Arrow Loop

Arrow Loop


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Arrow of Light Core Adventures

In conjunction with the introduction of Family Scouting for Cub Scouts (with separate Dens for Boys and Girls), new editions of the Cub Scout Handbooks were issued in September, 2018. The new editions also incorporated the advancement changes which were published on-line in November, 2016, then released in print form as an addendum to each Handbook.

In addition, the "Outdooorsman" Adventure (which had formerly been named "Camper") was renamed "Outdoor Adventurer".

There are 4 Core (Required) Adventures in the Arrow of Light program:

Arrow of Light Adventure: Building a Better World

Complete the following requirements.

  1. Explain the history of the United States flag. Show how to properly display the flag in public, and help lead a flag ceremony.
  2. Learn about and describe your rights and duties as a citizen, and explain what it means to be loyal to your country.
  3. Discuss in your Webelos den the term “rule of law,” and talk about how it applies to you in your everyday life.
  4. Meet with a government or community leader, and learn about his or her role in your community. Discuss with the leader an important issue facing your community.
  5. Show that you are an active leader by planning an activity for your den without your den leader’s help. Ask your den leader for approval first.
  6. Do at least one of these:
    1. Learn about Scouting in another part of the world. With the help of your parent, guardian, or den leader, pick one country where Scouting exists, and research its Scouting program.
    2. Set up an exhibit at a pack meeting to share information about the World Friendship Fund.
    3. Under the supervision of your parent, guardian, or den leader, connect with a Scout in another country during an event such as Jamboree on the Air or Jamboree-on-the-Internet or by other means
    4. Learn about energy use in your community and in other parts of the world.
    5. Identify one energy problem in your community, and find out what has caused it.

    Workbook for use with these requirements: PDF Format DOCX Format

    Arrow of Light Adventure: Duty to God in Action

    Complete Requirements 1 and 2 and at least two others.

    1. Discuss with your parent, guardian, den leader, or other caring adult what it means to do your duty to God. Tell how you do your duty to God in your daily life.
    2. Under the direction of your parent, guardian, or religious or spiritual leader, do an act of service for someone in your family, neighborhood, or community. Talk about your service with your family. Tell your family how it related to doing your duty to God.
    3. Earn the religious emblem of your faith that is appropriate for your age, if you have not done so already.
    4. With your parent, guardian, or religious or spiritual leader, discuss and make a plan to do two things you think will help you better do your duty to God. Do these things for a month.
    5. Discuss with your family how the Scout Oath and Scout Law relate to your beliefs about duty to God.
    6. For at least a month, pray or reverently meditate each day as taught by your family or faith community.

    Workbook for use with these requirements: PDF Format DOCX Format

    Arrow of Light Adventure: Outdoor Adventurer

    Complete Option A or Option B.

    • Option A
      1. With the help of your den leader or family, plan and participate in a campout.
      2. On arrival at the campout, with your den and den leader or family, determine where to set up your tent. Demonstrate knowledge of what makes a good tent site and what makes a bad one. Set up your tent without help from an adult.
      3. Once your tents are set up, discuss with your den and den leader or family what actions you should take in the case of the following extreme weather events:
        1. Severe rainstorm causing flooding
        2. Severe thunderstorm with lightning or tornadoes
        3. Fire, earthquake, or other disaster that will require evacuation. Discuss what you have done to minimize as much danger as possible.
      4. Show how to tie a bowline. Explain when this knot should be used and why. Teach it to another Scout who is not a Webelos Scout.
      5. Recite the Outdoor Code and the Leave No Trace Principles for Kids from memory. Talk about how you can demonstrate them while you are working on your Arrow of Light. After one outing, list the things you did to follow the Outdoor Code and Leave No Trace.
    • Option B
      1. With the help of your den leader or family, plan and participate in an outdoor activity.
      2. Discuss with your den or family what actions you should take in the case of the following extreme weather events:
        1. Severe rainstorm causing flooding
        2. Severe thunderstorm with lightning or tornadoes
        3. Fire, earthquake, or other disaster that will require evacuation. Discuss what you have done to minimize as much danger as possible.
      3. Show how to tie a bowline. Explain when this knot should be used and why. Teach it to another Scout who is not a Webelos Scout.
      4. Recite the Outdoor Code and the Leave No Trace Principles for Kids from memory. Talk about how you can demonstrate them while you are working on your Arrow of Light. After one outing, list the things you did to follow the Outdoor Code and Leave No Trace.

