Pametnitsite Historical Park

Pametnitsite Historical Park

A Park About a People for All People

Since time immemorial, the valleys, prairies, mountains, and plateaus of the inland northwest have been home to the Nimiipuu (Nez Perce) people. Extremely resilient, they survived the settling of the United States and adapted to a changed world. Nez Perce National Historical Park consists of 38 places important to the history and culture of the Nimiipuu. Explore these places. Learn their stories.

Places to Go

Explore the array of sites that make up the Nez Perce National Historical Park.

The Nez Perce Flight of 1877

In 1877, the non-treaty Nez Perce were forced on a 126-day journey that spanned over 1,170 miles and through four different states.


After considering the Keene Valley area of New York's Adirondack Mountains for a rural retreat, [6] in 1882 Weir settled instead on hilly countryside in the Branchville section of Ridgefield, acquiring a 153-acre farm there from Erwin Davis in exchange for $10 and a painting. [7] Weir and artists he hosted subsequently produced a large number of paintings depicting Ridgefield landscapes and other nearby countryside. [8]

Weir's daughter Dorothy Weir, a noted artist in her own right, took over management of the property following her father's death in 1919. Sculptor Mahonri Young would build a second studio at Weir Farm after the couple married in 1931. [9]

Artist Sperry Andrews would befriend Mahonri Young and spent several years keeping him company while painting the site. After Mahonris death Sperry would purchase the property and his wife Doris Andrews lead efforts with Cora Weir Burlingham to preserve the Weir Farm site, resulting in the U.S. government designating it a National Historic Site in 1990. [10] Prior to its permanent protection, Weir Farm had been subdivided for housing development in the late 1980s. [11] The Trust for Public Land worked to reacquire the divided land through close to 2 dozen transactions. [11] The Trust for Public Land worked in partnership with the Weir Farm Trust and the State of Connecticut to advocate for its permanent protection. [11] Sperry and his wife Doris Andrews were given life tenancy, and would give impromptu tours of the studios to park visitors until after both had passed. [12]

Afterwards the site underwent extensive restoration to transform the park into a more visitor friendly experience. The two artist studios and house were restored to period, and in May 2014 were made accessible to the public again. [13]

The property today includes 16 buildings on 60 acres of land [1] with the grounds including a hiking trail. Tours are offered by National Park Service rangers. [14]

In 2007, the U.S. Department of the Interior sought Congressional approval for the National Park Service to acquire space in nearby Redding, Connecticut for administration and operational support to Weir Farm. Under existing federal law at the time, the National Park Service was authorized to secure expansion space in Ridgefield and Wilton only. [15]

In 2021 it was redesignated from a National Historic Site to a National Historical Park. [16]


Khmer Era Edit

Originally, Sukhothai was a Khmer empire's outpost named Sukhodaya. [2] [3] [4] During the reign of Khmer Empire, the Khmers built some monuments there, several of them survived in Sukhothai Historical Park such as the Ta Pha Daeng shrine, Wat Phra Phai Luang, and Wat Sisawai. [5] About some 50 kilometer north of Sukhothai is another Khmer military outpost of Si Satchanalai or Sri Sajanalaya. [6] [7]

In the mid-13th century, the Tai tribes led by Si Indradit rebelled against the Khmer governor at Sukhodaya and established Sukhothai as an independent Tai state and remained the center of Tai power until the end of the fourteenth century. [2] [7]

Liberation from Khmer Empire (Lavo) Edit

Prior to the 13th century, a succession of Tai kingdoms existed in the northern highlands including the Ngoenyang (centered on Chiang Saen, predecessor of Lan Na) kingdom and the Heokam (centered on Chiang Hung, modern Jinghong in China) kingdom of Tai Lue people. Sukhothai had been a trade center and part of Lawo, which was under the domination of the Khmer Empire. The migration of Tai people into the upper Chao Phraya valley was somewhat gradual.

Modern historians believe that the secession of Sukhothai (once known as Sukhodaya) from the Khmer empire began as early as 1180 during the reign of Pho Khun Sri Naw Namthom who was the ruler of Sukhothai and the peripheral city of Sri Satchanalai (modern day Si Satchanalai District in Sukhothai Province). Sukhothai had enjoyed substantial autonomy until it was re-conquered around 1180 by the Mons of Lawo under Khomsabad Khlonlampong.

Two brothers, Pho Khun Bangklanghao and Pho Khun Phameung took Sukhothai from Mon hands in 1239. Khun (ขุน) before becoming a Thai feudal title, was a Tai title for a ruler of a fortified town and its surrounding villages, together called a muang in older usage prefixed pho (พ่อ) 'father', [8] Comparable in sound and meaning to rural English 'paw'. Bangklanghao ruled Sukhothai as Sri Indraditya and began the Phra Ruang Dynasty. He expanded his kingdom to bordering cities. At the end of his reign in 1257, the Sukhothai Kingdom covered the entire upper valley of the Chao Phraya River (then known simply as Menam, 'mother of waters', the generic Thai name for rivers.)

