Banduddu: Solving the Mystery of the Babylonian Container

Banduddu: Solving the Mystery of the Babylonian Container

One of the great riddles in Mesopotamian sacred art concerns the image of anthropomorphic winged figures called Apkallu holding a mullilu (tree fruit) in one hand, and a banduddû — a container — in the other. The purpose of this container is rightly mysterious. It appears throughout Sumer and Babylon, and half a world away in Yucatan; six thousand years earlier, it was carved in relief upon Pillar 43 at Gobekli Tepe, one of the world's oldest standing stone enclosures. But what exactly was the purpose of this container? A look at cross-cultural symbolism in the images provides an answer.

The Apkallu

Wall relief depicting an eagle-headed and winged man, Apkallu, from Nimrud. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

The Apkallu are a group of seven sages, emissaries and mediating figures entrusted by a creator god to bring the civilizing arts to humanity following a catastrophic flood. Their story is repeated almost verbatim in diluvial myths of many ancient cultures, the only changeable aspect being their names. The quintessential image of the Apkallu is that of two eagle-, or perhaps falcon-headed people standing either side of a flowering tree, picking its fruit, and the manner in which they hold the container suggests the fruit are to be placed in said receptacle. Sometimes the figure of the supreme deity Ahura Mazda is depicted inside a winged disc above the axis of the tree, implying it is close to God, and thus, wisdom. This culturally shared image is known as the World Tree or Tree of Knowledge, and served as both focal point and foundation of all Mysteries teachings and traditions.

Sent by the creator god Ea, Apkallu function as cleansers, protectors, lawgivers and advisors. Here one administers to the Tree of Knowledge.

The iconic container appears throughout many carved panels and clay tablets found in the palace of Nimrud and its surrounding region. To solve the riddle, it is important to see the images together, because, placed in context, they appear to form a kind of triptych conveying a running commentary. Such a series of panels, removed from one of the rooms at Nimrud, is housed in the British Museum.

One panel shows two Apkallu administering to the sacred tree; in the next, an Apkallu has turned from the tree and bestows a king with the tree fruit, all the while holding that mysterious container. Clearly the king is conferred some special privilege.

The featured king is identified as Ashunarsipal, who was also a priest, a high initiate of the temple, and thus privy to secret knowledge that only such a position could allow. We know he held this position because in a separate frieze he is depicted holding a beehive above his head, a clear indication he has been initiated into the secrets of the beehive. We shall return to this thought later because it is central to understanding the purpose of the container.

Ashurbanipal as High Priest ( Public Domain )

In a next panel Ashunarsipal is no longer surrounded by the Apkallu, he himself has been transformed into a winged figure holding a tree fruit and the container; in the following image he stands in direct contact with the Tree of Knowledge and points directly at Ahura Mazda inside his solar disc. Obviously the king has partaken of the tree fruit, and the knowledge it contains has transformed him into an Apkallu, allowing him direct access to God.

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Contents

In May 2010 Suffolk County Police were searching for Shannan Gilbert, a 24-year-old woman from New Jersey, who was working as an escort and was reported missing on May 1 of that year. [8] [9] She was last seen in the Oak Beach area after she ran from a client's house, where her driver, Michael Pak was waiting outside. [10]

In December 2010, a police officer and his dog, on a routine training exercise, discovered the first body: "the skeletal remains of a woman in a nearly disintegrated burlap sack." [11] This discovery led to a search, and three more bodies were found two days later in the same area, on the north side of the Ocean Parkway. Suffolk County Police Commissioner Richard Dormer said, "Four bodies found in the same location pretty much speaks for itself. It's more than a coincidence. We could have a serial killer." [12]

A few months later, in late March and early April 2011, four more bodies were discovered in another area off the parkway, near Oak Beach and Gilgo Beach. Suffolk Police expanded the search area up to the Nassau County border, looking for more victims. [13] On April 6, Detective Lt. Kevin Smith of the Nassau County Police Department said that his office will "further explore and investigate any criminal activity which may be in close proximity to the recently discovered human remains found in Suffolk." Smith also said that Nassau County Police would be coordinating with Suffolk County and New York State Police on the investigation. [14]

Five days later, the search for more bodies began in Nassau County. An additional set of partial human remains was found, as well as a separate skull, bringing the potential total number of victims found since December to ten. [15] On April 22, two human teeth were found about a foot from the skull. [16] On June 16, 2011, Suffolk County police raised the reward from $5,000 to $25,000 (the largest offered in the county's history) for information leading to an arrest in the Long Island murders. [17]

On September 20, police released composite sketches of two of the unidentified victims whose remains were found in March and April (an Asian male and Jane Doe No. 6), as well as photos of jewelry found on the remains of a female toddler and her mother, found on April 4 and 11, respectively. [18] The toddler's mother was reported as one of the sets of remains found in Nassau County on April 11. [18] Also on September 20, police revealed that the second set of remains found in Nassau County on April 11 matched two legs found in 1996 in a garbage bag that had washed up on Fire Island. [18] [19] As of September 22, 2011 [update] , the police had received over 1,200 tips via text, email and phone since the beginning of the investigation. [19]

On November 29, 2011 police announced that they believed one person is responsible for all 10 murders, and that the person is almost certainly from Long Island. The single killer theory was related to common characteristics among the condition and forensic evidence related to the bodies. [20]

On December 13, 2011, police announced that the remains of Shannan Gilbert were found in a marsh about half a mile from where she had disappeared. A week earlier, they had found some of her clothes and belongings in the same vicinity. Police believe that Gilbert accidentally drowned after stumbling into the marsh. Her mother disagrees. Gilbert was last seen banging on a resident's door and screaming for help before running off into the night. Gilbert made a 9-1-1 call that night, saying she feared for her life. [21]

On December 10, 2015, Suffolk County Police Commissioner Tim Sini announced that the FBI had officially joined the investigation. The day before, former Police Commissioner James Burke, who resigned in October, had been indicted for alleged police brutality and other issues. He was said to have blocked FBI involvement in the LISK cases for years. [22] A spokesperson for the FBI confirmed their official involvement. The FBI had previously assisted in the search for victims, but was never officially part of the investigation. [23]

On September 12, 2017, Suffolk County prosecutor Robert Biancavilla from the county DA's office announced that John Bittrolff, a carpenter from Manorville, Long Island, who was convicted in May 2017 and sentenced in September in the homicides of two sex workers in 1993 and 1994 was a suspect in at least one of the LISK murders. Bittrolff had been linked to the 1990s murders by DNA. The police made no comment, as the LISK homicide investigation is active. [24] [25] In June 2019, a proposal was made to use genetic genealogy to identify the unidentified victims and possibly the killer. [26]

On January 16, 2020, Suffolk County Police Commissioner Geraldine Hart released images of a belt found at the crime scene with the letters "HM" or "WH" (depending on which way the belt was looked at) embossed in the black leather. The belt was found during the initial investigation near Ocean Parkway in Gilgo Beach. Police believe the belt was handled by the perpetrator and did not belong to any of the victims. The police revealed few details regarding this piece of evidence and would not comment on exactly where the belt was found. It was also announced that new scientific evidence was being used in the investigation and that they had launched gilgonews.com, a website enabling the police to share news and receive tips regarding the investigation. [27] [28]

On May 22, 2020, it was announced that the identity of Jane Doe No. 6 had been confirmed. Her name was not released to the public until May 28, 2020 [29] when she was identified as Valerie Mack, who also went by the name of Melissa Taylor. [30]

The media has speculated about a profile of the killer, referred to by police as "Joe C" (unknown subject). According to the New York Times, it is most likely a white male in his mid twenties to mid forties who is very familiar with the South Shore of Long Island and has access to burlap sacks, which he uses to hold the bodies for disposal. [31] He may have a detailed knowledge of law enforcement techniques, and perhaps ties to law enforcement, which have thus far helped him avoid detection. [31] [32]

Newsday reporters speculated that serial killer Joel Rifkin, a former resident on Long Island, may have been responsible for some of the older remains found in March and April 2011. Four of the victims' complete bodies were never found. [33] In an April 2011 prison interview with Newsday, Rifkin denied having anything to do with recently discovered remains. [33]

James Burke Edit

On December 15, 2016, the attorney for Gilbert's family said that an escort who had conducted business with former Suffolk County Police Chief James Burke claimed he was connected to the Long Island murders. [34] In November 2016, Burke had been sentenced to 46 months in federal prison along with three years of supervised release for beating a man who stole a duffel bag filled with sex toys and pornography from his vehicle. Burke had pleaded guilty in February 2016 to charges of a civil rights violation and conspiracy to obstruct justice. [35] Gilbert's attorney said in December that one escort claimed that she wanted to have "rough sex" with Burke during an Oak Beach party. [34] The escort identified herself as "Leanne". She specifically stated that at the first party she attended in April 2011 in Oak Beach she saw Burke drag an Asian looking woman by the hair to the ground. She stated that the woman did, however, think that this was playful rather than violent. Laenne said that when she saw him for the second time, she decided to hook up with him, as she was told that he was a high-ranking official and that was intriguing to her. She described that he violently yanked her head during oral sex to the point where she started tearing up. Burke was unable to reach orgasm and proceeded to throw $300–400 at her afterward. This was in August 2011. At the time she was not a professional sex worker and she states that this was the first time she was paid for sex. [36] Burke was reported to have blocked an FBI probe of the LISK case during his time as police chief. [37]

John Bittrolff Edit

On September 12, 2017, Suffolk County prosecutor Robert Biancavilla said that John Bittrolff, a Suffolk county resident convicted of murdering two sex workers and suspected in the murder of a third, was a suspect in at least one of the LISK murders. Biancavilla stated that Bittrolff was likely responsible for the deaths of other women, and that there were similarities between the Gilgo Beach crime scenes and Bittrolff's known murders, for which he was convicted in May 2017 and sentenced in September. [24] [38] [39]

Bittrolff was arrested in 2014, linked by DNA found on two homicide victims, Rita Tangredi and Colleen McNamee, whose bodies were found in 1993 and 1994, respectively. (The match had been made through DNA submitted by his brother, who was convicted in 2013 in an unrelated case. [24] ) Bittrolff was convicted in May 2017 of these murders, and in September sentenced to consecutive terms of 25 years for each murder. [24] The Suffolk County police did not comment on the prosecutor's statement, due to the active homicide investigation of the LISK murders. Bittrolff's attorney rejected the prosecutor's assertion. [38]

A married carpenter, Bittrolff had lived in Manorville, three miles from where the torsos of LISK victims Jessica Taylor and Valerie Mack were recovered (see victims in section below). Biancavilla said that Bittrolff was a hunter who was said to enjoy the killing of animals. [39]

The grown daughter of Rita Tangredi, one of Bittrolff's known victims, was reported to be "best friends" with Melissa Barthelemy, one of the Gilgo Beach victims. [40] Barthelemy's mother said that her daughter Melissa "had a lot of calls to Manorville from her phone" before her death. [38] [40]

Joseph Brewer Edit

Joseph Brewer, an Oak Beach resident, was one of the last people known to have seen Shannan Gilbert alive. He hired her as an escort from Craigslist on the night of her disappearance. Brewer said that shortly after Gilbert arrived at his residence, she began acting erratically and fled into the night. Gilbert was reportedly seen running through Oak Beach, pounding on the doors of homes in Brewer's neighborhood. Around this time, Gilbert called 9-1-1, saying that "they were trying to kill her". However, police did not find any evidence of wrongdoing, and Brewer was quickly cleared as a suspect. [41]

Dr. Peter Hackett Edit

Two days after Gilbert's disappearance, Dr. Peter Hackett, an Oak Beach resident and neighbor of Brewer, called the woman's mother, Mari Gilbert. She later recounted that he said he was taking care of Gilbert, and that he "ran a home for wayward girls." Three days later, he called the mother again, denying that he had any contact with her daughter and that he had called Mari Gilbert. Investigators later confirmed through phone records that Hackett called Mari twice following the disappearance. The marshy area where Gilbert's remains were found was also noted as near Hackett's backyard. Gilbert's family filed a wrongful death suit against Hackett in November 2012, claiming that he took Gilbert into his home that morning and administered drugs to her, facilitating her death. Later police revealed that Hackett had a history of inserting himself into, or exaggerating his role in, certain major events. Police later ruled out Hackett as a suspect in the deaths of Gilbert and the LISK victims. [42]

James Bissett Edit

Two days after Shannan Gilbert's remains were found, James Bissett took his own life while in his car at Mattituck park. [43] He ran a nursery which was the main supplier of burlap in the region. [44]

Bodies discovered in December 2010 Edit

Of the ten bodies or sets of remains found since late 2010, the four discovered in December 2010 have been identified as missing sex workers who all advertised their services on Craigslist. It has been theorized by a former investigator on the case that the killer shopped for look-a-like victims through Craigslist ads. [45] Each had been strangled and her body wrapped in a burlap sack before being dumped along Gilgo Beach. [46] All are believed to have been killed elsewhere.

