Library of Congress - History

Library of Congress  - History

Library of Congress - independent federal agency in the legislative branch. The Library of Congress, the largest library in the world, was established in 1800. It presents a wide range of materials for research, including extensive collections in American history, music and law.

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Library of Congress - History

# Library of Congress
Celebrate African American History Month!

Carter Godwin Woodson (1875-1950) was one of the first scholars to study African American history and the founder of Negro History Week, first celebrated in 1925. President Gerald Ford expanded the celebration to Black History Month in 1975, famously reminding Americans to “Seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history."

The Library invites YOU to share these resources with your constituents using social media.

Feel free to copy and paste the sample posts below onto your own accounts, or use these as inspiration to write your own. Be sure to use the highlighted hashtags to connect with others talking about the same topics. Check out the links for more state-specific information!

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Conversations and Perspectives

Honor and celebrate Black History Month by exploring the Daniel A.P. Murray collection at The Library of Congress. Check out “African American Perspectives,” which presents a panoramic and eclectic review of African American history and culture, spanning from the early 19th - 20th centuries. Access online collections of photographs, letters, newspapers, and more: go.usa.gov/cEFp5

Honor #BlackHistoryMonth w/ historical pamphlets on African American perspectives @LibraryCongress go.usa.gov/cEFp5

Conversations with African Poets and Writers

Join the Library of Congress for “Conversations with African Poets and Writers: Ms. Chinelo Okparanta” as we discuss inspirations for her writings and read selections from her work.
youtu.be/-COSvY2UjII

Did you know? The Library of Congress has the papers of abolitionist Frederick Douglass! Explore his online collection this Black History Month. It contains approximately 7,400 items, including Douglass's diary, family papers, correspondence, legal files, and much more! go.usa.gov/cEMZz

Historians! @LibraryCongress has Frederick Douglass's papers! #BlackHistoryMonth go.usa.gov/cEMZz

Explore history today and celebrate Black History Month with resources and items from the Library of Congress collections!

Harriet Tubman escaped slavery and then risked her life again and again to help hundreds of others escape to freedom. Use The Library of Congress online resource guide to learn more about Harriet Tubman through manuscripts, photographs, and books this Black History Month. go.usa.gov/cEeTV

This #BlackHistoryMonth use @LibraryCongress to learn more about #HarrietTubman go.usa.gov/cEeTV

Rosa Parks: Beyond the Bus

The act of courage that sparked a movement! Three associates of Rosa Parks give first-hand accounts of Mrs. Parks' life and legacy after her historical arrest.
youtu.be/6pJ6mGl4StU

Civil Rights History Project

Explore the Civil Rights Oral History Project with The Library of Congress this Black History Month! The activists interviewed for this project belong to a wide range of occupations, and the video recordings of their recollections cover a wide variety of topics within the civil rights movement, such as the influence of the labor movement, nonviolence and self-defense, religious faith, music, and the experiences of young activists. go.usa.gov/cEzTA

Listen to #CivilRights Oral Histories online @LibraryCongress #BlackHistoryMonth go.usa.gov/cEzTA

Civil Rights History Project: Mildred Bond Roxborough

Longtime secretary of the NAACP Mildred Bond Roxborough (b. 1926) discusses the achievements of the NAACP and her experiences in the Freedom Movement in an interview conducted by Julian Bond (1940-2015) for the Civil Rights History Project in 2010.
youtu.be/v4LUWgtNR3E

African American Veterans

Did you know? The Library of Congress has more than 2,500 collections from veterans who self-identified as Black or African American. This February, remember the contributions, service, and sacrifice of African American veterans. Learn more at: go.usa.gov/cEnJz

Recognize #vets this #BlackHistoryMonth & all year w/ @LibraryCongress go.usa.gov/cEnJz

Re-Pin: Honor African American Veterans this Black History Month and discover more stories from the Library Of Congress!

Students - Want to learn about an amazing athlete for Black History Month? Visit The Library of Congress collection: “Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s!” This collection describes Robinson’s achievements as the first African American man to join the major leagues. The online collection provides information on Robinson’s life and the history of baseball: go.usa.gov/cEnSd

Students: Learn the story of #JackieRobinson for #BlackHistoryMonth @LibraryCongress go.usa.gov/cEnSd

The Man Who Discovered an Icon

Do you know the story of how baseball legend Jackie Robinson was discovered? Brooklyn Dodgers' manager Branch Rickey wrote two letters illustrating his ability to identify and grow talent – and particularly how he did so with Jackie Robinson!
youtu.be/hJuYfjQf2p8

Re-Pin: Students: This Black History Month commemorate Jackie Robinson and his breakthrough in the major leagues with collections from the Library of Congress!

Musicians - Ever wonder how some of your favorite music genres began? This Black History Month, explore The Library of Congress web presentation “Now What a Time!” This resource includes a unique perspective into early blues and gospel music from the Fort Valley Music Festivals of 1938-1943: go.usa.gov/cEePA

Musicians: Check out @LibraryCongress musical web series this #BlackHistoryMonth! go.usa.gov/cEePA

The Northern Kentucky Brotherhood Singers

Hailing from Covington, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio, the Northern Kentucky Brotherhood Singers are among the very few present-day gospel quartet-style groups that still perform in the old-school a cappella fashion.
youtu.be/I6XHj96dzVw

Commemorate Black History Month with The Library of Congress! Search through the Federal Writers' Project online collection which includes more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs collected in the 1930s from former slaves: go.usa.gov/cEtu3

Observe #BlackHistoryMonth by viewing @LibraryCongress narratives of former slaves online: go.usa.gov/cEtu3

Traveling the Freedom Road

In "Traveling the Freedom Road: From Slavery and the Civil War through Reconstruction" author Linda Barrett Osborne draws from the Library of Congress' collections to offer insight into life as a slave. Learn of former slaves' hopes, sorrows, and courage in this 2010 discussion of Osborne's book.
youtu.be/QclxgduuAP8

Re-Pin: “Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938” contains more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery.

Explore the The Library of Congress exhibition, "Rosa Parks: In Her Own Words". This fascinating online exhibit showcases rarely seen materials that offer an intimate view of Rosa Parks and documents her life and activism—creating a rich opportunity for viewers to discover new dimensions to their understanding of this seminal figure. Check out the online exhibit: go.usa.gov/xdZXn

Rosa Parks: discover new dimensions to your understanding of this seminal figure with @LibraryCongress online exhibit "Rosa Parks: In Her Own Words" for #BlackHistoryMonth go.usa.gov/xdZXn

Re-Pin: Discover historical protraits of African Americans from 1820 to 1920 from the Library's Rare Book and Special Collections Division

Celebrate Black History Month with an online exhibit from The Library of Congress: “Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom!” This exhibit commemorates the 50th anniversary of the landmark Civil Rights Act and explores the events that shaped the civil rights movement, as well as the far-reaching impact the Act had on a changing society. Check out the documents, photographs, and audiovisual material here: go.usa.gov/cEexF

Teachers: @TeachingLC has a free Idea Book on #CivilRights Act '64 for #BlackHistoryMonth go.usa.gov/cEeaA

Civil Rights Act Exhibition Opening Program

Witness the opening ceremony of the Library exhibition, "The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom." The Act is considered the most significant piece of civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.
youtu.be/BCQ7NkN00OA

Re-Pin: Teachers: Check out the Library of Congress’ Primary Source Set "The NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom" for the story of America's oldest and largest civil rights organization, as told through letters, photographs, maps, and more.

Katherine Dunham changed the face of American modern dance. Known for incorporating African American, Caribbean, African, and South American styles into her ballets, Dunham also made a study of these styles, pioneering the field of dance anthropology. This Black History Month, learn more about her triumphant career by visiting The Library of Congress online collections: go.usa.gov/cmcMk

Dancers: See how #KatherineDunham transformed dance w/ @LibraryCongress go.usa.gov/cmcMk #BlackHistoryMonth

African American a Capella Sacred Music

The Singing and Praying Bands of Delaware and Maryland belong to an African American devotional/musical tradition, probably the oldest living African American musical tradition in Delaware and Maryland.
youtu.be/9XKNzUwx0jcL

Re-Pin: Billie Holiday had a long, fruitful career of 30 years as a jazz musician, check out her items at the Library of Congress.

Teachers - use free lesson plans from The Library of Congress to teach your students about Black History Month! These are teacher-created, classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress. Check them out today: go.usa.gov/cEPCF

Teachers: use @TeachingLC/@LibraryCongress for free #lessonplans about #BlackHistoryMonth go.usa.gov/cEPCF

Re-Pin: Teachers: check out Primary Source Sets from the Library of Congress, available to help you teach your students about the Harlem Renaissance, just in time for Black History Month!

Help us celebrate Black History Month by visiting The Library of Congress virtual exhibition “African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship.” This exhibition showcases the Library's African American collection from the beginning of the Atlantic Slave Trade through the Voting Rights Act of 1965. go.usa.gov/cEteh

This #BlackHistoryMonth explore virtual tours of @LibraryCongress exhibits! go.usa.gov/cEteh

Celebrate Black History Month with resources and items from the collections of the Library of Congress!