    Workbook for use with these requirements: PDF Format DOCX Format

    Arrow of Light Adventure: Scouting Adventure

    Complete the following Requirements.

    1. Prepare yourself to join a troop by completing at least a-c below:
      1. Repeat from memory the Scout Oath, Scout Law, Scout motto, and Scout slogan. In your own words, explain their meanings to your den leader, parent, or guardian.
      2. Explain what Scout spirit is. Describe for your den leader, parent, or guardian some ways you have shown Scout spirit by conducting yourself according to the Scout Oath, Scout Law, Scout motto, and Scout slogan.
      3. Give the Scout sign, salute, and handshake. Explain when to use each.
      4. Describe the First Class Scout badge, and tell what each part stands for. Explain the significance of the First Class Scout badge.
      5. Repeat from memory the Pledge of Allegiance. In your own words, explain its meaning
      1. Describe how the Scouts in the troop provide its leadership.
      2. Describe the four steps of Scout advancement.
      3. Describe ranks in Scouting and how they are earned.
      4. Describe what merit badges are and how they are earned.
      1. Explain the patrol method. Describe the types of patrols that might be part of a troop.
      2. Hold an election to choose the patrol leader.
      3. Develop a patrol name and emblem (if your den does not already have one), as well as a patrol flag and yell. Explain how a patrol name, emblem, flag, and yell create patrol spirit.
      4. As a patrol, make plans to participate in a troop’s campout or other outdoor activity.
      1. Show how to tie a square knot, two half hitches, and a taut-line hitch. Explain how each knot is used.
      2. Show the proper care of a rope by learning how to whip and fuse the ends of different kinds of rope.

      Workbook for use with these requirements: PDF Format DOCX Format

      Source: Webelos Cub Scout Handbook (#34754 - SKU 646430)


      Arrow Loop - History

      Click on an arrow emoji, or a text arrow symbol to copy it automatically. Paste wherever you want.

      Copy and paste arrow symbols from this list of arrows. Paste arrow emoji into your text to steer your readers in a the right direction. It may be that this is not an entirely full list with absolutely every arrow symbol available, though there's plenty of different up, down, back, forward, left, right arrow symbol emoji and other arrow symbols and emojis of arrows including diagonal, rounded and curved in all sorts of ways. You can draw an arrow symbol, or emoji on draw-to-recognize-a-symbol AI and try to find more arrows. Also, look below to find if you may be able to text some arrow signs from keyboard.

      How to text emoji arrow symbols on keyboard

      Choose your system and find ways to text arrows on keyboard if it just takes too long to copy and paste an arrow symbol.

      Alt Codes to text arrows on keyboard

      Alt code shortcut works on all Desktop and many Laptop computers running MS Windows. You press Alt and, while holding it, text a certain Alt code on Num Pad while it's turned on. Please, watch my guide if you're running a laptop. You can text many frequently used symbols with this method.

      Shift States

      Configure your keyboard layout in Windows so that you can type on keyboard any text arrow emoticon you want as easy as any other text. Takes about 5-10 minutes to set things up, but you'll be typing like a boss. You can assign arrow sign and any other text characters to your keyboard using this technique.

      Character Map

      CharMap allows you to view and use all characters including arrow symbols available in all fonts (some examples of fonts are "Arial", "Times New Roman", "Webdings") installed on your computer. You can input arrow symbols using it.

      Emoji on iOS (iPhone, iPad and iPod touch)

      On iPhone not all, but some arrow symbols you'll see on your iPhone rendered as a colored arrow icon can be entered via emoji keyboard. Compass emoji symbol can also be entered in this way.

      Character Palette

      Character Palette allows you to view and use all characters and symbols, including cute arrows, available in all fonts (some examples of fonts are "Arial", "Times New Roman", "Webdings") installed on your computer.