Identified Edit

  • Maureen Brainard-Barnes, 25, of Norwich, Connecticut, was an escort who advertised her services online. Maureen, who was four feet eleven inches tall and one hundred five pounds, was last seen on July 9, 2007, saying that she planned "to spend the day in New York City." She was never seen again. [47][48] Maureen, a struggling mother, worked as a paid escort via Craigslist to pay the mortgage on her house. She had been out of the sex industry for seven months, but she returned to the work in order to pay her bills after receiving an eviction notice. [49] Her body was found in December 2010. [50] Shortly after her disappearance, a friend of Maureen's, Sara Karnes, received a call from a man on an unfamiliar number. The man claimed that he had just seen Maureen and that she was alive and staying at a “whorehouse in Queens”. He refused to identify himself and could not tell Karnes the location of the house. He told Karnes he would call back and give her the address, but never called again. Karnes said that the man had no discernible New York or Boston accent.
  • Melissa Barthélemy, 24, of Erie County, New York, went missing on July 10, 2009. She had been living in the Bronx and working as an escort through Craigslist. [51] On the night she went missing, she met with a client, deposited $900 in her bank account, and attempted to call an old boyfriend, but did not get through. Beginning one week later, and lasting for five weeks, her teenage sister, Amanda, received a series of "vulgar, mocking and insulting" calls from a man, who may have been the killer using Melissa's cell phone. The caller asked if Amanda "was a whore like her sister." The calls became increasingly disturbing, and eventually culminated in the caller telling Amanda that Melissa was dead, and that he was going to "watch her rot." Police traced some of the calls to Madison Square Garden, midtown Manhattan, and Massapequa, but were unable to determine who was making the calls. [52] Melissa's mother noted that there were "a lot of calls to Manorville" from Melissa's phone around the time of her disappearance. [53] In September 2017, John Bittrolff, a carpenter from that town convicted of two other murders, was named as a suspect in the LISK cases. [53]
  • Megan Waterman, 22, of South Portland, Maine, went missing on June 6, 2010, after placing advertisements on Craigslist as an escort. The day before, she had told her 20-year-old boyfriend that she was going out and would call him later. At the time of her disappearance, she was staying at a motel in Hauppauge, New York, 15 miles northeast of Gilgo Beach. Her body was recovered in December 2010. [54]
  • Amber Lynn Costello, 27, of North Babylon, New York, a town ten miles north of Gilgo Beach, was a sex worker and heroin user who went missing on September 2, 2010. [54] That night she reportedly went to meet a stranger who had called her several times and offered $1,500 for her services. [55]

Remains discovered in March and April 2011 Edit

The four sets of remains discovered on March 29 and April 4 were all within two miles and to the east of those found in December. They included two women, a man, and a toddler. [5] A skull and a partial set of remains were found on April 11 after the search expanded into Nassau County. [56] They were found about one mile apart, approximately five miles west of those found in December. [57]

Identified Edit

  • Jessica Taylor, 20, most recently of Manhattan, went missing in July 2003. On July 26, 2003, her naked and dismembered torso, missing its head and hands, was discovered 45 miles (72 km) east of Gilgo Beach in Manorville, New York [58] these remains were identified by DNA analysis later that year. Taylor's torso was found atop a pile of scrap wood at the end of a paved access road off Halsey Manor Road, just north of where it crosses the Long Island Expressway. Plastic sheeting was found underneath the torso, and a tattoo on her body had been mutilated with a sharp instrument. [59] On May 9, 2011, it was reported that the remains of a skull, a pair of hands, and a forearm found on March 29 at Gilgo were matched to Taylor. [60][61] She had worked in Washington, D.C., and Manhattan as a sex worker. [5]
  • Valerie Mack, 24, most recently of Philadelphia, was previously dubbed "Manorville Jane Doe" [62] and "Jane Doe No. 6". A human head, right foot, and hands, found on April 4, 2011, were determined to have belonged to an unidentified victim. The rest of her body had been found over a decade earlier, on November 19, 2000, in the same part of Manorville where most of Jessica Taylor's remains were later discovered. The victim's torso was found wrapped in garbage bags and dumped in the woods near the intersection of Halsey Manor Road and Mill Road, adjacent to a set of power lines and a nearby power line access road. Her right foot had been cut off high above the ankle, possibly to conceal an identifying mark or tattoo. The dismembered remains of Jessica Taylor and "Jane Doe No. 6" were both disposed of in a similar manner and in the same town, suggesting a link. In September 2011, police released a composite sketch of "Jane Doe No. 6", saying she was about 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) and was between 18 and 35 years old. [18] On May 22, 2020, Suffolk County Police announced that they had positively identified the remains and would be releasing their identity shortly. [63] On May 28, 2020 it was announced that the remains had been identified as Mack, who had last been seen by family in the spring or summer of 2000 in the area of Port Republic, New Jersey. Mack had also gone by the name Melissa Taylor, and had worked as an escort in Philadelphia. [64]

Unidentified Edit

  • "John Doe": Also discovered on April 4, 2011 at Gilgo Beach, very close to where the first four were discovered in December 2010, was the body of what appeared to be a young Asian trans woman who died from blunt-force trauma. [5][61] In September 2011, police released a composite sketch of the victim. She was likely a sex worker and was wearing women's clothing at the time of her death. [65] She was between 17 and 23 years of age, 5' 6" in height, and missing four teeth She had been dead for between 5 and 10 years. [18] She is believed to have lived as a woman, perhaps being killed when the killer found out she was not a cisgender woman, and to have had some kind of musculoskeletal disorder which would have affected her gait. [66]
  • "Baby Doe": The third body found on April 4, 2011, about 250 feet away from the partial remains of "Jane Doe No. 6," was that of a female toddler between 16 and 24 months of age it was a skeleton. [67] The body was wrapped in a blanket and showed no visible signs of trauma. DNA tests determined that the child's mother was "Jane Doe No. 3", whose body was found 10 miles east, near Jones Beach State Park. [68] The toddler was reported to be African-American and was wearing gold earrings and a gold necklace. [68][19]
  • "Peaches/Jane Doe No. 3": On June 28, 1997, the dismembered torso of an unidentified young African-American female was found at Hempstead Lake State Park, in the town of Lakeview, New York. The torso was found in a green plastic Rubbermaid container, which was dumped next to a road along the west side of the lake. Investigators reported that the victim had a tattoo of a heart-shaped peach with a bite out of it and two drips falling from its core on her left breast. On April 11, 2011, police in Nassau County discovered dismembered skeletal human remains inside a plastic bag near Jones Beach State Park, nicknamed "Jane Doe No. 3". DNA analysis identified this victim as the mother of "Baby Doe" [68] she was found wearing gold jewelry similar to that of her daughter. [18] In December 2016, Peaches and Jane Doe No. 3 were positively identified as being the same person. [69]
  • "Jane Doe No. 7/Fire Island Jane Doe": Also on April 11, 2011, at nearby Tobay Beach, a separate human skull and several teeth were recovered. [20][61] These remains were linked by DNA testing to a set of severed legs found in a garbage bag on Fire Island on April 20, 1996. [68] The victim had a surgical scar on her left leg. [70]

Other possible victims Edit

These additional cases have not been officially linked to the other 10 bodies, but are being reviewed by police:


Lucifer provides examples of:

