2 Major Sites

2 Major Sites


1. Old City of Dubrovnik, Croatia

Night bombing of the city of Dubrovnik 1991.

Jon Jones/Sygma/Getty Images

The city of Dubrovnik dates back to the 7th century, when Romans and Slavs settled on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. It grew into a major trading power, and in the 19th century Lord Byron dubbed it the “Pearl of the Adriatic.” In 1979, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization—or UNESCO�signated the “Old City” or “Old Town” part of Dubrovnik as a World Heritage site.

In 1991 and 1992, the city suffered severe damage during the Siege of Dubrovnik, a part of the Yugoslav Wars. Over two-thirds of the Old City’s buildings were hit by projectiles, and three were destroyed by fire. In 2005, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia sentenced the former Yugoslav general Pavle Strugar to eight years in prison for war crimes, including the destruction of historic monuments in Dubrovnik.


Often overlooked, Canada played an important role in the Manhattan Project, especially during the early stages of research and development. Canada was also crucial for another reason: its Northwest Territories provided a rich source of raw uranium. Learn More

One of the most important branches of the Manhattan Project was the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. Known simply as the “Met Lab,” the laboratory’s primary role was to design a viable method for plutonium production that could. Learn More

After the activation of the 509th Composite Group in December 1944, some members of the group (including members of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, the unit's combat squad) went to Cuba for training. At Batista Field in San Antonio de Los Baños, the. Learn More

The 50 key dates of world history

Important Dates of World History

3000
Building of the Great Pyramid.

776
First Olympiad in Greece.

753
Foundation of Rome.

490
Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

360
The period of Aristotle and Plato.

332
Egypt conquered by Alexander.

323
Alexander dies at Babylon.

214
Work on the Great Wall of China begins.

55
Julius Ceasar attacks Great Britain.

4
Birth of Jesus Christ.

29
Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

375
Huns' invasion of Europe.

570
Prophet Mohammed born at Mecca.

622
Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Madina.

632
Death of Mohammed Beginning of Hijiri Era.

711
Arabs invade Spain.

1066
Norman invasion of England Victory of William the Conquerer over the English King Harold II at Hastings.

1280
Roger Bacon invents gunpowder.

1338
The Hundred years War broke out.

1348
English faces Black Death Plague.

1453
Turks captured Constantinople Renaissance in Europe.

1492
Discovery of America by Columbus.

1498
Sea-route to India discovered by Vasco-de-Gama.

1588
Spanish Armada defeated.

1600
British East India Company established in India.

1649
Execution of Charles I.

1660
Monarchy restored in England.

1665
The Great Plague of England.

1668
Glorious Revolution in England.

1704
Battle of Blenheim.

1707
Union of England and Scotland.

1776
Declaration of American Independence.

1789
French Revolution George Washington elected the first President of America.

1805
Battle of Trafalagar and Nelson's death.

1815
Battle of Waterloo Napolean exiled to St. Helena.

1821
Death of Napolean.

1832
Reforms Bill passed in England.

1837
Queen Victoria's accession to the throne of England.

1861
Beginning of the American Civil War.

1863
Slavery abolished in USA

1865
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

1869
Opening of the Suez Canal for traffic.

1895
Roentgen discovered X-Rays.

1896
Marconi invented wireless.

1904
Russiao-Japan war.

1905
Japan defeated Russia Discovery of the theory of Relativity by Einstein.

1911
Chinese Revolution.

1912
Republic of China established.

1914
Beginning of World War I.

1917
Russian Revolution.

1918
End of World War I.

1919
Treaty of Versailles signed.

1920
Formation of the League of Nations.

1923
Turkey declared Republic.

1933
Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.

1936
Beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

1939
World War II begins.

1941
Russia invaded by Hitler Pearl Harbour invaded by Japan.

1945
Establishment of UNO End of World War II Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience the first dropping of the Atom Bomb Death of President Roosevelt.