      Text Arrows via Keyboard

      There actually are 3 different ways to text symbols on Linux with a keyboard. But only third and fourth level chooser keys and unicode hex codes can produce arrow text symbols.

      Unicode hex code Symbol Unicode hex code Symbol Unicode hex code Symbol
      27a2 279e 27bb
      219a 21a7 21ac
      21b9 21c6 21d3
      21e0 232b 27a3
      27b8 27bc 219b
      21a8 21ad 21ad
      21ad 21ba 21c7
      21d4 21e1 27a4
      2650 27bd 219c
      27ab 21ae 21bb
      21c8 21c8 21d5
      21e2 27a5 27b2
      2190 219d 27ac
      21af 21bc 21c9
      21d6 21e3 27a6
      27b3 2191 219e
      27a9 21b0 21bd
      21ca 21d7 21e4
      27a7 27b3 2192
      219f 27aa 21b1
      21be 21cb 21d8
      21e5 27a8 27b4
      2193 21a0 27ad
      21b2 21bf 21cc
      21d9 21e6 279a
      27b5 2194 21a1
      27ae 21b3 21c0
      21cd 21da 21e7
      2798 27b6 2195
      21a2 27af 21b4
      21c1 21ce 21db
      21e8 2799 27b7
      2196 21a3 27b1
      21b5 21c2 21cf
      21dc dc 21e9 279b
      27b8 2197 21a4
      21a9 21b6 21c3
      21d0 21dd 21ea

      Character map

      Character map allows you to view and use all characters and symbols available in all fonts (some examples of fonts are "Arial", "Times New Roman", "Webdings") installed on your computer. It can also help you lookup Unicode codes for entering symbols with keyboard.

      Following is a list of HTML and JavaScript entities for arrow symbols. In Javascript you should write like a = "this u2669 symbol" if you want to include a special symbol in a string.


      There are about 611 arrows. These are from several different sections of Unicode, including:

      • Miscellaneous Symbols
      • Dingbats
      • Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A
      • Supplemental Arrows-A
      • Supplemental Arrows-B
      • Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B
      • Supplemental Mathematical Operators
      • Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows

      It took me several days to collect and organize these arrows. They are scattered in different places, and are hard to find. Also, there are a lot symmetry issues, and some mirror image isn't there. Here's some details of my experience.

      Note: each Unicode character has a ID called its “codepoint”. For example, → has codepoint 8594 or hexadecimal 2192.

      Scattered All Over

      They are scattered in different code blocks. The most common ones are collected in “Symbols, Arrows (2190–21FF)”. In the beginning of Unicode history, there's just a right pointing arrow of a particular style, because left pointing ones are seldomly or never used. But later, it's realized the left pointing ones are important too, for one reason or another, and sometimes there's a need just for completeness because Unicode became more wide spread. So, the left pointing ones get added, in the same block but different neighborhood, or in another block. Thus you have “Supplemental Arrows-A” and “Supplemental Arrows-B”. For similar reasons, other symmetric versions of the same style such as upward and or downward versions are scattered in wildly different blocks.

      For example, here's some arrows and their names:

      CodepointCharNameDate Added
      U+2B05 LEFTWARDS BLACK ARROWUnicode 4 ( 2003 )
      U+2B06 UPWARDS BLACK ARROWUnicode 4 ( 2003 )
      U+2B07 DOWNWARDS BLACK ARROWUnicode 4 ( 2003 )

      However, there was no “RIGHTWARDS BLACK ARROW” for about 10 years. The closest is this:

      CodepointCharNameDate Added
      U+27A1 BLACK RIGHTWARDS ARROW
      (old name: BLACK RIGHT ARROW)
      Unicode 1 ( 1991 )

      You can see that, this right pointing arrow was there first. The others are added later. The names are inconsistent.

      Finally, in Unicode 7, a new one with consistent name is added.

      CodepointCharNameDate Added
      U+2B95 RIGHTWARDS BLACK ARROW
      Unicode 7 ( 2014 )

      Now we have a ugly situation. There are 2 of them < ➡ , ⮕ >. According to Unicode, they should be rendered in the same style as the other 3 for up/left/down. But, as of 2017-10-11, only the first one is rendered in the same style.