  • Aborted Arc: God's insistence that Lucifer return to Hell and run it again because it's falling apart without him was a major part of Season 1, with Amenadiel and Uriel both acting towards that end in His name. In Seasons 2 and 3 it hasn't been brought up and there's no word from anyone on the current state of Hell nor what Heaven intends to do about it and Lucifer (though Amenadiel's insistence in the Pilot could have just been a lie in order to convince Lucifer to return to Hell on his own, as per Loophole Abuse so Amenadiel doesn't have to break the vow he made in the flashback episode). It comes back up in season 4 when the demons start to come to Earth to try and convince Lucifer to return. Specifics are not given it's only stated that Hell has been "really bad" since Lucifer left.
  • Above the Influence: At the end of "Pops", Chloe shows up drunk at Lucifer's loft, distraught over her belief that Dan had dumped her, and throws herself at him. Lucifer, to his own surprise, refuses to take advantage. Although he's not above toying with her when she wakes up by letting her think they had sex.
  • Accent Interest: Lucifer's British accent raises a few eyebrows because a) he's living in LA, b) his brother has an American accent, and c) most people (including Lucifer himself) find it hot:
  • Charlotte's first appearance is preceded by Lucifer's performance of "All Along the Watchtower". Tricia Helfer previously starred in Battlestar Galactica where the song played a prominent role.
  • In "The Good, the Bad and the Crispy". Linda breaks out the duct tape to patch up Charlotte. Charlotte's actress was previously on Burn Notice where duct tape as a running theme.
  • Rebecca De Mornay, who plays Penelope Decker, previous played a pushy mother trying to get her daughter into show-business on Jessica Jones, named Dorothy Walker. However, Penelope is just a bit scatter-brained and well-meaning, and clearly loves both her daughter and grand-daughter, while Dorothy Walker was downright abusive.
  • In "The One With The Baby Carrot" one of the puppets in a suspect's TV show calls Lucifer "Doctor Who". Tom Ellis once appeared in a guest role in an episode of that show.
  • Lucifer tells Marcus Pierce "everyone has a Kryptonite". Tom Welling played Superman on Smallville. Lucifer also tells Chloe that one does't tell Superman not to fly. In Smallville, the showrunners were mostly forbidden from allowing Clark to fly.
  • DB Woodside played Dennis Haysbert's chief of staff on 24. Haysbert has now been cast as God, making Woodside his right hand once again.
  • If anything, as listed in other examples, the entire series only has very superfluous connections to the comic book. If not for the brief crossover with the CW Crisis event, it could have been a separate entity with no connection.
  • In the first season finale, Malcolm kidnaps Trixie and threatens to kill her unless Chloe breaks into evidence to steal his cash for him.
  • In the fourth season finale Linda wakes up from a nap to find her newborn baby is missing. At first it looks like Amenadiel, the father, took him away but when he returns to house they realise a woman pretending to be the night nurse kidnapped him.
  • In the fifth midseason finale, Amenadiel learns to his horror that Charlie is a normal human, with all the attendant problems of mortality. His fears are such to an extent that he somehow manages to stop time &mdash something previously thought to be impossible &mdash so he can keep Charlie safe forever.
  • Mazikeen is called "Maze" by people close to her.
  • Lucifer very rarely refers to Chloe by her name and virtually never does so to her face. It becomes clear later on that "Detective" is his way of being affectionate to her.
    • He, however, is called out on this by Dan in "All Hands on Decker", who says that he should try to call Chloe by her name if he wants to get a Relationship Upgrade. Lucifer even counters the assumption through the excuse that "Detective" is more affectionate.
    • By the finale of Season 4, Lucifer has called Chloe by her name, to her face, four times: twice in the pilot, once in "Quintessential Deckerstar", when the two have their Big Damn Kiss , and once in "Who's da New King of Hell?", when he tearfully parts ways from her before returning to Hell .
    • Played with and then reconstructed. Chloe refuses to believe that Lucifer is actually The Devil Incarnate, despite the fact that she's seen him shrug off bullets, disappear from one place and appear in another (though this was due to him utilizing Amenadiel's time-slowing ability rather than any power of his own), and convince nearly everyone he meets to give up their deepest desires/dark and naughty secrets. At first, it seems like Arbitrary Skepticism, but in episode four, after Lucifer explaining once again that he is the Devil and bullets are pretty much a bee sting to him, Chloe sees his real face in a reflection and starts to believe. So Lucifer goads her into shooting him which he shrugs off for about a second before actually being injured the first time in the series. It's actually Chloe that makes him mortal. Add that to the fact that she is immune to his abilities, lives in the City of Angels where everybody has a persona they are willing to play to make it ahead, and the fact that "The Devil Incarnate" is often mistaken as being "the ultimate evil" instead of the (literally) canonical punisher of evil, it's actually somewhat believable that she doesn't believe his explanation of all of his "Lucifer-ness".
    • As of the season 2 premiere, zigzaggedanddiscussed in season one, Chloe never actually stated what she thought of Lucifer's Luciferness other than she didn't think he was the Devil. In the season two premiere, after she obtains a sample of his blood, Lucifer encourages her to test it and prove he is an angel and to prevent that, Amenadiel gives Chloe a perfectly logical cop-out explanation to everything that Lucifer does implying that he's not quite sane. Instead, she Takes a Third Option: having faith&mdash-but not without doubt&mdashin Lucifer, and states she doesn't believe his or Amenadiel's perfectly logical explanation, citing a joke from Annie Hall- "Doctor, my brother thinks he's a chicken!" Well, why don't you bring him in?" "I can't, I need the eggs." Chloe explains that she needs the eggs she doesn't believe he's crazy and Lucifer makes her a better detective, and he has her back and that's all that really matters.
    • It's also heavily implied that she's leaning more towards Lucifer's explanation than Amenadiel's, because she says she's going to find out what Lucifer is (only resorting to who when Lucifer pushes her on it), and she pokes a billion holes in Amenadiel's explanation. Not to mention the thing that dissuades her from testing Lucifer's blood is a person of faith pointing out that proof of divinity kind of takes away the point of having faith. Chloe might not believe in Lucifer being more than human but at the very least she can see his results.
    • Likewise, Linda believes Lucifer's talk of devils and such is all metaphor for his feelings. In "Monster," Lucifer finally reveals his true demonic face to her and Linda is simply shocked silent and frozen to realize he truly is the Devil.
    • Makes an appearance in the form of his famous painting. In season 4 Linda suggests naming her and Amenadiel's child after him, but Amenadiel dismisses the suggestion right away.
    • Michael is revealed in season 5 to be Lucifer's twin brother. To differentiate the two, Michael speaks with an American accent, has a hunched posture, and likes to dress in old-fashioned and conservative outfits like turtleneck sweaters. He is the only angel who has a direct channel to God and despises Lucifer for gaining praise among the celestials despite his rebellious nature. Unlike Lucifer, he loves to lie, while his angelic gift is a distorted version of Lucifer's: he can coax out someone's fears, instead of their desires.
    • He is name dropped in "Favorite Son". Apparently he gives a welcome speech to new arrivals in Heaven, which Lucifer finds to be a fate worse than Hell.
    • He appears in Season 2 in order to force Lucifer to return their mother to Hell under threat against Chloe's life. He's revealed to be able to see the future to an extent, being able to anticipate all the potential outcomes of a sequence of events, and can manipulate them to bring about Disaster Dominoes. He's also a Knight Templar determined to kill their mother rather than let her worm her way back into Heaven, and ends up rendered Deader Than Dead by Lucifer to protect her.
    • Uriel did say he was taking their mother back to Hell, but Lucifer killed him only after Uriel revealed the part of his plan where he kills Chloe. This is a huge point throughout season 2 - that Lucifer killed his own brother to protect 'his' detective.
    • Amenadiel claims that every culture throughout history has had a devil figure, and that figure has always been some flavor of the "fallen son" archetype. Neither is true many cultures have no evil figures in their religion at all, and among those that do, not all of them have the evil entity as a "fallen son" of any sort. Of course, Amenadiel was trying to manipulate Linda and has shown no compunction against lying, so he could have just been editing the story to fit his narrative. Or he might simply be ignorant of human religion, considering his lack of experience interacting with them.
    • In Season One, Linda claims that Lucifer's original name &mdash Samael &mdash means "Light-Bringer." Samael actually means "Poison of God", while Lucifer means "Light-Bringer."
    • Abrahamic folklore (or at least Biblical head-canon) attributes the Nephilim as being the half-breed offspring of angels and humans. In the series, Charlie is explicitly stated to be the first and only example of this, Charlie currently exhibiting no anomalous characteristics beyond a few Informed Attributes.
    • A paparazzi in the second episode wanted to make up for going too far in his previous work and causing unintended harm to others (including Chloe). Unfortunately, his attempts to do so didn't work out like he hoped.
    • Lucifer keeps denying it, but it is clear he feels quite guilty when his actions lead to a woman's death. He tries to make up for it by catching her killer and is quite relieved to find out that his involvement did not cause her death after all.
    • After killing Uriel Lucifer feels true guilt for the first time in his existence, to a crippling degree. Enough so that he tries to get himself shot with Chloe present to be punished for it. When that doesn't work he tries to unburden himself to Linda, but she doesn't believe him until he shows her his true face , which doesn't go over well. So he spends the next episode feeling guilty for that and for the harm he causes generally. Enough so that he tries to emulate Dan to be more reliable.
    • In the Season 1 finale, Lucifer is mortally wounded, briefly dies, and goes to Hell, so his father can show him that his mother has escaped.
    • The crazy plan Lucifer concocts to save Chloe from poisoning in "A Good Day to Die" requires him to die and enter Hell, because the only person who knows the antidote has been killed and sent to Hell. After he is successful, Linda revives him (and his mom, who volunteered to retrieve him when he did not come back on time) using a Magical Defibrillator.
    • In the Season 2 finale, the real Charlotte Richards, who died all the way back in the premiere, reposseses her body after Goddess leaves it. Season 3 reveals that Charlotte went to Hell during the duration of the possession, the experience of which makes her decide to turn her life around.
    • In the Season 3 episode "Infernal Guinea Pig", Lucifer and Pierce bring Abel back to life, but he ends up possessing a recently dead woman. Hilarity Ensues.
    • In the Season 5 finale, Chloe dies, being stabbed by Michael, and goes to Heaven. But Lucifer, unable to accept her death, travels to Heaven to bring her soul back and resurrect her, in the process causing him to die. This act enables him to win the contest to become God, and he is subsequently brought back.
    • Trixie assumes that Mommy shooting Lucifer was an extreme version of this trope.
    • Ella sees Lucifer and Chloe arguing and thinks they should just Get a Room!.
    • Daniel loves puddings. He loves them so much that he keeps stacks of them in the precinct fridge and labels them with his name so that other people won't touch them. He becomes so upset when he realises someone is stealing all his puddings that Chloe sarcastically asks him if she should put some unis on the case and arrange for him to receive counselling.
    • On a serious note, blaming Lucifer for humanity's evil is a sure way to get him legitimately angered. He also doesn't like being compared to God or called by his former name, Samael (in the comics, Lucifer still answers to the name Samael, but objects to being called the "Lightbringer").
    • The ending of "A Good Day to Die": Lucifer manages to save Chloe, and "Charlotte" finally seems to realize the damage her actions have caused. But Lucifer is tired of both his parents manipulating him so leaves LA, seemingly for good. When Chloe goes to see Lucifer, she finds his penthouse empty and his furniture covered in sheets.
    • Season 4 ends with Lucifer coming to terms with his self-hatred and taking responsibility for his actions, finally gaining a mature perspective on all that has happened with him. He learns to forgive himself and admits to Chloe the truth of his feelings and finds them reciprocated - but upon doing so is promptly forced to take his leave of Earth to reclaim the infernal throne, realizing that Hell's legions pose a threat to Earth and all he loves if left unsupervised.
    • Lucifer's true appearance makes him somewhat resemble a skinless human.
    • It gets worse in season 4 when we first see not just his "Devil face", but his entire body in Devil form. Not only does he look skinless, but burned, and with clear chunks missing, like he has been slashed, probably injuries from his war with God.
    • Maze's true appearance has half of her face appearing to be horribly decayed.
    • In Season 2, Amenadiel realizes that he's become a Fallen Angel when his wings start to rot off his back.
    • Malcolm. We don't know exactly how he was before, so it might cross over with Informed Attribute, but he's been on a gluttonous rampage since he came back from Hell. And not just in the culinary sense. His wife says in episode 13, after mistaking Maze and Chloe for him and trying to shoot them with a shotgun, that he's been different since his "near death experience." We see boxes full of half-unpacked brand-new items strewn all over his house not two minutes before, and Maze says she's seen similar all-consuming behavior before.
    • Inverted in the case of Charlotte, who made a living keeping criminals out of jail but decided to change after experiencing hell.
    • A literal example in Season 4 when Chloe stops by Lucifer's place unannounced to ask him for help. right as he was shucking off his clothing to join his companion in the shower.
    • Communication and openness about one's feelings. Most of the main characters suffer from Poor Communication Kills, especially Lucifer, which causes them to misinterpret someone else's actions, causes their own actions to be misinterpreted, or they do things without consulting others. In the end, Honesty Is the Best Policy, and open conversations is the best way to truly solve problems, even if the process is unpleasant. This extends to being honest with yourself and being able to realize your flaws and willing to work to overcome them. The Reveal that celestial beings can self-actualize their inner turmoil, which is the cause of Lucifer and Amenadiel's Power Incontinence , directly shows that an inability to accept yourself for who you are just results in more problems.
    • Love, both familial and romantic. Most of the major character plots of the series center on the characters searching for one, the other, or both, and it's shown that lack of them in their upbringing has had a negative effect on them as adults. While the journey differs for each character, each of them needs to come to terms with their pain in some way or another in order to become better people, and only then are they able to be emotionally mature enough to have healthy long-term relationships with others.
    • Going hand-in-hand with both of the above, Lucifer's ability to draw out the deepest desires of others allows him to reveal their true nature, which is very often a turning point interrogating a suspect. Some people want entirely mundane and ordinary things, some want long-term goals, some want immediate resolution of an issue. And it's usually the case with criminals that (in their opinion, anyway) they were Driven to Villainy by some need or ambition that was going unfulfilled and they felt they had no other choice but to resort to ammoral actions. This shows the lengths some are willing to go to in order to get what they want when they can't have it.
    • Amenadiel's ability to slow time, which he uses to speak with Lucifer in public without being noticed. See Mundane Utility below.
    • The single feather Maze keeps that came from from Lucifer's wings returns in the Season One finale as Maze uses its divine powers to heal Amenadiel after he's mortally wounded with a demonic blade.
    • Amenadiel's pendant was on him since his first appearance. Trixie mentioned she liked it. But it finally got to use only in Season Two Finale.
    • Similarly, Lucifer's ring has been with him since the beginning. Season 5 reveals that it originally belonged to Lilith, the First Woman and mother of all demons, and contains her immortality.
    • After Chloe gets shot in the shoulder in the pilot, she starts paying attention to bulletproof vests and tries to check if Lucifer has one in the second episode. The detail is promptly forgotten until the season 3 finale, where she gets shot again, this time in the chest, but thanks to a bulletproof vest, she survives.
    • The first season ends with Lucifer discovering that his mother has escaped from Hell.
    • The second season ends with Lucifer being knocked out by an unknown assailant, before waking up some time later in the middle of a desert. and his wings have grown back.
    • The third season ends with Chloe finally seeing Lucifer's devil face, but we don't see how she comes to terms with it. Before Netflix picked up the series, this was the ending of the series, since Fox did not renew it after Season 3.
    • The fifth midseason finale ends with Lucifer's and Amenadiel's epic fight with Michael and Maze being interrupted by God.
    • Lucifer's are, surprisingly, gleaming-white and pure. Of course, this explains why he chose to cut them off. In season 4 they become darker and more bat-like as his morals decay and he descends into self-hatred.
    • Amenadiel's are metallic black and angular, indicating his unquestioning obedience to God. They become gray and softer near the end of season 3 .
    • Uriel's are similar to Lucifer's but dirty-gray, indicating his calculating and unscrupulous nature.
    • Azrael's wings are black with hints of grey on them, as you would expect for the Angel of Death.
    • Remiel's have patterning similar to a bird of prey, such as a falcon. Fitting for a celestial huntress.
    • Michael, being Lucifer's twin, has the same pure wings as him, except it's black instead of white.
    • Marcus Pierce is not only revealed to be Cain, the world's first murderer, but also the Sinnerman, a big time crime boss. He's finally exposed (at least in terms of the latter identity) in the season 3 finale .
    • Maze versus the gang in "Sweet Kicks". Basically Maze vs. anyone who isn't a celestial/immortal.
    • "Take Me Back To Hell" has some drug dealers try and take down Amenadiel and Lucifer. It isn't really a fight, since at this point they don't even try to hide the fact that they're bulletproof.
    • Maze takes the spotlight in season 3 episode "Mr. and Mrs. Mazikeen Smith".
    • "Boo Normal" focuses on Ella and her friendship with the ghost Ray-Ray. Or rather, Azrael, the angel of death.
    • "Daniel Espinoza: Naked and Afraid" appropriately focuses on Dan, with all other characters, including Lucifer, taking a backseat.
    • Many people Lucifer compels into revealing their desire have this reaction.
    • In the pilot, actor Grey Cooer realizes that he confessed having an affair with Delilah in front of his wife.
    • In "Stewardess Interuptus", Dan says this after confessing to Lucifer that he still has feelings for Chloe.
    • Except for Chloe, women who make eye contact with Lucifer have a very difficult time keeping their composure.
    • "Detective Amenadiel" reveals that Amenadiel has a downgraded version of Lucifer's charm. People who have genuine faith in God will naturally be attracted to him, either emotionally or sexually.
    • In season 2, Lucifer and Chloe briefly hook up before Lucifer discovers the events surrounding her conception and quickly breaks things off with her . The pair are hinted to still love each other, though Chloe doesn't actually know she's in love with the Devil himself at least until the season 3 finale . The two are not on good terms for most of season 4, thanks to Chloe getting freaked out by Lucifer's true face and nearly betraying him by luring him into a trap but by the end of the season have affirmed their love for each other . By season 5, they are a couple .
    • In season 2, Dan hooks up with Lucifer's mother, who possesses the body of Charlotte Richards, but it ends when she leaves for a different universe in the season finale. In season 3, Dan continues things with the real Charlotte, only for her to die in the season's penultimate episode.
    • Season 3 sees Amenadiel and Linda hooking up, but this causes Maze, who formerly dated Amenadiel, to become jealous, so Linda breaks up with him. The two rekindle their relationship in season 4, upon finding out that Linda is pregnant with his child.
    • Lucifer's mom casually mentions having sex with her vessel's clueless husband and it's played as a joke.
    • Lucifer has the power to bring out people's "innermost desires", which includes making anyone who finds him remotely attractive be willing to have sex with him. While it's vague how much control he has over this, he is still fully aware of his effect on people and the person's ability to consent is extremely dubious, as the effects are uncomfortably similar to losing one's inhibitions due to drugs or alcohol. Notably, when Chloe is suddenly able to use this ability on him after the first time they sleep together in Season 5, he suddenly doesn't seem to enjoy it so much.
    • In the first episode, Lucifer implies that Hell has been inactive since he left when he berates Chloe for shooting at Delilah's murderer before he got the chance to punish him. This is not the case later in the season when Malcolm experiences Hell and in season 2 it's revealed that the damned are locked in cells where they relive their guiltiest moments in an infinite loop and those cells work just fine in Lucifer's absence . This could be explained away as Lucifer simply wanting to oversee the murderer's punishment himself, and being unable to if he's in Hell.
    • Lucifer's loss of demonic power around Chloe is played straight throughout the series except in the pilot when the Monster of the Week shoots Lucifer several times in her presence to no effect. However, it's suggested in season 3 by Cain that it's Chloe's feelings that make Lucifer vulnerable and not Chloe herself, which Cain tried to use to get rid of his mark. While it's revealed that Cain lost his mark due to remorse instead, the possibility of Chloe's feelings affecting Lucifer is still on the table and sounds pretty plausible.
    • Lucifer also scares a school bully in the pilot by switching his eyes from normal to red with horizontal pupils like a goat. Every time his eyes change in later episodes, his irises start glowing red and that's it.
    • Lucifer’s accent is different in the pilot episode, he speaks with a polite English accent but quite mumbled. For the rest of the series he speaks with a much clearer RP accent.
    • There's a significant change of sets for the Precint between season 1 and 2.
    • The first season is the only one to have an Opening Narration, note "In the beginning. The angel Lucifer was cast out of Heaven and condemned to rule Hell for all eternity. Until he decided to take a vacation." , with later seasons doing away with it in favor of jumping straight to The Teaser. As a nod to this quirk, the same narration is featured in "City of Angels?" from season 3, an Origins Episode set five years before the start of the series.
    • Amenadiel suggests this once to Maze as a way for them to both get Lucifer to go back to Hell.
    • Amenadiel and Lucifer team up in "Wingman" in order to retrieve the latter's stolen wings .