Library of Congress

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Library of Congress, the de facto national library of the United States and the largest library in the world. Its collection was growing at a rate of about two million items per year it reached more than 155 million items in 2012. The Library of Congress serves members, committees, and staff of the U.S. Congress, other government agencies, libraries throughout the country and the world, and the scholars, researchers, artists, and scientists who use its resources. It is the national centre for library service to the blind and physically handicapped, and it offers many concerts, lectures, and exhibitions for the general public. Those outside the Washington, D.C., area have access to the library’s growing electronic resources through the Library of Congress Web site at http://www.loc.gov.

The library was founded on April 24, 1800, when U.S. Pres. John Adams approved the $5,000 appropriated by Congress when the U.S. capital moved from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Washington, D.C. It was housed within the new Capitol building, where it remained for nearly a century. However, on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812, the library’s original collection of 3,000 volumes was destroyed when the British burned the Capitol as well as the White House. To rebuild the library’s collection, Congress, on January 30, 1815, approved the purchase of former president Thomas Jefferson’s personal library of 6,487 books for $23,950. On Christmas Eve 1851, another fire destroyed two-thirds of the collection. Many of the volumes have since been replaced.

Librarian of Congress Ainsworth Rand Spofford (1864–97) was the first to propose that the library be moved to a dedicated building. He also was instrumental in establishing the copyright law of 1870, which placed the Copyright Office in the Library of Congress and required anyone seeking a copyright to provide two copies of the work—books, pamphlets, maps, photographs, music, and prints—to the library.

Largely as a result of Spofford’s vision, the library’s burgeoning collection outgrew its space in the Capitol. In the early 21st century the Library of Congress complex on Capitol Hill included three buildings containing 21 public reading rooms. The Thomas Jefferson Building (originally called the Congressional Library, or Main Building) houses the Main Reading Room. Designed in Italian Renaissance style, it was completed in 1897 and magnificently restored 100 years later. The John Adams Building, completed in 1939, received its current name in 1980 to honour the president who in 1800 signed the act of Congress establishing the library. The Adams Building was built in Art Deco style and faced with white Georgia marble. The James Madison Memorial Building, modern in style, was dedicated in 1980. (That same year the Main Building was designated the Thomas Jefferson Building.) The Madison Building more than doubled the library’s available Capitol Hill space. The continued growth of the collection in a wide variety of formats during the 1980s and ’90s necessitated the off-site relocation of some materials to storage facilities in Fort Meade, Maryland, and to the Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia, the library’s state-of-the-art facility for audiovisual preservation.

On an average workday, the library receives approximately 15,000 items and adds approximately 11,000 of these to its collections. The vast majority of works in the library’s collections are received through the copyright deposit process mentioned above. Materials are also acquired through gifts, purchases, and donations from private sources and other government agencies (state, local, and federal), the library’s Cataloging in Publication program (a prepublication arrangement with publishers), and exchanges with libraries in the United States and abroad. Those items that are not selected for the library’s collections or exchange programs are offered free to other federal agencies, educational institutions, public libraries, or nonprofit, tax-exempt organizations. Between 2008 and 2012 the number of cataloged books and other print materials increased from 32 million to 35.8 million, manuscripts from 61 million to 68 million, maps from 5.3 million to 5.5 million, sheet music from 5.5 million to 6.6 million, audio materials from nearly 3 million to 3.4 million, and visual materials from 14 million to 15.7 million.

Approximately half of the library’s book and serial collections are in languages other than English. Some 470 languages are represented. Particularly noteworthy are the library’s preeminent collections in Arabic, Spanish, and Portuguese the largest collections in many Slavic and Asian languages outside those geographic areas the world’s largest law library and the largest rare-book collection in North America (more than 700,000 volumes), including the most comprehensive collection of 15th-century books in the Western Hemisphere. The Manuscript Division holds the papers of 23 U.S. presidents, ranging in time from George Washington to Calvin Coolidge, along with those of many Supreme Court justices and other high-ranking government officials, of inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell and the Wright brothers, of social reformers such as Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass, and of cultural figures such as Walt Whitman, Irving Berlin, and Martha Graham.

The Library of Congress provides direct research assistance to the U.S. Congress through the Congressional Research Service (originally the Legislative Reference Service), which was founded in 1914. Established in 1832, the Law Library provides Congress with comprehensive research on foreign, comparative, international, and U.S. law, drawing upon its collection of some 2.8 million volumes.

The Library of Congress is supported by direct appropriations from Congress—as well as gifts and private donations—and has been governed since 1800 by the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress. Established in 1990, the James Madison Council—the library’s first private-sector advisory group—has supported the acquisition of hundreds of collection items (such as the 1507 map by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller that first used the word “America”) and initiatives such as the annual National Book Festival (launched in 2001). The council’s first chairman, John W. Kluge, also endowed a major scholarly centre and a $1 million prize for lifetime achievement in the humanities.

In addition to the Kluge Prize, the library sponsors many privately endowed honours and awards recognizing creativity and achievement in the humanities. These include the poet laureate position, the Living Legend medal, the Gershwin Prize for Popular Song, and the national Ambassador for Young People’s Literature, through which the library honours those who have advanced and embodied the ideals of individual creativity with conviction, dedication, scholarship, and exuberance.

In 1994 the Library of Congress launched the National Digital Library Program (NDLP), making freely available on the Internet high-quality electronic versions of American historical material from the library’s special collections. By the end of the library’s bicentennial year in 2000, more than five million items (manuscripts, films, sound recordings, and photographs) had been mounted on the library’s American Memory Web site, which continued to expand rapidly. By 2012 the site had grown to include some 37.6 million primary source files, which were available for classroom use by educators as part of the library’s Teaching with Primary Sources Program. Also accessible on the Web site are the library’s exhibitions, bibliographic databases (online public access catalog and online print and photograph catalog), a comprehensive public legislative information system known as Congress.gov, copyright information, and a Global Gateway Web site for the library’s international collections and collaborative digital libraries built with international partners.

Inspired by the success of the Global Gateway site, in 2005 Librarian of Congress James H. Billington proposed a project called the World Digital Library. Its goal was to make available to anyone with access to the Internet digitized texts and images of “unique and rare materials from libraries and other cultural institutions around the world.” It was designed to be searchable in seven languages—Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish (official languages of the United Nations), as well as Portuguese. In 2007 the Library of Congress and UNESCO signed an agreement to build a World Digital Library Web site, which was launched in 2009 with approximately 1,200 digitized exhibits, including books, maps, and paintings. In 2012, 161 partners in 75 countries provided content to the site. The library is also leading the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, a collaborative effort mandated in 2000 by Congress to preserve the country’s digital assets.


Introduction

The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781. The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments. The need for a stronger Federal government soon became apparent and eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.


Fire ravages Library of Congress

A devastating fire at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., destroys about two-thirds of its 55,000 volumes, including most of Thomas Jefferson’s personal library, sold to the institution in 1815.

The Library of Congress was established in 1800, when President John Adams approved legislation that appropriated $5,000 to purchase “such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress.” The first books, ordered from London, arrived in 1801 and were stored in the U.S. Capitol, the library’s first home. The first library catalog, dated April 1802, listed 964 volumes and nine maps. Twelve years later, the British army invaded the city of Washington and burned the Capitol, including the 3,000-volume Library of Congress.

Former president Thomas Jefferson, who advocated the expansion of the library during his two terms in office, responded to the loss by selling his personal library, the largest and finest in the country, to Congress to “recommence” the library. The purchase of Jefferson’s 6,487 volumes was approved in the next year, and a professional librarian, George Watterston, was hired to replace the House clerks in the administration of the library. In 1851, a second major fire at the library destroyed about two-thirds of its books. Congress responded quickly and generously to the disaster, and within a few years a majority of the lost books were replaced.

After the Civil War, the collection was greatly expanded, and by the 20th century the Library of Congress had become the de facto national library of the United States and one of the largest in the world. Today, the collection, housed in three enormous buildings in Washington, contains more than 39 million books, as well as millions of maps, manuscripts, photographs, films, audio and video recordings, prints and drawings.