1946
Civil War in China.

1948
Burma and Ceylon get independence.

1949
Indonesia gets independence The Communists capture power in China.

1952
General Eisenhower elected as the American President.

1953
Death of Stalin Mt. Everest conquered for the first time.

1954
Military Aid Pact between China and Pakistan Chou En-lai visits India.

1955
Austria gets independence Bandung Conference.

1956
Suez Canal nationalised by President Nasser Egypt attacked by the forces of Britain France and Israel.

1957
First artificial satellite launched by Russia.

1958
Egypt and Syria united and renamed United Arab Republic (UAR)

1959
Chinese capture Tibet Dalai Lama flees to India Sputnik launched by Russia.

1960
Explosion of an atom bomb device by France Election of John F. Kennedy as President of USA

1961
Yuri Gagarin of USSR becomes the first spaceman.

1963
Partial Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed Malaysia established John F. Kennedy assassinated.

1965
Death of Sir Winston Churchill Singapore becomes the sovereign independent nation outbreak of Indo-Pak war.

1966
Tashkent Pact A Russian aircraft lands on moon.

1967
Chinese explode hydrogen bomb Arab-Israel War Suez Canal closed.

1971
Outbreak of Indo-Pak war Birth of Bangladesh Surrender of 93,000 Pakistani troops Khruschev died Z.A. Bhutto new President of Pakistan.

1972
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman freed from Pakistani Jail and assumed the office of P.M. Bangladesh Nixon of USA visited China King Mahendra of Nepal died USA and the USSR sign Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty.

1973
Outbreak of fourth Arab-Israeli war Fourth non-aligned summit in Algiers.

1975
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President of Bangladesh assassinated King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, assassinated Suez Canal reopened Red Cross force Cambodia Government to Surrender.

1976
Chou-En Lai, P.M. of China, died Seychelles gets independence Viking I lands on Mars Mao Tse-tung died Jimmy Carter elected President of USA

1978
Agreement between Israel and Egypt Vietnam attacked Cambodia Z.A. Bhutto, former P.M. of Pakistan, sentenced to death Bloody coup in Afghanistan Mohammed Daoud assassinated World's first test-tube baby born.

1979
Chinese aggression in Vietnam Cambodian rebels grab power in Pnom Penh Mr. Z.A. Bhutto hanged Mrs. Margaret Thatcher is the first woman P.M. of Britain.

1980
War starts between Iran and Iraq Ronald Reagon elected USA President.

1982
Falklands, captured by Argentina Israel attacks South Lebanon Argentina forces surrender to British P.L.O. Chief Yesser Arafat leaves Beirut Bashir Gemyel, the President elect of Lebanon, assassinated Soviet President breathes his last.

1983
US attacks Grenada USA withdraws from UNESCO.

1985
India gets Presidentship of UN Security Council Soviet President, Mr. Konstantin Chernenko, dies Vietnam withdraws troops from Kampuchia.

1986
American air attack on Libya.

1987
Nuclear tests by USSR Fresh proposal by Gorbachev Group 77 meet at Havana Unsuccessful military coup in Philippines, Prime Minister of Lebanon killed.

1988
WHO observes 7th of April as no smoking day, French President re-elected, Gen. Zia-ul-Haq killed in plane crash, Quake kills about 1,000 people in Bihar (India), George Bush elected President of USA, Arafat declares on independent state of Palestine, Nearly 1,00,000 people killed in earthquake in Armenia.

1989
The UN Peace keeping force starts implementation of UN Resolution 435 for the independence of Namibia.

1990
The Panamanian President surrenders to the United States. South Africa lifts lean on African National Congress. Lithuania declares independence from the Soviet Union. Namibia becomes a free nation.
Iraq overruns Kuwait. East and West Germanys unite.

1991
War breaks out in the Gulf, With the defeat of Iraq and freedom of Kuwait, Gulf war ends.

1993
5 new members of security council START II treaty between Russian & US Presidents, Security Council resolution on Angola, Emergency in Zambia, Elections in Australia.

1994
South Africa emerged from aparted regime with Nelson Mandela as its president. GATT treaty signed to create World Trade Organisation (WTO).

1995
WTO comes into existence. Nuclear test by France. Balkan peace accord signed.

1996
Kofi Annan new UN Secretary General. Clinton re-elected US President. India refuses to sign CTBT. Shekh Hasina Wajed new PM of Bangladesh. Taliban capture Kabul and execute former communist
President Najibullah.