    • They team up again in the season finale in order to stop Malcolm's killing spree and return him to Hell.
    • Special mention goes to season 4 when Lucifer comes to the realization that he hates himself. Thinking that recognizing the problem is the final step, instead of just the first, his self loathing starts to manifest physically, and he cannot hide his demonic face, and body, until he deals with the problem.
    • Lucifer keeps his hair well-groomed most of the time. When it becomes messy, either he has just waken up from bed, or he is too upset to bother grooming it. In the latter case, it usually has something to do with Chloe (see "Vegas With Some Radish", when he is sulking out in Las Vegas after finding out that Chloe was put on his path by God and "All About Eve", when he broods out after learning that Chloe was working with Father Kinley to force him to Hell ), though there are a couple other moments that don't involve her (like in "Monster", where he is mourning Uriel's death ).
    • The flashback episode "City of Angels?", which takes place five years before the start of the series, has a few of this. Instead of the constantly-changing, fashionable hairdo that she is known for, Maze has long, straight black hair, showing that she has just recently arrived on Earth and has yet to learn human culture. Meanwhile, Charlotte sports a long bob instead of the shoulder blades-length hair she's seen with in all other episodes, showing that this takes place when she was still a crookish attorney.
    • That Jimmy Barnes avoids Lucifer's gaze while being initially questioned about Delilah would suggest that this trope is in effect when the latter is trying to get inside someone's head. This is further reinforced by every other time he tries to get information from a person, i.e. the traffic cop, the unnamed bride, the big-shot actor, etc., he locks eyes with them, and they either hesitate for a second or drop into a monotone.
    • Confirmed in the second episode. Everyone who locks eyes with Lucifer after he says something to the effect of ''What is it you most desire?'' gives up their greatest desire, and the one person who doesn't averts his gaze.
    • Four standalone episodes were commissioned as an extension to Season 2 when Lucifer wasn't guaranteed to get a next season: "Mr. & Mrs. Mazikeen Smith", "City of Angels?", "Vegas with Some Radish", and "Off the Record". When Lucifer was renewed, these episodes were integrated into season 3.
    • "Boo Normal" and "Once Upon a Time" were originally commissioned for the show's potential season 4 before the show got canceled by Fox after season 3. They were subsequently shown in a double-hour timeslot two weeks after the season finale.
    • In "Sweet Kicks", Chloe tells Lucifer about a cop named Malcolm Graham, who she suspected of being corrupt. He becomes a major player in the rest of Season One.
    • In "A Good Day to Die", Trixie meets Amenadiel for the first time and compliments the necklace he's always wearing. A few episodes later, his necklace is revealed to be the final piece of the Flaming Sword.
    • In "City of Angels?", it is revealed that Chloe met Amenadiel back when she was an officer, five years before the start of the series. Both never recall this, since the meeting only lasted less than five minutes and Amenadiel was nearly unrecognizable (he wore sunglasses and a tacky holiday outfit). In fact, Chloe and Lucifer nearly met in the same episode as well when they visited the same LA building where Lucifer would later set up Lux, though they didn't quite make it. Lucifer, however, briefly glimpsed Chloe.
    • Played for Laughs in the pilot. When Lucifer and Chloe first meet, he tells her that she seems familiar and asks if she was one of his past flings. Turns out it is because he watched Hot Tub High School.
    • Lucifer appears to be a handsome white male typically dressed in black suits, but when he's particularly pissed at someone, he reveals a scarier face, skinned with only muscle and some bone showing and burning eyes.
    • When Dr. Martin insists that he show his true form (up to this point she thought he was speaking metaphorically), he shows his true face and she goes into a catatonic state. (She eventually gets better, but believes him [and Maze] from then on.)
    • Towards the end of the first season, Malcolm murders the street preacher and places the corpse by Lucifer's bar to make it look like Lucifer killed him. Prior to that, he'd also placed one of the preacher's cufflinks at the scene of a murder Malcolm committed to divert suspicion.
    • "My Little Monkey" reveals that the man convicted of murdering Chloe's father was entirely innocent, and was paid to make a false confession so his daughter would be well off. The real culprit turns out to be the prison warden.
    • Season 3 has plenty: "Mr. & Mrs. Mazikeen Smith" had Maze realize that her bounty was being framed for murder by the Lieutenant who sent her after him in the first place . Maze herself then gets framed for the death of one of her bounties by the mother of a previous bounty who died in prison, and she blamed Maze instead of accepting that her son deserved to be there . Then in the season's final arc, Maze and Pierce make a plan to kill Pierce when he gets rid of his mark and frame Lucifer in order to persuade him to return to Hell and take Maze with him. When Pierce falls in love with Chloe, he tries to call off the plan entirely, then changes it by insisting that they find someone else to kill. After Chloe breaks up with him, Pierce settles on Amenadiel with the reasoning that doing so will get his mark back, but Maze backs out and Pierce attempts to kill Amenadiel himself - only to accidentally shoot Charlotte, instead. In an effort to cover his tracks, he tries to pin the murder on one of the criminals Charlotte was prosecuting, but by that point Lucifer and Chloe had already figured out that Pierce was responsible .
    • Gangland Drive-By: Happens to a priest who was involved in a murder/drug case. The shooter missed him however as he was was only trying to scare him, being the true drug dealer and a former protege of the priest .
    • Genre Shift: The comic presents itself as an epic existential high-fantasy with gods and angels and the creation of multiple universes. The show however is a cop-drama with supernatural bells and whistles attached to it. Quite the shift.
    • God: Is the father of Lucifer, Amenadiel, and all other angels, whom he conceived with the Goddess. He is also considered the sole father of Adam and therefore ancestor to all humans. Despite being absent for most of the series, his actions influence a big part of the story, albeit how much is up for debate.
      • In "Take Me Back to Hell", he grants Lucifer's wish to save Chloe in exchange for giving him a mission to capture his mother.
      • In "Lady Parts", because Lucifer renegades on his deal to capture the Goddess, God apparently involves Chloe in a car accident. The next episode reveals that it was actually Uriel who did it.
      • "Quid Pro Ho" reveals that, years ago, he sent Amenadiel to bless Penelope Decker to have a child: Chloe. In other words, Chloe is a miracle child, put in Lucifer's path by God.
      • For unknown reasons, he allows Amenadiel to leave Hell in "Detective Amenadiel", since it no longer needs a warden.
      • Finally appears in the flesh in "Spoiler Alert". He does look like Morgan Freeman, after all.
      • This happens to nearly everyone who sees Lucifer's real face, but special mention has to go to Jimmy Barnes in the pilot between the hostage situation and Chloe waking up in hospital. Apparently, it was bad enough that just the mention of Lucifer's name makes him go suicidal, screaming "HE'S THE DEVIL! HE'S THE DEVIL!" (which, of course, is completely true). Then again, Lucifer did subject him to some seriousMind Rape.
      • Dr. Linda's ex husband Reese sees Lucifer's devil face accidentally and it drives him into a paranoid state. We next see him working on a murder board full of clues, trying desperately to prove to his (ex) wife and the world that the devil is real. It doesn't help that everyone he interviews seems to love being around Lucifer (even Dan begrudgingly comes around).
      • Dr. Linda herself goes catatonic when Lucifer shows her his real face. She got over the catatonia, though she's still quite rattled by it.
      • The angels all have birdlike wings, although with different colors. Lucifer, despite being what he is, has the most traditional angelic wings of them all: white bird wings. That is, until he decides to burn them off in "Wingman", though he regains them by the end of Season 2.
      • This becomes a plot point in Season 4. Even after he was banished from Heaven and got his devil form, Lucifer still had the angelic birdlike wings. Which is why it becomes extremely distressing when one day he checks them to find that his wings are now batlike and veryblack and red, much like the usual depiction of the Devil. Once he realizes the root of the problem in "Save Lucifer", they revert back to normal.
      • A Clingy Jealous Girl is suspected of killing her ex-boyfriend's one-night stand, but surveillance footage shows that she actually spent all night at an all-night frozen yogurt shop, eating bucket after bucket of froyo and crying.
      • After exchanging their hardships, Lucifer and Candy eat ice-cream while wrapped in snuggies.
      • A variation. After being shot by Malcolm and dying, and despite all his raging at being forced into a role he doesn't want, Lucifer tells "Dad" he'll do, go, and be whatever He wants if Chloe can be saved from Malcolm.
      • Another variant from the same episode, Dan confesses to his and Malcolm's crimes, ending his career and ruining his life, in order to exonerate Lucifer after Malcolm framed him.
      • Lucifer jumps in front of a thrown axe to keep it from hitting Chloe. It only pins his coat to a post, but he tells her, in no uncertain terms, that he would do it again without hesitation, even knowing he's vulnerable around her.
      • Discussed, apparently un-ironically. When Chloe and Lucifer are talking religion, Chloe states that she is not a Christian but that she doesn't consider herself an atheist because she believes in right and wrong.
      • Carmen, the head of the black market auction ring specializing in religious artifacts, makes it clear that the only faith he has is in money. Seeing Lucifer's wings, however, rocks him to his core and makes him believe.
      • Lucifer's more human, compassionate side starts to emerge the longer he spends helping Chloe solve murders, as well as the time he spends with her in general.
      • Mazikeen is also starting to develop more human feelings, prompted mainly by her friendship with Linda Martin, as well as Trixie and Chloe and even her relationship with Amenadiel. In fact, it's fair to say that her Character Development is proceeding faster than Lucifer's.
      • Amenadiel eventually grows to like so humanity so much that he refuses to become the new God in favor of his life on Earth.
      • Dan and Amenadiel have very ripped bodies, though the former is not so obvious until he takes off his shirt. This contrasts them with Lucifer, who is fit but rather skinny.
      • Marcus Pierce / Cain from season 3, played by Superman himself, Tom Welling. Gets lampshaded in "Let Pinhead Sing!", where Ella tries to cheer him up by commenting on his "big, strong arms".
      • Lucifer himself is noticeably more muscular as of season 4, which is recognizable since he probably has more shirtless scenes in season 4 than all previous seasons combined. Further highlighted with its teaser trailer, which consists of nothing but a slow, lingering shot of a shirtless Lucifer emerging from a pool. note Apparently, before the show was picked up by Netflix, Tom Ellis made a bet with a trainer that if the show was saved, he would bulk up.
      • In season three, Lucifer realizes that his devil face wasn't a punishment from his Father but rather a way of punishing himself. After his failed rebellion he felt like a monster, so gave himself the face of one. He lost his devil face because he didn't feel like a monster anymore. but then the face makes a return after he kills Cain, hinting that he's gone back to believing himself to be a monster once again.
      • Lucifer wants Chloe and Pierce to break up, so tries telling her that Pierce is Cain from the Bible , but she doesn't believe him. It doesn't cross his mind for a moment that he can show her his wings and prove that the divine is real in order to protect her. But it's hinted a few episodes before that he's afraid that his celestial nature (specifically his wings) could end up hurting her in some way, so it's somewhat understandable.
      • If Eve is to be believed, Adam preferred his first wife Lilith because of this reason.
      • Maze starts sleeping with Amenadiel to glean more information out of him and then kill him when he's outlived his usefulness. However, when she has the opportunity to do so, she finds she can't go through with it. In the Season One finale, she saves his life after Malcolm fatally injures him.
      • Pierce manipulates Chloe into a relationship with him in an attempt to make her fall in love with him so her feelings can remove his mark, and he can finally die. But then he falls in love with her, realizes that he can't break her heart like that, so breaks up with her. It's this selflessness that finally removes his curse.
      • Lucifer himself veers toward this territory occasionally, when just being narcissistic isn't enough for him to completely misinterpret whatever Linda is trying to get him to realize.
      • After "Quid Pro Ho" revealed that God deliberately had Chloe put in Lucifer's path by having Amenadiel bless Chloe's parents to have a child , "Love Handles" has Maze learning of this fact, and Lucifer himself finds out in the episode's closing minutes.
      • In the season three finale, Chloe finally sees Lucifer's devil face and realizes that everything he told her was true.
      • Just a Flesh Wound:
        • Averted when Chloe gets shot in the shoulder in the series premiere. It is implied that she would have died without Lucifer's intervention, she spends some time in the hospital and has to take medical leave from work. The bullet leaves a significant scar.
        • Subverted when Lucifer is shot in the leg. The wound bleeds and is painful but it is easily treated and later that day he is able to walk with just a small limp. However, the fact that he was actually wounded at all is an extremely big deal since Lucifer is supposed to be immune to human weapons, and was in the series premiere. Something is happening to him that he doesn't understand.
        • Also, as explained just below, the chauvinist motivational speaker that Lucifer and Chloe are investigating has genuinely fallen in love with a girl. who he actually slept with years before and forgot about. She's not happy.
        • Lucifer's Crime-Solving Devil song uses a bass version of the stand-out riff from Being Evil Has A Price the show's theme song.
        • In The Angel Of San Bernadino, when a drug-wired Lucifer - after binge-watching Bones in an effort to stay awake - accompanies Chloe to confront a suspect, he starts rambling about how said suspect also killed the "intern from the hospital". Not only was the Bones episode he mentioned a real one, the suspect is played by Scott Rinker, the same actor who played the villain of the episode, who suddenly mentions that it wasn't an easy role.
        • In season 5 when Lucifer ( actually Michael impersonating Lucifer ) returns from Hell, he's whistling the show's theme music. He also does this again in "Resting Devil Face".
        • Linda offers Lucifer sessions without really knowing his true nature, thinking that the talk about the Devil, God, and angels are metaphors for his complex issues. Lucifer finally reveals his true face to her in "Monster".
        • Chloe doesn't know who Lucifer really is, which has led to a lot of difficult situations where Chloe thinks less of him/thinks he's acting crazy when he's really just trying to help (most often her), situations which would be made a lot easier if she was in the know. She finally sees the truth in the season 3 finale.
        • This also counts with Ella, Dan, and possibly Trixie (the latter has seen Maze's real face, though she thought it was a Halloween costume). Dan is in on the loop as of the season 5 episode "BlueBallz". He doesn't take it well.
        • The Main Characters Do Everything: Played straight. Chloe, Lucifer and Dan investigate the cases, interrogate the suspects and arrest the criminals. In season 2, Ella seems to be the only forensic scientist.
        • Magic Antidote: When Chloe Decker is poisoned, Ella describes how the victims start to have seizures and then their organs literally boil in the latter stages of poisoning, followed by death, with the team scrambling to get the antidote. Later, this character is shown having these latter-stage seizures as the characters obtain the formula for the antidote, not even at the stage of creating the antidote itself. The show then cuts to said character recovering, seemingly only a little worse for wear, as if they wouldn't have suffered significant internal damage in the time it would take to make the antidote and then administer it.
        • Mama Bear:
          • When Malcolm kidnapped Trixie, she went against police protocol and removed his money from evidence in order to meet with him and exchange it for her daughter's life .
          • Chloe does it in the name of finding suspects that went to a certain party. A kidnapped girl pulled this on the Straw Misogynist who was legitimately in love with her.
          • Lucifer's mother pulls a lot of strings, and even tries to kill Chloe in the mistaken belief that this will induce Lucifer to come back to Heaven with her . Her vessel, Charlotte Richards, was no better before she was chosen for Body Surfing.
          • Michael from season 5 is a prime example. He manipulates damn near everyone close to Lucifer so they will be tortured emotionally or turn against him, basically taking the role of the traditional Satan in real-life beliefs.
          • A couple. Beatrice, Delilah.
          • Lucifer's club is named "Lux," Latin for "light."
          • During much of season 2, Chloe believes Charlotte Richards is one of Lucifer's many, many, many ex-flings note In season 3, it is confirmed the police talked with over 90 people Lucifer had sexual relations with in the last two months . Lucifer denies it but the detective doesn't believe him. She is in fact God's ex-Wife possessing Charlotte's body, and Lucifer's mother. She eventually just tells Chloe she is Lucifer's father's ex-wife, and Chloe assumes a stepmother relationship . When Chloe states this to Lucifer, and apologizing for her assumptions, he notes what she said isn't technically a lie.
          • Pierce claims that the Sinnerman "killed his brother". Since Pierce is The Man Behind the Man for the Sinnerman (thus making him the real Sinnerman) and is confirmed by Lucifer to be the biblical Cain, then yes, the Sinnerman did kill his brother .
          • In "Pops" Lucifer is doing his usual seduction of a woman using a strawberry. After a sensual bite of the fruit, she utters, "Oh God!" Lucifer stops and has an angry face, asking why she had to say that before walking away.
          • In "Sin-Eater", Lucifer is engaged in some kinky waxplay with a new paramour. only for his mother to walk in and politely ask to be introduced to her.
          • Chloe for Lucifer. She literally brings out his humanity, and is able to talk him down from seriously hurting the criminals they catch.
          • Trixie is one for Maze.
          • Lucifer himself. Shots of him shirtless and even trouserless abound. Turned Up to Eleven in season 4, where Lucifer goes shirtless pretty much every episode (and in two of them, he gets outright butt-naked).
          • Dan, Pierce, and Amenadiel, all of whom are ripped hunks. Dan and Amenadiel both have gone shirtless at some point in the series to prove it (Dan even has several).
          • A criminal steals a shipping container that belongs to Lucifer and contains his wings . The criminal is freaked out when he sees what is inside and then he has to face a really pissed off Lucifer. After Lucifer shows him his true face, the criminal jumps off a building to his death rather than face him.
          • Dan constantly threatening Lucifer for putting Chloe in danger, unaware that he's actually threatening the Devil himself.
          • A would-be mugger aims a gun at Lucifer's mother, demanding "money or your life, bitch". She kills him with a single shove.
          • Lucifer does his "What do you most desire?" to a supermodel. The answer? A cheeseburger.
          • Lucifer insists that he grant Ella a favor in return for some off-the-books forensic work. So she whispers something in his ear that totally offends the Devil. She wants him to come to church with her.
          • Lucifer wants to start a riot in a mental hospital so he can escape. The inmates aren't interested in escaping or doing anything violent. but one woman wants to turn the lights on and off, and a man wants to steal underwear, so a whole ward full of inmates doing what they most desire at the same time causes the required chaos for his escape.
          • Maze's reflection shows half of her face horribly burned off, resembling her comic counterpart's original appearance.
          • In episode 6, Lucifer gives a frustrated speech about never having forced anyone into committing evil &mdash it is almost word for word the same tirade that he made in The Sandman album Season of Mists.
          • Silver City is mentioned.
          • In "#TeamLucifer" a Satan worshipper remarks that he expected Lucifer to be blond, which he is in the comics.
            • In the same episode, one of the Satan worshipers' real name is Mike Carey, who was the writer of the original comic series.
            • And, at the end of Let Pinhead Sing, after his efforts at "driving her out of the spotlight" (in order to spare her from his father's wrath for his continued defiance) lead to Chloe going to an Axara live show with Pierce, Lucifer ends up in Linda's office, on the verge of tears.
            • Played for Laughs in "Trip to Stabby Town" with Linda, when it hits her that she had sex with the Devil.
            • In "St. Lucifer", Lucifer decides to do a good deed and give his clothes to a homeless man. stripping completely nude, in the middle of a pawn shop, to do so. A strategically placed tablewith a joystick on top of it hides his groin.
            • Then it happens again with Lucifer's mother. On being told her clothes aren't suitable, she removes them in the street.
            • Lucifer and Ella strip without a second thought to get into a nudist colony in "Orgy Pants to Work". Inside the colony, everyone's naughty bits are covered by the scenery to the point of being a Running Gag.
            • In "A Priest Walks Into a Bar", Lucifer gives one to Father Frank's killer .
            • In "A Good Day To Die", Lucifer gives one to Amenadiel because he's angry that he was involved in Chloe's conception .
            • Lucifer's an odd variant - he's great with most social situations, when he can turn on the charm (metaphorical and literal) and talk his way into or out of anything, but when he's faced with Chloe or her daughter (the former can No-Sell his charm, which fascinates and bemuses him, and the latter thinks he's the bee's knees even without it, something which completely baffles him), his attempts to be charming come off as they would to most if not for his gift - weird, annoying and creepy. He also has no issue with stripping completely nude in the middle of a pawn shop to give a homeless man his clothing.
            • While it doubled as an attempt to troll him, Maze stripping an unconscious Dan naked and placing him in Chloe's bed was an actual attempt to get them back together, and she's genuinely puzzled when it didn't work (because waiting naked in someone's bed has always worked for her).
            • Meeting over drinks, Amenadiel asks Maze if she's ever heard "the story of Lucifer and the goat" and then admits he started it. She actually laughs, saying Lucifer hates the story and couldn't figure out how it started and Amenadiel is happy to finally be able to tell someone about it.
            • It's unknown when exactly Lucifer stopped going by his previous name, Samael. His siblings and mother all call him "Lucifer", which implies that this probably happened long before he fell from Heaven.
            • While Chloe's Old Shame film "Hot Tub High School" is brought up several times, it's never revealed what actually happens in the film, other than Chloe appearing naked at least once and her character eating too much cake and puking in a cute guy's hair.