Contents

1800–1851: Origin and Jefferson's contribution Edit

James Madison of Virginia is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. [7] The Library of Congress was subsequently established on April 24, 1800, when President John Adams signed an act of Congress also providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress . and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." [8] Books were ordered from London, and the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps, which were housed in the new United States Capitol. [9]

President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it. The new law also extended borrowing privileges to the president and vice president. [10] [11]

In August 1814, after routing an American militia at Bladensburg, the British bloodlessly occupied Washington, D.C. In retaliation for the American destruction of Port Dover, the British ordered the destruction of numerous public buildings in the city. British troops burned the Library of Congress, including its collection of 3,000 volumes. [9] These volumes had been held in the Senate wing of the Capitol. [11] [12] One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810. [13] It was taken as a souvenir by British naval officer Sir George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. [14]

Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his large personal library [15] [16] as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815, appropriating $23,950 to purchase his 6,487 books. [9] Some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire representative Daniel Webster. He wanted to return "all books of an atheistical, irreligious, and immoral tendency." [17]

Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages, and on subjects such as philosophy, history, law, religion, architecture, travel, natural sciences, mathematics, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, music, submarines, fossils, agriculture, and meteorology. [7] He had also collected books on topics not normally viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. But, he believed that all subjects had a place in the Library of Congress. He remarked:

I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer. [17]

Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, which doubled the size of the original library, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one. [18] His original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. Specifically, Jefferson had grouped his books into Memory, Reason, and Imagination, and broke them into 44 more subdivisions. [19] The library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure. This now applies to more than 138 million items.

1851–1865: Weakening Edit

On December 24, 1851, the largest fire in the library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thirds of the library's collection and two-thirds of Jefferson's original transfer. [20] Congress appropriated $168,700 to replace the lost books in 1852 but not to acquire new materials [21] (By 2008, the librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that had been documented as being in Jefferson's original collection. [22] ) This marked the start of a conservative period in the library's administration by librarian John Silva Meehan and joint committee chairman James A. Pearce, who restricted the library's activities. [21] Meehan and Pearce's views about a restricted scope for the Library of Congress reflected those shared by members of Congress. While Meehan was librarian, he supported and perpetuated the notion that "the congressional library should play a limited role on the national scene and that its collections, by and large, should emphasize American materials of obvious use to the U.S. Congress." [23] In 1859, Congress transferred the library's public document distribution activities to the Department of the Interior and its international book exchange program to the Department of State. [24]

During the 1850s, Smithsonian Institution librarian Charles Coffin Jewett aggressively tried to develop the Smithsonian as the United States' national library. His efforts were blocked by Smithsonian secretary Joseph Henry, who advocated a focus on scientific research and publication. [25] To reinforce his intentions for the Smithsonian, Henry established laboratories, developed a robust physical sciences library, and started the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, the first of many publications intended to disseminate research results. [26] For Henry, the Library of Congress was the obvious choice as the national library. Unable to resolve the conflict, Henry dismissed Jewett in July 1854.

In 1865 the Smithsonian building, also called the Castle due to its Norman architectural style, was severely damaged by fire. This incident presented Henry with an opportunity related to the Smithsonian's non-scientific library. Around this time, the Library of Congress was making plans to build and relocate to the new Thomas Jefferson Building, designed to be fireproof. [27] Authorized by an act of Congress, Henry transferred the Smithsonian's non-scientific library of 40,000 volumes to the Library of Congress in 1866. [28]

President Abraham Lincoln appointed John G. Stephenson as librarian of Congress in 1861 the appointment is regarded as the most political to date. [29] Stephenson was a physician and spent equal time serving as librarian and as a physician in the Union Army. He could manage this division of interest because he hired Ainsworth Rand Spofford as his assistant. [29] Despite his new job, Stephenson focused on the war. Three weeks into his term as Librarian of Congress, he left Washington, D.C. to serve as a volunteer aide-de-camp at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg during the American Civil War. [29] Stephenson's hiring of Spofford, who directed the library in his absence, may have been his most significant achievement. [29]

1865–1897: Spofford's expansion Edit

Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford, who directed the Library of Congress from 1865 to 1897, built broad bipartisan support to develop it as a national library and a legislative resource. He was aided by expansion of the federal government after the war and a favorable political climate. He began comprehensively collecting Americana and American literature, led the construction of a new building to house the library, and transformed the librarian of Congress position into one of strength and independence. Between 1865 and 1870, Congress appropriated funds for the construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, placed all copyright registration and deposit activities under the library's control, and restored the international book exchange. The library also acquired the vast libraries of the Smithsonian and of historian Peter Force, strengthening its scientific and Americana collections significantly. By 1876, the Library of Congress had 300,000 volumes it was tied with the Boston Public Library as the nation's largest library. It moved from the Capitol building to its new headquarters in 1897 with more than 840,000 volumes, 40 percent of which had been acquired through copyright deposit. [9]

A year before the library's relocation, the Joint Library Committee held hearings to assess the condition of the library and plan for its future growth and possible reorganization. Spofford and six experts sent by the American Library Association [30] testified that the library should continue its expansion to become a true national library. Based on the hearings, Congress authorized a budget that allowed the library to more than double its staff, from 42 to 108 persons. Senators Justin Morrill of Vermont and Daniel W. Voorhees of Indiana were particularly helpful to gaining this support. The library also established new administrative units for all aspects of the collection. In its bill, Congress strengthened the role of Librarian of Congress: it became responsible to govern the library and make staff appointments. As with presidential Cabinet appointments, the Senate was required to approve presidential appointees to the position. [9]

1897–1939: Post-reorganization Edit

With this support and the 1897 reorganization, the Library of Congress began to grow and develop more rapidly. Spofford's successor John Russell Young overhauled the library's bureaucracy, used his connections as a former diplomat to acquire more materials from around the world, and established the library's first assistance programs for the blind and physically disabled.

Young's successor Herbert Putnam held the office for forty years from 1899 to 1939. Two years after he took office, the library became the first in the United States to hold one million volumes. [9] Putnam focused his efforts to make the library more accessible and useful for the public and for other libraries. He instituted the interlibrary loan service, transforming the Library of Congress into what he referred to as a "library of last resort". [31] Putnam also expanded library access to "scientific investigators and duly qualified individuals", and began publishing primary sources for the benefit of scholars. [9]

During Putnam's tenure, the library broadened the diversity of its acquisitions. In 1903, Putnam persuaded President Theodore Roosevelt to use executive order to transfer the papers of the Founding Fathers from the State Department to the Library of Congress. Putnam expanded foreign acquisitions as well, including the 1904 purchase of a four-thousand volume library of Indica, the 1906 purchase of G. V. Yudin's eighty-thousand volume Russian library, the 1908 Schatz collection of early opera librettos, and the early 1930s purchase of the Russian Imperial Collection, consisting of 2,600 volumes from the library of the Romanov family on a variety of topics. Collections of Hebraica, Chinese, and Japanese works were also acquired. On one occasion, Congress initiated an acquisition: in 1929 Congressman Ross Collins (D-Mississippi) gained approval for the library to purchase Otto Vollbehr's collection of incunabula for $1.5 million. This collection included one of three remaining perfect vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible. [32] [9]

In 1914, Putnam established the Legislative Reference Service as a separative administrative unit of the library. Based in the Progressive era's philosophy of science to be used to solve problems, and modeled after successful research branches of state legislatures, the LRS would provide informed answers to Congressional research inquiries on almost any topic.

In 1965, Congress passed an act allowing the Library of Congress to establish a trust fund board to accept donations and endowments, giving the library a role as a patron of the arts. The library received donations and endowments by such prominent wealthy individuals as John D. Rockefeller, James B. Wilbur, and Archer M. Huntington. Gertrude Clarke Whittall donated five Stradivarius violins to the library. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge's donations paid for a concert hall to be constructed within the Library of Congress building and an honorarium established for the Music Division to pay live performers for concerts. A number of chairs and consultantships were established from the donations, the most well-known of which is the Poet Laureate Consultant. [9]

The library's expansion eventually filled the library's Main Building, although it used shelving expansions in 1910 and 1927. The library needed to expand into a new structure. Congress acquired nearby land in 1928 and approved construction of the Annex Building (later known as the John Adams Building) in 1930. Although delayed during the Depression years, it was completed in 1938 and opened to the public in 1939. [9]

1939–present: Modern history Edit

After Putnam retired in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed poet and writer Archibald MacLeish as his successor. Occupying the post from 1939 to 1944 during the height of World War II, MacLeish became the most widely known librarian of Congress in the library's history. MacLeish encouraged librarians to oppose totalitarianism on behalf of democracy dedicated the South Reading Room of the Adams Building to Thomas Jefferson, and commissioning artist Ezra Winter to paint four themed murals for the room. He established a "democracy alcove" in the Main Reading Room of the Jefferson Building for important documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and The Federalist Papers. The Library of Congress assisted during the war effort, ranging from storage of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution in Fort Knox for safekeeping, to researching weather data on the Himalayas for Air Force pilots. MacLeish resigned in 1944 when appointed as Assistant Secretary of State.

President Harry Truman appointed Luther H. Evans as librarian of Congress. Evans, who served until 1953, expanded the library's acquisitions, cataloging and bibliographic services. But he is best known for creating Library of Congress Missions around the world. Missions played a variety of roles in the postwar world: the mission in San Francisco assisted participants in the meeting that established the United Nations, the mission in Europe acquired European publications for the Library of Congress and other American libraries, and the mission in Japan aided in the creation of the National Diet Library. [9]

Evans' successor Lawrence Quincy Mumford took over in 1953. During his tenure, lasting until 1974, Mumford directed the initiation of construction of the James Madison Memorial Building, the third Library of Congress building on Capitol Hill. Mumford directed the library during a period of increased educational spending by the government. The library was able to establish new acquisition centers abroad, including in Cairo and New Delhi. In 1967, the library began experimenting with book preservation techniques through a Preservation Office. This has developed as the largest library research and conservation effort in the United States.