      Missing Symmetric Versions

      Lots of these arrows are from math, but some are also used elsewhere. The problem is, it's hard to categorize them into one place. So, in Unicode, the arrows gets into one of these blocks: “Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B”, “Supplemental Mathematical Operators”, “Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows”. Often, the left/right pair and the up/down pair are in different blocks.

      Here's a example: ⇺ ⇻ ⇼ ⇞ ⇟ . There does not seem to have a vertical version of ⇼ . The chars ⇞ ⇟ are in category “Symbol, other”, while ⇺ ⇻ ⇼ are in category “Symbol, Math”.

      Another example: ⥂ ⥃ ⥄ . Note that there is no right pointing version of ⥄ as of 2017-10-11 (Unicode 10) .

      Many arrows do not have symmetric versions. Symmetry here can be reflection thru vertical or horizontal axes, or n*90° rotation, or combination of them. The following are some set of chars missing symmetric versions: ↴ ↵ ↸ ↹ ⤺ ⤻ ⤼ ⤽ ⤪ ⤨ ⤧ ⤩ ⤭ ⤮ ⤯ ⤰ ⤱ ⤲ .

      Ordering Problem

      Also, when trying to order them, i ran into the problem of devising a ordering scheme. For example, usually i order them by left right up down, like this:. ← → ↑ ↓ . But now look at these: ⇆ ⇄ ⇅ ⇵ . For the vertical pair, which should come first?

      Here's another example of the complexity. There are these chars:

      CharacterUnicode Name
      ANTICLOCKWISE TOP SEMICIRCLE ARROW
      CLOCKWISE TOP SEMICIRCLE ARROW
      LOWER RIGHT SEMICIRCULAR CLOCKWISE ARROW
      ⤿ LOWER LEFT SEMICIRCULAR ANTICLOCKWISE ARROW
      RIGHT-SIDE ARC CLOCKWISE ARROW
      LEFT-SIDE ARC ANTICLOCKWISE ARROW
      TOP ARC ANTICLOCKWISE ARROW
      BOTTOM ARC ANTICLOCKWISE ARROW

      If you analyze their names, you can see that a circle can be divided into 8 arcs: , and 4 of the diagonal arcs. Each arc can be clockwise or anti-clockwise. 8 arcs, 2 directions, there are a combination of 16 possibilities. First of all, note that not all of them is present. (For example, there's no char named “TOP ARC CLOCKWISE ARROW”) But given these chars, how do you order them?

      Font Problems

      Note that some left/right pairs looks very different, even in the same font.

      For example, here's how they render in your browser:

      CharacterCode PointUnicode Name
      U+2B3ELEFTWARDS ARROW THROUGH X
      U+2947RIGHTWARDS ARROW THROUGH X
      U+2B32LEFT ARROW WITH CIRCLED PLUS
      U+27F4RIGHT ARROW WITH CIRCLED PLUS
      U+2B33LONG LEFTWARDS SQUIGGLE ARROW
      U+27FFLONG RIGHTWARDS SQUIGGLE ARROW
      U+2B31THREE LEFTWARDS ARROWS
      U+21F6THREE RIGHTWARDS ARROWS
      Unicode arrows inconsistent font problem, rendered on Linux, Firefox 2016-01-25 Unicode arrows inconsistent font problem, rendered on macOS Google Chrome 2017-10-11 Unicode circle arc arrows, rendered on macOS Firefox 2017-10 Unicode circle arc arrows, rendered on macOS Google Chrome 2017-10 Unicode arc arrows on Safari 2018-07-19

      How the chars shows up on your screen may be very different from another person. It depends on your operating system, web browser, your browser and OS configuration, and availability of font on your system.

      Typically, the rightward versions have correctly designed fonts, because it is far more popularly used. The leftward version, or other directions, sometimes get added as afterthought or extensions.


      How Castles Work

      Remember that castles served primarily as housing for military forces -- they evolved into residences for nobles. So, they were designed for defense. Medieval castle builders incorporated designs of early castles and improved upon them over time. Castle designs also changed to keep up with improvements in siege technology. Castles also had to provide necessities for living (like sanitation, fresh water and cooking areas), which were especially important when the castle was under siege.

      With this in mind, let's look at the major features of a castle.