            Samizdat

            “The study of F.A.M. Wiggermann on protective spirits has contributed considerably to the understanding of the apkallus in Bīt Mēseri.

            (Wiggermann, Mesopotamian Protective Spirits Wiggermann deals with Bīt Mēseri especially on p. 105f. The connection between the apkallus and prophylactic rituals was already noticed by Oliver Robert Gurney, “Babylonian Prophylactic Figures and their Rituals,” Annals of Archeology and Anthropology 22, Liverpool University Press, 1935, pp. 35-96.)

            Bird-Apkallū statuettes in characteristic poses, right hands on their breasts, banduddu buckets in their left hands.

            In Bīt Mēseri it is clear that there is already a sick man in the house. The ritual prescribes both how paintings of protective figures and small statues of them should be placed in the room of the sick man, and what incantations should be used. The ritual should be performed by the āšipu, the magician or exorcist operating against evil spirits causing diseases.

            Three kinds of apkallus are also represented in Bīt Mēseri: ūmu-apkallus, fish-apkallus, and bird-apkallus. The designation ūmu can mean both “light” and “day” Wiggermann opts for the second solution they are “day-apkallus.”

            Fish-Apkallū statuettes of the type that were buried in the foundations of buildings.
            The so-called purādu-fish apkallū were the seven antediluvian sages of Sumeria.

            The fish-apkallus and the bird-apkallus are bīnūt apsê, “creatures of apsû.” They have divine origin.

            Nothing similar is said about the day-apkallus. They seem to be of human descent. Nevertheless, Wiggermann considers them to have their origin from the antediluvian period as well.

            The instructions concerning the invocation of the apkallus are introduced in the following way in Bit Meseri:

            “To the seven figures of carp apkallus, painted with gypsum and black paste that are drawn at the side of the bedroom at the wall.

            To the seven figures of apkallus of consecrated cornel they stand in the gate of the bedroom nearest the sick man at the head of the bed.

            To the seven figures of apkallus of tamarisk, kneeling, that stand at the foot of the bed.”

            Thus, protective spirits surrounded the sick man. The first group is fish-apkallus, which is explicitly mentioned the second is day-apkallus, on the basis of the material used most likely the third is the bird-apkallus.

            This well-preserved bas relief retains incredible detail. The daggers carried in the Umu-Apkallu’s waistband are clear, as is the rosette styling on his wristbands. The earrings are more distinct than most other examples, and the headdress appears to be of the horned-tiara type. The umu-apkallu appears to wear bracelets on his upper arms. Tassels are apparent on the fringes of his robe, as well as behind the neck.

            The list of seven and the subsequent four apkallus that we have been dealing with come after the first invocation. We therefore notice that these apkallus are fish-apkallus, which also is apparent in the description of them in the list. There is, however, an incongruity between the invocation and the list.

            The invocation deals with seven apkallus the list has in total eleven. This seems to indicate that the list is adapted into the ritual from another source.”

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            August 22, 2015

            Kvanvig: Limitations of Human Wisdom and the Loss of Eternal Life

            “As we have seen, the fragments B and D then continue the story in different ways, although there is one common trait before they diverge: in both places Adapa is offered, and accepts “garment and oil” (Amarna fragment B rev. 60-5 Nineveh fragment D rev. 1-3).

            We think Izre’el is right here pointing out that there is a difference between the “food and water” that Ea denied Adapa, and the “garment and oil” that he allowed Adapa in his instruction before Adapa went to heaven.

            A bas relief in the Louvre.
            In this case the bird-apkallū tends to a sacred tree. Considering the mullilu in his right hand and the banduddu in his left, (tree cone and water bucket), he is engaged in a water ritual intended to sanctify the sacred tree. This is a common motif in Sumerian and Neo-Assyrian idols.
            This bas relief is in the Louvre.
            Primary publication Nimrud NW Palace I-24 = RIMA 2.0.101.023, ex. 189 (f)
            Collection Nimrud, Iraq (a) British Museum, London, UK (b) Louvre Museum, Paris, France (c) Nimrud, Iraq (d) Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, USA (e) British Museum, London, UK Louvre Museum, Paris, France
            Museum no. Nimrud fragment no. 42 (a) BM 098061 (b) AO 22198 (c) Nimrud fragment no. 43 and 45 (d) DIA 47.181 (e) (photo: DIA) AO 19849
            Accession no. 1903-10-10, 0002 (b)
            Provenience Kalhu (mod. Nimrud)
            Period Neo-Assyrian (ca. 911-612 BC)

            “Food and water” symbolize eternal life, while “garment and oil” symbolize wisdom.

            (Izre’el refers here to clothes as the distinctive marker of human civilization, as seen for instance in the myth about the creation of Enkidu, Schlomo Izre’el, Adapa and the South Wind: Language Has the Power of Life and Death, Eisenbrauns, 2001, pp. 122-3.)

            Thus, according to both versions, the wisdom Adapa already has is confirmed in heaven. Then Adapa, according to fragment B, returns to the earth and his wisdom is confirmed, but he has lost the possibility for eternal life.

            Adapa, from the foundation of heaven to the summit of heaven,

            looked at it all and saw his (Anu’s) awesomeness.

            At that time Anu estab[lished] Adapa as watcher.

            He established his freedom from Ea.

            [An]u se[t] a decree to make glorious his lordship forever:

            [ … ] Adapa, seed of humankind,

            [ … ] he broke the South Wind’s wing triumphantly,

            (and) ascended to heaven, —so be it forever!

            (Nineveh fragment D rev. 7-14).

            The scene is a scene of inauguration. Immediately before, as we have seen, Adapa is given a new garment and is anointed. In light of what comes next, this is in D not only a confirmation of the wisdom Adapa already has it is the preparation for introducing Adapa to the highest office any human was given.

            Adapa, belonging to primeval time, and being the chosen one of Ea, already had a wisdom that superseded ordinary human wisdom, according to Fragment A. His broad understanding did, however, not include insight in the heavenly domain.

            In our text Adapa is first equipped with the proper attire for the inauguration and then comes a description of the new insight he is given. Now his eyes are opened to the whole spectrum of divine understanding. If he previously only had insight into earthly matters, he now got what he was missing, full insight into the whole of Anu’s domain: “Adapa, from the foundation of heaven to the summit of heaven, looked at it all and saw his (Anu’s) awesomeness.”

            Against the background of this new perception of the whole coherence, the proclamation of Adapa’s new status is given. He is inaugurated into massartu, “the office of being a watcher.” The expression has two contexts. On the one hand it refers to the cosmic order, which he now has received full insight into on the other hand it refers to his magical competence, which is clear from the references dealing with illness that follow the inauguration.

            Ishtar receives the worship of an Amazon. Ishtar stands on a lion, holding a bow with arrows at her back. Her eight-pointed star is atop her head.
            Lusty antelopes rear on the right side, perhaps signifying the god Ea.
            The portrayal of the tree is somewhat problematic, as it differs from the iconic depictions of the sacred tree common in Neo-Assyrian art.

            There is no contradiction between these two competences the one who has insight into the hidden divine realm is also the one who is capable of fighting the evil demons causing misery on earth.

            The sentence, “[An]u se[t] a decree to make glorious his lordship forever,” can be interpreted in two ways. The bēlūssu, “his lordship,” can refer to Anu through this act Anu establishes his lordship. This seems a bit odd, since nowhere in the myth is Anu’s lordship challenged. It seems more likely that the pronoun refers to Adapa. The lordship refers to Adapa’s role as watcher, since he broke the South Wind’s wing so triumphantly.

            This is the version of the myth lying behind the first apkallu in Bīt Mēseri. The name of this apkallu is U-an, “the light of An.” This is simply a naming according to what takes place in the inauguration.

            He was the one who could complete “the plans of heaven and earth,” because he was the heavenly watcher who had seen everything, from the foundation to the summit of heaven. On the other hand, the seven apkallus occur in a special setting in Bīt Mēseri the apkallus were invoked to protect human beings from diseases caused by demons.

            In a similar context, the incantation series “to block the foot of evil into a man’s house” (cf. below), the apkallus are repeatedly called massarū they are the watchers of health and life. As already stated, there is no contradiction here, because the insight in the divine real is the precondition for fighting demons.

            Thus we have reached the conclusion that the different versions of the Adapa Myth are reflected in two ways in Bīt Mēseri. The apkallu who went up to and down from heaven is the Adapa from fragment B the apkallu who had the name “Light of An” was the Adapa from fragment D. This explains the curious twin roles between the first and seventh apkallu. It also explains the double name Uandapa, simply expressing this is the first Adapa, named Uan.

            And it is to be noted that even though we must assume that this quibbling with versions, roles, and names was Assyrian, it is through the name Uan that the first apkallu is known both in Berossos and in the Uruk list in the Babylonian environment.”

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            August 12, 2015

            Kvanvig: The Apkallu List from Bīt Mēseri

            “Reiner numbers the lines 1’-31’, which covers the lines 9-31 in Weiher’s edition. Borger knew Weiher’s work on the Uruk recension of Bīt Mēseri when he translated the text, even though Weiher’s final edition was published afterwards. We will return to the different aspects of the text later.

            • 1-2: Incantation: Uanna, who completed the plans of heaven and earth
            • 3-4: Uannedugga, who is given broad understanding
            • 5: Enmedugga, to whom a good fate is decreed
            • 6: Enmegalamma, who was born in a house
            • 7: Enmebulugga, who grew up on a river-flat
            • 8: Anenlilda, the purification priest from Eridu
            • 9. Utuabzu, who ascended to heaven
            • 10-11: the pure carps, the carps from the sea, the seven,
            • 12-13: the seven apkallus, born in the river, who keep in order the plans of heaven and earth.
            • 14-15: Nungalpiriggaldim, the apkallu of Enmerkar, who brought down Ištar from heaven into the sanctuary
            • 16-17: Piriggalnungal, born in Kiš, who angered the god Iškur / Adad in heaven,
            • 18-19: so he allowed neither rain nor growth in the land for three years
            • 20-23:Piriggalabzu, born in Adab / Utab, who hung his seal on a “goat-fish” and thereby angered the god Enki / Ea in the fresh water sea, so that a fuller struck him with his own seal
            • 24-25: the fourth, Lu-Nanna, two-thirds apkallu,
            • 26-27: who expelled a dragon from É-Ninkiagnunna, the temple of Ištar and Šulgi
            • 28-29: the four apkallus, of human descent, whom the Lord Enki / Ea has endowed with broad understanding.

            Now compare this Nimrud bas relief from the Louvre: an ummânū sprinkles water with a mullilu cone in his right hand, holding his banduddu bucket in his left.
            This ummânū wears bracelets with a concentric circular design, and rosettes are not apparent.
            This ummânū also wears the common horned headdress of Anu, but with three stacked layers of horns.
            As noted elsewhere, this headdress is surmounted by an object that resembles a partial fleur de lis.
            From Nimrud, capital of king Ashurnarzipal.
            Louvre, AO 19845

            We have a stable tradition extending over several hundred years about the names and order of the seven apkallus living before the flood. The list in Bīt Mēseri is the oldest one, and is Neo-Assyrian the list in Berossos is from around 290 the Uruk list is dated to 164 / 165.

            It is, however, clear that the Greek text of Berossos’ Babyloniaca is in no way part of a line of transmission. In this respect Berossos is of interest because his list is a witness to a cuneiform textual tradition that existed in Babylon at this time.

            It shows, together with the Uruk tablet and the Babylonia recension of Bīt Mēseri, that the list of antediluvian sages did not only belong to the Assyrians, but was adopted by the Babylonians in later centuries.