During Mumford's administration, the last major public debate occurred about the Library of Congress's role as both a legislative library and a national library. Asked by Joint Library Committee chairman Senator Claiborne Pell (D-RI) to assess operations and make recommendations, Douglas Bryant of Harvard University Library proposed a number of institutional reforms. These included expansion of national activities and services and various organizational changes, all of which would emphasize the library's national role rather than its legislative role. Bryant suggested changing the name of the Library of Congress, a recommendation rebuked by Mumford as "unspeakable violence to tradition". The debate continued within the library community for some time. The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 renewed emphasis for the library on its legislative roles, requiring greater focus on research for Congress and congressional committees, and renaming the Legislative Reference Service as the Congressional Research Service. [9]

After Mumford retired in 1974, President Gerald Ford appointed historian Daniel J. Boorstin as librarian. Boorstin's first challenge was to manage the relocation of some sections to the new Madison Building, which took place between 1980 and 1982. With this accomplished, Boorstin focused on other areas of library administration, such as acquisitions and collections. Taking advantage of steady budgetary growth, from $116 million in 1975 to over $250 million by 1987, Boorstin enhanced institutional and staff ties with scholars, authors, publishers, cultural leaders, and the business community. His activities changed the post of librarian of Congress so that by the time he retired in 1987, The New York Times called this office "perhaps the leading intellectual public position in the nation".

President Ronald Reagan nominated historian James H. Billington as the 13th librarian of Congress in 1987, and the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed the appointment. [33] Under Billington's leadership, the library doubled the size of its analog collections from 85.5 million items in 1987 to more than 160 million items in 2014. At the same time, it established new programs and employed new technologies to "get the champagne out of the bottle". These included:

  • American Memory created in 1990, which became The National Digital Library in 1994. It provides free access online to digitized American history and culture resources, including primary sources, with curatorial explanations to support use in K-12 education. [34]
  • thomas.gov website launched in 1994 to provide free public access to U.S. federal legislative information with ongoing updates and congress.gov website to provide a state-of-the-art framework for both Congress and the public in 2012 [35]
  • The National Book Festival, founded in 2000 with First Lady Laura Bush, has attracted more than 1000 authors and a million guests to the National Mall and the Washington Convention Center to celebrate reading. With a major gift from David Rubenstein in 2013, the library established the Library of Congress Literacy Awards to recognize and support achievements in improving literacy in the U.S. and abroad [36]
  • The Kluge Center, started with a grant of $60 million from John W. Kluge in 2000, this brings international scholars and researchers to use library resources and to interact with policymakers and the public. It hosts public lectures and scholarly events, provides endowed Kluge fellowships, and awards The Kluge Prize for the Study of Humanity (now worth $1.5 million), the first Nobel-level international prize for lifetime achievement in the humanities and social sciences (subjects not included in the Nobel awards) [37]
  • Open World Leadership Center, established in 2000, by 2015 this program administered 23,000 professional exchanges for emerging post-Soviet leaders in Russia, Ukraine, and other successor states of the former USSR. Open World began as a Library of Congress project, and later was established as an independent agency in the legislative branch. [38]
  • The Veterans History Project, congressionally mandated in 2000 to collect, preserve, and make accessible the personal accounts of American war veterans from WWI to the present day [39]
  • The National Audio-Visual Conservation Center opened in 2007 at a 45-acre site in Culpeper, Virginia, established with a gift of more than $150 million by the Packard Humanities Institute, and $82.1 million in additional support from Congress.

Since 1988, the library has administered the National Film Preservation Board. Established by congressional mandate, it selects American films annually for preservation and inclusion in the new National Registry, a collection of American films. The library has made these available on the Internet for free streaming. [40] By 2015, the librarian had named 650 films to the registry. [41] The films in the collection date from the earliest to ones produced more than ten years ago they are selected from nominations submitted to the board.

  • The Gershwin Prize for Popular Song,[42] was launched in 2007 to honor the work of an artist whose career reflects lifetime achievement in song composition. Winners have included Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder, Paul McCartney, Burt Bacharach and Hal David, Carole King, Billy Joel, and Willie Nelson, as of 2015. The library also launched the Living Legend Awards in 2000 to honor artists, activists, filmmakers, and others who have contributed to America's diverse cultural, scientific, and social heritage
  • The Fiction Prize (now the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction) was started in 2008 to recognize distinguished lifetime achievement in the writing of fiction. [43]
  • The World Digital Library, established in association with UNESCO and 181 partners in 81 countries in 2009, makes copies of professionally curated primary materials of the world's varied cultures freely available online in multiple languages. [44]
  • National Jukebox, launched in 2011, provides streaming free online access to more than 10,000 out-of-print music and spoken word recordings. [45]
  • BARD was started in 2013 it is a digital, talking books mobile app for Braille and Audio Reading Downloads, in partnership with the library's National Library Service for the blind and physically handicapped. It enables free downloads of audio and Braille books to mobile devices via the Apple App Store. [46]

During Billington's tenure, the library acquired General Lafayette's papers in 1996 from a castle at La Grange, France they had previously been inaccessible. It also acquired the only copy of the 1507 Waldseemüller world map ("America's birth certificate") in 2003 it is on permanent display in the library's Thomas Jefferson Building. Using privately raised funds, the Library of Congress has created a reconstruction of Thomas Jefferson's original library. This has been on permanent display in the Jefferson building since 2008. [47]

Under Billington, public spaces of the Jefferson Building were enlarged and technologically enhanced to serve as a national exhibition venue. It has hosted more than 100 exhibitions. [48] These included exhibits on the Vatican Library and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, several on the Civil War and Lincoln, on African-American culture, on Religion and the founding of the American Republic, the Early Americas (the Kislak Collection became a permanent display), on the global celebration commemorating the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta, and on early American printing, featuring the Rubenstein Bay Psalm Book. Onsite access to the Library of Congress has been increased. Billington gained an underground connection between the new U.S. Capitol Visitors Center and the library in 2008 in order to increase both congressional usage and public tours of the library's Thomas Jefferson Building. [33]

In 2001, the library began a mass deacidification program, in order to extend the lifespan of almost 4 million volumes and 12 million manuscript sheets. Since 2002, new collection storage modules at Fort Meade have preserved and made accessible more than 4 million items from the library's analog collections.

Billington established the Library Collections Security Oversight Committee in 1992 to improve protection of collections, and also the Library of Congress Congressional Caucus in 2008 to draw attention to the library's curators and collections. He created the library's first Young Readers Center in the Jefferson Building in 2009, and the first large-scale summer intern (Junior Fellows) program for university students in 1991. [49] Under Billington, the library sponsored the Gateway to Knowledge in 2010–2011, a mobile exhibition to 90 sites, covering all states east of the Mississippi, in a specially designed 18-wheel truck. This increased public access to library collections off-site, particularly for rural populations, and helped raise awareness of what was also available online. [50]

Billington raised more than half a billion dollars of private support to supplement Congressional appropriations for library collections, programs, and digital outreach. These private funds helped the library to continue its growth and outreach in the face of a 30% decrease in staffing, caused mainly by legislative appropriations cutbacks. He created the library's first development office for private fundraising in 1987. In 1990, he established the James Madison Council, the library's first national private sector donor-support group. In 1987, Billington also asked the GAO to conduct the first library-wide audit. He created the first Office of the Inspector General at the library to provide regular, independent reviews of library operations. This precedent has resulted in regular annual financial audits at the library it has received unmodified ("clean") opinions from 1995 onward. [33]

In April 2010, the library announced plans to archive all public communication on Twitter, including all communication since Twitter's launch in March 2006. [51] As of 2015 [update] , the Twitter archive remains unfinished. [52]

Before retiring in 2015, after 28 years of service, Billington had come "under pressure" as librarian of Congress. [53] This followed a Government Accountability Office (GAO) report that described a "work environment lacking central oversight" and faulted Billington for "ignoring repeated calls to hire a chief information officer, as required by law." [54]

When Billington announced his plans to retire in 2015, commentator George Weigel described the Library of Congress as "one of the last refuges in Washington of serious bipartisanship and calm, considered conversation," and "one of the world's greatest cultural centers." [55]

Carla Hayden was sworn in as the 14th librarian of Congress on September 14, 2016, the first woman and the first African American to hold the position. [56] [57]

In 2017, the library announced the Librarian-in-Residence program, which aims to support the future generation of librarians by giving them the opportunity to gain work experience in five different areas of librarianship including: Acquisitions/Collection Development, Cataloging/Metadata, and Collection Preservation. [58]