      • Outer defenses
      • Moat
      • Walls (inner and outer)
      • Towers (inner and outer)
      • Gatehouses, drawbridges and barbicans
      • Inner defenses
      • Baileys or wards
      • Living quarters and support buildings
      • Keeps or donjons
      • Great halls
      • Chapels
      • Stables
      • Wells
      • Workshops

      Outer Defenses

      The moat -- a large ditch or trench surrounding the outer castle wall -- was a castle's first line of defense. The moat could be filled with water or dry (a dry moat could have been lined with wooden spikes). It usually had a drawbridge across it that was drawn up when the castle was under attack. Many moats were also dump sites for garbage and sewage.

      The existence of a moat was dictated by the terrain -- not all castles had moats. Some castles were built high up on bedrock and didn't need them. Edinburgh and Stirling castles in Scotland, for example, stand on high rock outcroppings. Many German castles along the Rhine River were built on the mountainsides of the river valley.

      Outer Walls

      The outer curtain wall was high, thick and made of stone or brick. Walls could range from 6 to 10 meters high and 1.5 to 8 meters thick. In many castles, wall thickness varied according to the area's perceived vulnerability.

      Curtain walls were actually two walls. Masons cut and fitted the stones or bricks of each wall and cemented them together with a limestone mortar. The builders filled the spaces between the walls with stone fragments, small rocks and mortar fragments (rubble). As the wall grew higher, the builders placed wooden scaffolds or work platforms into it so they could work and bring materials up using man- or animal-powered cranes or ramps. When that particular section of the wall was finished, they tore down the scaffolding, but a square hole remained where the scaffold's support beams had been.

      Some castles had a substantially higher outer wall called a shield wall. The shield wall was often placed on the side of a castle that might be especially vulnerable to siege weapons like catapults, trebuchets and siege towers (more on this later). The shield wall could also prevent objects from going over the walls into the bailey.

      Most outer walls had battlements on top, like:

      • Crenellations: Rectangular blocks alternated with openings across the top of a wall or tower. Soldiers could hide behind the blocks and shoot through the openings.
      • Walkways: Some walls had walkways built into the stone, while others had wooden walkways on the inside of the wall where soldiers could stand guard and defend the walls during battle.
      • Hoardings: Covered wooden overhangs that ran along the top of a wall. The French later used stone hoardings called machicoulis. Hoardings had holes in the flooring from which soldiers could shoot arrows or dump various objects (rocks, hot tar, boiling water, hot oil) on attackers.
      • Breteches: Small, overhanging rooms on French castles, similar to hoardings, that jutted out from the wall. Breteches were made of stone, had windows or arrow loops, and also had a floor opening. A breteche extending above the top of a wall was called a bartizan.
      • Arrow loops: Narrow slits or openings in walls and hoardings through which archers and crossbowmen could fire arrows. Many arrow loops were wider on the inside and tapered toward the outside of the wall this design gave the archer a wide field of view.
      • Embrasures: Rotating cylinders with an arrow loop that were built into the wall or tower and could give an archer a very wide field of view.

      On the next page, we'll finish up with the outer defenses and move on to the castle's inner defenses.


      Innovations From Gaming

      Skinner’s research focused primarily on the Reward phase within a compulsion loop (at least as per my articulation of it):

      However, we have seen examples in social and mobile gaming where additional advances have been made.

      Before proceeding further stop and think:

      • What other features have we seen to optimize compulsion loops in some of the other activity areas? e.g., in Anticipation or Action phases?

      The below diagram shows an example within each of those other activity areas:

      Aspirational Neighbors:

      The objective here is to anchor an objective or desired user state into the mind of the player: this is what you could become in the game! A couple examples of this from the folks at Supercell:

      1. Clash of Clans: Providing easy access to visiting the super high level cities of other players in the Leaderboards.
      2. Hay Day: You are forced to visit “Greg” as part of the tutorial, and see his more pimped out farm.

      Another common tactic that has been used in RPGs is to put the player in the role of a high level user at the very beginning of the game to give them a taste of what they could later become and then strip them back to being level 1.