            The names of the apkallus are not as old as the names of the antediluvian kings. They have similarities with the names of known literary works.

            Moreover, three of the sages have names constructed of en-me. Three of the kings in the lists have similar constructions: Enmenluanna, Enmegalanna, Enmeduranna (Enmeduranki). These three names can tentatively be translated as follows: “Lord of the me, man of heaven Lord of the great me, of heaven Lord of the me, band of heaven.”

            (Cf. Kvanvig, Roots of Apocalyptic, 193, note 109 for a suggested translation of the whole Antediluvian King List, based on D. O. Edzard, “Enmebaragesi von Kiš,” ZA (NF) 19 (43) (1959): 9-26, 18.)

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            August 12, 2015

            Kvanvig: The Lists of the Seven Apkallus

            “There are known three lists of apkallus, two cuneiform and the one in Berossos. The first known cuneiform list of seven apkallus was published by E. Reiner in 1961, and then reedited with new pieces added by R. Borger in 1974.

            Already Reiner suggested that the broken tablet belonged to the Neo-Assyrian incantations series Bīt Mēseri, “protected house.” Borger made clear that the list belonged to the third tablet in this series, and that there are traces of two more lists of a similar kind.

            (E. Reiner, “The Etiological Myth of the ‘Seven Sages’,” Orientalia (NS) 30 (1961): 1-11. Borger, “Die Beschwörungsserie Bit Meseri,” 192-3.)

            The three types of apkallū are portrayed, with the human ummânū at far left, the bird-apkallū type in the middle, and the antediluvian purādu-fish type at far right.
            The human ummânū is attested in the Uruk List of Kings and Sages, while other references to bird-apkallū are legion, as documented in Wiggermann and other authorities. The purādu-fish apkallū is principally attested in Berossus, though other authorities confirm them, as well.

            There are found two copies of of the apkallu list from Bīt Mēseri in late Babylonia. A. Cavigneaux published a tiny little fragment in 1979. In 1983, E. von Weiher published the transliteration of the full list as part of an Uruk recension of Bīt Mēseri.

            The tablets were found in the house of what was most likely a priest specializing in astrology and divination. They can be dated to the 4-3 century, which means about the same time as Berossos wrote his Babyloniaca.

            That there existed a Babylonian recension of the apkallu list in Bīt Mēseri is important, because it demonstrates that the tradition contained in this list was not an isolated Assyrian phenomenon.

            As already stated, the Antediluvian King List from Uruk, W 20 030, 7, published by van Dijk in 1962, contained both seven kings and seven parallel apkallus. Berossos also paralleled kings and apkallus, but unlike the Uruk tablet it has one apkallu parallel to the first king, a=one to the fourth, four to the sixth, and one to the seventh.

            Fish-Apkallū statuettes of the type that were buried in the foundations of buildings.
            The so-called parādu-fish apkallū were the seven antediluvian sages of Sumeria.

            The names of the apkallus and their successions are identical in Bīt Mēseri and the Uruk tablet, with small variations in spelling. We render the names in the Sumerian form they have in the Uruk tablet:

            • Uan
            • Uandugga
            • Enmedugga
            • Enmegalamma
            • Enmebulugga
            • Anenlilda
            • Utuabzu

            There is a correspondence to the Greek names in Berossos, but it demands both scholarly quibbling and a bit of creative imagination to explain how exactly the Sumerian words were transformed to Greek ones. We have to bear in mind that it is far from certain that we have Berossos’s own spellings. His text has gone through many hands.

            In Bīt Mēseri the list of the seven apkallus is succeeded by a list of four apkallus and built into an incantation. For the sense of convenience we bring here an English translation based on Reiner’s English edition of a part of the list and Weiher’s German edition of the full list.”

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            August 9, 2015

            Timeline: Sumer

            5400 BCE: The City of Eridu is founded.

            5000 BCE – 1750 BCE: Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.

            5000 BCE: Sumer inhabited by Ubaid people.

            5000 BCE – 4100 BCE: The Ubaid Period in Sumer.

            5000 BCE: Evidence of burial in Sumer.

            4500 BCE: The Sumerians built their first temple.

            4500 BCE: The City of Uruk founded.

            4100 BCE – 2900 BCE: Uruk Period in Sumer.

            3600 BCE: Invention of writing in Sumer at Uruk.

            3500 BCE: Late Uruk Period.

            3500 BCE: First written evidence of religion in Sumerian cuneiform.

            2900 BCE – 2334 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period in Sumer.

            2900 BCE – 2300 BCE: Early Dynastic I.

            2750 BCE – 2600 BCE: Early Dynastic II.

            2600 BCE -2300 BCE: Early Dynastic III. (Fara Period).

            2600 BCE – 2000 BCE: The Royal Graves of Ur used in Sumer.

            2500 BCE: First Dynasty of Lagash under King Eannutum is the first empire in Mesopotamia.

            A fragment of the victory stele of king Eannutum of Lagash over Umma, called «Stele of Vultures».
            Circa 2450 BC, Sumerian archaic dynasties. Found in 1881 in Girsu (now Tello, Iraq), Mesopotamia, by Édouard de Sarzec.
            CC BY-SA 3.0
            File:Stele of Vultures detail 02.jpg
            Uploaded by Sting
            Uploaded: 18 December 2007
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eannatum#/media/File:Stele_of_Vultures_detail_02.jpg

            2330 BCE -2190 BCE: Akkadian Period.

            2350 BCE: First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.

            Fragment of an inscription of Urukagina it reads as follows: “He [Uruinimgina] dug (…) the canal to the town-of-NINA. At its beginning, he built the Eninnu at its ending, he built the Esiraran.” (Musée du Louvre)
            Public Domain
            Clay cone Urukagina Louvre AO4598ab.jpg
            Uploaded by Jastrow
            Created: circa 2350 BC

            Victory Stele of Naram-Sin.
            The original Akkadian states that the six foot tall stele commemorates the victory of King Naram-Sin of Akkad over King Satuni, ruler of the Lullubi people of the mountainous Zagros. Naram-Sin was the grandson of Sargon, founder of the Akkadian empire, and the first potentate to unite the entirety of Mesopotamia in the late 24th century BCE.
            Naram-Sin was the fourth sovereign of his line, following his uncle Rimush and his father Manishtusu. The Sumerian King List ascribes his rule of 36 years to 2254 BCE to 2218 BCE, a long reign not otherwise confirmed by extant documents.
            The stele depicts the Akkadian army climbing the Zagros Mountains, eradicating all resistance. The slain are trampled underfoot or thrown from a precipice. Naram-Sin is portrayed wearing the horned crown of divinity, symbolic of a ruler who aspires to divinity himself. In official documentation, the name of Naram-Sin was preceded by the divine determinative. He styled himself the King of the Four Regions, or King of the World.
            The stele was removed from Sippar to Susa, Iran a thousand years later by the Elamite King Shutruk-Nahhunte, as a war prize after his victorious campaign against Babylon in the 12th century BCE.
            Alongside the preexisting cuneiform inscription, King Shutruk-Nahhunte appended another one glorifying himself, recording that the stele was looted during the pillage of Sippar.
            Jacques de Morgan, Mémoires, I, Paris, 1900, p. 106, 144 sq, pl. X.
            Victor Scheil, Mémoires, II, Paris, 1900, p. 53 sq, pl. II.
            Victor Scheil, Mémoires, III, Paris, 1901, p. 40 sq, pl. II.
            André Parrot, Sumer, Paris, 1960, fig. 212-213.
            Pierre Amiet, L’Art d’Agadé au musée du Louvre, Paris, Ed. de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1976 – p. 29-32.
            Louvre Museum
            Accession number Sb 4
            Found by J. de Morgan
            Photo: Rama
            This work is free software you can redistribute it or modify it under the terms of the CeCILL. The terms of the CeCILL license are available at http://www.cecill.info.
            https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Victory_stele_of_Naram_Sin_9068.jpg
            http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/victory-stele-naram-sin

            2218 BCE – 2047 BCE: The Gutian Period in Sumer.

            2150 BCE – 1400 BCE: The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.

            Library of Ashurbanipal / The Flood Tablet / The Gilgamesh Tablet
            Date 15 July 2010
            Current location: British Museum wikidata:Q6373
            Source/Photographer Fæ (Own work)
            Other versions File:British Museum Flood Tablet 1.jpg
            British Museum reference K.3375
            Detailed description:
            Part of a clay tablet, upper right corner, 2 columns of inscription on either side, 49 and 51 lines + 45 and 49 lines, Neo-Assyrian., Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet 11, story of the Flood.

            2100 BCE: The Reign of Utu-Hegal at Uruk in Sumer and creation of the Sumerian King List.

            2095 BCE – 2047 BCE: King Shulgi reigns in Ur, (following Gane).

            Among all the extant exemplars of the Sumerian King List, the Weld-Blundell prism in the Ashmolean Museum cuneiform collection represents the most extensive version as well as the most complete copy of the King List.
            In this depiction, all four sides of the Sumerian King List prism are portrayed.
            http://cdli.ox.ac.uk/wiki/doku.php?id=the_sumerian_king_list_sklid=the_sumerian_king_list_skl

            2047 BCE – 2030 BCE: Ur-Nammu’s reign over Sumer. The legal Code of Ur-Nammu dates to 2100 BCE – 2050 BCE.

            From the Stele of Ur-Nammu.
            This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.
            This applies to Australia, the European Union and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years.
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ur-Nammu#/media/File:Stela_of_Ur-Nammu_detail.jpg

            “In all probability I would have missed the Ur-Nammu tablet altogether had it not been for an opportune letter from F. R. Kraus, now Professor of Cuneiform Studies at the University of Leiden in Holland…
            His letter said that some years ago, in the course of his duties as curator in the Istanbul Museum, he had come upon two fragments of a tablet inscribed with Sumerian laws, had made a “join” of the two pieces, and had catalogued the resulting tablet as No. 3191 of the Nippur collection of the Museum…
            Since Sumerian law tablets are extremely rare, I had No. 3191 brought to my working table at once. There it lay, a sun-baked tablet, light brown in color, 20 by 10 centimeters in size. More than half of the writing was destroyed, and what was preserved seemed at first hopelessly unintelligible. But after several days of concentrated study, its contents began to become clear and take shape, and I realized with no little excitement that what I held in my hand was a copy of the oldest law code as yet known to man.”
            Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer, pp. 52–55. CC0
            File:Ur Nammu code Istanbul.jpg
            Uploaded by Oncenawhile
            Created: 1 August 2014
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Ur-Nammu#/media/File:Ur_Nammu_code_Istanbul.jpg

            2047 BCE – 1750 BCE: The Ur III Period in Sumer, known as the Sumerian Renaissance, or the Neo-Sumerian Empire.

            This tablet glorifies king Shulgi and his victories over the Lullubi peoples. It mentions the city of Erbil and the district of Sulaymaniayh. 2111-2004 BCE.
            The Sulaymaniyah Museum, Iraq.
            CC BY-SA 4.0
            File:Tablet of Shulgi.JPG
            Uploaded by Neuroforever
            Created: 20 January 2014
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shulgi#/media/File:Tablet_of_Shulgi.JPG

            2038 BCE: King Shulgi of Ur builds his great wall in Sumer.

            2000 BCE – 1600 BCE: Old Babylonian Period.

            2000 BCE – 1800 BCE: Isin – Larsa.

            Text:
            “IN ERIDU: ALULIM RULED AS KING 28,800 YEARS. ELALGAR RULED 43,200 YEARS. ERIDU WAS ABANDONED. KINGSHIP WAS TAKEN TO BAD-TIBIRA. AMMILU’ANNA THE KING RULED 36,000 YEARS. ENMEGALANNA RULED 28,800 YEARS. DUMUZI RULED 28,800 YEARS. BAD-TIBIRA WAS ABANDONED. KINGSHIP WAS TAKEN TO LARAK. EN-SIPA-ZI-ANNA RULED 13,800 YEARS. LARAK WAS ABANDONED. KINGSHIP WAS TAKEN TO SIPPAR. MEDURANKI RULED 7,200 YEARS. SIPPAR WAS ABANDONED. KINGSHIP WAS TAKEN TO SHURUPPAK. UBUR-TUTU RULED 36,000 YEARS. TOTAL: 8 KINGS, THEIR YEARS: 222,600”
            MS in Sumerian on clay, probably Larsa Babylonia, 2000-1800 BC, 1 tablet, 8,1࡬,5ࡨ,7 cm, single column, 26 lines in cuneiform script.
            5 other copies of the Antediluvian king list are known only: MS 3175, 2 in Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, one is similar to this list, containing 10 kings and 6 cities, the other is a big clay cylinder of the Sumerian King List, on which the kings before the flood form the first section, and has the same 8 kings in the same 5 cities as the present.
            A 4th copy is in Berkeley: Museum of the University of California, and is a school tablet. A 5th tablet, a small fragment, is in Istanbul.
            The list provides the beginnings of Sumerian and the world’s history as the Sumerians knew it. The cities listed were all very old sites, and the names of the kings are names of old types within Sumerian name-giving. Thus it is possible that correct traditions are contained, though the sequence given need not be correct. The city dynasties may have overlapped.
            It is generally held that the Antediluvian king list is reflected in Genesis 5, which lists the 10 patriarchs from Adam to Noah, all living from 365 years (Enoch) to 969 years (Methuselah), altogether 8,575 years.
            It is possible that the 222,600 years of the king list reflects a more realistic understanding of the huge span of time from Creation to the Flood, and the lengths of the dynasties involved.
            The first of the 5 cities mentioned, Eridu, is in Uruk, in the area where the myths place the Garden of Eden, while the last city, Shuruppak, is the city of Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah.
            Jöran Friberg: A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts. Springer 2007.
            Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences.
            Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection, vol. 6, Cuneiform Texts I. pp. 237-241. Andrew George, ed.: Cuneiform Royal Inscriptions and Related Texts in the Schøyen Collection, Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology, vol. 17,
            Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection, Cuneiform texts VI. CDL Press, Bethesda, MD, 2011, text 96, pp. 199-200, pls. LXXVIII-LXXIX.
            Andrew E. Hill & John H. Walton: A Survey of the Old Testament, 3rd ed., Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan Publishing House, 2009, p. 206.
            Zondervan Illustrated Bible, Backgrounds, Commentary. John H. Walton, gen. ed. Grand Rapids, Mich., Zondervan, 2009, vol 1, p. 482, vol. 5, p. 398.

            1861 BCE – 1837 BCE: King Enlil-bāni reigns in Isin.

            1792 BCE – 1750: Reign of King Hammurabi (Old Babylonian Period).

            1772 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.