On January 6, 2021, at 1:11 PM EST, the Library's Madison Building and the Cannon House Office Building were the first buildings in the Capitol Complex to be ordered to evacuate as rioters breached security perimeters before storming the Capitol building. [59] [60] [61] Carla Hayden clarified two days later that rioters did not breach any of Library's buildings or collections and all staff members were safely evacuated. [62]


Library of Congress Classification:Class D -- History, General and Old World

1-24.5. General 25-27. Military and naval history 31-34. Political and diplomatic history 51-90. Ancient history 101-110.5. Medieval and modern history, 476- 111-203. Medieval history 135-149. Migrations 151-173. Crusades 175-195. Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Latin Orient, 1099-1291 200-203. Later medieval. 11th-15th centuries (204)-(475) . Modern history, 1453- 219-234. 1453-1648 242-283.5. 1601-1715. 17th century 251-271. Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 274.5-274.6. Anglo-French War, 1666-1667 275-276. War of Devolution, 1667-1668 277-278.5. Dutch War, 1672-1678 279-280.5. War of the Grand Alliance, 1688-1697 281-283.5. War of Spanish Succession, 1701-1714 284-297. 1715-1789. 18th century 291-294. War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748 297. Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763 299-(475) . 1789- 301-309. Period of the French Revolution 351-400. 19th century. 1801-1914/1920 371-(379) . Eastern question 383. 1815-1830. Congress of Vienna 385-393. 1830-1870 394-400. 1871- . Later 19th century 410-(475) . 20th century 461-(475) . Eastern question 501-680. World War I (1914-1918) 720-728. Period between World Wars (1919-1939) 731-838. World War II (1939-1945) 839-860. Post-war history (1945- ) 880-888. Developing countries 890-893. Eastern Hemisphere 900-2009. Europe (General) 901-980. Description and travel 1050-2009. History

10-18.2. British Empire. Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth 20-690. England 20-27.5. General 28-592. History 28-35. General 40-89.6. Political, military, naval, and Air Force history. Foreign relations 90-125. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 129-592. By period 129-260. Early and medieval to 1485 140-199. Celts. Romans. Saxons. Danes. Normans 200-260. 1154-1485. Angevins. Plantagenets. Lancaster-York 300-592. Modern, 1485- 310-360. Tudors, 1485-1603 350-360. Elizabeth I, 1558-1603. Elizabethan age 385-398. Early Stuarts, 1603-1642 400-429. Civil War and Commonwealth, 1642-1660 430-463. Later Stuarts 498-503. 1714-1760 505-522. George III, 1760-1820 550-565. Victorian era, 1837-1901 566-592. 20th century 600-667. Description and travel. Guidebooks 670-690. Local history and description 670. Counties, regions, etc., A-Z 675-689. London 690. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 700-745. Wales 700-713. General 714-722.1. History 725-738. Description and travel 740-745. Local history and description 750-890. Scotland 750-757.7. General 757.9-826. History 757.9-763. General 765-774.5. Political and military history. Antiquities, etc. 774.8-826. By period 777-790. Early and medieval to 1603 783.2-783.45. War of Independence, 1285-1371 783.5-790. Stuarts, 1371-1603 800-814.5. 1603-1707/1745 807. The Union, 1707 813-814.5. 1707-1745. Jacobite movements 815-826. 19th-20th centuries 850-878. Description and travel 880-890. Local history and description 900-995. Ireland 900-908.7. General 909-965. History 909-916.8. General 920-927. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 930-965. By period 930-937.5. Early and medieval to 1603 933.3. English conquest, 1154-1189 938-965. Modern, 1603- 949.5. The Union, 1800 949.7-965. 19th-20th centuries. Irish question 963. 1922- . Republic of Ireland. Irish Free State 969-988. Description and travel 990-995. Local history and description 990.U45-U46. Northern Ireland (Ulster)

1001-1028. General 1031-1051. History

1-879. Austria. Austro-Hungarian Empire 1-20.5. General 21-27.5. Description and travel 29-34.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 35-99.2. History 35-40.5. General 42-49. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations. 51-99.2. By period 51-64. Early and medieval to 1521 60-64. Wars with the Turks 65-99.2. 1521- 65.2-65.9. 1521-1648 66-69.5. 1648-1740 69.7-77. 1740-1815 80-99.2. 19th-20th centuries 83. Revolution, 1848 96-99.2. Republic, 1918- 99-99.1. 1938-1955. German annexation. Allied occupation 99.2. 1955- 101-879. Local history and description 101-785. Provinces, regions, etc. 841-860. Vienna 879. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 881-898. Liechtenstein 901-999. Hungary 901-906.7. General 906.9-920.5. Description and travel. Antiquities. Ethnography 921-958.6. History 927-958.6. By period 927-932.9. Early to 1792 929-929.8. Árpád dynasty, 896-1301 929.95-931.9. Elective kings, 1301-1526 932.95-945. 1792-1918. 19th century 934.5-939.5. Revolution of 1848-1849 940-945. 1849-1918 946-958.6. 20th century 955-955.8. 1918-1945. Revolution of 1919-1920 955.9-957.5. 1945-1989. Revolution of 1956 957.9-958.6. 1989- 974.9-999. Local history and description 974.9-975. Counties, regions, etc. 981-997. Budapest 2000-3150. Czechoslovakia 2000-2035. General. Description and travel. Antiquities. Social life and customs 2040-2043. Ethnography 2044-2247. History 2080-2247. By period 2080-2133. Early and medieval to 1526 2135-2182. Habsburg rule, 1526-1918 2185-2241. Czechoslovak Republic, 1918-1992 2242-2247. 1993- . Independent Czech Republic 2300-2650. Local history and description of Czech lands 2300-2421. Moravia 2600-2649. Prague (Praha) 2700-3150. Slovakia 3100-3139. Bratislava (Pressburg)

1-20.5. General 21-29.3. Description and travel 30-34.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 35-424. History 35-41. General 44-59.8. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 60-424. By period 60-109. Early and medieval to 1515 62-64. Gauls. Celts. Franks 64.7-94. 476-1328. Merovingians. Carlovingians. Capetians 95-109. 1328-1515 96-101.7. Hundred Years' War, 1339-1453 101.9-109. 15th century. Jeanne d'Arc, Saint 110-424. Modern, 1515- 111-120. 1515-1589. 16th century 118. Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572 120.8-130. 1589-1715. Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV 131-138. 1715-1789. 18th century. Louis XV, Louis XVI 139-249. Revolutionary and Napoleonic period, 1789-1815 251-354.9. 19th century 256-260. Restoration, 1815-1830 261-269. July Revolution of 1830. July Monarchy, 1830-1848 270-274.5. February Revolution and Second Republic 275-280.5. Second Empire, 1852-1870 281-326.5. Franco-German or Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871 330-354.9. Later 19th century 361-424. 20th century 397. 1940-1946 398-409. Fourth Republic, 1947-1958 411-424. Fifth Republic, 1958- 600-801. Local history and description 601.1-609.83. North, East, etc. France 611. Regions, provinces, departments, etc., A-Z 701-790. Paris 801. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 921-930. Andorra 941-947. Monaco

1-21. General 21.5-43. Description and travel 51-78. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 84-257.4. History 84-96. General 99-120. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 121-257.4. By period 121-124. Earliest to 481 125-174.6. Early and medieval to 1519 126-155. Medieval Empire, 481-1273 127-135. 481-918. Merovingians. Carolingians 136-144. 919-1125. Houses of Saxony and Franconia 145-155. 1125-1273. Hohenstaufen period 156-174.6. 1273-1519. Houses of Habsburg and Luxemburg 175-257.4. Modern, 1519- 176-189. 1519-1648. Reformation and Counter-reformation 181-183. Peasants’ War, 1524-1525 184-184.7. Schmalkaldic League and War, 1530-1547 189. Period of Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 190-199. 1648-1815. 18th century. French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period 201-257.4. 19th-20th centuries 206-216. 1815-1871 217-231. New Empire, 1871-1918 228.8. Period of World War I, 1914-1918 233-257.4. Revolution and Republic, 1918- 253-256.8. Hitler, 1933-1945. National socialism (256) . Period of World War II, 1939-1945 257-257.4. Period of Allied occupation, 1945- 258-262. West Germany 280-289.5. East Germany 301-454. Prussia 301-312. General 314-320. Description and travel 325-339. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 341-454. History 701-901. Local history and description 701-788. North and Central, Northeast, etc. Germany 801. States, provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 851-900. Berlin 900.2-900.76. Bonn 901. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z

1-100. History of the Greco-Roman World

1-15.5. General 23-31. Geography 46-73.2. Antiquities. Civilization. Culture. Ethnography 80-100. History

