Bear, CMP, his superior.’ ” Three other charges were dropped before the trial began. Testimony reveals how bravely Robinson had fought to defend himself on the evening of the incident, including reportedly saying quite heroically, “Look here, you son-of-a-bitch, don’t you call me no nigger!” After a four-hour trial, Robinson was exonerated: “Robinson secured at least the four votes (secret and written) needed for his acquittal. He was found ‘not guilty of all specifications and charges.'”
♫Today in Music History-February 28, 1942♫
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I also noticed the black and white photo of himself on the stereo. right next to the trophy he received for winning the drinking contest at the local pub :-(
Funny you should mention that Kathleen. When I first looked at the furniture I had the same thought. skinny legs. But I wasn't thinkin' 'bout furniture :-)
And don't go hurting yourself trying to dance like Joe Tex :-)
I'm looking at the record player/radio furniture. Swedish modern, probably.
I didn't know that about poor Brian. :0(
Very true John!! So many gone way too early.
Much like the Beatles, I appreciated the early Rolling Stones more so than the band they evolved into and I have often wondered which direction the Rolling Stones would have gone if Brian Jones had remained an active member instead of a tragic statistic. The same question surrounds Pink Floyd/Syd Barrett, Beatles/Pete Best or Stu Sutcliffe, Doors/Jim Morrison, Moby Grape/Skip Spence, Mamas&Papas/Cass Elliot, Buddy Holley, the list goes on and on. Welcome to Morbid Monday. oh wait! It's Tragic Tuesday.
Good memories of being around my late brother and sister. This was their music! Grins!☺