1997
Tony Blair back in power in UK. Mohd. Khatami elected president of Iran. Hong Kong goes back to China after 99 year British rule.

1998
Indonesian President Suharto resigns. Pakistan test fires `Gauri' missile. US President Clinton faces impeachment.

1999
G-15 Summit ends. Yugoslavia accepts a peace plan for Kosovo.

2000
Thai commandor rescue 700 hostages from a capital Ratchabuh. India-China sign agreement on Information Technology, World Aids Day observed.

2001
Goerge W. Bush, was sworn in as the 43rd President of the United States. Heritage destroy of Bamiyan Buddha in Afghanistan by Taliban. Massacred of Nepal Royal family. Terrorist attacks on America by Taliban Supremo Osama bin Laden.

2002
`Euro' becomes the official currency of 12 European countries. A new nation East Timor came into existence. Switzerland and East Timor becomes the 190th & 191th member of the UN.

2003
Germany, Spain, Pakistan, Chile and Angola take rotating two-year seats on the UN Security Council Iraq and the UN sign a 10-point agreement to facilitate the work of disarmament monitors India-born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla and six other crew of the STS-107 space shuttle mission were killed as the US space shuttle Columbia disintegrates over Texas name of Yugoslavia has been changed, it became Serbia and Montenegro Australia win ICC World Cup by defeating India, war between US and Iraq International criminal court was launched. WTO ministerial conference held in Cancun. India and ASEAN signed three accord. Over 20,000 people are killed as a major earthquake
destroys the Iranian Fort city Bam.

2004
India-Pakistan air links resume, the 12th SAARC Summit concludes in Islamabad after the signing of historic Agreement on Free Trade, Additional Protocol on Terrorism and Social Charter. NASA announced that it would name the spot where the robot probe Spirit landed successfully, in the memory of seven astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. The US declares Mr. Saddam Hussein a prisoner of war. Pakistan has been readjusted to the common wealth. United States hand over political authority to Iraq. The 28th Olympics start in Athens. Russian Parliament ratifics the Kyoto Protocol, Yasser Arafat dies in Paris. Taslima Nasreen awarded UNESCO tolerance and non-violence Prize.

2005
India and Pakistan agree to allow travel by bus across the Line of Control between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad, Microsoft founder, The U.S. Senate approves Michael d. Griffin as NASA chief, Kuwaiti Parliament grants women the right to vote and run in elections, Latvia ratifies E.U. Constitution, The sixth book by J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, hits the stands worldwide, Junichiro Koizumi is reelected Japanese Premier by the new House of Representatives at a special session in Tokyo, The Dhaka Declaration decides to set up a SAARC poverty Alleviation Fund and to declare 2006-2015 the SAARC Decade of Poverty Alleviation, The Kyoto protocol on limiting pollution becomes fully operational, Evo Morales wins Bolivian presidential polls, The Galileo navigational telescope is launched from Kazakhstan.

2006
SAFTA comes into effect. Sirleaf sworn in as Liberian president. Chile elected socialist Michelle Bachelet to be its first woman president. 18th CWG held in Melbourne (Australia). UNO passed a resolution for new Human Rights Council. UN General Assembly has approved Ban-Ki-Moon as the new Secretary General. North Korea conducted an underground Nuclear test. 15th Asian Games were held in Doha (Qatar) in December 2006.

2007
Bangladesh declares a state of emergency. Nepal's Parliament unanimously approves the interim Constitution. 14th SAARC Summit held in New Delhi (India). Australia won the World Cup Cricket tournament, 2007. G-8 Summit held in Heilligendamm, Berlin (Germany). Viktor Zubkov has been appointed as a new Prime Minister of Russia. Yasuo Fukuda was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Japan. India won the Twenty-20 World Cup Cricket Championship over Pakistan in South Africa. Nobel
Prize 2007 has ben announced.


Western Wall (Wailing Wall)

The Western Wall is a section of ancient remnant wall from the second Jewish Temple. It’s located on the western side of the Temple Mount and is sometimes referred to as the “Wailing Wall” because many Jews pray and weep at the site of the destroyed Temple.

Each year, millions of Jews from around the world visit the wall. Because Muslims control the Temple Mount (the true site of the ancient Temples), the Western Wall is considered the holiest place where Jews can pray.


Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

New York played a decisive and crucial role in America's fight for independence.

Turning point of the revolution

The Patriot victory at the Battle of Saratoga turned the tide of the entire war effort and was a key factor in gaining the assistance from France which led to eventual triumph of the Continental Army.

Major Waterway Routes

Controlling the Hudson River was vital to the war effort on both sides. The British held New York City and its port for most of the war. The Continental Army was able to hold and control most of the Hudson River allowing them access to the entire Hudson Valley. The Hudson River provided a vital escape route for Washington's army after the Battle of Brooklyn and ensured that the Continental Army could continue the fight.

Major Battles

Nearly one third of all the battles fought during the American Revolution were fought in New York State. The capture of Fort Ticonderoga, the Battles of Oriskany, Newtown and Saratoga are just a few of the major events that took place on New York soil.

Additional Revolutionary War Resources

General Revolutionary War and Colonial History

Spy Letters of the American Revolution
This site offers a set of primary resource letters written by spies on both sides of the conflict, plus the stories surrounding them.

The American Revolution
This National Park Service site includes educational resources for students and teachers with activities and primary documents, historic sites, timeline.

Declaration of Independence
Complete text of the Declaration of Independence with information about the signers.

Black Loyalists
Explores the history of enslaved African Americans who fought for the British during the Revolution and later settled in Canada after the war.

Women Soldiers in the American Revolutionary War
Discusses specific women who contributed to Revolutionary War efforts.

The Oneidas and the American Revolution
A brief history of the tribe in the years prior to the War, and the story of the alliance with the new government during the Revolution.

Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR)
Non-profit, women's organization for the descendants of individuals who aided in achieving American independence. Engaged in historic preservation, genealogy and education.

Sons of the American Revolution (SAR)
Non-profit, organization for the descendants of individuals who aided in achieving American independence. Site provides historical information and interpretation of the basis, events and people related to the Revolution.

The American Revolution - NPS Collections
A multi-park on-line exhibit showcases museum and archival collections at selected National Park Service sites. Featured sites and collections commemorate significant events and individuals of the American Revolutionary War.

General Revolutionary War and Colonial History

Drums Along the Mohawk
Timeline, letters and links related to the impact of the Revolution along the New York State frontier.

People of Colonial Albany
Colonial Albany Social History Project, New York State museum. Provides census data, biographies and information on African American colonial life.

The Battle of Oriskany: "Blood Shed a Stream Running Down"
Online lesson project by the National Park Service exploring the major figures in the battle.

Revolutionary War Battles
Chronological listing of Revolutionary War battles, most with full descriptions of the battle maneuvers.

Liberty: Burgoyne Surrenders at Saratoga
A description of the British defeat at the hands of the combined force of American militia and Continental regulars.

Saratoga National Historical Park
A brief summary of the history and founding of the park and surrounding area.


History

General History Resources

American Experience Access to PBS series about American history. Many programs are available online. American Historical Association As the professional organization for historians, the AHA advocates for the profession and provides information, awards and grants, and resources for educators. Archiving Early America This site provides historical documents from 18th century America. A Biography of America This site was designed to be a self-contained college-level history course. Resources include access to videos covering 26 topics, and content mirroring that of most U.S. history text books. Center for History and New Media Links to general history resources as well as specific events. Discover History The National Park Service offers links to Features of People, Places & Stories and Features of Preservation, Guidance & Grants. History & Social Studies This site from the National Endowment for the Humanities provides lesson plans about American history. History Collection University of Pennsylvania Libraries' links to resources with text archives and image sites. National History Day Provides resources for educators. National Museum of American History Access to information about the museum's extensive holdings as well as online exhibits. Naval History & Heritage Command Offers information about the "history, legacy and traditions of the United States Navy." U.S. Army Center of Military History Features information about the Army throughout American history.