10-289. Ancient Greece 10-16. General 27-41. Geography. Travel 75-136. Antiquities. Civilization. Culture. Ethnography 207-241. History 207-218. General 220-241. By period 220-221. Bronze Age, Minoan, and Mycenaean ages 221.2-224. ca. 1125-500 B.C. Age of Tyrants 225-226. Persian wars, 499-479 B.C. 227-228. Athenian supremacy. Age of Pericles. 479-431 B.C. 229-230. Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C. 230.9-231.9. Spartan and Theban supremacies, 404-362 B.C. 232.5-233.8. Macedonian epoch. Age of Philip. 359-336 B.C. 234-234.9. Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. 235-238.9. Hellenistic period, 323-146.B.C. 239-241. Roman epoch, 140 B.C.-323/476 A.D. 251-289. Local history and description 501-649. Medieval Greece. Byzantine Empire, 323-1453 501-518. General 520-542.4. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 545-548. Military history. Political history. Empire and papacy 550-649. History 550-552.8. General 553-599.5. Eastern Empire, 323/476-1057. Constantine the Great 599.8-649. 1057-1453 610-629. 1204-1261. Latin Empire 630-649. 1261-1453. Palaeologi 645-649. 1453. Fall of Constantinople 701-951. Modern Greece 701-720. General 720.5-728. Description and travel 741-748. Social life and customs. Ethnography 750-854.32. History 750-760. General 765-787. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 801-854.32. By period 801-801.9. Turkish rule, 1453-1821 802-832. 1821-1913 804-815. War of Independence, 1821-1829 816-818. Kapodistrias, 1827-1831 833-854.32. 20th century 848. Republic, 1924-1935 895-951. Local history and description 901. Regions, provinces, islands, etc., A-Z 901.C78-C88. Crete 915-936. Athens 951. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z

11-365. Ancient Italy. Rome to 476 11-16. General 27-41. Geography. Description and travel 51-70. Local history and description 51-55. Regions in Italy, A-Z 59. Regions outside of Italy, A-Z 61-69. Rome (City) to 476 70. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 75-190. Antiquities. Civilization. Culture. Ethnography 201-365. History 201-215. General 221-365. By period 221-225. Pre-Roman Italy. Etruria. Etruscans 231-269. Kings and Republic, 753-27 B.C. 233-233.9. Foundations and kings, 753-510 235-269. Republic, 509-27 237-238. Subjection of Italy, 343-290 241-253. Conquest of Mediterranean world. 264-133 242-249.4. First and Second Punic Wars. Illyrian wars. 264-201 250-253. Wars in the East and in the West. 200-133 253.5-269. Fall of the Republic. Establishment of the Empire. 133-27 256-260. Period of Marius and Sulla (Pompey). 111-78 261-267. Julius Caesar. First Triumvirate, 60 268-269. Second Triumvirate, 43-31 269.5-365. Empire, 27 B.C. - 476 A.D. 269.5-274.3. General 275-309.3. Constitutional Empire, 27 B.C. - 284 A.D. 310-365. 284-476. Decline and fall 401-583.8. Medieval and modern Italy, 476- 401-421. General 421.5-430.2. Description and travel 431-457. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 461-583.8. History 461-473. General 480-499. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 500-583.8. By period 500-537.8. Medieval, 476-1492 503-529. 476-1268 506-514.7. 489-774. Gothic and Lombard kingdoms. Byzantine exarchate, 553-568 515-529. 774-1268. Frankish and German emperors 530-537.8. 1268-1492 532-537.8. Renaissance 538-583.8. Modern, 1492- 539-545.8. 16th-18th centuries 546-549. 1792-1815. Napoleonic period 548-549. Kingdom of Italy 550.5-564. 19th century 552-554.5. 1848-1871. Risorgimento 553-553.5. 1848-1849. Austro-Sardinian War 555-575. 1871-1947. United Italy (Monarchy) 571-572. 1919-1945. Fascism 576-583.8. 1948- . Republic 600-684.72. Northern Italy 600-609. General 610-618.78. Piedmont. Savoy 631-645. Genoa 651-664.5. Milan. Lombardy 670-684.72. Venice 691-817.3. Central Italy 691-694. General 731-759.3. Tuscany. Florence 791-800. Papal States (States of the Church). Holy See. Vatican City 803-817.3. Rome (Modern city) 819-875. Southern Italy 819-829. General 831. Sicily and Malta 840-857.5. Naples. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 861-875. Sicily 975. Other cities (non-metropolitan), provinces, etc., A-Z 987-999. Malta. Maltese Islands

1-23. General 31-40. Description and travel 51-92. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 95-207. History 95-109. General 113-137. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 141-207. By period 141-162. Early and medieval to 1384 171-184. 1384-1555. House of Burgundy 185-207. Wars of Independence, 1555-1648 401-811. Belgium 401-430. General 431-435. Description and travel 451-492. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 503-694. History 503-527. General 540-569. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 571-694. By period 571-584. Early and medieval to 1555 585-619. 1555-1794. Spanish and Austrian rule 611-619. 1714-1794. Austrian Netherlands 620-676. 1794-1909 631. French rule, 1794-1813 650-652. Revolution of 1830 677-694. 20th century 801-811. Local history and description 801. Provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 802-809.95. Brussels 811. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 901-925. Luxembourg

1-30. General 33-41. Description and travel 51-92. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 95-292. History 95-116. General 124-150. Military, naval, and political history, etc. Foreign relations 151-292. By period 151-152. Early and medieval to 1555 154-210. 1555-1795. United provinces 180-182. Anglo-Dutch wars, 1652-1667 190-191. War with France, 1672-1678 193. Anglo-Dutch War, 1672-1674 196-199.2. Stadtholders, 1702-1747 205-206. Anglo-Dutch War, 1780-1784 208-209. War with France, 1793-1795 211. 1795-1806. Batavian Republic 215-292. 19th-20th centuries 401-411. Local history and description 411.A5-A59. Amsterdam

7-11.5. Description and travel 20-42.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 43-87. History 43-49. General 52-59. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 61-87. By period 61-65. Earliest to 1387. Scandinavian Empire. Northmen. Vikings 75-81. 1387-1900 83-87. 1900- . Period of World War I, 1914-1918 101-291. Denmark 101-114.5. General 115-120. Description and travel 121-142.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 143-263.3. History 143-151. General 154-159.5. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 160-263.3. By period 160-183.9. Early and medieval to 1523 162-173.8. 750-1241. Norwegian rule, 1042-1047 174-183.9. 1241-1523. Union of Kalmar, 1397 184-263.3. Modern, 1523- 185-192.8. 1523-1670 190. War with Sweden, 1643-1645 192. War with Sweden, 1657-1660 193-199.8. 1670-1808 196.3. Period of Northern War, 1700-1721 201-249. 1808-1906. 19th century 217-223. Schleswig-Holstein War, 1848-1850 236-239.6. Schleswig-Holstein War, 1864 250-263.3. 20th century 269-291. Local history and description 271. Counties, regions, islands, etc., A-Z 276. Copenhagen 291. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 301-398. Iceland 301-334. General. Description and travel, etc. 335-380. History 396-398. Local history and description 401-596. Norway 401-414. General 415-419.2. Description and travel 420-442.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 443-537. History 443-451.5. General 453-459. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 460-537. By period 460-478. Early and medieval to 1387 480-502. 1387-1814. Union of Kalmar, 1397 499. War of 1807-1814 500-502. Union with Sweden, 1814 503-526. 1814-1905. 19th century 525. Dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian union, 1905 527-537. 20th century. Period of World War II, 1939-1945 576-596. Local history and description 576. Counties, regions, etc., A-Z 581. Oslo (Christiania) 596. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 601-991. Sweden 601-614.5. General 614.55-619.5. Description and travel 621-642. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 643-879. History 643-651. General 654-659. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 660-879. By period 660-700.9. Early and medieval to 1523. Union of Kalmar, 1397 701-879. Modern, 1523- 701-719.9. Vasa dynasty, 1523-1654. Gustaf II Adolf, 1611-1632 710-712. Wars with Denmark, Russia, Poland 721-743. Zweibrücken dynasty, 1654-1718 733-743. Northern War, 1700-1721 747-805. 1718-1818 790. Revolution and loss of Finland, 1809 805. Union with Norway, 1814 807-859. 1814-1907. 19th century 860-879. 20th century 971-991. Local history and description 971. Provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 976. Stockholm 991. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 1002-1180. Finland 1002-1014.5. General 1015-1015.4. Description and travel 1016-1022. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 1024-1141.6. History 1024-1033. General 1036-1048. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 1050-1141.6. By period 1050-1052.9. Early to 1523 1055-1141.6. Modern, 1523- 1070-1078. Revolution, 1917-1918. Civil War 1090-1105. 1939-1945 1095-1105. Russo-Finnish War, 1939-1940 1170-1180. Local history and description 1170. Regions, provinces, historical regions, etc., A-Z 1175-1175.95. Helsinki (Helsingfors) 1180. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z