Traditional Thai historians considered the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom as the beginning of the Thai nation because little was known about the kingdoms prior to Sukhothai. Modern historical studies demonstrate that Thai history began before Sukhothai. Yet the foundation of Sukhothai is still a celebrated event.

Expansions under Ramkamhaeng Edit

Pho Khun Ban Muang and his brother Ram Khamhaeng expanded the Sukhothai Kingdom. To the south, Ramkamhaeng subjugated the kingdoms of Supannabhum and Sri Thamnakorn (Tambralinga) and, through Tambralinga, adopted Theravada as the state religion. To the north, Ramkamhaeng put Phrae and Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) under tribute.

To the west, Ramkhamhaeng helped the Mons under Wareru (who is said to have eloped with Ramkamhaeng's daughter) to free themselves from Pagan domination and establish a kingdom at Martaban (they later moved to Pegu). So, Thai historians considered the Kingdom of Martaban a Sukhothai tributary. In practice, Sukhothai domination may not have extended that far.

With regard to culture, Ramkhamhaeng had the monks from Sri Thamnakorn propagate the Theravada religion in Sukhothai. In 1283, Ramkamhaeng is said to have invented Thai script, incorporating it into the controversial Ramkamhaeng Stele discovered by Mongkut 600 years later.

It was also during this period that the first contacts with Yuan Dynasty were established and Sukhothai began sending trade missions to China. One well-known export of Sukhothai was the Sangkalok (Song Dynasty pottery). This was the only period that Siam produced Chinese-styled ceramics, which fell out of use by the 14th century.

Decline and domination of Ayutthaya Edit

Sukhothai domination was short-lived. After the death of Ramkhamhaeng in 1298, Sukhothai's tributaries broke away. Ramkhamhaeng was succeeded by his son, Loe Thai. The vassal kingdoms, first Uttaradit in the north, then soon after the Laotian kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane (Wiangchan), liberated themselves. In 1319 the Mon state to the west broke away, and in 1321 the Lanna absorbed Tak, one of the oldest towns under the control of Sukhothai. To the south, the powerful city of Suphanburi also broke free early in the reign of Loe Thai. Thus the kingdom was quickly reduced to its former local importance only. Finally in 1378, the armies of the expanding Ayutthaya Kingdom invaded and forced Sukhothai's King Thammaracha II to yield to this new power. After the Battle of Sittaung River in 1583, King Naresuan of Phitsanulok (and crown prince of Ayutthaya) forcibly relocated people from Sukhothai and surrounding areas to the Southern Central plain, [9] due to the war with the Burmese and an earthquake.

Later Development Edit

Sukhothai repopulated again but declined due to successive Burmese–Siamese wars, especially the Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67). In 1793 Rama I, after establishing Bangkok as a new capital city of the kingdom, founded New Sukhothai in Thani, 12 km (7.5 mi) to the east of old Sukhothai, thus abandoning Sukhothai. In 1801 Rama I commissioned the construction of many royal temples in the capital city. He ordered that old Buddha images be brought to Bangkok from the ruined temples around the country. One of the Buddha images is the famous eight metre (25 foot) tall bronze Phra Sri Sakyamuni (Thai: พระศรีศากยมุนี RTGS: phra si sakkayamuni ), the principal Buddha image of Wat Suthat, which was the principal Buddha image of Wat Mahathat, the biggest temple in Sukhothai. In 1833 Mongkut, during his monkhood, travelled to Sukhothai and discovered the controversial Ramkhamhaeng stele in Wat Mahathat and other artifacts, now in the National Museum in Bangkok. The formal name of this stone is The King Ram Khamhaeng Inscription Documentary heritage inscribed on the Memory of the World Register in 2003 by UNESCO.

In 1907, Vajiravudh, as crown prince, conducted a two-month archaeological field trip to Nakhon Sawan, Kampheang Phet, Sukhothai, Si Satchanalai, Uttaradit, and Pitsanulok. He later published "Phra Ruang City Journey" (Thai: เที่ยวเมืองพระร่วง RTGS: Thiao Muang Phra Ruang ) to promote historical and archaeological study by the public. The work has been used by later archaeologists and historians including Damrong Rajanubhab, the founder of the modern Thai educational system and George Coedès, a 20th-century scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history.

In July 1988 the historical park was officially opened. On 12 December 1991, it was declared a World Heritage Site as part of the Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns together with the associated historical parks in Kamphaeng Phet and Si Satchanalai.


Three sites interpret the Cajun culture of the Lafayette (southern Louisiana) area, which developed after Acadians were resettled in the region following their expulsion from Canada (1755–1764) by the British, and the transfer of French Louisiana to Spain in the aftermath of the French and Indian War.