      Variable Design in Action Phase:

      In games with PVE (player vs. environment), there have been attempts to make this phase of activity more interesting by giving players a “variable ratio” action. And further, making the variable ratio action a type of reward. In Final Fantasy Air Brigade for example, PVE can include not just a typical battle, but has a chance of encountering and capturing a Chocobo as well:

      Final Fantasy Air Brigade

      Many card battle games now routinely will mix up PVE with PVP or other types of encounters.


      Re-founded in 1999

      Universal Audio was re-founded in 1999 by Bill's sons, James Putnam and Bill Putnam Jr., with two main goals: to faithfully reproduce classic analog recording equipment in the tradition of their father and to design new digital recording tools in with the sound and spirit of vintage analog technology. To that end, Universal Audio employs the world's brightest DSP engineers and digital modeling authorities to develop our award-winning UAD Powered Plug-Ins platform. Featuring the most authentic analog emulation plug-ins in the industry, our DSP gurus work with the original hardware manufacturers — using their exact schematics, golden units, and experienced ears — to give UAD plug-ins warmth and harmonics in all the right places, just like analog.

      Nothing better represents the merging of our analog heritage and groundbreaking digital designs than the award-winning Apollo audio interface. Introduced in 2012, Apollo has become the new worldwide standard for professional music production, and has been used to record breakthrough albums by artists such as Kendrick Lamar, Coldplay, Dr. Dre, Brad Paisley, and many more.

      With more than 200 employees, and offices in Los Angeles, Colorado, and Amsterdam, Universal Audio is headquartered near Silicon Valley in Scotts Valley, California. A few miles away in Santa Cruz is the Universal Audio Custom Shop, where our classic analog gear is still hand-built, one unit at a time.

      Software or hardware, every Universal Audio product is backed by a decades long legacy of innovation, superlative quality, and technical passion.


      Plan Your Visit

      Through a network of museums, History Colorado shares the stories of Colorado’s past—its people, its places, and the events that have shaped the sweep of human history.

      The History Colorado Center in Denver is home to ambitious exhibitions, programs for kids and adults, special events and cultural performances, and a research center that’s a portal to our vast collections of books, manuscripts, photography, documents, maps, and other artifacts.

      At seven Community Museums around the state, we share the stories of the countless cultures that have made Colorado’s landscapes their home and shaped Colorado’s past—and still shape its present and future.

      The Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation engages Coloradans in discovering, preserving, and taking pride in our architectural and archaeological heritage by providing statewide leadership and support to our partners in archaeology and historic preservation.

      Our Museums & Exhibits

      Our museums are home to interactive exhibitions, programs for kids and adults, special events and cultural performances. Visit us today to learn about the countless cultures that have made Colorado’s landscapes their home and shaped Colorado’s past—and still shape its present and future.

      Programs & Education

      History Colorado’s programs and events deepen and contextualize participants’ experiences of our state’s many histories and cultures.

      Educational opportunities for learners of all ages abound at venues around the state, including talks from world-renowned speakers, special events, live performances, and seasonal festivals.

      Field Trips

      We offer a wide range of programs for educators and their students.

      Stephen H. Hart Research Center

      The Stephen H. Hart Research Center is open to the public, free of charge. You can access History Colorado's archival, photographic, and artifact collections through the Janis Falkenberg Reading Room

      Plan Your Event

      Create an unforgettable event with an authentic Colorado experience.

      Find out about exciting opportunities to bring Colorado’s history to life!

      Support Colorado's History

      Together we will create a better future for Colorado by inspiring wonder in our past.


      View command history and quickly repeat DOS commands

      While at the MS-DOS prompt or in the Windows command line you can quickly repeat any previously entered command and view a history of commands using the arrow keys. For example, if you previously used the dir command to list the files in the current directory press the up arrow key to repeat that command. Continuing to press the up arrow scrolls through a list of commands used earlier.

      For anyone who enters long commands, file names, or directory names this can save lots of time. If you happen to mistype a command, pressing the up arrow and then using the left arrow to correct the error can also save time.

      This option is available in MS-DOS and the Windows command line through the use of the doskey command. See our doskey command page if you need additional help or would like to view all the available options for this command.


      Watch the video: Ari Hoenig Arrows and Loops