            The Code of Hammurabi was discovered by archaeologists in 1901, with its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. This nearly complete example of the Code is carved into a diorite stele in the shape of a huge index finger, 2.25-metre (7.4 ft) tall. The Code is inscribed in Akkadian, using cuneiform script. It is currently on display in the Louvre, with exact replicas in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, the library of the Theological University of the Reformed Churches (Dutch: Theologische Universiteit Kampen voor de Gereformeerde Kerken) in The Netherlands, the Pergamon Museum of Berlin and the National Museum of Iran in Tehran.
            CC BY-SA 2.0 fr
            File:Code-de-Hammurabi-1.jpg
            Uploaded by Rama
            Uploaded: 8 November 2005
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Hammurabi#/media/File:Code-de-Hammurabi-1.jpg

            1750 BCE: Elamite invasion and Amorite migration ends the Sumerian civilization.

            Cuneiform tablet with the Sumerian tale of The Deluge, dated to circa 1740 BCE, from the ruins of Nippur.
            From the permanent collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
            Text and photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved.

            1600 BCE – 1155 BCE: Kassite Period.

            1595 BCE: King Agum-kakrime, aka Agum II, Kassite Kingdom.

            1350 BCE – 1050 BCE: Middle Assyrian Period.

            A gypsum memorial slab from the Middle Assyrian Period (1300 – 1275 BCE), findspot Kalah Shergat, Aššur.
            The inscription records the name, titles and conquests of King Adad-Nirari, his father Arik-den-ili, his grandfather Enlil-nirari, and his great-grandfather Ashur-uballit I.
            Memorializing the restoration of the Temple of Aššur in the city of Aššur, the text invokes curses upon the head of any king or other person who alters or defaces the monument.
            The artifact was purchased from the French Consul in Mosul in 1874 for £70, the British Museum notes reference Mr. George Smith and The Daily Telegraph with an acquisition date of 1874.
            Bezold, Carl, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum, IV, London, BMP, 1896.
            Furlani, G, Il Sacrificio Nella Religione dei Semiti di Babilonia e Assiria, Rome, 1932.
            Rawlinson, Henry C Smith, George, The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, IV, London, 1861.
            Budge, E A W, A Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities., London, 1922.
            Budge, E A W, The Rise and Progress of Assyriology, London, Martin Hopkinson & Co, 1925.
            Grayson, Albert Kirk, Assyrian Rulers of the Third and Second Millennia BC (to 1115 BC), 1, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1987.
            http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?assetId=32639001&objectId=283138&partId=1

            1330 BCE – 1295 BCE: Reign of King Muršili II (Hittite Kingdom).

            1126 BCE – 1104 BCE: Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar I (Old Babylonian Period).

            1120 BCE: The Sumerian Enuma Elish (creation story) is written.

            Enuma Elish means “when above”, the two first words of the epic.
            This Babylonian creation story was discovered among the 26,000 clay tablets found by Austen Henry Layard in the 1840’s at the ruins of Nineveh.
            Enuma Elish was made known to the public in 1875 by the Assyriologist George Adam Smith (1840-76) of the British Museum, who was also the discoverer of the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. He made several of his findings on excavations in Nineveh.
            http://www.creationmyths.org/enumaelish-babylonian-creation/enumaelish-babylonian-creation-3.htm

            930 BCE – 612 BCE: Neo-Assyrian Period.

            884 BCE – 859 BCE: Reign of King Ashurnasirpal II.

            860 BCE – 850 BCE: Reign of King Nabû-apla-iddina (Babylonian Period).

            858 BCE – 824 BCE: Reign of King Shalmaneser III.

            854 BCE – 819 BCE: Reign of King Marduk-zākir-šumi (Babylonian Period).

            823 BCE – 811 BCE: Reign of King Shamsi-Adad V.

            810 BCE – 783 BCE: Reign of King Adad-nirari III.

            782 BCE – 773 BCE: Reign of King Shalmaneser IV.

            772 BCE – 755 BCE: Reign of King Assur-dan III.

            Venus Tablet Of Ammisaduqa, 7th Century
            The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa (Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63) refers to a record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets dating from the first millennium BC. This astronomical record was first compiled during the reign of King Ammisaduqa (or Ammizaduga), with the text dated to the mid-seventh century BCE.
            The tablet recorded the rise times of Venus and its first and last visibility on the horizon before or after sunrise and sunset in the form of lunar dates. Recorded for a period of 21 years, this Venus tablet is part of Enuma anu enlil (“In the days of Anu and Enlil”), a long text dealing with Babylonian astrology, which mostly consists of omens interpreting celestial phenomena.
            http://fineartamerica.com/featured/2-venus-tablet-of-ammisaduqa-7th-century-science-source.html

            754 BCE – 745 BCE: Reign of King Assur-nirari V.

            744 BCE – 727 BCE: Reign of King Tiglath-Pileser III.

            726 BCE – 722 BCE: Reign of King Shalmaneser V.

            721 BCE – 705 BCE: Reign of King Sargon II.

            704 BCE – 681 BCE: Reign of King Sennacherib.

            This stone water basin in the collection of the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin came from the forecourt of the Temple of Aššur at Assur. The sides are inscribed with images of Enki / Ea, the Mesopotamian god of wisdom and exorcism, and puradu-fish apkallu. The textual references on the basin refer to the Assyrian king Sennacherib.
            The Temple of Aššur was known as the Ešarra, or Temple of the Universe.
            The Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals online notes that water was rendered sacred for ritual purposes by leaving it exposed outside overnight, open to the stars and the purifying powers of the astral deities. The subterranean ocean, or apsû, was the abode of Enki / Ea, and the source of incantations, purification rites and demons, disease, and witchcraft.
            Adapted from text © by Daniel Schwemer 2014, (CC BY-NC-ND license).
            http://www.cmawro.altorientalistik.uni-wuerzburg.de/magic_witchcraft/gods_stars/
            https://books.google.co.th/books?id=LSaeT9CloGIC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=water+basin+assur+temple+assur+vorderasiatisches+Museum+Berlin&source=bl&ots=9fw1d16kjb&sig=4ufIF4Ev9MiZl1QUQ8Rv3QU_BZU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAGoVChMIysSB25rYyAIVUFmOCh1G7QKS#v=onepage&q&f=false

            680 BCE – 669 BCE: Reign of King Esarhaddon.

            668 BCE – 627 BCE: Reign of King Ashurbanipal.

            626 BCE – 539 BCE: Neo-Babylonian Period.

            625 BCE – 605 BCE: Reign of King Nabopolassar.

            604 BCE – 562 BCE: Reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II.

            Astronomical Diary VAT 4956 in the collection of the Berlin Museum sets the precise date of the destruction of Jerusalem.
            This tablet details the positions of the moon and planets during the year 37 of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, which was 567 BCE. Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 BCE.
            http://www.lavia.org/english/archivo/vat4956en.htm

            561 BCE – 560 BCE: Reign of King Evil-Merodach.

            559 BCE – 556 BCE: Reign of King Neriglissar.

            556 BCE: Reign of King Labashi-Marduk.

            555 BCE – 539 BCE: Reign of King Nabonidus.

            550 BCE – 331 BCE: Achaemenid (Early Persian) Period.

            538 BCE – 530 BCE: Reign of King Cyrus II.

            529 BCE – 522 BCE: Reign of King Cambyses II.

            522 BCE: Reign of King Bardiya.

            522 BCE: Reign of King Nebuchadrezzar III.

            521 BCE: Reign of King Nebuchadrezzar IV.

            521 BCE – 486 BCE: Reign of King Darius I.

            485 BCE – 465 BCE: Reign of King Xerxes I.

            482 BCE: Reign of King Bel-shimanni.

            482 BCE: Reign of King Shamash-eriba.

            464 BCE – 424 BCE: Reign of King Artaxerxes.

            424 BCE: Reign of King Xerxes II.

            423 BCE – 405 BCE: Reign of King Darius II.

            404 BCE – 359 BCE: Reign of King Artaxerxes II Memnon.

            358 BCE – 338 BCE: Reign of King Artaxerxes III Ochus.

            337 BCE – 336 BCE: Reign of King Arses.

            336 BCE – 323 BCE: Reign of Alexander the Great (Greek Period, below).

            335 BCE – 331 BCE: Reign of King Darius III.

            323 BCE – 63 BCE: Seleucid (Hellenistic) Period.

            333 BCE – 312 BCE: Macedonian Dynasty.

            281 BCE – 261 BCE: Reign of Antiochus I.

            The Cylinder of Antiochus I Soter from the Ezida Temple in Borsippa (Antiochus Cylinder) is an historiographical text from ancient Babylonia, dated 268 BCE, that recounts the Seleucid crown prince Antiochus, the son of king Seleucus Nicator, rebuilding the Ezida Temple.
            Lenzi: “The opening lines read: “I am Antiochus, great king, strong king, king of the inhabited world, king of Babylon, king of the lands, the provider of Esagil and Ezida, foremost son of Seleucus, the king, the Macedonian, king of Babylon.”
            https://therealsamizdat.com/category/alan-lenzi/
            The cuneiform text itself (BM 36277) is now in the British Museum. The document is a barrel-shaped clay cylinder, which was buried in the foundations of the Ezida temple in Borsippa.
            The script of this cylinder is inscribed in archaic ceremonial Babylonian cuneiform script that was also used in the well-known Codex of Hammurabi and adopted in a number of royal inscriptions of Neo-Babylonian kings, including. Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus (cf. Berger 1973).
            The script is quite different from the cuneiform script that was used for chronicles, diaries, rituals, scientific and administrative texts.
            (Another late example is the Cyrus Cylinder, commemorating Cyrus’ capture of Babylon in 539 BCE (Schaudig 2001: 550-6). This cylinder, however, was written in normal Neo-Babylonian script.)
            The Antiochus Cylinder was found by Hormuzd Rassam in 1880 in Ezida, the temple of the god Nabu in Borsippa, in what must have been its original position, “encased in some kiln-burnt bricks covered over with bitumen” in the “doorway” of Koldewey’s Room A1: probably this was built into the eastern section of the wall between A1 and Court A, since the men of Daud Thoma, the chief foreman, seem to have destroyed much of the brickwork at this point.
            Rassam (1897: 270) mistakenly records this as a cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar II (Reade 1986: 109). The cylinder is now in the British Museum in London. (BM 36277).
            http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronicles/antiochus_cylinder/antiochus_cylinder1.html

            This timeline is modified from an original on the ancient.eu site. I added links and illustrations, and tagged and categorized timeframes, which should bring up useful search results when surfing among the tags and categories at the bottom of the page.

            I also integrated chronological periods and a selected list of kings from Constance Ellen Gane’s Composite Beings in Neo-Babylonian Art, 2012, p. xxii – xxiii, and de-conflicted the entry for the Ur III Period, aka The Sumerian Renaissance, which Gane dates with more precision than the original.


            5 The Crane (And Archimedes&rsquos Claw)

            The Greeks invented the crane around the year 500 BC, a simple wooden hoist-and-pulley system that made erecting tall, sturdy buildings much more practical. (The technology was later improved by the Romans, who spread it across most of Europe.) However, the Greeks could easily build advanced cranes of their own, as is proven by Archimedes&rsquos Claw.

            Archimedes&rsquos Claw (depicted rather fancifully in the painting above) was a machine built in Syracuse by Archimedes sometime before the Roman siege of the city in 214 BC. [6] According to ancient accounts, the claw was a kind of crane that could either push or lift ships out of the sea, toppling them and causing them to sink. It was mounted close to the city&rsquos sea walls, preventing Roman ships from coming close to the city.

            According to Plutarch, the claw terrified the besieging Romans, who began to feel like they were fighting against the gods, and many soldiers were frightened by the sight of any wooden frame above the city walls in case it was another one of Archimedes&rsquos contraptions. They gave up any hope of taking the city by sea, resigning themselves to a long land-based siege.


            Contents

            By the year 2022, the cumulative effects of overpopulation, pollution, and some apparent climate catastrophe have caused severe worldwide shortages of food, water and housing. There are 40 million people in New York City alone, where only the city's elite can afford spacious apartments, clean water, and natural food, and even then at horrendously high prices. The homes of the elite usually include concubines who are referred to as "furniture" and serve the tenants as slaves.

            Within the city lives NYPD detective Frank Thorn and his aged friend Sol Roth, a highly intelligent analyst, referred to as a "Book". Roth remembers the world when it had animals and real food, and possesses a small library of reference materials to assist Thorn. Thorn is tasked with investigating the murder of the wealthy and influential William R. Simonson, a board member of Soylent Industries. Thorn learns that Simonson was assassinated.

            Soylent Industries, which derives its name from a combination of "soy" and "lentil", controls the food supply of half of the world and sells the homonymous brand of wafers, including "Soylent Red" and "Soylent Yellow". Their latest product is the far more flavorful and nutritious "Soylent Green", advertised as being made from ocean plankton, but is in short supply. As a result of the weekly supply bottlenecks, the hungry masses regularly riot, and they are brutally removed from the streets by means of police vehicles that scoop the rioters with large shovels and dump them within the vehicle's container.

            With the help of "furniture" Shirl, with whom Thorn begins a relationship, his investigation leads to a priest that Simonson had visited and confessed to shortly before his death. The priest is only able to hint at a gruesome truth before he himself is murdered. By order of the governor, Thorn is instructed to end the investigation, but he presses on. He is attacked during a riot, by the same assassin who killed Simonson, but the killer is crushed by a police vehicle.

            Roth brings two volumes of oceanographic reports Thorn had procured from Simonson's apartment to the team of Books at the Supreme Exchange. The books confirm that the oceans no longer produce plankton, and deduce that Soylent Green is produced from some inconceivable supply of protein. They also deduce that Simonson's murder was ordered by his fellow Soylent Industries board members, knowing he was increasingly troubled by the truth.

            Roth is so disgusted with his life in a degraded world that he decides to "return to the home of God" and seeks assisted suicide at a government clinic. Thorn finds a message left by Roth and rushes to stop him, but arrives too late. Roth and Thorn are mesmerized by the euthanasia process's visual and musical montage—long-gone forests, wild animals, rivers and ocean life. Before dying, Roth whispers what he has learned to Thorn, begging him to find proof, so that the Council of Nations can take action.