  • Acadian Cultural Center in Lafayette
  • Prairie Acadian Cultural Center in Eunice, obtained through the work of Mayor Curtis Joubert[2]
  • Wetlands Acadian Cultural Center in Thibodaux

The Barataria Preserve in Marrero interprets the natural and cultural history of the region. The preserve has trails and canoe tours through bottomland hardwood forests, swamps, and marsh. An Education Center provides curriculum-based programming for school groups and a visitor center with a film and exhibits. The 1,855 acres (751 ha) Barataria area comprises 63 contributing properties and was added as a historic district on October 15, 1966. [3] [4] [5]

Chalmette, Louisiana is six miles (10 km) southeast of New Orleans, the site of the Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery where the 1815 Battle of New Orleans took place. The national cemetery was established after the American Civil War and holds the remains of Civil War casualties and veterans, as well as the remains of soldiers from the Indian Wars of the late 19th century, the Spanish–American War, the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. There are few graves from the Battle of New Orleans.

A visitor center offers exhibits and information and is located near the battleground obelisk. Hurricane Katrina destroyed the visitor center in 2005, but a replacement has since been constructed.

The park operates a French Quarter Visitor Center at 419 Decatur Street (New Orleans), in the historic French Quarter. It interprets more generally the history of New Orleans and the diverse cultures of Louisiana's Mississippi River Delta region.

The headquarters of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve are located in New Orleans.

Chalmette Monument and Grounds were established on March 4, 1907, to commemorate the site of the Battle of New Orleans. It was transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933, and re-designated as Chalmette National Historical Park on August 10, 1939.

The Chalmette site and the Barataria Preserve were both listed on the National Register of Historic Places October 15, 1966. [3]

The Chalmette site was later incorporated into the multi-site Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, which was authorized on November 10, 1978.

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The mission of the non- profit Friends of Washington Crossing Park is to support the programs of Washington Crossing Historic Park. Your tax-deductible gift will assist the Friends to support and promote the park as an historic site and aid in the preservation, collection and maintenance of materials, buildings, equipment, machinery and artifacts relating to the colonial period. We truly appreciate your donations and volunteer work!

Donate Now

Call Us: (215) 493-4076
Visit Us: 1112 River Road
Washington Crossing, PA 18977
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Historic Village Tours

Guided tours are offered Wednesday through Sunday from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

The grounds are open dawn to dusk for free self-guided tours.

Thompson-Neely House and Grist Mill Tours
Guided tours offered Wednesday through Sunday from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

Bowman’s Hill Tower
Admission available Wednesday through Sunday, weather permitting, from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

Visitor Center
Open every day, 10 AM to 5 PM

Visitor Center Museum Shop
Open every day, 10 AM to 4:30 PM

Historic Village
Guided tours are offered Wednesday through Sunday from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

The grounds are also open dawn to dusk for free self-guided tours.

Thompson-Neely Farmstead and Grist Mill
Guided tours offered Wednesday through Sunday from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

Bowman’s Hill Tower
Admission available Wednesday through Sunday, weather permitting, from 10 AM to 4 PM. Tickets are required.

Lakewood’s Clifton Park receives National Register of Historic Places designation

LAKEWOOD, Ohio -- Imagine the outcry that would be heard today if a busy thoroughfare was constructed smack in the middle of a fully built-out, cherished and beloved master-planned, single-family residential community.

Well, you can think about that the next time you’re driving west on Clifton Boulevard leaving Lakewood for Rocky River. In the mid-1960s, the Clifton Park development -- dating back to the late 19th century -- was altered this way in the name of progress.

“At the time, the idea was they needed a more direct route to connect the far western suburbs with downtown Cleveland,” said lifelong Clifton Park resident John S. Pyke Jr., grandson of influential women’s rights activist and former Lakewood City Schools Board of Education president Bernice Pyke.

“So they put the extension of Clifton Boulevard through the park, dividing into north and south halves what was originally an 1890s suburban development,” he said.

When it was first constructed, the Clifton Park neighborhood featured curving streets, irregularly shaped lots, park areas and a beach on Lake Erie set aside for the exclusive use of its residents.

The master plan included minimum investment requirements and uniform set-back lines for residences, but allowed property owners freedom to design their homes, which include an eclectic mix of architectural styles popular in the first third of the 20th century.

You could say Pyke is Clifton Park bona fide. Born in a home that was built in 1901, an adult-age Pyke and his family moved into a 1902 home before moving in 1989 into their current 1952-constructed residence.

Recently, the Lakewood resident turned his attention to finally giving the southern section of Clifton Park its due as a historic district in the National Register of Historic Places -- a status the northern district of Clifton Park has enjoyed since 1974.