1-20. General 20.5-26. Description and travel 30-49.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 51-210. History 51-57. General 59-76. Military and political history. Foreign relations 78-210. By period 78-110. Early and medieval to 1516 79-84. Early to 687. Celts and Romans. Teutonic tribes 85-87. 687-1291. Carolingian and German rule 88-110. 1291-1516. Federation and independence 111-123. 1516-1798 124-191. 19th century 131-151. 1789/1798-1815. Helvetic Republic, 1798-1803 154-161. 1815-1848. Sonderbund, 1845-1847 171-191. 1848-1900 201-210. 20th century 301-851. Local history and description 301-800.35. Cantons (and cantonal capitals) 820-829. Alps 841. Regions, peaks, etc., A-Z 851. Cities, towns, etc., A-Z

1-11. General 11.5-16. Description and travel 20-27. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 32-48.5. History. Balkan War, 1912-1913 50-50.84. Thrace 51-98. Bulgaria 51-56.7. General 57-60.2. Description and travel 62-64.5. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 65-93.47. History 65-69.5. General 70-73. Military and political history. Foreign relations 73.7-93.47. By period 73.7-80.8. Early and medieval 74.5-77.8. First Bulgarian Empire, 681-1018 79-79.25. Greek rule, 1018-1185 80-80.8. Second Bulgarian Empire, 1185-1396 81-84. Turkish rule, 1396-1878 84.9-89.8. 1878-1944 89.9-93.34. 1944-1990 93.4-93.47. 1990- 95-98. Local history and description 95. Provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 97. Sofia 98. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 201-296. Romania 201-206. General 207-210. Description and travel 211-214.2. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 215-269.6. History 215-218. General 219-229. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 238-269.6. By period 238-240.5. Early and medieval to 1601. Roman period 241-241.5. Phanariote regime, 1601-1822 242-249. 1822-1881. 19th century 250-266.5. 1866/1881-1944 267-267.5. 1944-1989 268-269.6. 1989- 279-296. Local history and description 279-280.74. Transylvania 281. Other provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 286. Bucharest 296. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 401-741. Turkey 401-419. General 421-429.4. Description and travel 431-435. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 436-605. History 436-446. General 448-479. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 481-605. By period 481. Earliest to 1281/1453 485-555.7. 1281/1453-1789. Fall of Constantinople, 1453 511-529. 1566-1640. Period of decline 515-516. Cyprian War, 1570-1571. Holy League, 1571 531-555.7. 1640-1789 534.2-534.5. War of Candia, 1644-1669 556-567. 1789-1861. 19th century 568-575. 1861-1909. War with Russia, 1877-1878 576-605. 20th century. Constitutional movement 701-741. Local history and description (European Turkey) 701. Provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 716-739. Istanbul (Constantinople) 741. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 901-998. Albania 901-914.5. General 915-918. Description and travel 921-926. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 927-978.52. History 927-946. General 947-953. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 954-978.52. By period 954-960.5. To 1501 961-969. 1501-1912. Turkish rule 969.8-978.52. 20th century 996-998. Local history and description 996. Provinces, regions, etc., A-Z 997. Tirana 998. Other cities, towns, etc., A-Z 1202-2285. Yugoslavia 1202-1218. General 1220-1224. Description and travel 1227-1231. Antiquities. Social life and customs. Ethnography 1232-1321. History 1232-1249. General 1250-1258. Military, naval, and political history. Foreign relations 1259-1321. By period 1259-1265. Early and medieval to 1500 1266-1272. 1500-1800 1273-1280. 1800-1918 1281-1321. 1918- 1313-1313.8. Yugoslav War, 1991-1995 1350-2285. Local history and description 1352-1485. Slovenia 1502-1645. Croatia 1620-1630.5. Dalmatia 1633-1636.5. Slavonia 1652-1785. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1802-1928. Montenegro 1932-2125. Serbia 2075-2087.7. Kosovo 2090-2101.5. Vojvodina 2106-2124.5. Belgrade 2152-2285. Macedonia

5.95-10. Description and travel 11. Antiquities 13-28. Ethnography 31-35.2. History 35.3-35.77. The Islamic World 36-39.2. Arab countries 36.9. Ethnography 37-39.2. History 41-66. Middle East. Southwestern Asia. Ancient Orient. Arab East. Near East 51-54.95. Local history and description 54-54.95. Cyprus 58-59. Ethnography 61-66. History 67-79.9. Iraq (Assyria, Babylonia, Mesopotamia) 69-70.5. Antiquities 70.8. Ethnography 70.82-79.9. History 80-90. Lebanon (Phenicia) 80.5-80.55. Ethnography 80.7-87.6. History 92-99. Syria 94.7-94.8. Ethnography 94.9-98.3. History 99. Provinces, regions, cities, etc. 101-151. Israel (Palestine). The Jews 109-109.94. Jerusalem 111-111.9. Antiquities 113.2-113.8. Ethnography. Tribes of Israel 114-128.2. History 133-151. Jews outside of Palestine 153-154.9. Jordan. Transjordan 153.5-153.55. Ethnography 153.7-154.55. History 155-156. Asia Minor 161-195.5. Armenia 173-195.5. History 201-248. Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia 218-219. Ethnography 221-244.63. History 247-248. Local history and description 251-326. Iran (Persia) 260.7-262. Antiquities 268-269. Ethnography 270-318.85. History 324-326. Local history and description 327-329.4. Central Asia 331-349.9. Southern Asia. Indian Ocean Region 349.8-349.9. Islands of the Indian Ocean 350-375. Afghanistan 354.5-354.6. Ethnography 355-371.3. History 374-375. Local history and description 376-392.2. Pakistan 380. Ethnography 381-389.22. History 392-392.2. Local history and description 393-396.9. Bangladesh. East Pakistan 393.82-393.83. Ethnography 394.5-395.7. History 396.8-396.9. Local history and description 401-(486.8). India 430-432. Ethnography. Sects 433-481. History 483-(486.8). Local history and description 488-490. Sri Lanka 489.2-489.25. Ethnography 489.5-489.86. History 491-492.9. Bhutan 493-495.8. Nepal 498-498.8. Goa. Portuguese in India 501-518.9. East Asia. The Far East 518.15-518.9. Relation of individual countries to East Asia 520-560.72. Southeastern Asia 524-526.7. History 527-530.9. Burma 531-560.72. French Indochina 541-553.7. History 554-554.98. Cambodia 555-555.98. Laos 556-559.93. Vietnam. Annam 557-559.9. Vietnamese Conflict 560-560.72. Democratic Republic (North Vietnam), 1945- 561-589. Thailand (Siam) 569-570. Ethnography 570.95-586. History 588-589. Local history and description 591-599. Malaysia. Malay Peninsula. Straits Settlements 595-595.2. Ethnography 595.8-597.215. History 597.22-599. Local history and description 597.33-597.34. Sabah. British North Borneo 597.36-597.39. Sarawak 600-605. Malay Archipelago 608-610.9. Singapore 611-649. Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) 631-632. Ethnography 633-644.46. History 646.1-646.15. Sumatra 646.17-646.29. Java 646.3-646.34. Borneo. Kalimantan, Indonesia 646.4-646.49. Celebes. Sulawesi. 646.5-646.59. Timor 646.6-646.69. Moluccas. Maluku 650-650.99. Brunei 651-689. Philippines 665-666. Ethnography 667-686.62. History 688-689. Local history and description 701-799.9. China 730-731. Ethnography 733-779.32. History 781-796. Local history and description 781-784.2. Manchuria 785-786. Tibet 796.H7. Hong Kong 798. Outer Mongolia. Mongolian People's Republic 798.92-799.9. Taiwan 801-897. Japan 833-891.5. History 894.215-897. Local history and description 901-937. Korea 904.8-922.4642. History 918-921.8. War and intervention, 1950-1953 924-925. Local history and description 930-937. Democratic People’s Republic, 1948-