            Thorn boards a truck transporting bodies from the euthanasia center to a recycling plant, where the secret is revealed – human corpses are being converted into Soylent Green. Thorn is spotted and kills his attackers, but is himself wounded. As Thorn is tended to by paramedics, he urges his police chief to spread the truth he has discovered and initiate proceedings against the company. While being taken away, Thorn shouts out to the surrounding crowd, "Soylent Green is people!"

              as Thorn as Shirl as Tab as Simonson as Hatcher as Martha as Sol Roth as Gilbert as Kulozik as The Priest as Donovan as Charles as Santini as the Exchange Leader as Usher #1

            The screenplay was based on Harry Harrison's novel Make Room! Make Room! (1966), which is set in the year 1999 with the theme of overpopulation and overuse of resources leading to increasing poverty, food shortages, and social disorder. Harrison was contractually denied control over the screenplay and was not told during negotiations that Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was buying the film rights. [3] He discussed the adaptation in Omni's Screen Flights/Screen Fantasies (1984), [3] [4] noting, the "murder and chase sequences [and] the 'furniture' girls are not what the film is about – and are completely irrelevant", and answered his own question, "Am I pleased with the film? I would say fifty percent". [3]

            While the book refers to "soylent steaks", it makes no reference to "Soylent Green", the processed food rations depicted in the film. The book's title was not used for the movie on grounds that it might have confused audiences into thinking it a big-screen version of Make Room for Daddy. [5]

            This was the 101st and last movie in which Edward G. Robinson appeared he died of bladder cancer twelve days after the completion of filming, on January 26, 1973. Robinson had previously worked with Heston in The Ten Commandments (1956) and the make-up tests for Planet of the Apes (1968). In his book The Actor's Life: Journal 1956–1976, Heston wrote "He knew while we were shooting, though we did not, that he was terminally ill. He never missed an hour of work, nor was late to a call. He never was less than the consummate professional he had been all his life. I'm still haunted, though, by the knowledge that the very last scene he played in the picture, which he knew was the last day's acting he would ever do, was his death scene. I know why I was so overwhelmingly moved playing it with him." [6]

            The film's opening sequence, depicting America becoming more crowded with a series of archive photographs set to music, was created by filmmaker Charles Braverman. The "going home" score in Roth's death scene was conducted by Gerald Fried and consists of the main themes from Symphony No. 6 ("Pathétique") by Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6 ("Pastoral") by Beethoven, and the Peer Gynt Suite ("Morning Mood" and "Åse's Death") by Edvard Grieg.

            A custom cabinet unit of the early arcade game Computer Space was used in Soylent Green and is considered to be the first video game appearance in a film. [7]

            The film was released April 19, 1973, and met with mixed reactions from critics. [8] Time called it "intermittently interesting", noting that "Heston forsak[es] his granite stoicism for once", and asserting the film "will be most remembered for the last appearance of Edward G. Robinson. In a rueful irony, his death scene, in which he is hygienically dispatched with the help of piped-in light classical music and movies of rich fields flashed before him on a towering screen, is the best in the film." [9] New York Times critic A. H. Weiler wrote "Soylent Green projects essentially simple, muscular melodrama a good deal more effectively than it does the potential of man's seemingly witless destruction of the Earth's resources" Weiler concludes "Richard Fleischer's direction stresses action, not nuances of meaning or characterization. Mr. Robinson is pitiably natural as the realistic, sensitive oldster facing the futility of living in dying surroundings. But Mr. Heston is simply a rough cop chasing standard bad guys. Their 21st-century New York occasionally is frightening but it is rarely convincingly real." [8]

            Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, calling it "a good, solid science-fiction movie, and a little more." [10] Gene Siskel gave the film one-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "a silly detective yarn, full of juvenile Hollywood images. Wait 'til you see the giant snow shovel scoop the police use to round up rowdies. You may never stop laughing." [11] Arthur D. Murphy of Variety wrote, "The somewhat plausible and proximate horrors in the story of 'Soylent Green' carry the Russell Thacher-Walter Seltzer production over its awkward spots to the status of a good futuristic exploitation film." [12] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called it "a clever, rough, modestly budgeted but imaginative work." [13] Penelope Gilliatt of The New Yorker was negative, writing, "This pompously prophetic thing of a film hasn't a brain in its beanbag. Where is democracy? Where is the popular vote? Where is women's lib? Where are the uprising poor, who would have suspected what was happening in a moment?" [14]

            On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 72% rating, based on 39 reviews, with an average rating of 6.10/10. [15]

            A German film encyclopedia notes about the film: "If you want, you can see a thrilling crime thriller in this film. By means of brutally resonant scenes, however, the director makes clear a far deeper truth [. ] Soylent Green must thus be understood as a metaphor. It is the radical image of the self-consuming madness of capitalist mode of production. The necessary consequences of the reification of 'human material' to the point of self-destruction are forcefully brought home to the viewer." [16]

            • Winner Best Science Fiction Film of Year – Saturn Award, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films (Richard Fleischer, Walter Seltzer, Russell Thacher)
            • Winner Grand Prize – Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival (Richard Fleischer)
            • Nominee Best Film of Year (Best Dramatic Presentation) – Hugo Award (Richard Fleischer, Stanley Greenberg, Harry Harrison)
            • Winner Best Film Script of Year (Best Dramatic Presentation) – Nebula Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (Stanley Greenberg, Harry Harrison)
            • "Soylent Green is people!" is ranked 77th on the American Film Institute's list AFI's 100 Years. 100 Movie Quotes.

            Soylent Green was released on Capacitance Electronic Disc by MGM/CBS Home Video and later on LaserDisc by MGM/UA in 1992 (ISBN 0-7928-1399-5, 31684584). [17] In November 2007, Warner Home Video released the film on DVD concurrent with the DVD releases of two other science fiction films Logan's Run (1976), a film that covers similar themes of dystopia and overpopulation, and Outland (1981). [18] A Blu-ray Disc release followed on March 29, 2011.


            Banduddu: Solving the Mystery of the Babylonian Container - History

            Biblical Math Mystery Solution for PI
            by Roy A. Reinhold, revised and expanded August 1, 2010
            .

            NEW August 1, 2010: Some readers have written about the discrepancy between the 2000 baths of water in 1 Kings 7:26, and the 3000 baths of water mentioned in 2 Chronicles 4:5. It's a worthy question and I have added a complete new section at the end of this article to give a solution based on the Hebrew in both of those verses. Only one is correct. The answer up front is that from a Hebrew language analysis, we can safely state that the 2000 baths of water is the correct one. The new portion of the article at the end gives the solution.

            Skeptics take issue and say that either God didn't know the value for "pi" (3.1415927. ) or else it proves that the Bible was written by men, and at the time they had no understanding of the relationship of :

            pi = circumference of a circle divided by the diameter = 3.1415927.

            The following is an exact possible solution:

            1 Kings 7:23 Now he made the sea of cast metal ten cubits from brim to brim, circular in form, and its height was five cubits, and thirty cubits in circumference. (NASB)

            Skeptics and non-believers, along with many who think the Bible is well worth studying, read the above verse and think to themselves that this is nonsense. Everyone who has completed High School knows that the circumference of a circle is "pi x diameter" or "pi x 2 x radius". So if the circumference were 30 cubits, and the diameter were 10 cubits, then the ancient value of pi was 3.0, which is not very good.

            What I want the reader to think about is whether the text tells you inside diameter or outside diameter, and whether the circumference given is inside circumference or outside circumference?

            To get the full picture, we need to know the thickness of the large cast metal container, and that's shown a few verses down in 1 Kings 7:26.

            1 Kings 7:26 And it was a handbreath thick, and its brim was made like the brim of a cup, as a lily blossom it could hold 2000 baths.

            The following graphic from a top view, shows what it would look like, although I am leaving off the fluting of the top of the brim. The thickness of the metal tub or sea was a handbreath.

            We all understand that there was fluting outward at the top, like a teacup, but we don't know how far down it started curving outwards. Likewise, the bottom of the sea probably was not abruptly a 90 degree corner, but was probably rounded. While these points would make the analysis more correct, we can ignore them for the purposes of this problem concerning the value of "pi".

            The mistake that people make when reading 1 Kings 7:23, is to assume that the value of 10 cubits is the inside diameter, and 30 cubits is the inside circumference or they assume that both are the outside parameters.

            Let's take a look at the situation where 10 cubits is the outside diameter, and 30 cubits is the inside circumference.

            First, what is a cubit? 1 cubit = 18 inches (distance from elbow to fingertip)

            calculation of pi = circumference / diameter = (30 x 18) / (10 x 18) - (2 x handbreath in inches)

            Since I consider myself an average size man, I measured my own handbreath and it is slightly over 4 inches. I have a good engineering ruler with hundreths of an inch, and my handbreath is

            calculation of pi = (30 x 18) / [(10 x 18) - (2 x 4.05)] = 540 / (180 - 8.10) = 3.1413613 = 3.1414

            Let's compare our calculated value of 3.1414 to the real value of "pi", which is 3.1415927. Actually, the parameters given in 1 Kings 7:23-26 gives a direct value for "pi" that is within 2 parts in 10,000. I would call that fairly accurate.

            Since the outside diameter of the sea is 10 cubits, what is the inside diameter?

            inside diameter = circumference / pi = 30 / 3.1415927 = 9.5493 cubits

            And, since the inside circumference is 30 cubits, what is the outside circumference?

            outside circumference = diameter x pi = 10 x 3.1415927 = 31.4159 cubits.

            Mystery Solved, the ancient people did have an understanding of PI. In fact, there is no way other than as done in the scriptures, where someone can give three even measurements of the sea and do it with economy of language (using the figures of 5, 10 and 30 cubits to describe all the measurements of the molten sea).

            New Subject: The article above mentions 2000 baths of water how many gallons are in the molten sea? Also, how many gallons are in 1 bath?

            First, a couple of liquid measurements to ease the calculations:

            1 US gallon = 231 cubic inches = 3.7856 liters

            1 cubic cubit = 18 x 18 x 18 = 5832 cubic inches = 25.24675 gallons

            From the above scriptures, we know now that the inside circumference of the molten sea at the Temple of Solomon was 30 cubits, and the depth was 5 cubits. The area of a circle is = pi x radius squared , and the volume of the sea = area of the circle x depth.

            volume of the sea = 3.1415927 x [(9.5493 / 2) squared] x 5 = 358.0989 cubic cubits

            therefore, 2000 baths = 358.0989 cubic cubits = (358.0989 x 25.24675) gallons = 9040.8 gallons

            and also therefore, 1 bath = (9040.8 / 2000) gallons = 4.52 gallons

            In working on this section of the article, I looked in the dictionaries for a definition of a bath, and the New World Dictionary: Second Collegiate Edition defined a bath as an ancient liquid measurement somewhere between 6 to 10 gallons. Easton's Bible Dictionary defined a bath as 8 gallons and 3 quarts. It is interesting that the measurement in Easton's is almost exactly 2 times as much as calculated from the 1 Kings 7 example above. In looking at a variety of sources, I realized that the reference sources all disagreed about the bath. Therefore, I assume that the above calculation of

            4.5 gallons per bath is correct.

            In Ezekiel 45:11-14, in talking about the future 4th Temple that will be built by the Messiah when He comes to reign on the earth, the millennial definitions for just measures are given.

            100 kors = 10 bat = 1 homer

            1 bat = 1 ephah = 1/10 homer, where a bat is the liquid measure and an ephah is the dry measure

            The 2000 or 3000 baths of water controversy?

            Many readers of the Bible have noticed that there is a discrepancy in the volume of water held by Solomon's great sea water container at the Temple in 1 Kings 7:26 versus 2 Chronicles 4:5. The former states that it held 2000 baths and the latter states that it held 3000 baths of water. To solve the dilemma, we need to examine the original Hebrew language of the verses in question. Here are the two verses in Hebrew and English:

            In examining the Hebrew for both verses above, the Hebrew as shown is good grammatical Hebrew in both verses. Therefore, one has to look at the possibility of the word breaks being wrong in one verse, or the wrong vowelization marks for a word applied by the Massoretes in 400-800 AD.

            Most of the Tanakh (Old Testament) was written before the Babylonian captivity of Judah in

            687 BC. They used ancient paleo-Hebrew letters and not the Ashurri Aramaic letters known today commonly as Hebrew block letters. The Jews adopted the Assyrian Aramaic block letters while they were held captive in Babylon, since the whole Aramaic world used them at the time. The Assyrian Aramaic block letters were also a huge improvement over the chicken scratch looking paleo-Hebrew letters.

            At the time of Ezra the priest and scholar, after the 70 years of Babylonian captivity, he and perhaps others helping him took all the old Bible manuscripts written in ancient paleo-Hebrew and wrote them using the Assyrian Aramaic block letters (Hebrew letters).

            In this case of the apparent scriptural discrepancy between 1 Kings 7:26 and 2 Chronicles 4:5, we know the problem had to occur at the time of Ezra. The reason is that the Greek Septuagint was translated from Hebrew to Greek in

            250 BC, and it has the same problem between the two verses. We know that the discrepancy had to occur before the Septuagint was translated therefore, assuming it took place in the changeover to block Hebrew letters is likely the source of the problem. All English Bibles today have this same discrepancy between the two verses.

            1. If the problem is in 1 Kings 7:26, we could say that the vowelization for the word "alpayim (2000)" is wrong. Alafeem is spelled the same and means "thousands", but it is pronounced differently.
            elef = one thousand
            alpayim = 2000
            alafeem = thousands

            If we apply different vowelization making it alafeem and not alpayim, then the last part of 1 Kings 7:26 would read: "it contained thousands of baths".

            This would solve the discrepancy using 1 Kings 7:26 by making that verse non-specific, and then the 3000 baths in 2 Chronicles 4:5 would be correct.

            However, as I showed in the first part of this article on mathematically solving the mystery of the molten sea, it is impossible for the molten sea to hold 3000 baths based on the actual specific dimensions given for it. Therefore, we have to discard this whole possible solution.

            2. The discrepancy therefore must occur in 2 Chronicles 4:5. It is a more complex sentence with multiple verbs, so it is the more likely place for the problem.

            Currently, the applicable part of the verse is:
            Hebrew: makhaziq battim shloshet alafim yakil
            English: containing baths, it holds 3000.

            The KJV translation is not what the original Hebrew states, but as I show just above. The translators took liberties to expand the literal verse in the KJV.

            My theory for 2 Chronicles is that in going from the continuous script of old paleo-Hebrew, there was no word separation in the old manuscripts. Ezra and others saw what appeared to be "shloshet" which means "3" and it grammatically fits when followed by 1000 (alafeem). However, this is where the discrepancy occurred. The word shloshet should actually be two words "shel shat" with a space between the two words.

            shel = belonging to, designated for, according to
            shat(male noun) = station, placement, foundation

            If we make this change and also change the pronunciation of alafeem to alpayim (same spelling for both), then we have the following in Hebrew:
            makhaziq battim shel shat alpayim yakil

            This solves the scriptural discrepancy and makes 2 Chronicles 4:5 say 2000 baths in agreement with 1 Kings 7:26. It doesn't add or remove letters from the original Hebrew Bible text but it recognizes that a simple mistake was made in not separating the letters for shloshet into two words, shel shat. Then the those who translated the Septuagint, and later the Massoretes applying the vowelization to the Hebrew text, carried on the original simple mistake made at the time of Ezra.

            Please feel free to e-mail me about any part of the above article. Thanks and shalom.