“I can’t remember why we didn’t include the south side in 1974, but for whatever reason we didn’t,” Pyke said. “For many years, I’ve been waiting to nominate the south side and put the whole history of Clifton Park into the application.

“Studies have shown across the country that these designated national registered districts maintain their value because homeowners take real pride in their district and their homes. It helps to maintain, if not promote, the property values.”

Finally, three years ago, Pyke started the laborious process, which included plenty of bureaucratic red tape.

To help in this endeavor, Pyke raised money via crowdfunding from south side Clifton Park residents to retain the Historic Preservation Group, which provided its National Register expertise to complete the project, which included a detailed 57-page application filled with spreadsheets, photographs and maps.

Recently, Pyke received word that the southern district of Clifton Park has officially been listed as a historic district in the National Register of Historic Places.

“LakewoodAlive has celebrated historic preservation for nearly two decades, and we applaud the efforts that went into establishing yet another historic district in Lakewood,” LakewoodAlive Executive Director Ian Andrews said in a press release.

“Our community’s historic homes and streetcar-era commercial buildings play a significant role in reinforcing why Lakewood is such a special place to live, work, shop, dine and play,” he said.

“We’re excited for future historic preservation efforts to augment these types of successes.”

Naturally, the national designation plays right into the mission of the Lakewood Historical Society.

“The vision of this significant Lakewood neighborhood was to have meandering streets following the original paths of the Clifton Park recreation area. And the extension of Clifton Boulevard through the park was an unnatural division of the neighborhood,” Lakewood Historical Society Executive Director Greg Palumbo said in a press release.

“We’re happy to see the inclusion of the southern district on the National Register, in step with the original vision of the neighborhood’s planners.”

Other areas of Lakewood on the National Register include Birdtown and the downtown district.

“Interesting enough, the whole city of Lakewood could be designated a historic district,” Pyke said. “The National Register people told us that, but because all of the research that has to go into it, it’s too hard, too expensive to do an application for the whole city.

“You have to identify each structure’s historic nature and architecture. It just takes a lot of research and time.”

About the Author

Jessica Deem


Jessica Deem is a licensed architect and owner of Virescent, a design firm specializing in sustainably-minded historic renovations and contemporary new construction. Jessica is a native St. Louisan and Benton Park resident. Prior to moving back to St. Louis, Jessica worked as a sustainable building consultant in Zürich, Switzerland where she secured the certification for the first LEED Platinum building in Switzerland. Contact her at [email protected]


Park City’s Main Street transforms to a pedestrian district Sundays through October 25 as merchants expand into the street to welcome visitors.

Shop, Ding & Stroll || Sundays on Main Street are Car-Free!

Weekly on Sundays starting June 6th through August 1st, 2021

Park City’s Main Street transforms to a pedestrian district Sundays through October 25 as merchants expand into the street to welcome visitors.

Park Silly Sunday Market 2021

Weekly on Sundays June 2, 2019 - September 22, 2019. No market on August 4, 11, and 18th!

The Park Silly Sunday Market is back!! The Silly Market is an eco-friendly, open-air market and street festival. The market features regional and local one-of-a-kind finds, gourmet foods, and farmers’ market fruits and vegetables. Hours are 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.

4th of July Parade 2021

Friday July 2nd, 2021, from 11:00 AM to 12:30 PM

The annual parade starts at the top of Main Street at 11 a.m.

Explore The Street

Plan Your Visit With Our Interactive Maps

Historic Main Street is your destination for engaging attractions, world-renowned dining, and unique shopping opportunities. Visit our interactive maps to help plan your experience.

Mountain fashion, top outdoor brands, souvenirs and more.

Eat & Drink

It’s time to treat your stomach to some local fare.

Stay in the heart of it all.

Arts & Culture

Masterpieces, live performances and family experiences.


Pamper yourself or take care of business.

On The Street

Explore Your Historic Park City this Spring

Please note: the parking code for one free parking session is SPRINGPC21. Due to complications the code was changed after an ad had been published with an incorrect parking code.

Historic Park City merchants look forward to welcoming you to Main Street this spring shoulder season. Visit us by June 1, 2021 and enjoy one free parking session using the Go Park City App and the parking code SPRINGPC21.

What To Expect

Following safe COVID-19 protocols

How To Get Here

Parking, Transit, Pricing and Maps

Download or view a detailed map of Historic Park City

Who We Are

Who we are and our mining industry

Historic Park City: The Chalk of the Town

We Need You!

The Historic Park City Alliance seeks artists to create 3D chalk art within the Park City Main District. Artists will be assigned a 10’x10’ sidewalk space to create their work.

Find Out Where&hellip

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How to Get Here

Walk, bike, bus, ski or drive Historic Park City is nestled between Park City Mountain and Deer Valley Resort in the heart of Park City.

Watch the video: 29 CLEVER SCHOOL TRICKS