Histories of Government Agencies

National Archives History This page provides a brief history of NARA along with links to a timeline, a list of Archivists of the United States, a history of the National Archives Building in Washington, DC., and Online Resources on the History of the National Archives. A Brief History: The U.S. Department of Labor A look at the functions of the Department of Labor since its founding in 1913. The FBI: History Links to such topics as Famous Cases & Criminals, Ten Most Wanted Fugitives History, and Hall of Honor. Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress Digitized version of the book by John Y. Cole. NASA History Program This office was organized shortly after NASA's creation to preserve the history of this agency's accomplishments. Postal History Tracks the history of the United States Postal Service from 1775 with links to Stamps and Postcards, Postal People, Photo Galleries, and more. Supreme Court Historical Society Founded in 1974, the Society is "dedicated to the collection and preservation of the history of the Supreme Court of the United States." U.S. Census Bureau History Provides many resources, including an agency history, programs, and an explanation of the "72-Year Rule." U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian This site features Historical Documents, Department History, Key Milestones, and Guide to Countries. United States Senate: Art & History Access to such resources as Origins & Development, Exhibits, and Senate Stories.

Selected Specific Topics

The Declaration of Independence Includes "The Declaration of Independence: A History," "The Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence," the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and links to other web sites. From Revolution to Reconstruction and Beyond A site of the Department of Alfa-Informatica at the University of Groningen dedicated to the pre-World War I history of America. The Star-Spangled Banner This site from the Smithsonian National Museum of American History is an online resource about the "flag that inspired the National Anthem." Meeting of Frontiers This site focuses on the experiences of the United States and Russia in exploring, developing, and settling their frontiers, and the meeting of those frontiers in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. The project resulted from a collaboration between the Library of Congress, the Russian State Library, and the National Library of Russia. First Person Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 This site features a compilation of printed texts from the libraries at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The documents include diaries, autobiographies, memoirs, travel accounts, and ex-slave narratives. Exploring the Life and History of the "Buffalo Soldiers" Published in The Record in March 1998, this article details a history of the United States Colored Troops. The Valley of the Shadow: Living the Civil War in Pennsylvania and Virginia This project interweaves the histories of two communities on either side of the Mason-Dixon line during the era of the American Civil War. Great Chicago Fire An online exhibition produced by the Chicago Historical Society and Northwestern University Information Technology (NUIT) to recall one of the most famous events in American history. Run for Your Lives! The Johnstown Flood of 1889 The National Park Service's web site provides lesson plans for teaching about "the most devastating flood in the nation's history." Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers Part of the Library of Congress' Manuscript Division, this site contains correspondence, scientific notebooks, journals, blueprints, sketches, and photographs. The Titanic in Documents and Photographs An article in the NARA publication The Record in March 1998 highlights the records of the Titanic in the National Archives. Rescuing Records in the "Cradle of American Labor" Information about the Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, which collects documents related to the history of labor and working people in New York. Oral Histories of the Civil Rights Movement Transcripts and audio of interviews with "people that participated, in small and large ways." The Sixties A PBS web site dedicated to the most controversial decade of the twentieth century. The Wars for Viet Nam This site was developed around the course materials for Robert Brigham's senior seminar on the Viet Nam War at Vassar College. Apollo 11 Mission The Lunar and Planetary Institute provides information about the first manned landing on the moon.

Photographs & Audio Recordings

    : Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945 : Vaudeville & Popular Entertainment, 1870-1920 : Historic American Building Survey/Historic American Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey : 1850-1920 : Selections from the Federal Theater Project, 1935-1939 : Recordings from World War I and the Election of 1920

This Day in History

Digital Documents

African American Women Writers of the 19th Century This digital collection of some 52 published works by 19th-century black women writers is part of the Digital Schomburg Collection at the New York Public Library. Avalon Project Yale Law School's Avalon Project includes digital documents from ancient times through the 21st century. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation The Library of Congress "brings together online the records and acts of Congress from the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Congress, including the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, 1873-75." Documenting the American South This site is a collection of sources on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. Historical Publications of the United States Commission on Civil Rights The Thurgood Marshall Law Library provides access to the historical record of civil rights in the United States. Making of America A digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. Nuremberg Trials Project Harvard Law School Library provides a digital document collection of the Nuremberg Trials. Our Documents Digital versions of 100 milestone documents of American history. U.S. Historical Documents Transcriptions of major documents relating to American history, from the Magna Carta to President Obama's 2012 State of the Union address. Virginia Center for Digital History Based at the University of Virginia, VCDH projects include many online digital history initiatives.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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