1:7-12.25. Description and travel

15-16. Ethnography 17-39. History 43-154. Egypt 56.8-69.5. Antiquities 63-63.5. Pyramids 68-68.8. Religious antiquities 71-72. Ethnography 73. Local antiquities 74-107.87. History 115-154. Local history and description 139-153.5. Cairo 154.1-159.9. Sudan. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 154.8. Antiquities 155-155.2. Ethnography 155.3-157.67. History 159.6-159.9. Local history and description 160-177. North Africa 167-176. History 168-169.5. Carthaginian period 179.2-179.9. Northwest Africa 181-346. Maghrib. Barbery States 211-239. Libya 223-223.2. Ethnography 223.3-236. History 238-239. Local history and description 241-269. Tunisia (Tunis) 253-253.2. Ethnography 253.4-264.49. History 268-269. Local history and description 271-299. Algeria 283-283.6. Ethnography 283.7-295.55. History 298-299. Local history and description 301-330. Morocco 313-313.6. Ethnography 313.7-325.92. History 328-329. Local history and description 330. Spanish Morocco 331-346. Sahara 348-363.3. Central Sub-Saharan Africa 365-469. Eastern Africa 365.5-365.78. History 367-367.8. Northeast Africa 371-390. Ethiopia (Abyssinia) 380-380.4. Ethnography 380.5-390. History 391-398. Eritrea 401-409. Somalia. Somaliland and adjacent territory 402.3-402.45. Ethnography 402.5-407.3. History 409. Local history and description 411-411.9. Djibouti. French Territory and Afars and Issas. French Somaliland 411.42-411.45. Ethnography 411.5-411.83. History 411.9. Local history and description 421-432.5. East Africa. British East Africa 433.2-433.29. Uganda 433.242-433.245. Ethnography 433.252-433.287. History 433.29. Local history and description 433.5-434. Kenya 433.542-433.545. Ethnography 433.552-433.584. History 436-449. Tanzania. Tanganyika. German East Africa 443-443.3. Ethnography 443.5-448.25. History 449.Z2. Zanzibar 450-450.49. Rwanda. Ruanda-Urundi 450.24-450.25. Ethnography 450.26-450.437. History 450.49. Local history and description 450.5-450.95. Burundi 450.64-450.65. Ethnography 450.66-450.855. History 450.95. Local history and description 468-469. Islands (East African coast) 469.M21-.M38. Madagascar 469.M39. Mascarene Islands 469.M4-.M495. Mauritius (Isle de France) 469.M4975. Mayotte 469.R3-.R5. Réunion 469.S4-.S49. Seychelles 470-671. West Africa. West Coast 477. Upper Guinea 479. Lower Guinea 491-516.9. British West Africa 507. Ashanti Empire 509-509.9. Gambia 509.42-509.45. Ethnography 509.5-509.83. History 509.9. Local history and description 509.97-512.9. Ghana (Gold Coast) 510.42-510.43. Ethnography 510.5-512.34. History 512.9. Local history and description 515-515.9. Nigeria 515.42-515.45. Ethnography 515.53-515.842. History 515.9. Local history and description 516-516.9. Sierra Leone 516.42-516.45. Ethnography 516.5-516.82. History 516.9. Local history and description 521-555.9. French West Africa. French Sahara. West Sahara. Sahel 541-541.9. Benin. Dahomey 541.42-541.45. Ethnography 541.5-541.845. History 541.9. Local history and description 543-543.9. Guinea 543.42-543.45. Ethnography 543.5-543.827. History 543.9. Local history and description 545-545.9. Côte d'Ivoire. Ivory Coast 545.42-545.45. Ethnography 545.52-545.83. History 545.9. Local history and description 546.1-546.49. French-speaking Equatorial Africa 546.1-546.19. Gabon (Gaboon, Gabun) 546.142-546.145. Ethnography 546.15-546.183. History 546.19. Local history and description 546.2-546.29. Congo (Brazzaville). Middle Congo 546.242-546.245. Ethnography 546.25-546.283. History 546.29. Local history and description 546.3-546.39. Central African Republic. Central African Empire. Ubangi-Shari 546.342-546.345. Ethnography 546.348-546.3852. History 546.39. Local history and description 546.4-546.49. Chad (Tchad) 546.442-546.445. Ethnography 546.449-546.483. History 546.49. Local history and description 547-547.9. Niger 547.42-547.45. Ethnography 547.5-547.83. History 547.9. Local history and description 548. West Sahara 549-549.9. Senegal 549.42-549.45. Ethnography 549.47-549.83. History 549.9. Local history and description 551-551.9. Mali. Mali Federation. Sudanese Republic. French Sudan 551.42-551.45. Ethnography 551.5-551.82. History 551.9. Local history and description 554-554.9. Mauritania 554.42-554.45. Ethnography 554.52-554.83. History 554.9. Local history and description 555-555.9. Burkina Faso. Republic of Upper Volta. French Upper Volta. 555.42-555.45. Ethnography 555.517-555.837. History 555.9. Local history and description 561-581. Cameroon (Cameroun, Kamerun) 570-571. Ethnography 572-578.4. History 581. Local history and description 582-582.9. Togo. Togoland 582.42-582.45. Ethnography 582.5-582.82. History 582.9. Local history and description 591-615.9. Portuguese-speaking West Africa 613-613.9. Guinea-Bissau. Portuguese Guinea 613.42-613.45. Ethnography 613.5-613.83. History 613.9. Local history and description 615-615.9. São Tomé and Príncipe 615.42-615.45. Ethnography 615.5-615.8. History 615.9. Local history and description 619-620.9. Spanish West Africa 620-620.9. Equatorial Guinea (Spanish Guinea) 620.42-620.45. Ethnography 620.46-620.83. History 620.9. Local history and description 621-637. Liberia 630-630.5. Ethnography 630.8-636.53. History 639. Congo (Kongo) River region 641-665. Zaire. Congo (Democratic Republic). Belgian Congo 649.5-650. Ethnography 650.2-663. History 665. Local history and description 669-671. Islands 671.C2. Cape Verde 1001-1190. Southern Africa 1054-1058. Ethnography 1062-1182. History 1190. Local history and description 1251-1465. Angola 1304-1308. Ethnography 1314-1436. History 1450-1465. Local history and description 1501-1685. Namibia. South-West Africa 1554-1558. Ethnography 1564-1651. History 1670-1685. Local history and description 1701-2405. South Africa 1754-1770. Ethnography 1757. Apartheid 1758-1760. Blacks 1772-1974. History 1991-2054. Cape Province. Cape of Good Hope 2075-2145. Orange Free State. Oranje Vrystaat 2181-2278. KwaZulu-Natal. Natal 2291-2378. Transvaal. South African Republic 2421-2525. Botswana. Bechuanaland 2454-2458. Ethnography 2464-2502. History 2541-2686. Lesotho. Basutoland 2592-2596. Ethnography 2604-2660. History 2680-2686. Local history and description 2701-2825. Swaziland 2744-2746. Ethnography 2754-2806. History 2820-2825. Local history and description 2831-2864. British Central Africa. Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 2871-3025. Zimbabwe. Southern Rhodesia 2910-2913. Ethnography 2914-3000. History 3020-3025. Local history and description 3031-3145. Zambia. Northern Rhodesia 3054-3058. Ethnography 3064-3119. History 3140-3145. Local history and description 3161-3257. Malawi. Nyasaland 3189-3192. Ethnography 3194-3237. History 3252-3257. Local history and description 3291-3415. Mozambique 3324-3328. Ethnography 3330-3398. History 3410-3415. Local history and description

80-398. Australia 108-117.2. History 120-125. Ethnography 125. Australian aborigines 145. Australian Capital Territory. Canberra 150-180. New South Wales 170-172. History 178-180. Local history and description 182-198. Tasmania. Van Diemen's Land 190-195.3. History 200-230. Victoria 220-222. History 228-230. Local history and description 250-280. Queensland 270-272. History 278-280. Local history and description 300-330. South Australia 320-322. History 328-330. Local history and description 350-380. Western Australia 370-372. History 378-380. Local history and description 390. Central Australia 391. Northern Australia 392-398. Northern Territory of Australia 400-430. New Zealand 419-422. History 422.5-424.5. Ethnography 422.8-424. Maoris 428-430. Local history and description 490. Melanesia (General) 500. Micronesia (General) 510. Polynesia (General) 520-950. Smaller Island Groups 620-629. Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii 739-747. New Guinea 810-819. Samoan Islands


The Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room maintains one of the most extensive newspaper collections in the world. It is exceptionally strong in US newspapers, with 9,000 titles covering the past three centuries. With over 25,000 non-US titles, it is the largest collection of overseas newspapers in the world. Beyond its newspaper holdings, the Division also has extensive collections of current periodicals (70,000 titles) comic books (over 7,000 titles) and government publications (1 million items).

Historic Newspapers Online

Selected Highlights from Chronicling America

A sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in the Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers digital collection. The following selection of "Topic Guides" are related to African Americans in historical news reports. Within each guide, users will find sections "Use the Suggested Search Terms" and "Sample Articles" useful to further online research in newspapers.


Introduction

The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy. During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, the Cherokees were forcibly moved west by the United States government. Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died on this forced march, which became known as the "Trail of Tears."


11. It receives every public tweet you write.

The government isn’t just responsible for cataloging tweets coming out of the White House. In 2010, Twitter agreed to donate every public tweet in its archive to the Library of Congress. That amounts to several hundred million tweets a day. In addition to documenting the rise and fall of #dressgate and live tweets of The Walking Dead, the archive would also act as an invaluable data source for tracking language and societal trends. Unfortunately, that archive isn’t much closer to being completed than the day the deal was announced. The LOC has yet to develop a way to organize the information, and for the past seven years, unprocessed tweets have been have been stored out of sight on a server. There’s still no word on what the next step will be, but that might change with the newest Librarian of Congress. Unlike her predecessor, Carla Hayden is known for taking a digital-forward approach to librarianship.


Watch the video: Περιπέτηαι, Βίος και Διαθήκη Χρήστου Θεοδωρακόπουλου book trailer